ArticleLiterature Review

Phenolic antioxidants from herbs and spices

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Abstract

Spices and herbs are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants and thus play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases resulting from lipid peroxidation. Our studies on spices and herbs have given us over a hundred compounds, known and new, having high antioxidant activity. From the Labiatae family, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare and O. majorana gave 26 active comopounds. Over 40 antioxidative compounds from Zingiber officinale, 26 compounds from Curcuma domestica = C. longa, C. xanthorrhiza and Z. cassumunar were determined, these belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. From the family Myrtaceae, 25 compounds from the berries of Pimenta dioica were determined and 3 carbazoles were isolated from Murraya koenigii. Structure-activity relationships of some of the isolated compounds were also discussed.

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... Birds raised with these feed additives achieved good performance, their potential side effects present a real public health problem worldwide (Donoghue, 2003), that led to the ban of these products by European Union in January 2006. This decision has therefore stimulated a search for natural alternative feed additives, such as ginger, garlic and onion etc. Ginger root contains a number of compounds that exert varying biological activities, including antioxidant (Nakatani, 2000;Rababah, et al., 2004), antimicrobial (Akoachere et al., 2002;Jegetia et al., 2003;Mahady et al., 2003), and various pharmacological effects (Chrubasik et al., 2005;Ali et al., 2008). Powdered rhizome of ginger has long been used as traditional medicine to alleviate the gastrointestinal illnesses (Afzal et al., 2001). ...
... The results of the haematological indices of cockerel chicks fed the gingerized diet compared favourably with the control (T 1 ) ( Table 4). The slight increase in the blood constituents of cockerel chicks with increased concentration of ginger may be associated with the effects of ginger bioactive compounds on improving antioxidant status of the bird (Nakatani, 2000;Rababah et al., 2004) and improving protein and fat metabolism (Platel and Srinivasan, 2000). ...
... Ginger roots have been reported to contain a number of compounds that exert varying biological activities, including antioxidant (Nakatani, 2000;Rababah et al., 2004), antimicrobial (Akoachere et al., 2002Jagetia et al., 2003;Mahady et al., 2003) and various pharmacological effects (Chrubasik et al., 2005;Ali et al., 2008). Powdered rhizome of ginger has long been used to alleviate the symptoms of gastrointestinal illnesses as traditional medicine (Afzal et al., 2001). ...
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An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels (0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5%) of ginger in the diets of cockerel chicks on growth performance and haematological and serum biochemical parameters. Two hundred and sixty four-two week old cockerel chicks used for the trial were randomly allotted to four treatments (T 1 T 2, T 3, T 4) at 66 chicks per treatment, each treatment was replicated six times (11 birds per replicate). The diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous (2400kcal/kg M.E and 21% crude protein). The trial lasted for seven weeks. Results elicited that ginger supplementation at 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 % had no adverse effect on feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, haemoglobin count, white blood cell count and lymphocyte count. Packed cell volume (28.0 ± 3.0%), Red blood cell count (2.2 ± 0.4 (x 10 9 /1) and urea (4.5 ± 1.7 mg dl-1) were significantly varied (P < 0.05); while the levels of creatinine increased significantly beyond 1.5% ginger inclusion level. Inclusion of ginger at 1.5-3.0% levels had no adverse effects on the growth performance and blood constituents of cockerel chicks. The use of ginger for cockerel diet is therefore advocated.
... They are cultivated, harvested, and sold out in very large to small quantities to the general population. Most spices and herbs have great nutritional properties; they have been identified as natural antioxidant sources and hence play a crucial role in the chemoprevention of illnesses caused by lipid peroxidation [3]. Most of these spices are rich in phytochemicals [3]. ...
... Most spices and herbs have great nutritional properties; they have been identified as natural antioxidant sources and hence play a crucial role in the chemoprevention of illnesses caused by lipid peroxidation [3]. Most of these spices are rich in phytochemicals [3]. ...
... Site. Samples were obtained from three selected markets in the Ho municipality, namely, Ho main market (1), Ahoe satellite market (2), and Dome market (3). All other procedures were carried out in the University of Health and Allied Sciences (UHAS) food laboratory located on the Dave campus. ...
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Spices and herbs are widely used food ingredients that enhance most organoleptic features of prepared foods. They are also used for medicinal and preservative purposes. Spices and herbs are potential carriers of bacteria, yeasts, and molds due to the nature of cultivation, harvest methods, storage conditions, packaging procedures, distribution, sale, and general handling. Although some fungi have been identified to be associated with most spices and herbs elsewhere in the world, little has been done on the presence of fungi in spices and herbs in Ghana. This study sought to identify the toxicogenic fungal profiles, mycotoxins (aflatoxins) present in some herbs, bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) and garden egg leaves (“gboma”) (Solanum macrocarpon), and spices, ginger (Zingiber officinale) and “dawadawa”(Parkia biglobosa), as well as to investigate the antimicrobial properties of the selected herbs and spices. The decimal reduction technique was used to plate onto Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol (DRBC) agar media plates for fungal growth. Aflatoxin detection was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatographer connected to a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Antimicrobial properties were carried out using the agar diffusion method on solidified, freshly prepared Mueller-Hinton agar. A total of 12 species belonging to 7 genera, Aspergillus (niger, flavus, fumigatus, and ochraceus), Fusarium (oxysporum, verticillioides), Mucor (racemosus), Penicillium (digitatum, expansum), Rhizopus (stolonifer), Rhodotorula sp., and Trichoderma harzianum, were identified as fungal contaminants. Fusarium oxysporum was the most predominant species identified. Fresh ginger recorded the greatest number of colony-forming units (3.71 log10 CFU/g) with bay leaves recording the least number of colony counts (2.36 log10 CFU/g). Mycotoxin concentration detected in gboma was 2.06 ± 0.07 μ g / kg and in dawadawa was 2.13 ± 0.09 μ g / kg ; however, mycotoxins were not detected in bay leaf and ginger. Ginger exhibited antibacterial activity against all bacteria ranging from 7.0 ± 0.0 mm to 12.0 ± 5.66 mm zones of inhibition. Ginger, bay leaf, and gboma extracts displayed fair antimicrobial activity against the bacteria investigated. On the other hand, dawadawa generally produced the least resistance against the five bacterial species but exhibited the highest zone of inhibition. All samples were slightly acidic with pH readings ranging from 5.81 to 6.76.
... Two of the many herbs and spices that have got worldwide attention since antiquity are Zingiber officinale (ZO) and Curcuma longa (CL), which are commonly known as ginger and turmeric, respectively. Literature data have suggested that ZO and CL possess high antioxidant activity [5,6]. ...
... The choice of this method was made due to its simplicity to be used with readily available materials and chemicals. 2.0 mL of each sample extract was taken into a 50-mL conical flask, and 20.00 mL of distilled water was added followed by the addition of 3.0 mL of 0.008 M K 3 Fe(CN) 6 and 3.0 mL of 0.10 M FeCl 3 in 0.10 M HCl. After 15 min, a formation of green-to-blue color was observed and the absorbance was taken at 700 nm, the wavelength of maximum absorbance of the colored solution. ...
... The reducing power assay was used according to prior work [16]. Briefly, to 2.00 mL of each of sample extract, 2.50 mL of phosphate buffer (0.20 M, pH = 6.60) was added followed by addition of 2.50 mL of 1% K 3 Fe(CN) 6 . This mixture was incubated at 50 °C in water bath for 20 min. ...
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Background Rumex abyssinicus (RA) is one of indigenous plants to Ethiopia having traditional values during butter refinement in rural areas. This paper presents a comparative study of the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of RA sample extract to that of Zingiber officinale (ZO) and Curcuma longa (CL). Methods Phytochemical screening tests were, first, done using different confirmatory tests prior to quantitative determinations. Quantitative determinations were then conducted—the total phenolic content by the Prussian blue method, total flavonoid content by the aluminum colorimetric assay, and antioxidant activity by the reducing power assay and the cyclic voltammetry technique. Results All of the samples showed positive tests, with different intensities, for the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, glycosides and tannins, but not for alkaloids. The total phenolic content, the total flavonoid content and the antioxidant activities of RA (in mg/100 g dry weight) were found to be 319.208 ± 15.997, 113.252 ± 1.702 and 45.632 ± 2.026, respectively. On the other hand, both oxidation and reduction peaks were observed in the cyclic voltammetry analysis of the herbs, showing a quasi-reversible redox process of their phenolic compounds. The determination of the inhibition zones (in mm) of ethanol extract of RA was found to be 20.33 ± 0.58, 21.67 ± 0.58, 19.17 ± 0.29, 18.17 ± 0.29, and 21.67 ± 0.58 against Staphylococcus aureus , MRSA, Streptococcus pneumonia , Escherichia coli , and Shigella flexneri bacteria strains, respectively. Conclusion The substantial antioxidant and antibacterial activities of RA compared to ZO and CL indicate that the traditional use of the herb to refine butter and keep it safe longer without rancidity formation and other traditional medicinal practices can be attributed to both its antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
... In addition, antiviral, antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic and insecticidal properties have also been reported (Burt, 2004). Herb and spices have been shown to exert antioxidative properties (Cuppett and Hall, 1998;Nakatani, 2000). The antioxidant property of many phytogenic compounds can contribute to protection of feed lipids from oxidative damage. ...
... The antioxidant property of many phytogenic compounds can contribute to protection of feed lipids from oxidative damage. Plant species like ginger, scent leaf, garlic, as well as other plants rich in flavonoids have been described as exerting antioxidative properties (Nakatani, 2000;Nwachukwu, 2009). The antimicrobial activity of a variety of herbs and spices has been reported (Junaid et al., 2006;Anyanwu, 2010). ...
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Bio-security threats to human and animal health, arising from the escalating resistance of pathogens to antibiotics and the accumulation of antibiotic residues in animal products and the environment, call for a worldwide removal of antimicrobial growth promoters from animal diets. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with varied levels of scent leaf meal (SLM). Two hundred and seventy (270) Marshal Broiler chicks were used in a 49-day feeding trial. Commercial broiler starter and finisher feeds served as the experimental basal diets. Five diets were prepared such that the negative control contained no leaf meal or antibiotics, the positive control contained 0.10% oxytetracycline, while diets 3, 4 and 5, contained 1%, 2% and 3% dried scent leaf meal respectively. These diets were randomly assigned to five treatment groups of 54 chicks; each replicated 3 times to give 18 birds per replicate. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. Final weight gain at the starter phase was highest in the 1% SLM group with 1.33kg/birds and least in the negative control with 1.19kg/bird. Feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios were also better in the 1% SLM diet (1.74 and 2.74 respectively). However at the finisher phase, the positive control was superior in the growth parameters. It had the highest average final weight of 3.82kg/bird, closely followed by the 2% SLM group with 3.74kg/bird and the least from the negative control with 3.48kg/bird. Haematological and serological values varied significantly among treatments. White blood cell count was highest (94.30 x 10 3 µl) in the 3% SLM birds and least (80.40 x 10 3 µl) in the 2% SLM birds. However haemoglobin and estimated values of mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were highest in the positive control diet. Cholesterol level was highest in the 2% SLM birds (114mg/dl) and least in the 1% SLM birds (85mg/dl). Total protein was highest in the 3% SLM birds, though only significantly different from the positive control. It can be concluded that scent leaf meal holds high potential as a growth promoter in broiler chicken production in Nigeria.
... Indeed, the intake of phytogenic products in poultry results in an increase in serum antioxidant enzyme activities and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level [15][16][17][18]. The antioxidant properties of phytogenic compounds, such as α-tocopheryl acetate or butylated hydroxytoluene, are useful in the protection of dietary lipids from oxidative damages [19]. Plant oils containing natural antioxidants contribute to the improved oxidative stability of meat and meat products containing higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid. ...
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The use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in poultry production not only promotes the emergence of pathogenic multi-drug resistant bacteria, but it also compromises product quality, threatens animal and human health, and pollutes the environment. However, the complete withdrawal of AGP without alternatives could result in uncontrollable disease outbreaks that would jeopardize large-scale poultry intensification. Thus, the use of phytogenic products as potential alternatives to in-feed AGP has attracted worldwide research interest. These phytogenic products contain numerous biologically active substances with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities that can enhance poultry health, growth performance, and meat quality characteristics. In addition, the incorporation of phytogenic products as feed additives in poultry diets could result in the production of high-quality, drug-free, and organic poultry products that are safe for human consumption. Thus, this review examines the current evidence on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of a selection of phytogenic products, their effects on nutrient utilization, and physiological and meat quality parameters in poultry. The paper also reviews the factors that could limit the utilization of phytogenic products in poultry nutrition and proposes solutions that can deliver efficient and sustainable poultry production systems for global food and nutrition security.
... Indeed, the intake of phytogenic products in poultry results in an increase in serum antioxidant enzyme activities and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level [15][16][17][18]. The antioxidant properties of phytogenic compounds, such as α-tocopheryl acetate or butylated hydroxytoluene, are useful in the protection of dietary lipids from oxidative damages [19]. Plant oils containing natural antioxidants contribute to the improved oxidative stability of meat and meat products containing higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in poultry production not only promotes the emergence of pathogenic multi-drug resistant bacteria, but it also compromises product quality, threatens animal and human health, and pollutes the environment. However, the complete withdrawal of AGP without alternatives could result in uncontrollable disease outbreaks that would jeopardize large-scale poultry intensification. Thus, the use of phytogenic products as potential alternatives to in-feed AGP has attracted worldwide research interest. These phytogenic products contain numerous biologically active substances with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities that can enhance poultry health, growth performance, and meat quality characteristics. In addition, the incorporation of phytogenic products as feed additives in poultry diets could result in the production of high-quality, drug-free, and organic poultry products that are safe for human consumption. Thus, this review examines the current evidence on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of a selection of phytogenic products, their effects on nutrient utilization, and physiological and meat quality parameters in poultry. The paper also reviews the factors that could limit the utilization of phytogenic products in poultry nutrition and proposes solutions that can deliver efficient and sustainable poultry production systems for global food and nutrition security.
... Some research has shown the strong phenolic nature of essential oils from, for example, oregano (O. vulgare), wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus o cinalis L.), sage (Salvia o cinalis L.), among others (Nakatani, 2000;Kulisic et al., 2005), although its antioxidant mechanism in lipids has not yet been fully explained (Kulisic et al., 2005). The inhibition of oxidation by the essential oils of oregano species depends, to a large extent, on the content of carvacrol and thymol (Kosakowska et al., 2021). ...
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This work aimed to evaluate the influence of the addition of microencapsulated oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil as a natural antioxidant in the stability of mayonnaise. Three formulations were developed with microencapsulated oregano essential oil at different concentrations (0.0, 0.26, and 0.44%). Mayonnaises were packed and stored at 35, 45, and 55 ºC until their deterioration. During the accelerated storage, the titratable acidity and peroxide index were determined. The peroxide index was subjected to linear regression analysis as a function of time. The parameters of the Arrhenius model (k and Ea) for the variation of the peroxide index and the temperature acceleration factor (Q 10 ) were also determined. Some physical and chemical indicators were determined for the mayonnaise selected according to its greater stability during the accelerated storage. Mayonnaise with 0.44% microencapsulated oregano essential oil presented the highest stability during accelerated storage in terms of delaying the increase in the peroxide index, as an indicator of the deterioration of this type of product. The addition of the microencapsulated essential oil did not affect (p > 0.05) the sensory attributes of the product, although the judges reported its influence on the typical odor and flavor, compared to the control mayonnaise. The variation of the peroxide index during the accelerated storage was adjusted, in all cases, to a zero-order reaction. Linear models were obtained to estimate the shelf life of mayonnaise for each treatment.
... The other different seven plants were extensively found to be a remedy for various disease such as extensively used in arthritis, anemia, diabetes, hepatitis, indigestion diseases. The plant contains phytochemical, rich with Vitamins, material and fibers, and have antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of through many searches and studies 7,8,9,10,11,12 . ...
... Los polifenoles son un conjunto heterogéneo de moléculas que comparten la característica de poseer en su estructura varios grupos bencénicos sustituidos por funciones hidroxílicas (Hernández y Prieto, 1999). Aunque la mayor capacidad antioxidante de la dieta está en frutas y vegetales y se la proporcionan el contenido en vitaminas E, C y β-carotenos, (Ayola et al., 2019), también los polifenoles contribuyen de manera importante, (Delgado et al., 2018) pues sus anillos aromáticos con sustituyentes hidroxilos les brindan una estructura especialmente adecuada para ejercer una acción antioxidante al poder actuar como donadores de hidrógenos o electrones o servir como atrapadores de radicales libres (Nakatani et al., 2000). ...
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El objetivo de la presente investigación fue el de evaluar el efecto de la temperatura y tiempo de exposición en las etapas de refinado y mezclado sobre el contenido de polifenoles en un chocolate blanco. Se utilizaron extractos de polifenoles de la variedad FVS 41, definiendo 4 tratamientos para las formulaciones de chocolate blanco: (T1: 0 %; T2: 0.1 %, T3: 0.3 % y T4: 0.8 %) trabajadas a temperaturas de 40 a 50 ± 1 °C y tiempos de exposición de 5, 10 y 15 min. Al chocolate blanco se le evaluó el contenido de polifenoles totales, empleando el método Folin - Ciocalteu (F-C). Los resultados mostraron que no existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la temperatura y tiempo de exposición a un nivel de significancia de 0.05. Se concluye que el efecto de la temperatura y tiempo de exposición en las etapas de refinado y mezclado en la elaboración de chocolate blanco fue leve, siendo más notoria la disminución del contenido de polifenoles (0,10 mg AG / g muestra) en el tratamiento 4, a mayor temperatura y tiempo de exposición (50 ± 1 °C y 15 min).
... They are classified into both inorganic (agrochemicals such as antibiotics) and organic (products derived from plants e.g. Vernoniaamygdalinawhich are used in feeding animals to improve their performance (Nakatani, 2000) in the poultry industry. ...
Article
One hundred and twenty eight Isa-Brown pullet chicks were used for this study to determine the internal qualities of egg(s) from birds fed diets containing Vernoniaamygdalina leaf meals at different growing phases. The leaves used were air-dried, crushed and milled, and was then incorporated into the experimental treatments (T2, T3, and T4) at 2% inclusion each. The birds were randomly allotted into four dietary treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4) and each treatment was replicated four times with each replicate having 8 birds from the chick phase to the growing phase, thereafter 6 birds per replicate were randomly picked at the laying phase (point of cage), with T1 serving as the control treatment throughout the experimental period of 39weeks. The parameters measured include egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, shell height, yolk weight, yolk height, yolk width, albumin length, albumin height, albumin weight, while yolk index and Haugh unit were calculated. The result of the experiment showed that T3 with 2% inclusion of Vernoniaamygdalinafrom the growing phase had the best shell thickness, yolk color and acceptable value for Haugh unit. Other parameters measured showed that yolk weight, and Haugh unit were significant at (p<0.05) with 2% inclusion of Vernoniaamygdalina. Every other parameter measured showed no significant difference across the treatments at (p>0.05). The result showed that 2% inclusion of Vernoniaamygdalinaleaf meal at the growing phase of the experiment improved the internal qualities of eggs.
... Bu maddeleri kullanırken çevreye, hayvan sağlığına ve insan sağlığına olumsuz etki yapmayan doğal maddelerin seçimi oldukça önem kazanmıştır (Köksal, 2009). Bitki ekstraktları diğer bir ifade ile fitojenik yem katkı maddeleri, yemin özelliklerini iyileştirmesi, hayvanların performanslarını artırması, hayvansal ürünlerin kalitesini geliştirmesi özellikleri ile kanatlı rasyonlarında kullanılmaktadır (Nakatani, 2000;Lee ve ark., 2003). Kanatlılarda bitkisel ekstraktların kullanımı, stres altında bulunan hayvanların bu koşulları rahat atlatmalarına, sindirim kanalında bulunan yararlı mikroorganizma populasyonunun artmasına ve yemden yararlanmanın artırmasına yardımcı olur (Spernakova ve ark., 2007). ...
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Antibiyotiklerin olumsuz etkilerinden dolayı hayvan beslemede kullanımı yasaklanmış ve yerine alternatif yem katkı maddeleri arayışına geçilmiştir. Yem katkı maddeleri olarak prebiyotikler, probiyotikler, organik asitler, aromatik bitkiler, uçucu yağ asitleri, bitki ekstrakt ve yağları kullanılmıştır. Hayvan sağlığına zararlı etkisi olmayan ve olumlu etkiler gösteren bitkisel ekstraktlar son zamanlarda yaygın bir biçimde hayvan beslemede kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Bu derlemede kanatlı ve ruminantların rasyonlarında bitkisel ekstraktların kullanımı ve etkileri yer almıştır. Because of the negative effects of antibiotics, their use in animal nutrition was banned and new feed additives were sought instead. Instead of antibiotics used as feed additives in animal nutrition, prebiotics, probiotics, organic acids, aromatic plants and volatile fatty acids, and plant extracts and oils have been substituted. Herbal extracts, which do not have harmful effects on animal health and induce positive effects on performance, have recently been widely used in animal ration. In this review, the use and effects of herbal extracts in the nutrition of poultry and ruminants are included. To Cite: Gürsoy E., 2021. Bitkisel ekstraktların hayvan beslemede kullanımı. Kadirli Uygulamalı Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 1(1): 71-79. Giriş Hayvan beslemede elde edilmek istenen hayvansal ürünlerin yüksek miktar ve kalitede olmasının yanı sıra yemlerin sindirilme derecelerinin iyileştirilmesi ve hayvan sağlığı gibi faktörlerden dolayı da yem katkı maddeleri kullanılmaktadır. Hayvanda ve hayvansal ürünlerde kalıntı bırakması, hayvansal ürünleri tüketen insanlarda antibiyotiklere karşı direncin azalması ve hem de zamanla bu kalıntıların canlıya zarar vermesinden dolayı antibiyotiklerin hayvan beslemede kullanımı yasaklanmıştır. Antibiyotiklerin beslemede
... While encouraging the ingestion of more plant-based dietary nutrient food choices for vitamins/ minerals and ensuring adequate protein it's best to avoid the foods that are debunk of these nutrients especially processed foods such as boxed or bagged items including many chips, crackers, cookies, many frozen or ready-made meals including microwaveable or tv dinners [1,6]. It's best to food prep as many of your own meals as possible, include as many different colored fruits and vegetables at each meal, and include spices and herbs which offer additional gut microbiome health benefits alongside antioxidants [7]. ...
... (Boix et al. 2010), Active substances: Caffeic acid, Diterpenes, Flavonoids, Triterpenes, Volatile oil (Houlihan et al. 1985). Thymus vulgaris the original home of thyme growth in the countries of the Mediterranean basin and is cultivated in many regions around the world, especially in temperate regions such as the Levant, Turkey, North African countries and southern European countries (Madaus 1979), Thyme is a natural source of antioxidants (Nakatani 2000), as it contains a high percentage of thymol and carvacrol and contains basic antioxidants such as phenols, flavonoids, saponins, resins, gumes and coumarines (Association and Committee 1976). Zingiber officinale the original home of the plant is from Southeast Asia, and it is one of the most widespread plants in Southeast Asia and in China and in tropical Asia regions, where it grows abundantly in India, the Philippines and Pakistan, and the best types are those grown in Jamaica and India is the first country producing it in the world (Tyler et al 1988), Active substances: volatile oils containing zingerone, shogaols and gingerols . ...
... (Boix et al. 2010), Active substances: Caffeic acid, Diterpenes, Flavonoids, Triterpenes, Volatile oil (Houlihan et al. 1985). Thymus vulgaris the original home of thyme growth in the countries of the Mediterranean basin and is cultivated in many regions around the world, especially in temperate regions such as the Levant, Turkey, North African countries and southern European countries (Madaus 1979), Thyme is a natural source of antioxidants (Nakatani 2000), as it contains a high percentage of thymol and carvacrol and contains basic antioxidants such as phenols, flavonoids, saponins, resins, gumes and coumarines (Association and Committee 1976). Zingiber officinale the original home of the plant is from Southeast Asia, and it is one of the most widespread plants in Southeast Asia and in China and in tropical Asia regions, where it grows abundantly in India, the Philippines and Pakistan, and the best types are those grown in Jamaica and India is the first country producing it in the world (Tyler et al 1988), Active substances: volatile oils containing zingerone, shogaols and gingerols . ...
... The rosemary plant (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is the green inhibitor of choice studied in this paper. It is an aromatic plant of Mediterranean origin (Velázquez-González et al, (2014) and contains rosmarinic acid as its active ingredient, in addition to antioxidants like carnosic acid and carnosol (Rani and Basu, 2012;Fouda et al., 2015;Francis et al., 2019;Barbut et al., 1985;Nakatani, 2000), therefore making it one of the most widely used and commercialized green inhibitors (Fouda et al., 2015;Deyab, 2016;Catic et al., 2016). The structure of its active constituents is as shown in Figure 1 (Velázquez-González et al., 2014). ...
... Many of the available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. These compounds and their bioactive properties such as antimicrobial and antioxidant in vitro, have been studied in vitro (Nakatani, 2000, Saad et al., 2008, Silvia Martins et al., 2013, Yanishlieva et al., 2006. The bioactive compounds that have antioxidant and antimicrobial activity are mainly due to their capacity to chelate metals, redox ability, and reactivity as quenching species of mono oxygen (Djeridane et al., 2006, Ghanem and El-Magly, 2008, Krishnaiah et al., 2011. ...
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Screening of phytochemical Ephedra alte crude extract by GC–MS and HPLC analysis indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, and phenolic acid in the extract. The total phenolic content of E. alte methanol extract was 39.43 mg of Gallic acid eq/g, crude E. alte with 56.74, and 2.42 µg Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) /g of plant extract according to DPPH and FRAP assay, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of E. alte against Staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiellaoxytoca demonstrated a mean zone diameter of inhibition ranging from 0 to 17 mm. The MIC of the extracts ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/mL. E. alte extract inhibits pepsin enzyme activity with IC50 values of 213.67 µg/ml. This study revealed that E. alte extract has pepsin enzyme inhibitory, antibacterial, antioxidant activities. The current outcomes indicate that E. alte might be employed as a natural agent for managing GERD and infectious diseases.
... As natural and multi-active agents, plant extracts and plant-derived products offer an interesting potential as substitutes for synthetic antibiotics and inorganic chemicals. Essential oil has some advantages over the others, by (1) improving growth performance and nutrient digestibility through antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity, and (2) improving intestinal and general health of the broiler via antibacterial and coccidiostatic effects [7][8][9][10]. Both the food industry and animal producers have increased their interest in the use of essential oils (EOs, volatile plant compounds). ...
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The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in livestock faces increasing scrutiny and opposition due to concerns about the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Alternative solutions are being sought, and plants of Lamiaceae may provide an alternative to synthetic antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we extracted essential oil from Monarda didyma, a member of the Lamiaceae family. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil and then evaluated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of M. didyma essential oil and its main compounds in vitro. We then evaluated the effectiveness of M. didyma essential oil in regard to growth performance, feed efficiency, and mortality in both mice and broilers. Carvacrol (49.03%) was the dominant compound in the essential oil extracts. M. didyma essential oil demonstrated antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (MIC = 87 µg·mL−1), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 47 µg·mL−1), and Clostridium perfringens (MIC = 35 µg·mL−1). Supplementing the diet of mice with essential oil at a concentration of 0.1% significantly increased body weight (+5.4%) and feed efficiency (+18.85%). In broilers, M. didyma essential oil significantly improved body weight gain (2.64%). Our results suggest that adding M. didyma essential oil to the diet of broilers offers a potential substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.
... Majorana hortensis Moench). Origanum herb, reported the presence of a large number of constituents in different parts of the plant, especially terpenoids (Raina and Negi, 2012), phenols (Nakatani, 2000) and flavonoids as major constituents due to its aromatic nature and other chemical constituents like steroids (Leung and Foster, 1996), fatty acids and vitamins (Janicsák et al. 1999) as a minor component. Origanum majorana leaves are also a vital medicinal herb in modern medicine primarily for extraction of Origanum, one of its main phytochemicals. ...
Article
Schistosomiasis has been classified as a category II disease after malaria in importance as a targeted tropical disease. Praziquantel (PZQ) which is the chemotherapeutic agent of choice against adult worms, already faces drawback of drug resistance in some Schistosoma isolates. Therefore, searching for new alternative drugs has been the intention of many researchers. In the current study, the effect of different doses 6.25, 12.5, 25. 50. 100 and 200 mg/ml of Origanum majorana, Ziziphus spina-christi, and Salvia fruticosa extracts on the snails Bulinus truncatus of the S. haematobium and Biomphalaria alexandrina of the Schistosoma mansoni as well as on the free-living stages miracidia, in addition, the cercariae for both Egyptian species of schistosomes were studied. The results declared that Origanum majorana, Ziziphus spina-christi showed efficacy against snails (molluscicidal), miracidia (miracicidal), and cercariae (cercaricidal) for both Egyptian species of schistosomes in the in vitro, while Salvia fruticosa was less effective than the previous ones. © 2021, Egyptian Society for the Development of Fisheries and Human Health. All rights reserved.
... A Large number of herbs and spices are recognized as a source of natural antioxidants and studies have confirmed their efficacy for the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers [13]. Based on these observations, it has been suggested that co administration of antioxidants and NSAIDS in formulated dosage form may possibly decrease the risk of NSAIDs induced gastrointestinal side effects [14]. ...
Thesis
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Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs (Aceclofenac, Mefenamic acid) have conjugated with different antioxidants such as Thymol, Menthol which having antiulcerogenic activity with the NSAIDs- antioxidant mutual prodrug gastro sparing NSAIDs devoid of Ulcerogenic side effects. Two mutual Prodrugs have synthesized in which NSAIDs have been conjugated with different antioxidants by a glycolic acid spacer. The structure was confirmed by using IR, NMR (1H-NMR) & Characterized by some physicochemical properties including the Melting point. Titled compounds showed the significant protection towards inflammation as well as exhibited potential antibacterial activity. Keywords: NSAIDs; Mutual Prodrug; Ulcerogenic; Antioxidants
... These results indicate that chronic kidney patients treated by hemodialysis suffered from increase oxidative stress which agreed with (small et al., 2012) and antioxidants improved kidney health which agreed with (El-Ashmawy et al., 2005; 2007). The aqueous extracts of sage and marjoram had antioxidant effect which agreed with (Nakatani, 2000;Novak et al., 2000;Heo et al., 2002;Kelly, 2004;Hazzit et al., 2006;Ayatollahi et al.,2009;Ahmed et al., 2009 andHossain et al., 2010) and improved kidney function that agreed with (Halliwell and Gutteridge, 2007;Nasri and Rafieian-Kopaei, 2014) This appeared in the improvement of GFR and the decline in CRP, ESR and creatinine with an increase in Hb, WBCs, RBCs and platelets.It is worth noting that the groups that registered the improvement wasgroup (6) ...
... Results of earlier studies indicate that phenolic compounds from natural antioxidants, especially rosemary and tea, show strong antioxidant activities both in lipid systems and food [30][31][32][33][34][35]. It was found that mixing oils, e.g., soybean oil, with different concentrations of green tea extract led to an increase in its stability against oxidation [36,37]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine correlations between the concentration of thiamine hydrochloride or thiamine pyrophosphate and the antioxidant activity of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and caffeine, as well as thiamine stability. The study was conducted in model systems. Oxidation degree indices of soybean oil (peroxide value and anisidine value LAN) and concentrations of total thiamine were determined. To compare the dynamics of the changes in thiamine content during storage, half-life T1/2 was determined. There was a strong correlation between the stability of thiamine and the stability of the oil. Thiamine was particularly sensitive to secondary oxidation products. Higher losses of thiamine introduced in the form of thiamine pyrophosphate were found (4–6%). The addition of tea components increased fat stability and thus reduced thiamine losses. The dynamics of thiamine loss were found to be lower with EGCG than caffeine. The antioxidant activity of these components was significantly reduced when the content of thiamine (1.0–20.0 mg/100 g) was higher than the natural level in foods. In order to maintain thiamine stability and the high activity of the active tea ingredients, it is necessary to consider their simultaneous addition to the systems in concentrations that limit their interactions.
... These phytobiotics improved lipid metabolism regulation as they elevated the levels of particular antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (Franz et al., 2010). Other studies revealed that plants for instance Coriander Anise, Curcuma and Ginger; spices for instance chili (Capsicum frutescens), red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and black pepper (Piper nigrum); and anthocyanins like some fruits, and flavonoids rich-plants with like green tea (Camellia sinensis) have antioxidant activities (Nakatani, 2000;Wei and Shibamoto, 2007;Yatao et al., 2018). Due to the sharp taste and odor of these plants, which is related to their active constituents, their use as feed additives is limited. ...
Article
Antibiotics use in poultry as a growth promoter leads to the propagation of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and incorporation of drug residues in foods; therefore, it has been restricted in different countries. There is a global trend to limit the use of antibiotics in the animal products. Prevention of the antibiotics use in the poultry diets led to the reduction in the growth performance. Consequently, there is a high demand for natural substances that lead to the same growth enhancement and beneficially affect poultry health. These constituents play essential roles in regulating the normal physiological functions of animals including the protection from infectious ailments. Nutraceuticals administration resulted beneficial in both infectious and noninfectious diseases. Being the natural components of diet, they are compatible with it and do not pose risks associated with antibiotics or other drugs. Nutraceuticals are categorized as commercial additives obtained from natural products as an alternative feed supplement for the improvement of animal welfare. This group includes enzymes, synbiotics, phytobiotics, organic acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the present review, the summary of various bioactive ingredients that act as nutraceuticals and their mode of action in growth promotion and elevation of the immune system has been presented.
... The unfiltered session ales used in formulating the marinades evaluated in current study were crafted from barley grains and hops rich in polyphenols including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids which have antioxidant properties [35]. The antioxidant activity of marinades may also be attributed to herbs and spices including oregano, garlic, black pepper, parsley, mustard, and olive oil used to formulate the marinades, which contain antioxidants, polyphenols and oxygenated terpenes including quercetin, allicin, caffeic acid, carnosol, rosemanol, pinene, geraniol, limonene, carvone, terpineol, endo-borneol, carvacrol, oleuropein and kaempferol responsible for their antiradical activities [6,10,36]. ...
Article
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Plasmalogens are important phospholipids essential for maintaining cardiovascular and brain health. Ruminant meats are excellent dietary sources of plasmalogens. Globally, grilling remains a popular technique for preparing meats. However, little is known concerning how marination affects retention and quality of plasmalogens in grilled ruminant meats. Here we present information on effects of two unfiltered beer-based marinades infused with herbs and spices on plasmalogens in grilled beef and moose meats. Although total plasmalogen contents of marinated grilled meats were lower compared to unmarinated controls; compositionally, wheat ale- and India session ale-based marinades retained higher levels of PUFA plasmalogen PC (phosphatidylcholine) and PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) species enriched with ω3 and ω6 fatty acids in grilled moose meats. In grilled beef, significantly higher levels of plasmalogen PC species enriched with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and PUFA were retained by Wheat ale-based marinade. Furthermore, strong positive correlations were observed between antioxidants, polyphenols, oxygenated terpenes and plasmalogens retained in the marinated grilled meats which contrasted negative correlations with total oxidation status of the marinated grilled meats. These findings appear to suggest that the phenolics, oxygenated terpenes and antioxidants present in the beer-based marinades preserved these plasmalogens in marinated meats against degradation during grilling. In view of the benefits associated with plasmalogens and essential fatty acid consumption, marination of beef and moose meats with unfiltered beer-based marinades could be useful for retaining MUFA and PUFA-enriched plasmalogens, as well as preserving the nutritional quality of grilled beef and moose meats.
... Alkaloids in plants have been extracted to cure asthma, snake bite and skin diseases (Miean & Mohamed 2001). This has led to its industrial usage in the production of powerful pain killer medicine and anesthetics agents (Nakatani 2000, Ullah & Khan 2008. ...
Article
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Studies on the phytochemicals of the stem wood of tropical trees are scarce, despite its importance to plant protection and preservation as most researches focused on their leaves and fruits. This research work aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the phytochemicals present in the stem wood of Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis, and Anogeissus leiocarpus. Freshly sawn timbers were collected from a local sawmill and then grounded into finely powdered wood samples. The powdered wood samples and their extracts were screened for the presence or absence of phytochemicals using standard methodologies. The qualitative screening revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites such as tannin, saponin, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpene in all three species. The result also showed that Tectona grandis had the highest percentage of Alkaloid (7.5%), Tannin (4.95%), and Flavonoid (4.67%) while Anogeissus leiocarpus had the highest percentage of Saponin (3.06%) and Terpene (1.45%). This study established the fact that the three selected species studied have potentials in the industries for medicinal and anti-pathogenic usages.
... Rosemary is well-known as a strong anti-oxidative herbal plant (Estevez et al., 2007). The major bioactive constituents of rosemary are rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, betulinic acid, ursolic acid, and camphor; where carnosol and carnosic acid are the most potent antioxidants (Nakatani, 2000;Crowley, 2008). Interestingly, the antioxidant activity of carnosic acid is three times higher than carnosol, and seven times higher than butylated hydroxyanisol and butylated hydroxytoluene (Richheimer et al., 1996). ...
... Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., family: Lamiaceae) is one of plant species which are known to have positive antimicrobial, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects [6,7,8]. It was found that thyme leaves water extract and powder achieved the highest increase in antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) in aged rats brains [9]. ...
... In the past, synthetic antioxidants such as butyratet hyroxyanol, butyratet hyroksitoluen, butyratet hyroxyanol or butyratet hyroksinetolvenol were used as feed additives (Nakatani, 2000;Luna et al., 2010). However, in some studies conducted on mice, it has been found that butyrate hyroxytoluene and butyratet hyroxyanol synthetic antioxidants have tumor and carcinogenic effects on various organs in the body (Lindenschmidt et al., 1986;Kahl and Kappus, 1993;Yanishlieva et al., 1999). ...
... Throughout the previous few years, a many kinds of naturally foundedcompounds were classified as antioxidant agents,these compounds Many types of herbs and spices are identified as origin of antioxidants and the ability of these agents for management of GIT ulceration have been confirmed by many studies [12]. According to these studies, it became promising the co administration of NSAIDs with antioxidants in the same dosage unit of drug may reduce the adverse effect of NSAIDs on GIT like ulceration [13]. Although, there are expected advantages from using such combination of drugs havingsupportive pharmacological properties in single dosage form item. Like thiscompounds are called mutual prodrug that is designated for improvement the physiochemical criteria of drugs beside the pharmacological activity and the ability to release the parent drugs at their action sites [14]. ...
Article
Non steroidalanti inflammatory drugs NSAIDs Etodolac and tolmetin drugs have been coupled with varies natural antioxidants having antiulcerogenicpropertiesin order to get mutual prodrug consist of NSAIDs & antioxidant as a safer NSAIDs withoutgastrointestinal side-effects. The designated pro-drugs are well studied to explain their anti inflammatory, anti ulcer and analgesic activity. The mutual prodrug shows the same activity as anti inflammatory with decrease ulcerogenecity. The study results show that the mutual prodrug of NSAIDs antioxidant has the strength to create new NSAIDs with decreased undesirable adverse effects.
... Throughout the previous few years, a many kinds of naturally foundedcompounds were classified as antioxidant agents,these compounds Many types of herbs and spices are identified as origin of antioxidants and the ability of these agents for management of GIT ulceration have been confirmed by many studies [12]. According to these studies, it became promising the co administration of NSAIDs with antioxidants in the same dosage unit of drug may reduce the adverse effect of NSAIDs on GIT like ulceration [13]. Although, there are expected advantages from using such combination of drugs havingsupportive pharmacological properties in single dosage form item. Like thiscompounds are called mutual prodrug that is designated for improvement the physiochemical criteria of drugs beside the pharmacological activity and the ability to release the parent drugs at their action sites [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Non steroidalanti inflammatory drugs NSAIDs Etodolac and tolmetin drugs have been coupled with varies natural antioxidants having antiulcerogenicpropertiesin order to get mutual prodrug consist of NSAIDs & antioxidant as a safer NSAIDs withoutgastrointestinal side-effects. The designated pro-drugs are well studied to explain their anti inflammatory, anti ulcer and analgesic activity. The mutual prodrug shows the same activity as anti inflammatory with decrease ulcerogenecity. The study results show that the mutual prodrug of NSAIDs antioxidant has the strength to create new NSAIDs with decreased undesirable adverse effects.
... Medicinal plants antioxidants are able to ameliorate oxidative stress induced kidney damage by reduction of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of scavenging ability of the antioxidant defence system (61). Various herbs are sources of natural antioxidants and thus play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases resulting from lipid peroxidation (62)(63)(64). These herbs possess a lot of phytochemical constituents with antioxidant activities including phenolic compounds and carotenoids which have antioxidant properties such as chain breaking or preventive antioxidants (65)(66)(67). ...
Article
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Background: Myriantus arboreus P. Beauv (Cecropiaceae) is used in traditional medicine for management of systemic pathologies. Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the protective role of the methanol stem bark extract of M. arboreus (MEMA) in anthracene-induced nephrotoxicity in laboratory rats. Materials and Methods: Forty rats were randomly divided into five groups of eight rats each comprising Group 1: 10 mL/kg of 5% Tween 20 as vehicle treated control; Group 2: 50 mg/kg anthracene (ANTH) as positive control; Group 3: 100 mg/kg; and Group 4: 200 mg/kg MEMA respectively. Groups 3 and 4 were administered the extract for 7 days followed by co-administration with 50 mg/kg ANTH p.o. for 21 days. Animals in Group 5 were administered only the extract at 200 mg/kg for 21 days p.o. Results: Creatinine was significantly (p<0.01) increased on exposure to ANTH. However, creatinine was significantly (p<0.01) reduced in rats co-administered MEMA and ANTH. Renal tissues showed a significant (p<0.001) reduction in reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in ANTH exposed rats compared to MEMA and ANTH exposed. Catalase (CAT) was significantly (p<0.05) increased in animals administered only MEMA compared to ANTH and vehicle treated control animals. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly (p<0.01) increased on exposure to ANTH but was significantly reduced on treatment with 200 mg/kg MEMA. On histopathological assessment, ANTH exposed rats presented with section of the kidney showing massive renal necrosis. However, there was a remodeling of renal architecture observed as normal renal architecture with minimal renal damage on co-administration with MEMA. Conclusion: The extract significantly reduced the anthracene-induced increase in creatinine level and also modulated the architectural damage of the kidney caused by anthracene. The improvements in the antioxidant indices are suggestive reno-protective mechanisms of the extract.
... The proposed formulation of 1% oregano, 5% turmeric ethanolic extract and 1% Chitosan NPs showed significant antioxidant activity compared to Alginate silver. Oregano and turmeric extracts are rich in phenolic compounds that have significant antioxidant effects [35]. ...
Article
Diabetic wound infections and pressure ulcers pose a significant challenge to healthcare providers worldwide. The current study provides new and innovative wound care products that reduce inflammation, clear infection and improve healing in an animal model of pressure ulcers in diabetic rats. Ointment, hydrogel, and nanofiber dressings were synthesized using 5% turmeric, 1% oregano, and 1% chitosan nanoparticles and tested for antibacterial and cytotoxicity in vitro, and wound healing effects in vivo. Turmeric ethanolic extract showed high antioxidant activity compared to Oregano, Chitosan Nanoparticles, and Alginate silver (P-value <0.0001). The ointment and hydrogel formulation (5% Turmeric, 1% Oregano, and 1% chitosan) showed lower cytotoxicity compared to the commercial Alginate silver dressing. Ointment, hydrogel formulations, and commercial Alginate silver, showed significant antibacterial activity with 100% efficacy on both S. aureus and E. coli (P-value <0.0001), compared to nanofibers which showed 50% reduction in bacterial growth (P-value <0.0001). The new formulations were tested in a rat model of pressure ulcers. Ointment and nanofibers achieved complete wound healing by day 15 compared to the hydrogel and commercial Alginate silver dressing, which showed higher infection, and the wound remained partially open by day 21. In conclusion, Turmeric, Oregano extracts, and chitosan nanoparticles can be used for effective wound dressings in both diabetic and non-diabetic wounds. At relatively low concentrations, this combination provides a promising new wound treatment formulation that is antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant.
... The fasting glucose levels were determined on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of extract administration. During the experimental period, the blood glucose level, the lipid level and body weight of different group animals are estimated 26,27 . ...
Research
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Diabetes mellitus or sugar diabetes is a condition that occurs when the body can't use glucose (a type of sugar) normally. It is a chronic disease associated with abnormally high levels of the glucose in the blood because of disturbances in carbohydrates, fat and proteins metabolism and it is due to one of two mechanisms that inadequate production of insulin (which is made by the pancreas and lower blood glucose), or inadequate sensitivity of cells to the action of insulin. This causes glucose levels in the blood to rise, increased urination, extreme thirst and unexplained weight loss. The prominent objective of this work was to find out the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of Origanum majorana ethanol leaf extract (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight) in streptozotocin (50 mg/kg b.w) induced diabetic rats. After oral administration of such extract the blood glucose levels were recorded at specific intervals. In consequence it was observe that extract was significantly diminished blood glucose level. Simultaneously the effect of the extract on diabetes induced hyperlipidemia was studied where it markedly decreased the elevated total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) level while increased the high density lipoprotein (HDL). The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presences of tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. The conclusion exhibited that ethanol extract shows antidiabetic activity compared to standard drug glibenclamide (4 mg/kg). The further in-vivo study, isolation of pure phytoconstituents should be investigated to discover the antidiabetic action and other needful effects.
... flavonoids have been reported to exert multiple biological properties including antimicrobial, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. They act as powerful antioxidants which can protect the human body from free radicals and reactive oxygen species (Nakatani, 2000;Wei and Shibamoto, 2007;Dharmendra and Abhislick, 2013;Gupta et al., 2013). Flavonoids constitute a wide range of substances that play important role in protecting biological systems against the harmful effects of oxidative processes on macromolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and DNA (Atmani et al., 2009). ...
... The development of food additives, which are extracts of natural compounds exhibiting antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, is a crucial step toward the production of food with health benefits [6,7]. A source of those antioxidant compounds can be spice plants, such as rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), and lovage (Levisticum officinale) [8][9][10], which are more and more frequently used in the food industry. The results of earlier studies indicated that phenolic compounds from the spices (their ethanol extracts) show strong antioxidant activities both in model systems and food [10][11][12][13][14]. ...
Article
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The food industry has endeavoured to move toward the direction of clean labelling. Therefore, replacing synthetic preservatives with natural plant extracts has gained significant importance. It is necessary to determine whether products enriched with such extracts are still accepted by consumers. In this study, consumer tests (n = 246) and sensory profiling were used to assess the impact of ethanol extracts of spices (lovage, marjoram, thyme, oregano, rosemary, and basil; concentration 0.05%) on the sensory quality of pork meatballs and hamburgers. The desirability of meat products with spice extracts to consumers depended on the added extract. The highest scores were for products with lovage extract, whose sensory profile was the most similar to the control sample without the addition of an extract (with higher intensity of broth taste compared with the others). Products with rosemary and thyme extracts were characterised by lower desirability than the control. This was related to the high intensity of spicy and essential oil tastes, as well as the bitter taste in the case of products with thyme. The studied extracts of spices allow for the creation of meat products (meatballs and hamburgers) with high consumer desirability, however, the high intensity of essential oil and spicy tastes might be a limitation.
... Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is an herb that belongs to this family and has been recognized as the plant with the highest antioxidative activity [13]. Rosmarinic acid, camphor, and the antioxidants carnosic acid and carnosol are the most important organic chemicals, which have been already extracted from rosemary [14,15]. The supplementation of rosemary oil (200 mg/kg) in the laying hen's diet led to a significant improvement in feed conversion and an increase in the Haugh unit (key indicators of internal egg quality) of the egg as well as a larger egg weight [16]. ...
Article
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Simple Summary: The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a housing system, and dietary supplementation of rosemary and cinnamon essential oils on layers performance and egg quality. A factorial arrangement (2 × 3) was performed including two housing systems (floor and cage) and three different types of essential oils (0, 300 mg/kg diet of rosemary and 300 mg/kg diet of cinnamon essential oils) to study their effects on the productive performance, egg quality, immunity, oxidative stress and haematology of laying hens during the production stages. The data suggested that the supplementation of rosemary and cinnamon essential oils in laying hen diet showed significant positive effects on hen performance and egg production. Additionally, the different housing systems did not result in any positive or negative impact on these traits. Abstract: Housing system and nutrition are non-genetic factors that can improve the well-being of animals to obtain higher quality products. A better understanding of how different housing systems and essential oils can influence the performance of layers is very important at the research and commercial levels. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a housing system and dietary supplementation of rosemary and cinnamon essential oils on layers' performance and egg quality. A factorial arrangement (2 × 3) was performed include two housing systems (floor and cage) and three different types of essential oils (0, 300 mg/kg diet of rosemary and 300 mg/kg diet of cinnamon essential oils) to study their effects on the productive performance, egg quality, immunity, oxidative stress and haematology of ISA brown laying hens during the production stages (from 28 to 76 weeks of age). Birds were randomly divided into two groups each comprising of 1500 birds; the first group was moved from the litter to reared laying cages while the second group was floor reared. Each group was randomly divided into three groups, the first was considered as a control group, the second treated with rosemary essential oil, and the third with cinnamon essential oil. The differences in egg production and weight, egg quality, feed intake and conversion, blood picture and chemistry, immunity, and antioxidant parameters between the different housing systems (floor and cage) were Animals 2020, 10, 245 2 of 16 not significant at (p < 0.05 or 0.01). On the other hand, the egg production and weight, Haugh unit, feed intake and conversion, blood cholesterol, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), urea, Ca, P, immunity, and antioxidant parameters were significantly (p < 0.05 or 0.01) better in rosemary and cinnamon groups than in the control group. Furthermore, the results of dietary supplementation with rosemary and cinnamon were very close. Regarding egg production and weight, there were no significant differences due to the interactions. The differences in egg mass among the interactions were also not significant except at 68-76 weeks, where the cage × cinnamon group was the highest. Under the floor rearing system, birds that were fed a diet supplemented with or without essential oils (EOs) consumed more feed than those raised under the cage system. Regarding feed conversion rate (FCR), the differences among the interactions were not significant except at 44-52, 52-60 and 68-76 weeks, where the cage × cinnamon group was the lowest. Excluding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (p < 0.001), all immunity and antioxidant indices were not statistically different as a consequence of the interaction among EOs and housing systems. Additionally, the highest levels of phosphorus were observed for layers fed diets enriched with cinnamon oil with the cage or floor system. In conclusion, the data suggested that supplementation of rosemary and cinnamon essential oils in laying hen diet showed significantly positive effects on hen performance and egg production. Cholesterol, liver and kidney functions, immunity, and antioxidant parameters improved with rosemary and cinnamon supplementation when compared to the control. Additionally, the different housing systems did not result in any positive or negative impact on these traits.
Article
In this study, the production, characterization, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of chitosan‐based edible and biodegradable films prepared with the Prunella grandiflora (PG), Prunella laciniata (PL), Prunella orientalis (PO) and Prunella vulgaris (PV) extracts were investigated. For extraction, Prunella L. plants were placed in 70% (v/v) ethanol solution and extracted in a mixer. For the production of the films, 1 mL, 5 mL and 10 mL extracts were mixed with a 1% (w/v) chitosan solution containing 1% (v/v) glacial acetic acid solution and after adding glycerol, the solutions were allowed to dry. Some physical and surface properties (solubility, water vapor permeability, swelling ratio, moisture content, thickness, FTIR and SEM analysis) of the films were determined and each of them were found to be compatible with the literature. Phenolic compounds (rosmarinic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin and chlorogenic acid) were quantitatively determined in films by HPLC‐DAD.
Chapter
Since time immemorable, spices have been known to combat the onslaught of various microbes like bacteria, fungi and viruses, responsible for various diseases. These microbes also led to food spoilage, which in turn reduced its shelf life. Spices can be used as food preservatives instead of chemical preservatives that are harmful to our health. Studies have proven that the spices commonly used in the kitchen like pepper, clove, ginger, coriander, garlic, cinnamon, etc., are highly potent anti-microbial agents. Moreover, they are also eminent anti-inflammatory and carminative agents. The essential oils in spices are also used for protection against various pathogens in plants. These properties are due to the various chemical compounds like eugenol, gingerol, flavonoids, terpenes, anthocyanins, phenylpropanoids and various organosulphur compounds among others present in spices. Hence, spices can be exploited for food preservation and in the pharmaceutical industries. They can also be used as biopesticides, insecticidal agents, antioxidants and natural colorants. This chapter highlights the effect of various spices on various micro-organisms, the various metabolites in spices that lend this ability, and also reviews the various works undertaken to understand the antimicrobial activity of spices.
Chapter
Spices have been used since ancient times as a flavoring agent as well as an important medicinal resource. Biotechnology, using strategies such as cell, organ, and tissue culture, genetic engineering, and the application of nucleic acid markers can escalate the productivity and efficiency of spices. Cell, tissue, and plant organ culture have enabled the rapid and mass reproduction of many disease-free spice plants, which are uniform genetically and qualitatively. In recent years, cell and limb suspension (stem and hair roots) have been considered for producing secondary metabolites and for studying the biosynthesis pathway of metabolites. Plant genetic engineering has helped in the genetic identification and manipulation of enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites. Gene transformation has improved the production of secondary metabolites that have yield limitations. Molecular markers are powerful tools for accurately identifying important medicinal species, examining genetic diversity, classifying hereditary reserves, and determining their genetic map irrespective of their age, physiological, and environmental conditions. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods like restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) have revolutionized the study of genetic diversity, and the enzymes and genes implied in the secondary metabolites biosynthetic pathways can be studded by transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq). The ground-breaking genome editing techniques like Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), sequence-specific nucleases of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and zinc-finger nucleases could help in customizing the plants according to the requirements. This article provides an overview of various biotechnology solutions that increase the quality and productivity of spice plants.
Book
The Chemistry inside Spices & Herbs: Research and Development brings comprehensive information about the chemistry of spices and herbs with a focus on recent research in this field. The book is an extensive 2-part collection of 20 chapters contributed by experts in phytochemistry with the aim to give the reader deep knowledge about phytochemical constituents in herbal plants and their benefits. The contents include reviews on the biochemistry and biotechnology of spices and herbs, herbal medicines, biologically active compounds and their role in therapeutics among other topics. Chapters which highlight natural drugs and their role in different diseases and special plants of clinical significance are also included. Part I focuses on the general aspects of spice biotechnology, structure activity relationships and the natural products that can be used to treat different diseases - such as neurological diseases, inflammation, pain and infections. This part also covers information about phenolic compounds, flavonoids and turmeric supplements. This book is an ideal resource for scholars (in life sciences, phytomedicine and natural product chemistry) and general readers who want to understand the importance of herbs, spices and traditional medicine in pharmaceutical and clinical research.
Article
The present work aimed to synthesize Zn0.95Ag0.05O (ZnAgO) nanoparticles using rosemary leaf extracts as a green chemistry method. The characterization of Ag-doped ZnO nanoparticles was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–visible). The XRD, FTIR, and UV–visible spectra confirmed the formation of the presence of hexagonal ZnAgO nanoparticles. FESEM micrograph shows that the nanoparticles have been distributed homogeneously and uniformly. The morphology of ZnAgO nanoparticles is quasi-spherical configuration. Also, the mean particle size is in the range of 22–40 nm. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in the presence of Ag-doped ZnO nanoparticles is nearly 98.5% after exposing 100 minutes. The ultraviolet lamp was used as the light source for photocatalyst degradation. The disc diffusion method was chosen to study the antibacterial activity of as-synthesized ZnAgO nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity of Zn0.95Ag0.05O nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli revealed that the as-synthesized ZnAgO nanoparticles were efficient in inhibition of bacterial growth.
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Lipid peroxidation reduces quality of fats and oils, result in chemical spoilage and produces free radicals which have health implications. This work was set to investigate the effect of three spices (Zingiber officinale (ZO), Xylopia parviflora (ZP) and Eugenia caryophylatta (EC) packaging and storage on shelf life of crude soybean (Glycine max) oil. The spices and soybeans were obtained from Muea market. Crude oil was extracted from so ybean. Methanolic extracts of the spices were screened for phytochemical constituents and antioxidant potentials. Qualitative phytochemical tests were used to detect the presence of secondary metabolites, while two quantitative methods; Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH free radical scavenging assay were used to determine antioxidant potentials of the extracts. Antioxidant effectiveness of the extracts were assessed using crude soybean oil (CSO) as oxidation substrate, under non-accellerated and accelerated storage conditions as well as storage in different types of containers and the quality of the oils were then determined. Results revealed highest amount of extracts from EC (37.97%) and six classes of secondary metabolites (steroids, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and triterpenoids) detected to varying degrees in all. Phenols and triterpenoids were detected in all three spices. Total phenolic content of XP, EC and ZO were 9.23, 12.03 and 16.30g of GAE/100g respectively. Their ability to prevent lipid oxidation was comparable to synthetic antioxidants and in the order of ZO, EC, XP. Peroxide values were 47.52±3.20, 12.17±0.46, 21.12±0.27, 15.52±2.39, 25.74±0.15, 31.54±0.25 for control (without preservative), ZO, BHA, EC, BHT and XP respectively. The best storage condition was refrigeration and oil preserved with ZO and stored in dark containers showed the best oil quality indices. This study therefore revealed the extracts as potent antioxidants for stabilization of oils.
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The stability after hydrostatic high pressure (HHP) (600 MPa/8 min/10 °C) and 180 days of storage at 4 and 20 °C was evaluated on Iberian dry‐cured pork sausages (chorizo) packaged sliced or as half‐pieces from pigs raised outdoors. Microbiological, physical–chemical, oxidative, and sensory changes were analyzed. The evolution of mesophilic aerobic and molds and yeasts counts was different in the half and sliced packaged pork sausages after processing and during storage. Sliced and half‐packaged pork sausages had instrumental color stability after HHP and during storage. TBA‐RS values were quite stable in both products. Protein oxidation values of pork sausage in half‐products were increased by at 20 °C. In sliced pork sausage, both HPP and 20 °C storage favored the development of protein oxidation at the end of storage. In the sensory analysis, the sliced product developed more rancidity than the half‐pieces during the storage. Therefore, the storage temperature has great importance for the preservation of dry‐cured pork sausages, the increases of protein oxidation, and rancidity could reduce the shelf‐life at these conditions. The presentation of the product is also relevant when HHP is applied, and this would also compromise the stability of the product when it is stored at room temperature. Practical Application Chorizo is a traditional dry‐fermented pork sausage that is generally considered to be microbiologically safe. However, the initial contamination of the raw materials, and some processes, such as the slicing or packaging, can compromise the safety of these products. Additionally, packaged dry‐cured sausages require long shelf‐life, and although they are normally stored at refrigeration temperature; sometimes, they are preserved at room temperature. The application of hydrostatic high pressure could increase the safety of dry‐cured meat products even when they are stored at room temperature. Initial characteristics of each type of pork sausage could determine their technological behavior during processing or during storage under different conditions.
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Adverse reactions to food such as allergies and celiac disease are increasingly recognized as a growing public health burden. There is currently no cure for these diseases so that there is an unmet need to evaluate different nutritional approaches aiming at improving the quality of life of affected patients and their families. In this context, healthy promising nature-derived compounds, most of which contained in fruits and vegetables, have been studied as an alternative to attenuate the epidemic. Indeed, phenolic compounds have become an emerging field of interest in nutrition in the last decades. A growing build of research suggests that phenolic compounds inhibit pro-inflammatory transcription factors by interacting with proteins involved in gene expression and cell signaling, leading to protective effects against many inflammation-mediated chronic diseases. However, the use of phenolic compounds as attenuating agents of immune reactions to food has to be aligned to the organoleptic characteristics of food, since many compounds present unpleasant taste properties, namely bitter taste and astringency. In this framework, tasty but healthy phenolic compounds arise as attractive ingredients in the design and formulation of functional foods. This book chapter is focused on revisiting the organoleptic properties of phenolic compounds while evaluating the role of these compounds in health promoting actions, namely the management of immune reactions to food such as Food Allergies and Celiac Disease.
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In present study, free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of all parts (leaves, seeds, root, stem and flower) of Perilla frutescens L. has been estimated. The promising results, among the five plant parts leaves, seeds, root, stem, flower and the standard tested for the in vitro antioxidant activity using the DPPH method, the crude methanolic extracts of all parts showed antioxidant activity, with IC50 values of 5.95 ± 0.10, 8.28 ± 0.20, 66.27 ± 0.17, 80.03 ± 0.10 and 122.35 ± 0.17 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value for ascorbic acid was 5.19 ± 0.26 μg/mL. While butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) a synthetic commercial antioxidant has comparatively high IC50 value of 108.46 ± 0.57 μg/mL. Presence of zinc in all parts of plant in the range 17.20 ± 0.22 to 33.56 ± 0.32 ppm further supports the strong antioxidant activity of Perilla frutescens L. The phytochemical tests indicated that all parts of Perilla frutescens L. have considerable proportion of important phytochemicals and are in rich source of secondary metabolites like polyphenols, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids. Several of such compounds are known to possess potent antioxidant activity.
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Hücrelerin kontrolsüz ve anormal bir şekilde çoğalması ile karakterize olan kanser, gelişen ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerde mortalitesi ve morbiditesi en yüksek hastalıktır. Kanserin farklı evrelerinde tedavi amacıyla kemoterapi, radyoterapi ve cerrahi yöntemler kullanılmaktadır. İlaveten prevantif olarak yani hastalıktan korunma amacıyla alternatif tamamlayıcı yöntemlere ve yaşam şartlarında değişikliklere de başvurulmaktadır. Bu bağlamda beslenme tarzı ve kanser oluşum riski arasındaki olası ilişki göz önünde bulundurulunca, kanserden korunmada beslenme tarzının önemi üzerine odaklanan araştırmalar da hız kazanmıştır. Bu derlemenin öncelikli amacı dünya üzerinde sıklıkla kullanılan besinlerin aktif bileşenlerini temel alarak etkiledikleri moleküler yolakları açıklamaktır. Yapılan multidisipliner bilimsel araştırmalar göstermiştir ki bu etkileşimler ancak genomik, proteomik ve metabolomik çalışmaların entegre edilmesi ile sağlıklı bir şekilde açıklanmaktadır. “Foodomik” olarak adlandırılan yaklaşım ile çoklu omik çalışmalar kullanılarak moleküllerin insan sağlığı üzerindeki etkisi ileri analitik yöntemlerle aydınlatılmaktadır. Bu derleme kapsamında dünya nüfusunun büyük bir kısmının beslenme alışkanlıklarını teşkil eden dört büyük mutfak ve vazgeçilmez unsurları sunulmuştur. Akdeniz mutfağı ve önemli unsurlarından zeytinyağı, domates, sarımsak, biberiye, adaçayı; Hint mutfağı ve önemli unsurlarından zerdeçal, sumak, kimyon, zencefil, safran; Çin mutfağı ve önemli unsurlarından soya fasulyesi, pirinç, brokoli; Meksika mutfağı ve önemli unsuru olan Şili biberi incelenmiştir. İlgili aktif bileşenlerin kanserden korunmada veya kanseri engellemede etkin olduğu metabolik yolaklar üzerine literatür taraması yapılmıştır. Ayrıca, bölgelere göre gözlemlenen kanser türlerinin de genel bir değerlendirmesi gerçekleştirilerek literatür taraması sonucu elde edilen bulgularla ilişkilendirilmiştir. Bu derlemenin; klinisyenler, diyetisyenler ve eczacılar için yararlı bir özet kaynak olması amaçlanmıştır.
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Origanum majorana or Majorana hortensis is known as Marwa in India. It is an evergreen and pleasant smelling herbaceous plant grows up to the height of 30 to 60 cm. belonging to the mint family (Lamiaceae). Commonly known as Sweet marjoram. This perennial herb has small leaves with hair on either side. It is commonly grown in India and distributed widely in temperate regions of the Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim at altitudes from 500-1200m. Marjoram has many uses with numerous health benefits. Digestive benefits (Increasing the efficiency of digestion by increasing digestive enzymes and saliva, improving appetite, relieving nausea, eliminating flatulence, preventing intestinal infections, relieving diarrhea and constipation). Marjoram is a great antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agent and used in a variety of common illnesses (Food poisoning, Staph infection, Tetanous infection in wounds, Typhoid, Malaria, Influenza, Common cold, Mumps, Measles). Another benefit of marjoram is the enhancement of the cardiovascular and circulatory system (Lowering the blood pressure, greatly reducing the risk of hypertension, preventing the buildup of cholesterol).Anti-inflammatory effects like (Asthma, Muscle spasms, Sinus headaches, Migraines, Fever, Body aches). Topical application for (Painful joints, Sore muscles, Sprains, Back aches, Toothaches.), Emotional and neurological benefits like (Relieving insomnia, Reducing stress, Calming anxiety, Minimizing emotional reactions, Increasing control of sexual desire). The herb contains important phyto constituents like tannins, glycosides, terpenes, flavonoids, linalool and cavacrol. In this review report we collected information related to taxonomy, monographs, distribution, morphology, phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacological studies of Origanum majorana plant in details.
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Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) in renal protection offered by sinapic acid in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Materials and methods: Nephrotoxicity was induced by single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) in rats. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed by measuring serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, urea, uric acid, potassium, magnesium levels, fractional excretion of sodium, and microproteinuria in rats. Superoxide anion generation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, myeloperoxidase activity, and reduced glutathione levels were measured to assess oxidative stress in renal tissues. Hematoxylin and eosin stain showed renal histological changes. Results: The significant changes in serum and urinary parameters, elevated oxidative stress, and renal histological changes established the induction of nephrotoxicity. Sinapic acid treatment (20 and 40 mg/kg, orally [p.o.]) provides dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05) nephroprotection against cisplatin-mediated nephrotoxicity in rats. Nephroprotective effect of sinapic acid was abolished by PPAR-γ inhibitor, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (30 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Conclusion: It is concluded that PPAR-γ agonism serves as one of the mechanisms in sinapic acid-mediated renoprotection.
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A new antioxidative glucoside (1a) was isolated from the leaves of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), one of the herbal spices belonging to the Family Labiatae. The structure of 1a was determined as 4-(3, 4-dihydroxybenzoyloxymethyl)phenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. In addition, the structure was confirmed by synthesizing its acetyl derivative (1b).
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Two new antioxidative compounds, named epirosmanol (4a) and isorosmanol (6a), were isolated from the leaves of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). The structures have been determined to be 7β, 11, 12-trihydroxy-6, 10-(epoxymethano)abieta-8, 11, 13-trien-20-one and 6α, 11, 12-trihydroxy-7, 10-(epoxymethano)abieta-8, 11, 13-trien-20-one, respectively, on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. Both are isomers of rosmanol (1a), whose structure was revised to be 7α, 11, 12-trihydroxy-6, 10-(epoxymethano)abieta-8, 11, 13-trien-20-one by the NOE experiment and X-ray analysis. These two antioxidants showed high activity in both lard and linoleic acid and, particularly in lard, were about four times more active than such synthetic antioxidants, as BHA and BHT.
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Two new biphenyls, 3, 4, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxy-5, 5'-diisopropyl-2, 2'-dimethylbiphenyl (4a) and 3, 4, 4'-trihydroxy-5, 5'-diisopropyl-2, 2'-dimethylbiphenyl (5), were isolated from the leaves of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical transformations. Both biphenyls 4a and 5 showed more effective deodorant activity against methyl mercaptan than did rosmanol, carnosol or sodium copper chlorophylline.
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Five antioxidative phenolic acids were isolated from the leaves of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.). The structure of a new compound (5a) was determined to be 2-caffeoyloxy-3-[2-(4-hydroxybenzyl)- 4, 5-dihydroxy]phenylpropionic acid on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Especially, phenyl glucoside (1) and 5a showed an activity comparable to that of BHA.
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A phenylpropanoid, threo-3-chloro-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propane-1,2-diol, was isolated from the berries of Pimenta dioica together with five known compounds, eugenol, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamaldehyde, vanillin and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propane-1,2-diol. In addition, the stereochemistry of 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propane-1,2-diol was determined. The phenylpropanoids inhibited autoxidation of linoleic acid in a water-alcohol system.
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Three new potent antioxidants have been isolated from the rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar. Their structures have been established from spectral data. These compounds also showed inhibitory activity against inflammation induced by a tumor promoter, TPA.
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Assay-guided isolation gave three new compounds, cassumunins A, B, and C, having both antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities, from the rhizomes of a tropical ginger, Zingiber cassumunar. Antioxidant activity and antiinflammatory activity were measured using a thiocyanate method and a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced method on mouse ear, respectively. The antioxidant activity of cassumunins A-C is stronger than that of curcumin, and their antiinflammatory activity is also stronger than that of curcumin. Spectroscopic analysis of cassumunins A-C revealed them to be a new type of complex curcumin. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of cassumunins suggested that the substituted group at the 5'-position of curcumin increased both activities.
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Antioxidant activities of the rhizomes of nine tropical gingers (Curcuma aeruginosa, Curcuma domestica, Curcuma heyneana, Curcuma mangga, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Zingiber cassumunar, Phaeomeria speciosa, Alpinia galanga, and Amomum kepulaga) have been measured by thiocyanate and TBA methods in a water/alcohol system after extraction and fractionation with organic solvents. The quantity of three known curcuminoids, one of the potent antioxidant family of ginger species, in the extracts has been analyzed by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of the extracts of the gingers was greater than that estimated from the actual quantity of three known curcuminoids in the extracts.
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The nonvolatile fraction of the dichloromethane extract of ginger rhizomes exhibited a strong antioxidative activity using linoleic acid as the substrate in ethanol-phosphate buffer solution. The fraction was purified by chromatographic techniques to provide five gingerol related compounds and eight diarylheptanoids. Among them, 12 compounds exhibited higher activity than alpha-tocopherol. The activity was probably dependent upon side chain structures and substitution patterns on the benzene ring.
Article
Six new diarylheptanoids, 5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-heptanone, 3,5-diacetoxy-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)heptane, 5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-heptanone, 5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-heptanone, (3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)heptane and (3S,5S)-3,5-diacetoxy-1,7-bis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)heptane were isolated from the rhizomes ofZingiber officinale, together with two known diarylheptanoids. Their structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic evidences.
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Three new galloylglucosides, (4S)-alpha-terpineol 8-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (1); (4R)-alpha-terpineol 8-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (2), and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propane-1,2-diol 2-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (3), were isolated from the berries of Pimenta dioica together with three known compounds, gallic acid (4), pimentol (5), and eugenol 4-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (6). The structures of 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of MS and NMR spectral data and enzymatic hydrolysis. These galloylglucosides (1-3, 5, and 6) showed radical-scavenging activity nearly equivalent to that of gallic acid (4) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical.
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