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Introduction. The role of nipple/breast stimulation in influencing sexual arousal in men and women during lovemaking has only been the subject of opinion-based comment rather than evidence-based study. No attempt to question people about such sexual behavior has ever been undertaken. Aim. The study was designed to ascertain the effects of nipple/breast manipulation in young men and women on their sexual arousal. Methods. A short questionnaire about nipple/breast stimulation during sexual activity was administered to 301 (148 men; 153 women) sexually experienced undergraduates (age range 17–29 years, 95% between 18 and 22). Main Outcome Measures. Replies to questions in questionnaire. Results. The major findings in regard to the women were that 81.5% reported that stimulation of their nipples/breasts caused or enhanced their sexual arousal, 78.2% agreed that when sexually aroused such manipulation increased their arousal, 59.1% had asked to have their nipples stimulated during lovemaking, and only 7.2% found that the manipulation decreased their arousal. In regard to the men, 51.7% reported that nipple stimulation caused or enhanced their sexual arousal, 39% agreed that when sexually aroused such manipulation increased their arousal, only 17.1% had asked to have their nipples stimulated, and only 7.5% found that such stimulation decreased their arousal. Conclusion. Manipulation of the nipples/breasts causes or enhances sexual arousal in approximately 82% of young women and 52% of young men with only 7–8% reporting that it decreased their arousal. Levin R, and Meston C. Nipple/breast stimulation and sexual arousal in young men and women. J Sex Med 2006;3:450–454.
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J Sex Med 2006;3:450 454 © 2006 International Society for Sexual Medicine
Blackwell Publishing IncMalden, USAJSMJournal of Sexual Medicine1743-6095© 2006 International Society for Sexual Medicine200633450454Original ArticleBreast Stimulation in Men and WomenLevin and Meston
Nipple/Breast Stimulation and Sexual Arousal in Young Men
and Women
Roy Levin, PhD,* and Cindy Meston, PhD
*Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; Department of Psychology, University of Texas,
Austin, TX, USA
DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2006.00230.x
Introduction. The role of nipple/breast stimulation in influencing sexual arousal in men and women during
lovemaking has only been the subject of opinion-based comment rather than evidence-based study. No attempt to
question people about such sexual behavior has ever been undertaken.
Aim. The study was designed to ascertain the effects of nipple/breast manipulation in young men and women on
their sexual arousal.
Methods. A short questionnaire about nipple/breast stimulation during sexual activity was administered to 301 (148
men; 153 women) sexually experienced undergraduates (age range 17–29 years, 95% between 18 and 22).
Main Outcome Measures. Replies to questions in questionnaire.
Results. The major findings in regard to the women were that 81.5% reported that stimulation of their nipples/
breasts caused or enhanced their sexual arousal, 78.2% agreed that when sexually aroused such manipulation
increased their arousal, 59.1% had asked to have their nipples stimulated during lovemaking, and only 7.2% found
that the manipulation decreased their arousal. In regard to the men, 51.7% reported that nipple stimulation caused
or enhanced their sexual arousal, 39% agreed that when sexually aroused such manipulation increased their arousal,
only 17.1% had asked to have their nipples stimulated, and only 7.5% found that such stimulation decreased their
Conclusion. Manipulation of the nipples/breasts causes or enhances sexual arousal in approximately 82% of young
women and 52% of young men with only 7–8% reporting that it decreased their arousal. Levin R, and Meston
C. Nipple/breast stimulation and sexual arousal in young men and women. J Sex Med 2006;3:450–454.
Key Words. Neurophysiological Studies of Sexual Function; Central Nervous System Control; Sexual Physiology;
Sexual Biochemistry
A brief report of the study (Levin RJ, Meston C.
Nipple stimulation and sexual arousal in young
men and women [abstract]. J Sex Med 2006;3(suppl
3):247.) was presented at the European Society of
Sexual Medicine meeting at Copenhagen, Decem-
ber 2005.
ipple and breast stimulation is a frequent
characteristic of human sexual activity
especially employed by men [1] during the early
stages of lovemaking (so-called foreplay) to
induce in women sexual arousal. Kinsey et al.
[2] claimed, however, that “while this stimulates
the male erotically . . . the significance for the
female has probably been overestimated.” It was
also claimed that “relatively few females even
try to stimulate the breasts of their partners.”
These opinions were voiced over 50 years
ago and appear to be authority-based rather
than evidence-based. There is little or nothing
in the literature on the possible enhancement of
sexual arousal in women and especially in men
created by breast or nipple manipulation. It was
thus thought useful to establish by a brief ques-
tionnaire the present status of breast/nipple
stimulation among young men and women in
relation to the induction/enhancement of sexual
arousal. Page 450 Wednesday, April 12, 2006 12:23 PM
Breast Stimulation in Men and Women 451
J Sex Med 2006;3:450 454
A total of 371 undergraduate students (180 men,
191 women) at the University of Texas at Austin
participated in this study in exchange for course
credit. Participants were enrolled in either the
2003–2004 Fall sessions (September–December)
or the 2004 Spring session ( January–May). Data
from participants who reported being sexually
inexperienced (defined as not having ever experi-
enced sexual intercourse) were excluded from fur-
ther analyses (N = 70). The final sample size was
148 men and 153 women. Participants varied in
age from 17 to 29 years (95% between 18 and 22),
and mean age was 19.23 years (SD = 1.5) and
18.78 years (SD = 1.2) for men and women,
respectively. The sample consisted of 56% Cauca-
sian, 7% African American, 22% Hispanic, 14%
Asian American, <1% Native American, and 1%
“other ethnicity” participants. Ethnicity was
determined with the question, “What ethnicity do
you most identify with?”
Participants were administered a brief question-
naire consisting of questions inquiring about their
sexual arousal response to breast/nipple stimula-
tion and a demographics questionnaire. Female
participants were also asked whether they had ever
received breast surgery. Participants responded
using a “Yes/No” response format.
The questionnaires were administered in small
groups of 5–10 same-sex individuals. To preserve
privacy, participants were given either partitions or
several feet of space from other participants. Par-
ticipants were informed of the sexual nature of the
study before they applied to participate. Same-sex
researchers informed participants of the sexual
material, obtained consent, administered question-
naire packets, and answered participant questions
that arose during testing. Confidentiality was pro-
tected by assigning each participant with a random-
ized code number connected to all of his or her
data, and consent forms were kept in a separate file.
To help assure anonymity, upon completion, ques-
tionnaire packets were inserted into a large “drop
box” as participants exited the testing room. This
study was approved by the Human Subjects Ethics
committee at the University of Texas at Austin.
Statistical assessments of any significant differ-
ences (P > 0.05) among the data were undertaken
using Likelihood ratios, a test used to analyze cat-
egorical data [3].
One woman reported having had breast augmen-
tation surgery. Data from her questionnaire were
excluded from further analyses as it is unclear to
what degree breast augmentation surgery may
affect nipple/breast sensitivity.
Regarding women, 81.5% reported that nip-
ple/breast stimulation caused or enhanced their
sexual arousal, and that when they were sexually
aroused nipple/breast stimulation increased their
arousal. Only 7.2% reported that such stimula-
tion caused a decrease in their arousal. Some
59.1% of the women have actively asked for the
stimulation from their partners, and some 37.7%
desired to have them stimulated but were not
able to ask for it to be undertaken (presumably
from shyness, or not wanting to appear too
In the case of men, like women, nipple stimu-
lation was excitatory for their sexual arousal but
the percentage was less than in women (51.7%
compared with 81.5%). Results from Likelihood
ratios indicated that this gender difference was
significant, L2 = 30.67, P < 0.001. Thirty-nine
percent of men (compared with 78.2% of women)
reported that nipple stimulation increased their
arousal when they were sexually aroused. This
gender difference was also significant (L2 = 46.27,
P < 0.001). Virtually, the same percentage of men
(7.5%) as women (7.2%) found that nipple stimu-
lation decreased their arousal when sexually
aroused (L2 = 1.43, P = 0.49). A significantly
smaller percentage of men than women asked for
their nipples to be stimulated (17.1% vs. 59.1%,
L2 = 61.2, P < 0.001), and a significantly smaller
percentage would like to have the stimulation but
did not want to ask for it (19.8% vs. 37.7%,
L2 = 6.03, P < 0.05) (Table 1).
The majority of women surveyed (81.5%)
reported that stimulation of their nipples/breasts
caused or enhanced sexual arousal and increased
their arousal once they were already sexually
aroused. Although a comparatively lower propor-
tion compared with women, the majority of men
(51.7%) also reported enhanced sexual arousal
with nipple stimulation and only a small propor-
tion reported the activity decreased arousal. A sig-
nificantly smaller percentage of men would like to
have had the stimulation during lovemaking but
did not want to ask for it. This gender difference
could feasibly be due to a number of factors Page 451 Wednesday, April 12, 2006 12:23 PM
452 Levin and Meston
J Sex Med 2006;3:450 454
including gender differences in reporting biases or
social desirability, or gender roles ascribed to this
behavior. These results clearly do not support the
comments on nipple/breast stimulation by Kinsey
et al. [2] quoted in the Introduction section.
Exactly how nipple/breast stimulation influ-
ences sexual arousal is poorly understood. The
female nipple/areola is well innervated [4–6] and
when stimulated the nipple becomes erect and the
areola engorged [7]. The innervation of the male
nipple/areola, although similar to that of the
female nipple/areola [8], has been less well stud-
ied. It has been estimated that 50–60% of men also
show nipple erection on arousal [7]. The tactile
sensibility of the areola is regarded as protopathic
(primitive) as compared with epicritic (discrimina-
tory) sensitivity of the skin [4]. In relation to tactile
stimuli, Robinson and Short [9] reported that after
puberty the sensitivity of all areas of the female
breast becomes significantly greater than that of
the male breast. While there have been a number
of brain imaging studies during sexual arousal in
men and women by visual sex stimulation indicat-
ing what areas become activated or inhibited [10–
14], as far as we know, there have been no similar
studies where just stimulating the breast or nipple
is the mode of arousal. We are thus ignorant of
how such stimulation activates sexual arousal in
the brain.
It has been proposed that prolactin specifically
released at orgasm by either coitus or masturba-
tion inhibits sexual arousal in men and women
[15], although Levin [16] has pointed out that
women are known to be able to have multiple
serial orgasms. Although studies in men employ-
ing pharmacological methods of raising and low-
ering prolactin levels have shown that raised
prolactin inhibited subjective sexual arousal [17],
only some aspects of the arousal, such as the ejac-
ulatory latency, were influenced by the induced
hyperprolactinemia with only small reductions in
sexual drive and functions. The new conclusion
was that although prolactin was important in the
postorgasmic regulation of sexual behavior, the
results did not “demonstrate a role for prolactin as
a simple and direct negative feedback mechanism.”
It is likely to be but “one signal within a network
of psycho-endocrine regulation of the sexual expe-
rience.” Sexual arousal in the brain occurs through
a complex interaction of multiple neurotransmit-
ters (norepinephrine, acetylcholine, dopamine,
oxytocin, vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal pep-
tide, and opioids) and sex steroids and is poorly
understood. Bancroft [18], reviewing the endocri-
nology of human sexual arousal, also commented
on its complexity and on the as yet uncertain
role(s) of the peptides prolactin and oxytocin. He
argued that the prolactin release at orgasm is an
“epiphenomenon of post-orgasmic inhibition of
dopamine activity, and not a hormonal mechanism
of functional importance.”
Experiments on the release of prolactin during
nipple/breast stimulation in nonlactating women
have given conflicting results. Kolodney et al. [19]
reported that it was increased in nine nonlactating
women either by self-stimulation or by manipula-
tion from their husbands. Plasma prolactin levels
were not increased when men self-stimulated
themselves but when the stimulation was under-
taken by their wives there was an immediate four-
fold increase in the plasma prolactin levels of men.
Interestingly, no sexual arousal was reported by
any of the men during either self-stimulation or
stimulation by their wives. This difference sug-
gested to Kolodney et al. [19] that psychological
concepts play a role in the release of prolactin in
men. A later study [20] in 11 nonpostpartum
women, however, did not show any increase in
prolactin during either solitary or multiple epi-
sodes of nipple stimulation over 24 hours.
Even in the case of breast-feeding when prolac-
tin is definitely known to be released, there are
conflicting views on the effect on women’s sexual-
ity. Newton [21] claimed that breast-feeding
women (who would be releasing prolactin at each
feed) were often interested in a quick return to
sexual intercourse but other authors suggest that
breast-feeding by new nursing women is a possible
cause of their low or absent libido [22]. Because of
these conflicting reports, it is not possible to come
Table 1 Response frequencies by gender (% Yes)
Item Women Men
1. Does stimulation of your nipples or breasts
cause or enhance sexual arousal?
81.5 51.7
2. When you are sexually aroused, does
stimulation of your nipples or breasts
increase your arousal?
78.2 39.0
3. When you are sexually aroused, does
stimulation of your nipples or breasts
decrease your arousal?
7.2 7.5
4. Have you ever asked to have your nipples or
breasts stimulated during lovemaking?
59.1 17.1
5. Would you like to have your nipples or
breasts stimulated during lovemaking but do
not want to ask for it to be done?*
37.7 19.8
N = 153 for women; N = 148 for men.
*Frequencies are calculated on those women (N = 61) and men (N = 24) who
answered “No” to question 4. Page 452 Wednesday, April 12, 2006 12:23 PM
Breast Stimulation in Men and Women 453
J Sex Med 2006;3:450 454
to any conclusion about the action of prolactin
release during breast stimulation on human sexual
response. It is unfortunate but at our present level
of understanding little can be usefully said about
the nipple and central brain mechanisms of
arousal. There is a clear need for functional mag-
netic resonance imaging or positron-emission
tomography study on brain activity during nipple/
breast stimulation in both men and women.
Finally, a possible minor limitation of using a
“Yes/No” response format to the asked questions
(namely 1 and 2) is that some of the “No”
responses could reflect respondents indicating
“No” because they had never experienced the
behavior, rather than “No” because it was not
arousing. However, even if this postulate were so,
it should be stressed that this would necessarily
increase the proportion of our “Yes” responses,
rendering the data we report here a conservative
estimate of the enhancing effects of nipple stimu-
lation on sexual arousal.
Manipulation of the nipple/breast during love-
making causes or enhances sexual arousal for a
majority of both young women (81.5%) and men
(51.7%) and when experienced during sexual
arousal such manipulation further increased their
arousal. Only a very small minority of either sex
(approximately 7%) found that such manipulation
decreased their arousal.
Corresponding Author: Roy Levin, PhD, University
of Sheffield, Department of Biomedical Science,
Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK. Tel:
(0114) 2222320; Fax: (0114) 276541; E-mail: r.j.levin
Conflict of Interest: None.
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... 19 During sexual activity, arousal modulates the experience of breast and nipple sensation, and pleasurable breast and nipple sensation typically promotes clitoral sensitivity, vaginal lubrication, and orgasm. [20][21][22] In addition, breast and nipple responsiveness to sexual stimulation can promote sexual response and satisfaction of the partner. 23 Lack of attention to preservation of breast sexual sensation is reflected in the ways that breast sensation has been measured, including lack of assessment of the known sexual functions of the female breast. ...
... Then, we conducted a literature review to identify existing descriptions and models of breast function, as well as measures relevant to assessing BSF in women with and without cancer. 9,13,21,[31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42] Several nonsexual and nonsensory breast functions were identified (eg, signaling femininity, supporting clothing, lactation), but we focused on sexual sensory functions of the breast. BSF was defined to include the following conceptual areas: the ability to feel touch, temperature, and pressure; the ability of the nipple to become erect; and sensation associated with movement or mobility of the breast (Figure 1). ...
Background: A validated measure assessing sexual sensory functions of the breast is needed to optimize sexual and other health outcomes after breast procedures. Aim: To describe the development of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to assess breast sensorisexual function (BSF). Methods: We applied the PROMIS standards (Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) for measure development and evaluation of validity. An initial conceptual model of BSF was developed with patients and experts. A literature review yielded a pool of 117 candidate items that underwent cognitive testing and iteration. Forty-eight items were administered to an ethnically diverse, national panel-based sample of sexually active women with breast cancer (n = 350) or without (n = 300). Psychometric analyses were performed. Outcomes: The main outcome was BSF, a measure that assesses affective (satisfaction, pleasure, importance, pain, discomfort) and functional (touch, pressure, thermoreception, nipple erection) sensorisexual domains. Results: A bifactor model fit to 6 domains-excluding 2 domains with only 2 items each and 2 pain-related domains-revealed a single general factor representing BSF that may be adequately measured by the average of the items. This factor, with higher values denoting better function and with the standard deviation set to 1, was highest among women without breast cancer (mean, 0.24), intermediate among women with breast cancer but not bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction (-0.01), and lowest among those with bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction (-0.56). Between women with and without breast cancer, the BSF general factor accounted for 40%, 49%, and 100% of the difference in arousal, ability to orgasm, and sexual satisfaction, respectively. Items in each of 8 domains demonstrated unidimensionality (ie, they measured 1 underlying BSF trait) and high Cronbach's alphas for the entire sample (0.77-0.93) and the cancer group (0.71-0.95). Correlations with sexual function, health, and quality of life were positive for the BSF general factor and mostly negative for the pain domains. Clinical implications: The BSF PROM can be used to assess the impact of breast surgery or other procedures on the sexual sensory functions of the breast in women with and without breast cancer. Strengths and limitations: The BSF PROM was developed by using evidence-based standards, and it applies to sexually active women with and without breast cancer. Generalizability to sexually inactive women and other women warrants further study. Conclusion: The BSF PROM is a measure of women's breast sensorisexual function with evidence of validity among women affected and unaffected by breast cancer.
... Die Brustwarzen und die Warzenvorhöfe weisen GK und VP auf (Martynoff, 1914, Winkelmann, 1959, was Orgasmen beim Stillen (Polomeno, 1999) und die Bedeutung der Brustwarzen für die sexuelle Erregung bei Frauen und Männern erklären kann. In einer Umfrage von Levin & Meston (2006) gaben 82% der Frauen und 52% der Männer an, durch die Stimulation der Brustwarzen und der Brust sexuell erregt zu werden. Im Analkanal wurden ebenfalls GK und VP nachgewiesen (Rogers, 1992), was die hohe erogene Sensibilität dieser Region und Analorgasmen erklärt (Komisaruk & Whipple, 2011). ...
... Gradually, the breasts can also play a role in a woman's lovemap. 1 For many women, the breasts become an erogenic zone. When women were asked about breast or nipple stimulation and sexual arousal, approximately 80% indicated that such stimulation caused or enhanced sexual arousal, whereas 7% indicated that such manipulation decreased arousal [3]. In Dutch research, 15% of women stated that they had experienced an orgasm purely due to breast stimulation [4]. ...
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In many cultures, the breasts are, in many ways, connected to sexuality and intimacy. Next to providing nutrition for the baby, they are erogenic zones, a relevant factor for female identity, causing insecurity or pride, a source of pain, and a source of pleasure. There are striking similarities between breastfeeding, birth, and orgasm, with oxytocin orchestrating these processes, which are also comparably influenced by the ability ‘to relax’ (sometimes called ‘to let down’). During parturition, breast stimulation can influence the process of birth. Once lactation has started, it can affect sexuality positively and negatively, partly resulting from hormonal changes. Finally, when the lactating woman becomes sexually aroused or has an orgasm, milk outflow can be a source of confusion for some couples and a source of pleasure for others. It is the best nutrition for the baby, a vital factor in the bond between mother and child, and it has long-term health benefits for both. On the other hand, breastfeeding can cause severe fatigue, lack of sex drive, dyspareunia, and the fear of disfigurement. This chapter will include the HCP’s role in information on the different advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding. This chapter is part of ‘Midwifery and Sexuality’, a Springer Nature open-access textbook for midwives and related healthcare professionals.
... Arousal may produce an orgasm, a marked feeling of sexual release followed by rhythmic contractions in the pelvic musculature. For breast cancer survivors, it is notable that nipple-areolar sensation can be an essential component of arousal and orgasm [20,21]. ...
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The nipple is the focal point of the human breast and serves important physiological, sexual, and aesthetic purposes. It can be affected by atopic, irritant, and allergic contact eczema, which often reduce the patient's quality of life. The objective of this article is to discuss the different types of nipple eczema and highlight relevant differential diagnoses and treatment options. A systematic search of PubMed was conducted to identify and critically appraise the existing literature on the topic. All articles on nipple eczema were considered eligible, regardless of publication date, language, or study design. A final of 33 manuscripts on nipple eczema remained. The scarce literature and the limited number of high‐quality manuscripts impedes provision of structured data on nipple eczema. To securely reach the educative value of this manuscript, the systematic review was combined with a manual databank search and selected manual search of textbooks. The differential diagnosis of nipple eczema encompasses amongst others nipple psoriasis, nipple candidiasis and Paget's disease. In case of diagnostic uncertainty, swabs or biopsies are indicated. Treatment of nipple eczema needs to rapidly control the signs and symptoms of the disease, since it can have a negative effect on quality of life and can lead to premature arrest of breastfeeding. The key treatment step is starting with topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors, both of which are considered safe during lactation. Avoidance of provoking factors, such as repetitive friction, chemical agents, or allergens, can help. The use of nipple protection devices can be proposed for nursing women and sometimes adjusting of latch/suck positioning during breastfeeding is needed. Furthermore, patients should be advised to moisturize the nipple intensively and to switch to emollient wash products. Warm water compresses, black tea compresses or commercially available tannin containing topicals can provide comfort.
Background: Primary cadaveric studies were reviewed to give a contemporary overview of what is known about innervation of the female breast and nipple/nipple-areola complex (NAC). Methods: We performed a PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO number CRD42020150250). We searched four electronic databases for studies investigating which nerve branches supply the female breast and nipple/NAC or describing the trajectory and other anatomical features of these nerves. Inclusion criteria for meta-analysis were at least five studies of known sample size and with numerical observed values. Pooled prevalence (PP) estimates of nerve branches supplying the nipple/NAC were calculated using random-effects meta-analyses; the remaining results were structured using qualitative synthesis. Risk of bias within individual studies was assessed with the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) checklist. Results: Of 3653 studies identified, 19 were eligible for qualitative synthesis and 7 for meta-analysis. The breast skin is innervated by anterior cutaneous branches (ACBs) and lateral cutaneous branches (LCBs) of the 2nd - 6th and the nipple/NAC primarily by ACBs and LCBs of the 3rd - 5th intercostal nerves. The ACB and LCB of the 4th intercostal nerve supply the largest surface area of the breast skin and nipple/NAC. The LCB of the 4th intercostal nerve is the most consistent contributory nerve to the nipple/NAC (PP 89.0%; 95% CI 0.80-0.94). Conclusions: The ACB and LCB of the 4th intercostal nerve are the most important nerves to spare or repair during reconstructive and cosmetic breast surgery. Future studies are required to elicit the course of dominant nerves through the breast tissue.
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This paper addresses the null distribution of the likelihood ratio statistic for threshold autoregression with normally distributed noise. The problem is non-standard because the threshold parameter is a nuisance parameter which is absent under the null hypothesis. We reduce the problem to the first-passage probability associated with a Gaussian process which, in some special cases, turns out to be a Brownian bridge. It is also shown that, in some specific cases, the asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic depends only on the `degrees of freedom' and not on the exact null joint distribution of the time series.
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Sensitivity to pain and touch was measured in the nipple, areola, and cutaneous breast tissue of prepubertal boys and girls, postpubertal men and nuliparous women before and after delivery. Before puberty there were no differences between the sexes, but after puberty the tactile sensitivity of all areas of the women's breast was significantly greater than the men's. Tactil sensitivity of all areas also varied during the menstrual cycle, with maximal sensitivity at midcycle and at menstruation; the mid-cycle peak was absent when the women were taking oral contraceptives. But the most dramatic changes occured within 24 hours of parturition, when there was a great increase in breast sensitivity. This may be the key event for activating the suckling-induced discharge of oxytocin and prolactin and inhibiting ovulation during lactation.
The brain plays a central role in sexual motivation. To identify cerebral areas whose activation was correlated with sexual desire, eight healthy male volunteers were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Visual stimuli were sexually stimulating photographs (S condition) and emotionally neutral photographs (N condition). Subjective responses pertaining to sexual desire were recorded after each condition. To image the entire brain, separate runs focused on the upper and the lower parts of the brain. Statistical Parametric Mapping was used for data analysis. Subjective ratings confirmed that sexual pictures effectively induced sexual arousal. In the S condition compared to the N condition, a group analysis conducted on the upper part of the brain demonstrated an increased signal in the parietal lobes (superior parietal lobules, left intraparietal sulcus, left inferior parietal lobule, and right postcentral gyrus), the right parietooccipital sulcus, the left superior occipital gyrus, and the precentral gyri. In addition, a decreased signal was recorded in the right posterior cingulate gyrus and the left precuneus. In individual analyses conducted on the lower part of the brain, an increased signal was found in the right and/or left middle occipital gyrus in seven subjects, and in the right and/or left fusiform gyrus in six subjects. In conclusion, fMRI allows to identify brain responses to visual sexual stimuli. Among activated regions in the S condition, parietal areas are known to be involved in attentional processes directed toward motivationally relevant stimuli, while frontal premotor areas have been implicated in motor preparation and motor imagery. Further work is needed to identify those specific features of the neural responses that distinguish sexual desire from other emotional and motivational states.
Objectives: To evaluate, for the first time, the cerebral regions associated with female sexual arousal evoked by visual stimulation using noninvasive blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: A total of 6 healthy right-handed female volunteers (mean age 33 years, range 25 to 41) underwent fMRI on a 1.5-T MR scanner, in which the BOLD technique was used to create fMR images reflecting local brain activities. Real-time visual stimulation was performed with alternatively combined erotic and nonerotic films to identify the activated brain regions associated with sexual response. The perceived sexual arousal response was assessed using a scale ranging from 1 (no change) to 5 (maximal increase). Results: The mean score for perceived sexual arousal by erotic visual stimulation was 2.7 on the 5-point scale and was unchanged by nonerotic stimulation. During the visual task, the occipital cortex was activated by both the erotic and the nonerotic films; however, the following cerebral areas were significantly (P <0.05) activated, varying from 4 of 6 to 6 of 6 women: inferior frontal lobe, cingulate gyrus, insula gyrus, corpus callosum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and inferior temporal lobe. Conclusions: This study is the first to evaluate noninvasive BOLD-fMRI in identifying cerebral regions associated with sexual arousal response evoked by visual stimulation in women.
VARIOUS afferent neurogenic stimuli to the chest wall or breast have been associated with galactorrhoea in man. Non-puerperal lactation has been reported following mechanical trauma, surgery, or burns of the chest wall or breast1-4 following herpes zoster of the chest wall3; and induced by poorly fitting garments4 or breast manipulation3,4. Lactation has occurred in men in association with prolonged suckling of the breast1,3 and may occur in nulliparous and post-menopausal women in response to a suckling stimulus5,6.
This paper examines the theory that breastfed and bottlefed infants are psychological equivalents. There are 2 patterns of breastfeeding most often encountered, unrestricted and token breastfeedings. There are maternal differences between those who breastfeed and those who do not. The initial experience of breastfeeding is culturally dependent. A mother who practices unretricted breastfeeding is receiving sustained stimulation to her nipples and experiences a generalized body response. Likewise such a breastfeeding mother experiences other long-term psychophysiologic reactions such as lactation amenorrhea and changes in hormonal balance. Breastfeeding women are often interested in a quick return to sexual intercourse and display a more general attitude towards men. A mother's personality and her ability to adjust to life situations often varies with the choice of feeding. 1 study found that mothers who breastfed displayed significantly less neuroticism than those who did not. Breastfeeding behavior appears to be sensitive to even minor variations in the social milieu. The type of breastfeeding practiced is likewise a significant variable for the infant. The initial feeding of an unrestricted breastfed infant is usually smooth unlike the situation for the token breastfed. Both feeding patterns involve assuagement of hunger needs but are dependent on social setting. For the breastfed infant, comfort as well as nourishment are presented with the mother as part of the package. These 2 experiences are often split in bottlefed and token breastfed infants. The 2 sucking patterns resemble each other superficially and the breastfed infant seems to develop more interest in sucking. Different activity levels manifest themselves by the 3rd day postpartum with the breastfed showing a greater propensity toward activity. Intelligence scores are also related to feeding patterns, with those exclusively breastfed for 4-9 months displaying the highest scores in relation to their age.