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New Immigrants—Old Disadvantage Patterns? Labour Market Integration of Recent Immigrants Into Germany

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Abstract

This paper examines the labour market integration of immigrants who have entered Germany since 1990, and compares their situation with that of their predecessors. The analyses based on the cumulative micro-census data reveal that recent immigrants into Germany are on average better-educated than their earlier counterparts, and some ethnic groups are even better- educated than the national average. Despite their high levels of formal education, these immigrants coming mostly from Eastern Europe, Africa and the Middle East face severe integration problems in the German labour market. Thus, after taking into account the value of human capital represented by these immigrants, their ethnic disadvantages appear to increase. This stands in sharp contrast with the disadvantages faced by “classic” immigrants who arrived in Germany during the 1960s and 1970s, for whom lack of human capital had been identified as the main obstacle to labour market integration.

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... In the period after the war until the 1950s, around 12 million (German) refugees came to West Germany from eastern and southeastern Europe (Schimany and von Loeffelholz 2013), and between 1987 and 2001, 2.8 million ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union migrated to Germany (Glitz 2012). Additionally, two main migratory waves can be distinguished: the recruitment of guest workers and migration for humanitarian reasons (Kogan 2011). ...
... In the first migratory wave, starting in the 1950s, (former West) Germany began recruiting labor migrants (i.e., guest workers), mainly from Southern Europe and Turkey. 5 These workers were a selective group in terms of lower human capital and often came from economically struggling regions of their home countries (Kogan 2011). The active recruitment of guest workers stopped in 1973, due to an economic recession (Schmidt 1997). ...
... The second migratory wave, from the mid-1980s onwards, included refugees from the former Soviet Union, Turkey, and Iraq (Kogan 2011). In the mid-2000s, migrants also began to arrive from the Middle East, Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Russia (Kogan 2011). ...
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Wage gaps between migrants and natives persist in Germany, and traditional human capital endowments or work environments only partially explain these gaps. This article investigates whether noncognitive skills contribute to explaining male migrant wage gaps in Germany. While the economics literature shows that noncognitive skills affect educational and occupational outcomes, such as gender wage gaps, it is unclear if the same applies to the migrant wage gap. To address this lingering question, we analyze risk preference and the “Big Five Personality Dimensions,” a psychological concept categorizing an individual's personality into five factors. In doing so, we show that male migrants and male German natives differ in their average noncognitive skills and that these skills significantly relate to wages. The results of Oaxaca–Blinder wage decompositions reveal that noncognitive skills significantly contribute six percentage points to explaining the male migrant wage gap in Germany. We conclude that noncognitive skills are important predictors of heterogeneities in labor market outcomes.
... One challenge to understanding the place of Poles in host countries is that research specific to Poles is relatively recent, and generally restricted to the post-EU expansion of 2004 (see for example : Burrell, 2010;Drozdzewski, 2011;Forrest & Kusek, 2016;Kaczmarczyk & Tyrowicz, 2015;Markowski and Kwapisz-Williams, 2013;Odé, 1996). Where the place of Polish immigrants is studied, it is often in the context of more global work that encompasses a large number of groups (see for example : Bevelander, 1999;Drinkwater et al., 2010;Kogan, 2010;Levrau et al., 2013). Work that looks at outcomes for the second generation is even rarer (Dahlstedt, 2015;Pendakur & Pendakur, 1998, 2015. ...
... In Belgium a qualitative study on the Polish community in Antwerp show low unemployment levels for Polish immigrants compared to other immigrant groups (Levrau et al., 2013). Results for Germany by Kogan (2010) using 2005 microcensus data indicate that Polish immigrants have somewhat lower employment levels compared to native Germans. They conclude that the difference is mainly explained by human capital characteristics and not by an ethnic penalty. ...
... Overall past research points to large differentials in both employment probabilities and earnings for immigrants in general. In general, immigrants from Poland perform better than immigrants from outside Europe, and in the case of the UK and Germany can do the same or better than the native-born population (see Drinkwater et al., 2010;Kogan, 2010). As is to be expected, native-born Poles face much smaller differentials. ...
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Using a combination of logit, and OLS regressions we ask if the labour force outcomes for Polish immigrants differ across two immigration policy regimes (Canada and Sweden). Specifically, we compare the employment and earnings prospects of Polish immigrants and their children in Canada and Sweden using data that is similar in quality and timing. We find that in general, Polish immigrants, while facing substantial penalties compared to native-born workers fare better in Canada than in Sweden in terms of employment and income. As expected, second generation Poles fare much better than their immigrant counterparts in terms of employment and earnings differentials and have similar outcomes to the native-born majority in both countries. Membership in the EU fundamentally changed migration flows from Poland. In light of this we also look at how post-2004 Polish migrants have fared in both Canada and Sweden.
... Although there is no clear geographical pattern in the unemployment rates of immigrant women, one striking commonality is the observable disadvantage of immigrant women compared to native women in almost all countries (see Fig. 3). This result has been reported in other studies over the past two decades for countries such as the UK, France, Belgium, and Sweden (Gorodzeisky and Semyonov 2017), Germany (Kogan 2011), and Spain (Amuedo-Dorantes and de la Rica 2007; Bernardi et al. 2011). Despite the general pattern, the magnitude of the nativity disadvantage in unemployment among women varies greatly across countries (see Fig. 3). ...
... de/ spren max/ fem-lit-review/) and in earlier studies (Kogan 2006;Rubin et al. 2008;Keyser et al. 2012;Gorodzeisky and Semyonov 2017). In Germany, immigrant women from EU or OECD countries even exhibit the same unemployment rates as native women (Kogan 2011). With a few exceptions, the situation is similar in SE and CEE in 2019 (see Fig. 3), though in countries such as Portugal or the Czech Republic, immigrant women from non-EU countries fared better than those of EU origin around 2005, a pattern that reversed over time (Amuedo-Dorantes and de la Rica 2007; Rubin et al. 2008;Bernardi et al. 2011;Fullin and Reyneri 2011, see also Fig. A8 in the online appendix from https:// pages. ...
... Eurostat (2020d) Quantitative studies investigating the determinants of these heterogeneous outcomes typically start by considering differences in human capital factors. Among immigrant women in Germany, accounting for their level of education reduces some of the nativity disadvantage that immigrant groups face in terms of unemployment, but significant differences remain for all groups besides older arrival cohorts coming from Western countries (Kogan 2011). For female immigrants in Spain, controlling for education reduces some of the biggest unemployment gaps that exist between native women and women from the African continent, though these gaps remain sizable (Bernardi et al. 2011). ...
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In this overview, we seek to provide a comprehensive resource for scholars of female immigrant labor market integration in Europe, to act both as a reference and a roadmap for future studies in this domain. We begin by presenting a contextual history of immigration to and within Europe since the Second World War, before outlining the major theoretical assumptions about immigrant women’s labor market disadvantage. We then synthesize the empirical findings from quantitative studies published between 2000 and 2020 and analyze how they line up with the theoretical predictions. We supplement the review with descriptive analyses using data from 2019, which expose any discrepancies between the current situation in European countries and the situation during the time periods considered in the reviewed studies. Our review has three main take-aways. First, the theoretically relevant determinants of immigrant women’s labor market integration are generally supported by empirical evidence, but the unexplained heterogeneity that remains in many cases between immigrant women and other groups on the labor market calls for more systematic and comprehensive investigations. Second, quantitative studies which take a holistic approach to studying the labor market disadvantages of immigrant women—and all the considerations related to their gender and nativity that this entails—are rare in this body of literature, and future studies should address this. Third, fruitful avenues for future contributions to this field include expanding on certain overlooked outcomes, like immigrant women’s self-employment, as well as geographic regions that until now have received little attention, especially by employing the most recent data.
... However, for more recent cohorts, these patterns seem to have shifted. While recent migrant cohorts still face challenges in the German labour market, because they are better educated than their predecessors, they are more likely to integrate into the labour market and to advance in their careers (Kogan 2011a). Additionally, migrants' ethnic networks and their contacts to members of the native population have been found to affect their likelihood of entering the labour market, and of realising returns appropriate to their human capital. ...
... An even smaller number of studies investigated the labour market outcomes of first-generation migrants over time while also focusing on gender. The study that is closest to our own is the analysis by Kogan (2011a). She used the Microcensuses for 1996Microcensuses for , 2000Microcensuses for , and 2005 to examine gender-specific differences in levels of unemployment risk and occupational status between immigrant cohorts who arrived in Germany before and after 1990. ...
... Overall, our results resonate well with prior findings for Germany, which have shown that the educational levels of migrants have been increasing in recent years, but that migrant women continue to underperform on the German labour market (Herwig & Konietzka 2012;Höhne 2016;Kogan 2011a) While these prior findings were often limited to selected time periods or compared to selected survey years only, our study provided a "long view". This long view suggests that the integration of migrants into the labour market of the host society should be discussed in conjunction with the migration policies, venues, and networks that shape migration flows in a given era -and, thus, migrants' selectivity. ...
... Another important element that was closely related to "doing family" and much discussed in the literature concerns the working conditions immigrants experience, which are often worse than those that workers from the host experience (P erez et al., 2012). Evidence from the literature indicates that migrants are available to carry out jobs that do not correspond to their expertise (Fang & Heywood, 2006;Godin, 2008;Kogan, 2010;Van Tonder & Soontiens, 2013). Often, they give up on having their skills recognized and accept employment for which they are overqualified (Godin, 2008) in order to be able to earn money to provide economic support for their family. ...
... Regarding the strengths, particularly important in the process of "doing family," was a strong connection between having a job and being included in society. In fact, both the families and the social workers noted a strong "willingness to work" on behalf of the parents: in interviews and in focus groups, it has been repeatedly stressed how parents willing to carry out to take any job to sustain their family (Fang & Heywood, 2006;Godin, 2008;Kogan, 2010). Some parents highlighted the importance of the "relational competence of social workers" that can contribute to parenting in migration: some couples described with hanks the social workers their availability and understanding showed as "family," a feature also present in the literature (Lietaert et al., 2019). ...
... Migrants, in fact, are often employed in jobs with lower skill requirements than those they had before migration, even when migrants have higher education qualifications. This was because these qualifications are not recognized in the host country and are not accompanied by a high level of linguistic competence (Kogan, 2010). Furthermore, the refugee family interviews revealed that religious rites and "religious practice" are an integral part of the process of "doing family" (Hutchinson & Dorsett, 2012;Migliorini et al., 2016) and that the ability to participate in these practices can be strained by the absence of specific places to profess their faith. ...
Article
Although migrant families comprise a small number of immigrants, they present a significant challenge for the host community. In the Italian context, social services support migrant families through paths to autonomy and integration in the community. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions that families and social workers have of “parenting” and “doing family” (training and management of family identity, roles and daily practices) in the complexity of migration. The study involved 15 immigrant parental couples, using family interview techniques and 12 social workers in 3 mini-focus groups. The collected materials were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using grounded theory. Findings The main results are identified and discussed as strengths, critical points and challenges. Some of the themes such as “willingness to work” or “lack of job opportunities” are common to both family members and social workers. Other themes are relevant to one group only. Among these, “availability and support of social workers” only emerged among families, whereas “education and respecting the rules” only emerged among social workers. Applications The results indicate that it is necessary for social workers to engage in a meaningful helping relationship with families, build networks of inclusion services, and also with the support of mediators overcome linguistic and cultural barriers. Social workers should involve families throughout he integration process. Furthermore, social services must also consider how families experience the difficulty of relating to social workers, which represents an obstacle to support for social integration.
... Germany has also absorbed several refugee migrations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, refugees from the former socialist countries in Eastern Europe and war refugees from ex-Yugoslavia arrived (Kogan 2007), and in more recent years, Germany has accepted unprecedentedly large numbers of newcomers from the Middle East and Turkey (OECD 2017). The Soviet Union's disintegration in the early 1990s further led to the return of ethnic German diaspora migrants (Kogan 2011). ...
... In the late 1980s and early 1990s, refugees from the former socialist countries in Eastern Europe and war refugees from ex-Yugoslavia arrived (Kogan 2007), and in more recent years, Germany has accepted unprecedentedly large numbers of newcomers from the Middle East and Turkey (OECD 2017). The Soviet Union's disintegration in the early 1990s further led to the return of ethnic German diaspora migrants (Kogan 2011). Finally, Germany hosts significant numbers of EU citizens, who in recent years have come predominantly from Eastern European Member States (Bundesministerium des Innern, für Bau und Heimat and Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge 2020). ...
... Numerically, most immigrants to Germany came from more traditional and collectivistic societies than Germany (Inglehart and Baker 2000;Oyserman, Coon, and Kemmelmeier 2002;Kalter and Granato 2007;Kogan 2011). As non-native accents stand for foreignness and recentness of migration, native-born majority Germans might, on the one hand, equate accent with non-native speakers' individual orientations toward the heritage country's norms, values, and cultural practices. ...
Article
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This article examines the association between accented speech and the formation of friendships and partnerships among immigrants and native-born majority residents in Germany. Drawing on the sixth wave of the German extension of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries, we analyze a neglected aspect of language — pronunciation — and find that speaking with a foreign accent is a more important correlate of the incidence of interethnic partnerships than of interethnic friendships. We argue that beyond its primary function of understandability, accented speech possesses socially communicative power. Accent transmits signals of an individual’s foreignness and cultural differences and, thus, becomes an additional marker of social distance. Such signals serve as a greater obstacle to more consequential intimate interethnic relations such as partnerships. Our findings extend the scholarly debate on the role of symbolic boundaries in social interactions between ethnic groups by yet another important boundary maker — accent.
... The relationship between migration and social inequality is a complex one and migration literature has been able to demonstrate extensively that a range of factors influence the socio-economic incorporation of migrants into the country they settle in, e.g., education and language skills (Kogan, 2011), social networks (Wrench, Rea, & Ouali, 2016), duration of stay and discrimination (van Tubergen et al., 2004), national origin (Drinkwater, Eade, & Garapich, 2009) and class (van Hear, 2014). One dominant pattern of the studies based on quantitative data is their interest in explaining outcomes such as labour market participation, looking at the effect of different migrants' characteristics. ...
... For their part, Nee and Sanders' (2001) concept of migrants' 'human-cultural capital' enlarges the perspective on cultural capital to other human competences related to migration such as host destination language proficiency. Many works indeed provide evidence on the influence of language skills on labour market outcomes (e.g., Kogan, 2011;Schuss, 2018). While most of the research looks at cultural capital in the form of qualifications or language skills, the role played by the embodied form of cultural capital, i.e., that constructed through the socialisation process in which class background plays a role (Bourdieu, 1986), is less researched. ...
... This supports the idea that migrants' social status before migration needs to be considered to understand post-migration outcomes (Engzell & Ichou, 2020). Existing research gives evidence on the link between linguistic skills and social positions (Kogan, 2011;Schuss, 2018) and our findings add to this literature the role played by the linguistic capital migrants bring with them as they move. The second dimension, legal status and multiple migration, indicates a clear line of division between those who have German citizenship and those who are still in an administrative foreigner status as well as the role played by multiple cross-border movements for reaching high social positions. ...
Article
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Using a mixed methods approach, this article analyses the nexus between migration and social positions drawing on recent survey data on migrants who have arrived in Germany after 1994 from the SocioEconomic Panel (SOEP), as well as qualitative interviews with 26 respondents to the survey. Drawing on a Bourdieusian forms-of-capital approach (Bourdieu, 1986) and applying the method of Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to the SOEP survey data, we highlight two dimensions structuring the nexus between migration and social positions in Germany: (1) capital related to legal status and multiple migration and (2) (trans)national cultural capital. Through a cluster analysis based on the MCA results, we then identify and describe four profiles of migrants characterised by distinct configurations of cultural capital (social class background, education and linguistic skills before and after settlement), legal status (citizenship and status at migration), experiences of multiple cross-border movements and social positions: the 'foreign working-class,' the 'foreign middle-class,' the 'adapted German migrants,' and the 'young highly educated urbans.' The complementary analysis of the qualitative data allows us to go further in understanding some of the factors that may play a role in shaping migrants' social position(ing) in the four clusters. In particular, we show that resources such as determination and perseverance can be crucial for some migrants to counter structural constraints related to their legal status in transferring or accessing cultural capital, and that linguistic skills are also used by some migrants as a marker of social distinction.
... However, for more recent cohorts, these patterns seem to have shifted. While recent migrant cohorts still face challenges in the German labour market, because they are better educated than their predecessors, they are more likely to integrate into the labour market and to advance in their careers (Kogan 2011a). Additionally, migrants' ethnic networks and their contacts to members of the native population have been found to affect their likelihood of entering the labour market, and of realising returns appropriate to their human capital. ...
... An even smaller number of studies investigated the labour market outcomes of first-generation migrants over time while also focusing on gender. The study that is closest to our own is the analysis by Kogan (2011a). She used the Microcensuses for 1996Microcensuses for , 2000Microcensuses for , and 2005 to examine gender-specific differences in levels of unemployment risk and occupational status between immigrant cohorts who arrived in Germany before and after 1990. ...
... Overall, our results resonate well with prior findings for Germany, which have shown that the educational levels of migrants have been increasing in recent years, but that migrant women continue to underperform on the German labour market (Herwig & Konietzka 2012;Höhne 2016;Kogan 2011a) While these prior findings were often limited to selected time periods or compared to selected survey years only, our study provided a "long view". This long view suggests that the integration of migrants into the labour market of the host society should be discussed in conjunction with the migration policies, venues, and networks that shape migration flows in a given era -and, thus, migrants' selectivity. ...
Article
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Objective: This paper draws on data from the Microcensus to provide a long-term overview of the labour market performance of different arrival cohorts of non-German women and men who immigrated to (western) Germany. Background: While there is a large body of research on the labour market outcomes of migrants to Germany, a long-term and gender-specific overview is missing. Method: We provide descriptive analyses of the employment rates, working hours, and occupational status levels of different arrival cohorts by gender, calendar year, and duration of stay. The data cover the time period 1976-2015. Results: With the exception of the earliest cohort, migrant women and men were consistently less likely to be employed than their German counterparts. While the average working hours of migrant women of earlier cohorts were longer than those of German women, this pattern reversed due to a considerable decline in the average working hours of migrant women across subsequent cohorts. The occupational status levels of female and male migrants increased across the arrival cohorts, corresponding to higher levels of education. Analyses by duration of stay indicate that the occupational status of the arrival cohorts tended to decline during their initial years of residence, and to stagnate thereafter. This pattern seems to be due in part to selective outmigration. Conclusion: Our results clearly show that the labour market performance of immigrants varied greatly by arrival cohort, reflecting the conditions and policy contexts during which they entered Germany. This conclusion applied especially to migrant women.
... In this regard, our analysis focuses on Poles and Turks in Germany for several important reasons. While Turks have been the subject of much prior research (mostly in the context of guest workers and their descendants), immigrants from Eastern Europe have received considerably less attention (although some comparative studies on ethnic Germans have differentiated immigrants by their country of origin, such as Constant, Gataullina & Zimmermann 2006;Kogan 2011;Luthra 2013;Seifert 1998 Krings et al. 2013;Mąkosa 2018). Thus, our analysis will provide some empirical findings on the experiences of a more recent cohort of female immigrants from Poland, contextualised by the experiences of a well-researched group in Germany, Turkish women. ...
... Those who do work, however, are more likely than native women to engage in full-time employment (Fleischmann & Höhne 2013), at least during the early years of their stay. Female immigrants also tend to hold jobs with lower occupational status than their native counterparts (Fleischmann & Höhne 2013;Kogan 2011) and earn lower wages (Bauer & Zimmermann 1997;Constant 2009;Reitz et al. 1999). Their wages show some weak assimilation, but do not totally attain the same levels of native women (Basilio, Bauer & Sinning 2009). ...
... Most importantly, educational endowments and work experience have a strong impact on labour market integration as spelled out in human capital theory (Becker 1993), and empirical findings in the German context have confirmed this assumption (Granato & Kalter 2001;Seibert & Solga 2005). However, even after comparing individuals with similar levels of human capital, immigrant disadvantages often persist (Fleischmann & Höhne 2013;Kogan 2011;Granato & Kalter 2001). For first-generation immigrants, these disadvantages can be partly attributed to the fact that human capital acquired abroad is only partially transferrable to the new context (Chiswick 1978;Friedberg 2000;Kalter & Granato 2018), which is not fully captured by simply controlling for immigrants' human capital endowments from the country of origin. ...
Article
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Objective: This article investigates the role of motivation in female immigrants' labour force participation. Focusing on recently-arrived immigrants (who have resided in the host country for 18 months or less), we compare the outcomes of two different ethnic groups in Germany: Poles and Turks. Background: The immigrant integration literature tends to focus on the role of resources in immigrant labour market integration. However, when examining particularly the labour force participation of female immigrants, their motivation for joining the labour force is also important. Previous studies of female immigrants in Germany have often neglected this consideration, which includes aspects like culturally-specific gender values and perceived ethnic discrimination. Method: We use data from the SCIP project (Diehl et al., 2015) to conduct logistic regressions on female immigrants’ labour force participation. Our sample includes 829 female immigrants from Poland and Turkey between the ages of 18-60, who were either active in the labour force or were 'at risk' of entering. Results: In line with previous studies, our analysis shows that female immigrants' labour market resources, mainly their prior work experience and German proficiency, greatly reduce the ethnic gap in labour force participation rates. Moreover, motivational factors have a large impact on this outcome for both groups, and greatly enhance the picture that our empirical models present. However, we find no evidence that perceived ethnic discrimination plays an important role. Conclusion: Our analysis indicates that when seeking to understand the labour market participation of female immigrants, their resources and motivation should be seen as key components of a gender-sensitive analysis.
... Though immigrants to the US and Germany may be demographically and culturally distinct, they often take similar occupational roles in both countries. Immigrants generally struggle to completely integrate into the labor market, and are less likely to be employed and more likely to take lower status positions than native-born residents in both Germany and the US, even after controlling for education (Eckstein & Peri, 2018;Heilbrunn et al., 2010;Kogan, 2011;Winkler, 2019). Occupational fields with particularly large shares of immigrants-particularly Hispanic migrants in the US and African and Turkish migrants in Germany-include agriculture, construction, manufacturing, and unskilled jobs (Eckstein & Peri, 2018;Kogan, 2011), though Chinese and Indian migrants in the US are most often employed in highskilled occupations like computer programming and managerial work (Eckstein & Peri, 2018). ...
... Immigrants generally struggle to completely integrate into the labor market, and are less likely to be employed and more likely to take lower status positions than native-born residents in both Germany and the US, even after controlling for education (Eckstein & Peri, 2018;Heilbrunn et al., 2010;Kogan, 2011;Winkler, 2019). Occupational fields with particularly large shares of immigrants-particularly Hispanic migrants in the US and African and Turkish migrants in Germany-include agriculture, construction, manufacturing, and unskilled jobs (Eckstein & Peri, 2018;Kogan, 2011), though Chinese and Indian migrants in the US are most often employed in highskilled occupations like computer programming and managerial work (Eckstein & Peri, 2018). Influxes of highly educated immigrants to Germany over the past few years contributed to higher occupational attainment among recently arrived cohorts, but occupational status tends to decrease as cohorts are tracked across time, probably due to outmigration of the most skilled migrants (Sprengholz et al., 2021). ...
Article
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In many OECD countries, women are underrepresented in high status, high paying occupations and overrepresented in lower status work. One reason for this inequity is the “motherhood penalty,” where women with children face more roadblocks in hiring and promotions than women without children or men with children. This research focuses on divergent occupational outcomes between men and women with children and analyzes whether parental gender gaps in occupational status are more extreme for immigrant populations. Using data from the Luxembourg Cross-National Data Center, I compare changes in gendered occupational segregation from 2000 to 2016 in Germany and the USA among immigrant and native-born parents. Multinomial logistic regression models and predicted probabilities show that despite instituting policies intended to reduce parental gender inequality in the workforce, Germany fares worse than the USA in gendered occupational outcomes overall. While the gap between mothers’ and fathers’ probabilities of employment in high status jobs is shrinking over time in Germany, particularly for immigrant mothers, Germany’s gender gaps in professional occupations are consistently larger than gaps in the US. Likewise, gender gaps in elementary/labor work participation are also larger in Germany, with immigrant mothers having a much higher likelihood of working in labor/elementary occupations than any other group—including US immigrant women. These findings suggest that work-family policies—at least those implemented in Germany—are not cure-all solutions for entrenched gender inequality. Results also demonstrate the importance of considering the interaction between gender and other demographic characteristics—like immigrant status—when determining the potential effectiveness of proposed work-family policies.
... Satisfying status needs within the mainstream economy of the receiving society largely depends on education and destination-specific resources like proficiency in majority language and influential contacts to majority members (Esser, 2006;Kalter, 2006;Kalter & Granato, 2002Kogan, 2011). However, it is not only a lack of these resources that endangers migrants' status satisfaction, but also the confrontation with unfavourable conditions within the receiving society (Heath & Brinbaum, 2007). ...
... For first-generation migrants in particular, the table also reveals that migrants under 25 exposure years are on average better educated than migrants who are over 25 years in the receiving society. This suggest more recent immigration of higher skilled migrants (Kogan, 2011). By comparing the means for education and ISEI across the exposure groups in the first generation, a disruptive picture emerges. ...
Thesis
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[see edited book of this thesis: 10.3224/84742575] The interplay of migrants’ minority and majority identity is an important indicator for social climate, interethnic dialogue and individual condition. Largely guided by classical assimilation theory (CAT), migrants’ ethnic identity is, however, often studied one-dimensionally, either focussing on minority or majority identity. Status as key element of CAT takes up a crucial role in conveying such a one-dimensional perspective. Status is expected to promote mutual exclusiveness of migrants’ identities in the sense that it relates negatively to minority identity and positively to majority identity. However, empirical evidence suggests that across and within migrant generations, the relationship between status and ethnic identity is more complex than only assuming mutual exclusiveness. This book explores possible conditions that contribute to this increased complexity. It thereby takes a multidimensional and intergenerational perspective on ethnic identity, aiming at improving our understanding of its link to migrants’ status. Combining Berry’s fourfold acculturation typology and social production function theory, a general model is proposed and applied to analyse the link between status and ethnic identity with respect to migrant visibility, status mismatch and exposure time. The multinomial regression analyses base on cross-sectional data from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). The sample includes first- and second-generation migrants aged 25 to 65 (N = 2,094). There are several key findings among which are the following. Status is positively associated with majority identity, but not necessarily with assimilated identity. This positive association is found in both generations and seems to be non-linear. In this regard, migrant visibility and status mismatch both provide explanations for the so-called “integration paradox” as these variables are negatively associated with majority identity of high-status migrants. Importantly, results further show reduced minority identity for “visible” and mismatched-status migrants. Differences in ethnic identity across exposure time points suggest an assimilation trend in both generations. In the first generation, higher-status migrants thereby tend to assimilate faster, while this is not the case in the second generation. Notwithstanding the observed status differences, migrants’ years of exposure are comparably more important for migrants’ ethnic identity. There are nevertheless signs of longer-term status effects, particularly in relation to migrants with comparably weak ethnic identity, a group of migrants distributed across status levels, encouraging further research.
... While the gender gap in overeducation is equivalent across the majority of European countries, female immigrants in Europe have higher levels of overqualification than native women (OECD, 2020). The studies by Kogan (2011) for Germany and Hayfron (2002) for Norway indicate that, respectively, in terms of occupational position and incomes, immigrant women's returns to foreign education credentials are lower than those of native women. Salikutluk (2020) also observed the lower returns to education for immigrant women from countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) and second-generation Turkish women. ...
... Although various studies found that controlling for the level of education reduces the gender and nativity gap in labor market participation, the considerable discrepancies in Labor market disadvantages remain (Husted et al., 2000;Hayfron 2002;Kogan 2011;Pichler 2011). ...
Article
In terms of labor market integration, immigrant women often face more challenges in their new country of residence than natives. As immigrants and women, they are at the bottom of the labor force, with lower employment rates than both foreign-born men and native-born women. This review article examines the factors that influence immigrant women's labor force participation in a European context. It is based on three approaches that provide explanations for immigrant women's employment behavior: human capital theory, segmented assimilation theory, and double disadvantage theory. Regarding these theories, respectively, I focus specifically on the impact of educational attainment, country origin and household duties on labor market integration of immigrant women. First, previous studies confirm the important role of education as human capital in immigrant women's participation in the labor market. However, after controlling educational attainments and their restricted transferability, significant gender and nativity gaps in labor market disadvantages still remain. Secondly, these disadvantages vary depending on the region of origin, which is consistent with the assumption of segmented assimilation theory. Finally, various study findings show that immigrant women experience a double disadvantage of marriage and motherhood penalties, demonstrating that these two characteristics affect foreign-born and native-born women's labor market performance differently.
... To examine whether co-ethnic social capital has a causal effect on immigrants' labor market integration, we focus on Germany. Germany has historically played an important role as a migration-receiving country in Europe and is characterized by a large proportion of migrants (see Kogan, 2011 for an overview). Nevertheless, previous research has revealed the deficiencies of the integration policies in Germany: immigrants face greater rates of unemployment, are concentrated in a lower occupational hierarchy (Kogan, 2011), and have lower wages (Constant & Massey, 2003) than natives. ...
... Germany has historically played an important role as a migration-receiving country in Europe and is characterized by a large proportion of migrants (see Kogan, 2011 for an overview). Nevertheless, previous research has revealed the deficiencies of the integration policies in Germany: immigrants face greater rates of unemployment, are concentrated in a lower occupational hierarchy (Kogan, 2011), and have lower wages (Constant & Massey, 2003) than natives. Social networks, however, seem to mitigate immigrants' economic disadvantages (e.g., Dustmann et al., 2016;Kalter & Kogan, 2014). ...
Article
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Empirically identifying the causal effect of social capital on immigrants’ economic prospects is a challenging task due to the non-random residential sorting of immigrants into locations with greater opportunities for prior or co-ethnic connections. Our study addresses this selection-bias issue by using a natural-experimental dataset of refugees and other immigrants who were exogenously allocated to their first place of residence by German authorities. This unique opportunity allows us to make an important methodological contribution to the predominantly observational knowledge about immigration and co-ethnic social capital. Although a growing body of migration studies in economics and sociology stresses the importance of social networks for migrants’ labor market integration, our results show little evidence of a causal effect of social networks themselves. Being part of a larger co-ethnic community per se does not accelerate immigrants’ labor market success except for the migrants who use the resources embedded in their social contacts when looking for a job. We conclude that further methodological advancements can be achieved by embracing recent technological developments and by combining different methods to increase both internal and external validity of findings in migration studies.
... Yet in a direct test of the 5C model, constraints measured as everyday work stress were not predictive of vaccine hesitancy (2). Relevant in the migration context are additional challenges for migrants such as living more frequently in high density living spaces (25) or working more frequently in unskilled labor (27,28). These aspects constitute a higher exposure to health hazards (29) and a lack of resources to cope with them (30). ...
... Socioeconomically, European migrants have shown to have more advantages than Non-European migrants in terms of labor market positions (27), net incomes (58), German language skills (59) and residential segregation (60). Further, it can be shown that European populations show lower levels in religious practice than Non-European populations (39). ...
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Objectives The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between migration background and COVID-19 vaccine intentions, exploring multiple mediation paths. We argue that the migrational and sociocultural background influences general attitudes toward health and political/public institutions. The effects of these general attitudes on vaccination intentions are mediated by fears of infection. Additionally, we analyze a migrant-only model including acculturation variables (years since migration, foreign and host country media consumption) and region of origin (European vs. Non-European). Design: The data (n = 1027) stem from an online access panel collected between March 15 and March 25, 2021. Quotas for gender and age were set according the online population of Germany. The use of an oversampling framework for first generation migrants resulted in a sample with 50% first generation migrants and 50% native Germans without migration background. Models were calculated using a Structural Equation Modeling approach. Results Migration background both increases and decreases antecedents of vaccination intentions. Being a migrant increases positive antecedents like religiosity, which in turn positively influence general attitudes and thus fears of infection and vaccination intentions. But being a migrant has also a significant direct negative association with vaccination intentions, implying missing mediators. Increasing years since migration increase host country (German) media consumption and decrease consumption of media from the country of origin. Both media variables are positively associated with political trust and health consciousness. Additionally, European compared to Non-European migrants have less political trust, fear of personal infection and lower vaccination intentions on the whole. Conclusions The study found that vaccination intentions can be understood by applying the proposed hypothetical structure. We found complex associations of the migration and sociocultural background and COVID-19 vaccination intentions, where antecedents of vaccination intentions are both increased and decreased by migration background and migration specific factors.
... However, as shown, Germany has restrictive policies regarding labour market access (such as temporary work permissions, local restrictions for residence). Even with legal access to the labour market, migrants and asylum seekers are confronted with a rigid labour market (Kalter and Granato, 2002;Kogan, 2010) and a highly selective educational system constituting institutional barriers that limit integration for migrants and their descendants, both of which have consequences for wage differentials. ...
... For the second generation, lower educational levels mainly explain a higher risk of unemployment. As for the only migrant group of the second generation, Turks additionally face ethnic penalties (Heath et al., 2008: 220;Kalter and Granato, 2007: 309-10;Kogan, 2010). ...
... Immigrant labour market integration research accounts for the mechanisms that these programmes seek to activate. In immigrant labour market integration research, the human capital model is the dominant paradigm (Kogan, 2011;Kogan, Frank, Elisabeth, & Yinon, 2011). ...
... We also know from a several studies that the age of immigrants at the time of arrival in a new destination country matters to the likelihood of successful labour market integration. Typically, younger immigrants integrate more easily into the labour market than older immigrants (Kogan, 2011). In some countries, the assumption that age (youth) matters to successful labour market integration is reflected in "green card"-systems, that is, immigration permit point systems, that will only award points relevant to obtaining a residence and work permit to applicants below a certain age (Hawthorne, 2008). ...
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Background This is a protocol for a Campbell Review. The objectives are as follows: Objectives This review systematically collects and synthesizes evidence from evaluations of causal effects of interventions designed to improve employment outcomes for non‐Western immigrants. The review aims to answer the following questions: • 1) Do interventions designed to improve the economic self‐sufficiency for non‐Western immigrants affect participants employment, use of cash assistance, income, or job retention? • 2) Do effects differ depending on programme content or populations served?
... However, at the same time, immigrants and their families continue to encounter barriers to their social and labor market integration in destination countries. Immigrants are more likely than natives or nationals to be exposed to low-paid or precarious employment, unemployment, or social exclusion (Kahanec & Zimmermann, 2011;Guzi & Kahanec, 2015) or face down-skilling (Stanek et al., 2021;Voitchovsky, 2014;Guzi & Kahanec, 2017;Kogan, 2011). Even within the European Union where free mobility is established, intra-EU migrants from Central and Eastern European countries (EU12) generally have high employment rates but face a problem of down-skilling and typically work in lessskilled occupations than natives, earning comparatively lower wages (Drinkwater et al., 2009;Voitchovsky, 2014;Leschke & Weiss, 2020;Clark et al., 2019). ...
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Across European Union (EU) labor markets, immigrant and native populations exhibit disparate labor market outcomes, signifying widespread labor market hierarchies. While significant resources have been invested in migration and integration policies, it remains unclear whether these contribute to or mitigate labor market hierarchies between natives and immigrants. Using a longitudinal model based on individual-level EU LFS and country-level DEMIG POLICY and POLMIG databases, we explore variation in changes of immigration and integration policies across Western EU member states to study how they are associated with labor market hierarchies in terms of unemployment and employment quality gaps between immigrant and native populations. Our findings imply that designing less restrictive policies may help mitigate immigrant-native labor market hierarchies by reducing existing labor market disadvantages of immigrants and making the most of their potential.
... Likewise, for income, we expect negative nonresponse bias in CAPI that is reduced by CATI follow-up due to the same reasons. For foreign nationality we get a consistent picture from all three arguments: The proportion of foreign nationals is likely to be severely downward biased in CAPI due to foreigners being a socially disadvantaged group in Germany (Kogan 2011), due to foreigners being more residentially mobile (Clark et al. 2000), and due to difficulties in conducting CAPI interviews in German, which is the only available language in that mode. This downward bias should be reduced by the CATI follow-up that facilitates contacting mobile groups and offers interviews in multiple foreign languages. ...
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Numerous panel surveys around the world use multiple modes of data collection to recruit and interview respondents. Previous studies have shown that mixed-mode data collection can improve response rates, reduce nonresponse bias, and reduce survey costs. However, these advantages come at the expense of potential measurement differences between modes. A major challenge in survey research is disentangling measurement error biases from nonresponse biases in order to study how mixing modes affects the development of both error sources over time. In this article, we use linked administrative data to disentangle both nonresponse and measurement error biases in the long-running mixed-mode economic panel study “Labour Market and Social Security” (PASS). Through this study design we answer the question of whether mixing modes reduces nonresponse and measurement error biases compared to a single-mode design. In short, we find that mixing modes reduces nonresponse bias for most variables, particularly in later waves, with only small effects on measurement error bias. The total bias and mean-squared error are both reduced under the mixed-mode design compared to the counterfactual single-mode design, which is a reassuring finding for mixed-mode economic panel surveys.
... Immigrants in Germany display heterogeneity in terms of human capital. While education levels are rising across countries of origin, immigrants from the EU tend to demonstrate higher education levels than other immigrants (Kogan, 2011;Gries et al., 2021). Conversely, immigrants from non-Western countries tend to demonstrate the greatest educational disadvantages (Brücker et al., 2016a;Spörlein et al., 2020). ...
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While recent literature in Germany has compared predictors of welfare use between EU and non-EU immigrants, refugees have yet to be added to the analysis. Using survey data of approximately 4,000 immigrants living in Germany, I examine the determinants of basic unemployment benefits receipt for intra-EU immigrants, refugees, and third country immigrants. In particular, I investigate how education affects the likelihood of welfare use for each immigrant group. Even after controlling for human capital factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and factors related to migration such as legal status and age at migration, refugees remain significantly more likely to receive benefits. Results demonstrate that higher education significantly decreases the likelihood of welfare receipt for EU and third country immigrants, but much less so for refugees. These findings may indicate that refugees' education is not being used to its full potential in the labor market or that they face additional challenges hindering their labor market integration. A further and unanticipated finding is that immigrants who hold permanent residency or German citizenship are less likely to receive unemployment benefits, pointing either to positive effects of a secure residency or selection into permanent residency and citizenship among those with the greatest labor market success. Overall, this research shows that challenges beyond human capital deficiencies and sociodemographic characteristics must be considered when studying immigrants' receipt of social benefits, that not all educational credentials are valued equally, and that the experiences of refugees differ in significant ways from those of other immigrant groups.
... Erkek bireylerin iş bulma amacıyla göç etmesi nedeniyle eşlerin birbirinden uzak kalması da bozucu etki hipoteziyle açıklanmıştır (Chattopadhyay ve diğerleri, 2006). Örneğin, Türkiye'den işçi göçüyle Almanya'ya göçün başladığı ilk on yıl boyunca, sadece erkek işçiler göç ettiği için Almanya'daki Türkiyeli nüfus sadece gelen işçilerle bir artış gösterirken, bu işçilerin evlenmeye başlaması ve eşlerini yanlarına getirmeleriyle beraber Türkiyeli nüfus daha hızlı bir şekilde artmaya başlamıştır (Kogan, 2011). Bozucu etki hipotezi, doğum kontrolü ve aile planlaması yöntemlerine erişimin azalması ve emzirmenin sekteye uğraması nedeniyle ortaya çıkabilecek doğurganlık artışı durumlarını açıklamak için de kullanılmıştır (White, Tagoe, Stiff, Adazu ve Smith, 2005). ...
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This study examines the associations between female internal migration and fertility using different indicators such as cumulative cohort fertility visualizations and multivariate Poisson models. Using data from the most recent Turkey Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS), 2018 TDHS, we analyze how migrant women’s fertility behaviors vary compared to those of non-migrant (urban or rural native) women based on five different hypotheses. We use two different migrant definitions by: (i) comparing current and childhood places of residence, and (ii) comparing current and previous places of residence. In addition to urban native and rural native women, four migrant categories are defined: rural-urban, rural-rural, urban-rural, and urban-urban migrants. Our multivariate analysis results imply that compared to rural natives, urban-rural and rural-urban migrant women are more likely to have births. Our findings support for negative selectivity among rural-urban and urban-rural migrants. For migration from rural to urban areas, we provide support for both disruption (first two years) and adaptation hypotheses in the long run. For urban-rural migrants, we see no disruption effects but selection effects. Overall, by providing more detailed analyses and up-to-date methodologies, our findings provide support for all five hypotheses for different groups of migrant women in Turkey. Bu çalışmada kümülatif kuşak doğurganlığı gibi farklı göstergeler ve çok değişkenli Poisson regresyon modelleri kullanılarak, kadınların iç göç hareketleriyle doğurganlıkları arasındaki ilişki incelenmektedir. Son Türkiye Nüfus ve Sağlık Araştırması (TNSA) olan 2018 TNSA verilerinin kullanıldığı bu çalışmada göç eden kadınların göç etmeyenlere (kent veya kır yerlisi) göre doğurganlık davranışlarının nasıl farklılaştığı beş farklı hipoteze göre analiz edilmektedir. İki farklı göç tanımı kullanılmaktadır: (i) şimdiki ve çocuklukta ikamet edilen yerleşim yerleri karşılaştırılarak ve (ii) şimdiki ve bir önce ikamet edilen yerleşim yerleri karşılaştırılarak. Kent ve kır yerlisi kadınlara ek olarak, karşılaştırmalarda dört farklı göçmen kategorisi kullanılmaktadır: kırdan kente, kırdan kıra, kentten kıra, kentten kente göç edenler. Çok değişkenli analiz sonuçlarına göre kır yerlisi veya kentten kıra ve kırdan kente göç etmiş kadınlar en fazla doğum yapan kadınlar olarak öne çıkmaktadır. Bulgularımıza göre kırdan kente ve kentten kıra göçenler için negatif seçilmişlik etkili olmaktadır. Kırsal bölgelerden kentsel bölgelere göçen kadınlar için, bulgularımız hem bozucu etki (ilk iki sene için) hem de adaptasyon yaklaşımlarını desteklemektedir. Kentten kıra göçenler için bozucu etki yerine, seçilmişlik etkili olmaktadır. Detaylı analizler ve farklı hipotezleri test etmemize olanak sağlayan güncel metodolojiler kullanan çalışmamızda, göç ve doğurganlık davranışlarını açıklamada kullanılan beş hipotezin, farklı kadın grupları için etkili oldukları görülmüştür.
... For immigrants, a German degree, high language skills, and better social networks facilitate the job search and are associated with increased employment probabilities (Kanas et al., 2011;Kogan et al., 2011;Lancee, 2012). Above that, labor market regulations, such as transferability of qualifications and working permissions, affect the transition to work (Kogan, 2011). ...
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Even though there is an increasing number of degree-mobile students in Europe, not much is known about the effect of student employment on academic performance and study progress for international students. International students broadly engage in student employment during their studies. They differ in several characteristics from native students (e.g., by financial situation, language skills, and time spent on studying) and are a heterogeneous group (e.g., by country of origin, educational background, and intention to remain in the destination country). This study explores whether student employment and different dimensions of employment (e.g., study-related employment, employment amounts) affect the semester grade point average and the share of achieved credit points per semester. Using the first four semesters of a longitudinal study of international students in Germany and hybrid panel models (n = 1625), the study shows that students with a higher study-related employment tendency across semesters have, on average, better semester grades. When estimating the within-student effect, it is demonstrated that changes to student employment and different employment dimensions do not change the semester grades. In contrast, starting employment or increases in employment amounts (e.g., more hours per week) decreases the share of achieved credit points per semester. However, only specific student groups (e.g., students studying mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering) experience a delay in their study progress due to higher employment intensities.
... Differences in educational qualifications are often put forward as an important explanation for this. Studies find that native-migrant labour market inequalities are partly due to the fact that the educational level of immigrants is generally lower than that of the native majority (Granato and Kalter, 2001;Waters and Jiménez, 2005;Heath, Rothon and Kilpi, 2008;Kogan, 2011;Luthra, 2013). Moreover, migrants have often received their educational qualifications in a foreign country, and therefore tend to possess less country-specific job skills; or employers assume this to be the case (Friedberg, 2000;Lancee and Bol, 2017;Tibajev and Hellgren, 2019). ...
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Recent research suggests that people with more occupation-specific qualifications (i.e. qualifications that link to a smaller set of occupations) experience greater benefits in the labour market. Based on human capital, signalling and credentialing theory, we argue that these benefits may vary between the native majority population, individuals with a migration background who hold a foreign qualification, and individuals with a migration background with a domestic qualification. Using data from the German Microcensus, we find that for both the native majority and immigrants with a domestic qualification, holding a more occupation-specific qualification relates to a higher chance of working in a position the individual is educated for in terms of both level and field. Holding a more occupation-specific qualification also relates to higher labour market returns (i.e. income and occupational status) for those who work in a job for which they are educated, yet is mostly negatively related to the labour market returns for those who do not work in a job for which they are educated. Migrants with a foreign qualification profit less from holding occupation-specific qualifications and suffer more from their associated disadvantages.
... In Germany, migrants tend to have a lower socioeconomic position [ex. (72)] and thus part of the variation in health literacy is due to socioeconomic disadvantages. Interventions need to focus on socioeconomically disadvantaged groups and create measures to make information more accessible, understandable and applicable for persons with poor education, financial deprivation and low social status. ...
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Background Health literacy (HL) is considered to be an important precondition for health. HL research often identifies migrants as vulnerable for low HL. However, in-depth data on HL among migrants especially in its domains of health care, disease prevention and health promotion and its determinants are still scarce. Objective The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the current status of HL among migrants and their descendants from Turkey and from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany and factors associated with it. This has not been studied using large-scale data and bilingual interviews. We differentiate between dimensions of HL, namely the domains of health care, disease prevention and health promotion which goes beyond many previous studies. In addition, we explore new mechanisms by testing the explanatory power of self-efficacy and interethnic contacts for migrants' HL. Methods The study includes 825 first- and second-generation adult migrants from two of the largest immigration groups in Germany, from Turkey and FSU, who were interviewed face-to-face in German, Turkish or Russian in late summer 2020. HL was measured using the HLS 19 -Q47 instrument. Age, gender, educational level, social status and financial deprivation, chronic illness, health-related literacy skills, self-efficacy, interethnic contacts, migration generation, duration of stay and region of origin were considered as possible determinants. Ordinary least square regressions were estimated. Results The average general HL score was 65.5. HL in health promotion and disease prevention was lower than in health care. Low financial deprivation, health-related literacy skills, and self-efficacy were positively correlated with each HL domain. Educational level, social status, age, gender, duration of stay and interethnic contacts were positively correlated with HL in some domains. Region of origin was only correlated with the domain of disease prevention until interethnic contact was accounted for. Conclusion Our study contributes to the existing knowledge by analyzing different domains of HL and testing its correlations with self-efficacy and interethnic contact among migrants. We reveal that migrants cannot generally be considered as vulnerable for low HL, as oftentimes outlined. There is a need for interventions e.g. to enhance the understanding of health information among subgroups with lower HL.
... These are German minorities in the former Soviet Union (FSU) or Eastern Europe, especially Poland, who were able to resettle in Germany due to special regulations. Despite their comparatively high level of education, this group also must contend with problems in the education system and the labor market (Haberfeld et al., 2011;Kogan, 2011). ...
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We illuminate the socio‐cultural embeddedness of adolescents to explain gender‐typical occupational orientations (GTOO) from an intersectional perspective. We investigate whether and why immigrant and native youths differ in their GTOO. These issues are of practical and political importance, as deviations from the norm of the autochthonous majority society can drive change in the gender segregation of the labor market on the one hand but can also lead to difficulties in accessing training and work on the other. We use cross‐sectional data on ninth‐graders from the German National Educational Panel Study, which allows us to analyze distinct dimensions of GTOO, i.e., expectations and aspirations. The results of step‐wise multilevel models show that (a) differences in GTOO between immigrant and native youths apply to certain countries of origin—particularly females from Turkey, the country with the strongest contrast to the German context in terms of gender‐related labor market characteristics, differ in their aspirations from native females—and (b) differences between immigrant and native German expectations shrink with immigrant generation and after controlling for aspirations. This indicates that assimilation processes involving socialization‐related adaptation to the host society play a greater role than an increase in information about its labor market.
... Attracting international students and retaining them once they complete their degrees is considered an important gateway to increase the number of needed highly skilled workers (Bertoli et al., 2012;Beine et al., 2014) as well as to maintain domestic institutions' competitiveness and help to offset some of the effects of demographic decline in developed nations (Hawthorne, 2008). Student migrants are expected to experience a positive selection even though their utility maximisation should be primarily addressed towards skills' accumulation and then to long-term labour market success (Kogan, 2011). 2 ...
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Understanding the type of immigration flow that maximises the expected economic benefits in the destination countries is one of the main debated topics both in the economic literature and in policy agendas worldwide. In recent years, governments have developed regulations of migration flows by adopting some form of selective immigration policy based on either human capital criteria or skill needs. Admission policies in the destination countries are likely to affect the direction and magnitude of selection as well as the socio-economic performance of immigrants. However, the relationship between quality-selective policy and immigrants’ skill composition remains largely unexplored. This paper aims to survey the existing literature on how selective-immigration policies shape the characteristics of immigrants from the receiving-country perspective. First, it introduces the main route of admissions and the theoretical models to understand how the direction of selection works; second, it discusses the theoretical models; third, it reviews the empirical works. A final concluding section briefly points out the actual findings and future avenues of work.
... Research conducted in Belgium (Vertommen & Martens, 2006) highlighted differences between groups of different origins, arguing for an "ethno-stratified" labour market, divided into different ethnic layers, where people of different origins are more or less represented in better or worse professions. Other studies have found that migrants coming from Western countries are generally better integrated in the labour market than other migrants (Brodmann & Polavieja, 2010;Kogan, 2011). ...
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This article examines the socio-occupational integration of the immigrant population in Spain for a time span that, for the first time, includes the post-crisis period. Using the Spanish Labour Force Survey and conducting a socio-occupational analysis, we predict the probability that a migrant would be employed in one socio-occupational class over another in three periods: before, during and after the crisis. Our main research questions are as follows: (1) To what extent do migrants tend to be located in certain socio-occupational classes? (2) To what extent does the likelihood of belonging to a certain socio-occupational class differ according to immigrants’ places of origin? (3) Can differences be found in the likelihood of belonging to a certain socio-occupational class according to the places of origin before, during and after the Great Recession? The results show a very unequal distribution of immigrants in the socio-occupational structure according to their origin. While immigrants from Schengen Europe and North America are better located in the occupational structure, those from Eastern Europe and Africa are over-represented in the lower socio-occupational classes.
... Kurama göre azınlık, göçmen veya mülteci grupla yapılan temas, çoğunluk grupta azınlığa karşı var olan önyargıları kıracak ve bu gruba karşı olan olumsuz görüşler törpülenecektir (Pettigrew ve Tropp, 2008). Ancak bahsi geçen grubun büyüklüğü, daha önemlisi yaşanılan yerdeki nüfusa oranı yani nispi büyüklüğü önemlidir (Kogan, 2011 (Quillian, 1995;Legewie, 2013 The present study focuses on these previously underexamined questions. Using data from a nationally representative survey conducted by KONDA Research and Consultancy as well as administrative data, this study is the first one to directly test the intergroup contact and group threat theories in the context of Syrians in Turkey. ...
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Taylan ACAR 2 ÖZ Türkiye toplumunun Suriyeli sığınmacılara karşı tutumlarını etkileyen faktörler nelerdir? Elinizdeki çalışma Türkiye'de çok sık sorulan ancak akademik yazında çok az araştırılan bu soruya odaklanmaktadır. KONDA Araştırma ve Danışmanlık tarafından gerçekleştirilen ve ulusal çapta temsil kabiliyeti olan Suriyelilere karşı yaklaşımlar araştırmasının verilerini çevresel faktörlerle birleştirerek kullanan çalışma, Türkiye bağlamında gruplar arası temas ve grup tehdidi kuramlarını ilk kez doğrudan test etmektedir. Çalışmanın bulgularına göre, Suriye sınırına yakın olan illerde Suriyelilere karşı olumsuz yaklaşımlar ülke ortalamasının üzerindedir. Ayrıca, temas kuramının varsayımlarına uygun olarak günlük hayatında Suriyelilerle daha sık karşılaşan katılımcılarda olumsuz yaklaşımlar azalma eğilimi göstermektedir. Ancak bu azalma Suriyeli nüfusun il nüfusunun küçük bir kısmını temsil ettiği durumlarda geçerlidir. İl düzeyindeki Suriyeli nüfusun toplam nüfusun %10'unun üzerinde olduğu durumlarda daha sık temas tam tersi etki yaparak, olumsuz yaklaşımları artırmaktadır. Grup tehdidi kuramının açıklayıcılığı ise sınırlıdır. Kuram, sadece hem Suriyeli nüfusun yüksek olduğu hem de işsizlik oranının yüksek olduğu Hatay ve Şanlıurfa gibi illerdeki yaklaşımlar için açıklayıcı olmaktadır. Son olarak, siyasi parti tercihi ile yaklaşımlar arasındaki ilişkinin de katılımcıların ekonomik kriz beklentisine bağlı olduğu görülmüştür. Anahtar Kelimeler: Suriyeli sığınmacılar, mültecilere dönük yaklaşımlar, gruplar arası temas kuramı, grup tehdidi kuramı, göç çalışmaları, Türkiye.
... Therefore, it was sometimes assumed that they were negatively selected in terms of their human capital (e.g. Dronkers and de Heus, 2010;Kogan 2011). ...
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This article depicts the selectivity profiles of first-generation immigrants of multiple origins in 18 European destinations and investigates whether educational selectivity is relevant to their labour market performance. The theoretical account starts from the premise that the relative position individuals occupy in the educational distribution of their origin country represents—frequently unmeasured—characteristics such as motivation, skills, and resources, which matter for immigrants’ incorporation into the labour market in their destination countries. The empirical analyses are based on data from the European Social Survey for the destination countries, and from the Barro–Lee Educational Attainment Dataset for the origin countries. The findings reveal that immigrants are mostly positively selected with regard to their educational attainment. At the same time, they point to considerable variation in the degree of selectivity across migrants from different regions of the world, as well as across different destinations. Results of linear multilevel regression models of occupational status indicate that over and above the absolute level of educational attainment, first-generation immigrants profit from a favourable position in the educational distribution of their origin country. Conversely, there are indications that selectivity is negatively associated with the likelihood of being employed.
... Kurama göre azınlık, göçmen veya mülteci grupla yapılan temas, çoğunluk grupta azınlığa karşı var olan önyargıları kıracak ve bu gruba karşı olan olumsuz görüşler törpülenecektir (Pettigrew ve Tropp, 2008). Ancak bahsi geçen grubun büyüklüğü, daha önemlisi yaşanılan yerdeki nüfusa oranı yani nispi büyüklüğü önemlidir (Kogan, 2011 (Quillian, 1995;Legewie, 2013 The present study focuses on these previously underexamined questions. Using data from a nationally representative survey conducted by KONDA Research and Consultancy as well as administrative data, this study is the first one to directly test the intergroup contact and group threat theories in the context of Syrians in Turkey. ...
... However, as suggested by some academic reports, it is not yet clear how successful the Government of Germany has carried out its implementations. 7 Some of the challenging areas cited to cause slow-down of the implementation process are: interculturality of the information base; education in educational institutions; education of adults. Therefore, it is the obligation of the national health plan to iron out these problems in order to create a more intensive and comprehensive integration into the health system. ...
Article
It is not a new topic for Germany in receiving immigrants from various nations. However, it is thought-provoking how German integration policy is criticized to be exclusionist based on its immigration policies. 1 In Germany, efforts to integrate the current demand and needs of the migrant population into the healthcare system have proved uncoordinated and scattered as much as diversity in policy is slowly under the implementation process. Frequently, immigrants are not facing any complicated legal restrictions but it is reported that they experience extremely challenging access with barriers resulting in the worst results trying to utilize healthcare services. 2 Equal access to health care services is a crucial aspect of Germany's national health policy. Factors contributing to access barriers to healthcare are said to be: cultural differences; education; political issues; the absence of complementary voluntary health insurance. Therefore, this paper will explore the migrants’ health and barriers to healthcare access in Germany
... Comparative studies about different European countries have shown that immigrants have relatively high employment rates but are mostly concentrated in unskilled and low paid jobs (Bernardi et al., 2011;Causa & Jean, 2007). Kogan (2011), for Germany, finds that the gaps in labour market outcomes between natives and immigrants become larger as the level of education increases. The author finds that, for both men and women, more educated immigrants (especially those coming from outside the EU) are more likely than comparable natives to be employed in unskilled sectors. ...
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The aim of this paper is to explore the intergenerational transmission of female labor force participation from mothers to children. Using data collected by the European Social Survey from 2002 to 2018 (N = 118,219), we analyse four different samples of native and immigrant women and men in order to assess the relationship between working mothers and their daughters and sons' wives participation to the labour market. For both native and immigrant women, having had their mothers employed when the respondents were 14 was associated with higher probability they were employed at the time of survey. Similarly, for both native and immigrant men, having had their mothers employed when the respondents were 14 was associated with higher probability their wives were employed at the time of the survey. We concentrate our attention on the role of religion. We find that religiosity is negatively related to the participation of women in the labour market, with differences between those who had a working mother and those who had not. Results of some augmented models indicate that the intergenerational transmission of female labor force participation varies according to religious affiliation.
... Similar concerns of discrimination are reported for statistical profiling of the unemployed (Allhutter et al., 2020;Desiere and Struyven, 2021). Because women and individuals with a migration background are disproportionately affected by unemployment and have lower job prospects (e.g., Arntz and Wilke, 2009;Azmat et al., 2006;Jacob and Kleinert, 2014;Kogan, 2011), a statistical prediction model will quickly pick up and incorporate such associations in its predictions. Moreover, even if such characteristics are not explicitly used for training a profiling system, as in the COMPAS example above, predictions could nonetheless be affected. ...
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Algorithmic profiling is increasingly used in the public sector as a means to allocate limited public resources effectively and objectively. One example is the prediction-based statistical profiling of job seekers to guide the allocation of support measures by public employment services. However, empirical evaluations of potential side-effects such as unintended discrimination and fairness concerns are rare. In this study, we compare and evaluate statistical models for predicting job seekers' risk of becoming long-term unemployed with respect to prediction performance, fairness metrics, and vulnerabilities to data analysis decisions. Focusing on Germany as a use case, we evaluate profiling models under realistic conditions by utilizing administrative data on job seekers' employment histories that are routinely collected by German public employment services. Besides showing that these data can be used to predict long-term unemployment with competitive levels of accuracy, we highlight that different classification policies have very different fairness implications. We therefore call for rigorous auditing processes before such models are put to practice.
... Other more recent waves of migration largely originate in Europe as a result of free movements within the European Union, primarily from east to west (Van Mol & de Valk, 2016). The return migration of ethnic German diaspora mainly from Poland and the former Soviet Union (Kogan, 2011) is yet another within-European migration phenomenon, which is specific to Germany. More recent migration from Asian countries has been steady but small in number, with most immigrants coming for the sake of employment, studies or marriage. ...
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This study examines whether ethnic minorities in general and Asian minorities in particular have perceived an increase in discrimination during the COVID-19 pandemic, a phenomenon known as COVID-19–associated discrimination (CAD). Drawing on the CILS4COVID data, which were collected among 3,517 individuals in the initial phase of the pandemic (mainly between April and June 2020), we demonstrate that especially Asian minorities (n = 80) report instances of CAD. Furthermore, CAD is reported more by Asian respondents residing in administrative districts that have been particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, i.e. that had high seven-day COVID-19 incidence rates. Higher levels of perceived CAD are also reported by respondents originating from the Americas (n = 61) and the former Soviet Union (n = 197), but only in administrative districts with high incidence rates. We conclude that CAD reported by these groups is likely due to these groups being perceived to pose a higher threat of infection transmission. CAD reported by Asian-origin respondents is not entirely due to the actual threat posed by COVID-19, but rather to a mix of perceived threat, overt discrimination and the attribution of various negative experiences suffered since the outbreak of the pandemic to CAD.
... In der gleichen Richtung führten Kogan (2007, Ch. 2), Kogan (2011), Borjas et al. (1991 Studien zur Integration von Migranten aus verschiedenen Herkunftsländern in den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt durch. In ihren Studien werden die zwei Einwanderungswellen in Deutschland analysiert. ...
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Mit einem sinkenden Anteil der jungen Bevölkerung und einem wachsenden Fachkräf- temangel in der Wirtschaft benötigt Deutschland junge und qualifizierte Migranten, die dazu in der Lage sind, sich in den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt zu integrieren und aktiv die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung mitzugestalten. Um Alternativen anzubieten und eine er- folgreiche Migrationspolitik zu gestalten, ist es notwendig zu wissen, welche Barrieren die Integration von Migranten in den Arbeitsmarkt einschränken. In diesem Beitrag wurde eine kleine Gruppe von hochqualifizierten Migranten aus den nördlichen Süd- amerikastaaten ausgewählt, die Erfahrungen mit der Arbeitssuche in Deutschland ge- macht haben und von den zentralen Hindernissen berichten können, mit denen sie sich während des Integrationsprozesses konfrontiert sahen. Dank der angewandten qualitativen Methodik zeigen die Ergebnisse, dass eines der zentralen Hindernisse für die Integration von Neuzuwanderern die Anerkennung von ausländischen Bil- dungsabschlüssen ist. Darüber hinaus wurde deutlich, dass Faktoren wie eine feh- lende deutsche Berufsausbildung oder die mangelnde Erfahrung auf dem deutschen Arbeitsmarkt zu starken Integrationsbarrieren für Zuwanderer aus Lateinamerika wer- den können.
... Much literature analyses migrants' labour market outcomes in terms of employment and remunerations (Adsera and Chiswick 2007;Chiswick 1978;Buzdugan and Halli 2009;Kogan 2011). These studies explore the implications of migration for individual human capital (Sjaastad 1962). ...
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This chapter investigates individual wage changes of German emigrants. The analytical strategy is twofold. First, we compare hourly wage changes among emigrants with wage changes among stayers. We estimate the Difference-in-Difference of mean net hourly wages between stayers and emigrants over time and account for the positive selection of emigrants on observable characteristics through entropy balancing. Second, we explore the heterogeneity of wage changes among emigrants. To that end, we calculate linear regressions on the log net hourly wage change through migration. The first analysis suggests substantial wage increases of 8 euros through migration. The second analysis provides evidence that characteristics of employment and of destination countries account for differences in the wage change among emigrants. Among individual characteristics, only age is negatively correlated, while education and gender do not account for differences. Our analysis rely on the first wave of the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study. The German Socio-Economic Panel Study yields our reference population of stayers.
... This can be the result of discrimination in the labour market (e.g., Kogan, 2011;Ley & Hiebert, 2001; see Schmaus, 2020 for discrimination related to proficiency in the majority language), and may restrict their children's access to, for example, books due to lower family income. ...
Article
Academic language proficiency (ALP) is supposed to contribute to success across school subjects and to be a hurdle for students, in particular for those from families with a migration background. The present study investigated the effects of language use (i.e., use of the majority and/or a minority language) at home and at free time as well as of families’ socioeconomic status (SES) on ALP. We used quantile regression and OLS regression approaches to examine the joint contributions of these factors for three facets of ALP in German primary school students with a migration background (N = 1,629). Results underline the role of SES across the whole distribution of the three ALP facets, whereas the role of majority language use differed between the three facets. Furthermore, interaction effects between SES and majority language use at home were observed mainly at high quantiles showing that the positive effect of using the majority language at home increases with higher SES particularly in students with higher ALP. The results are discussed in light of theoretical approaches on the role of SES and language use for ALP of students with a migration background.
... Integration of newcomers into receiving societies is key to research to date (Kogan, 2011, Anthias et al., 2012Aretxabala and Gorodetska, 2012;Rodríguez-Planas and Nollenberger, 2014;Panagiotidis, 2017a;Ryan, 2018). Although it yielded criticism for heating securitization discussion and strengthening the division between natives and strangers (Anthias et al., 2012), its insights have been unevenly implemented in policy measures of European countries with growing proportions of immigrants (Lesińska, 2017). ...
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This study deals with meanings of economic insecurity for post-Soviet migrant women in Germany, Italy, and Spain, elaborating on its cultural underpinnings. Drawing upon several data sources, including interviews, observation, and online data, as well as judicial material, this study addresses the ways women from the former Soviet Union experience economic insecurity and which strategies they develop to cope. We consider women's age, social background, and level of education, analyzing their embeddedness into different life domains. We identify four patterns of coping with economic insecurity, linked to individual characteristics, cultural values and legal frame conditions in the countries under investigation, and provide implications for social mobility and conservative backlash in Europe.
... These guest-workers arrived from economically weak areas, had little education and were mainly employed in occupations with low levels of educational requirements. The second wave after 1990 was characterised by immigrants from Eastern Europe, Africa and the Middle East, who had higher levels of human capital than the typical guest-workers during the first wave (Kogan, 2011;Seifert, 2012). For a comprehensive overview of the policy framework for asylum and migration in Germany, please see Schneider (2012). ...
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If a person is overqualified in the sense that an employee’s level of training exceeds the job requirements, then some human capital lies idle and cannot be converted into appropriate (monetary and non-monetary) returns. Migrants are particularly at risk of being overqualified in their employment; however, this phenomenon cannot be fully explained by differences in human capital or socio-economic characteristics. This paper examines whether social capital plays a decisive role in migrants’ risk of overqualification in Germany. Using data from the German IAB-SOEP Migration Sample, we analyse the job search process of migrants to determine whether social networks influence their risk of being employed below their acquired educational level. We estimate logistic regression models and find that social capital influences the adequacy of migrants’ jobs: We show that migrants are at a greater risk of overqualification if they use only informal job search strategies such as relying on friends or family members. Moreover, we find that homophilous migrant networks and jobs in employment niches are risk factors for overqualification. We conclude that the combination of informal job search modes and homophilous migrant networks leads to a comparably high risk for migrants of being overqualified in their employment in the German labour market.
... European Union (Van Mol & de Valk 2016;Geis 2017). The growing influx of migrants from the EU, and from Central and Eastern Europe in particular, has also contributed to an increase in the share of skilled female migrants (Kogan 2010). For third-country nationals, the routes for entering Germany have always been much more limited, although the migration options for highly qualified migrants have gradually changed. ...
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Objective: We analyse the employment patterns of childless first-generation migrants to Germany. In particular, we focus on the behaviour of female "marriage migrants". Marriage migrants are defined as individuals who married after their spouse had moved to Germany. Background: Demographic studies have illustrated that marriage migrants have particularly high childbirth rates upon arrival. There is, however, little empirical evidence on how the childbearing behaviour of migrant women is related to their employment behaviour. Method: We use event history techniques to study women's labour market entry after migration in relation to their childbearing behaviour. We draw on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). The analytical sample is restricted to immigrant women who moved while childless to Germany between 1990 and 2016 (n=981). Results: Compared to other groups, marriage migrants have very low chances of entering the labour market. Only 32 per cent of the migrants in our sample had ever participated in the labour market in the five-year period after their arrival in Germany. A large share of the differences between these migrants and other migrants can be attributed to the socio-demographic composition of these women, and to their tendency to transition to parenthood soon after their arrival. Conclusion: We argue that the low employment rates of female marriage migrants must also be viewed in the context of Germany’s migration policies, which do not provide many routes for female third-country nationals to move to Germany. One of the few available channels is that of marriage migration. We conclude by discussing the social policy implications of these findings at a time when Germany is gradually becoming a dual-earner society.
... Moreover, non-participation may potentially influence the results because, in particular, the participation rate of foreign women is lower than for native women. Specific ethnic groups, such as the Turks, mainly drive the difference (see Kogan 2011). Thus, there might be a tendency to underestimate the degree of segregation in regions marked by a high share of migrants. ...
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This paper investigates how important measurement issues such as the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP), random unevenness and spatial autocorrelation affect cross-sectional studies of ethnic segregation. We use geocoded data for German cities to investigate the impact of these measurement problems on the average level of segregation and on the ranking of cities. The findings on the average level of residential segregation turn out to be rather robust. The ranking of cities is, however, sensitive to the assumptions regarding reallocation of population across neighbourhoods that the use of different segregation measures involves. Moreover, the results suggest that standard aspatial approaches tend to underrate the degree of segregation because they ignore the spatial clustering of ethnic groups. In contrast, non-consideration of random unevenness gives rise to a moderate upward bias of the mean segregation level and involves minor changes in the ranking of cities if the minority group is large. However, the importance of random segregation significantly increases as the size of the minority group declines. If the size of specific ethnic groups differs across regions, this may also affect the ranking of regions. Thus, the necessity to properly account for measurement issues increases as segregation analyses become more detailed and consider specific (small) minority groups.
Chapter
Tertiary education is a restricted resource, with only 34 per cent of the world’s young people estimated to have access to universities (UNHCR 2016). Among refugees, this figure drops to 1 per cent, and many have been interrupted in their academic development. The high visibility of the so-called ‘refugee crisis’ in Europe has pushed governments to work towards the integration of these people, with Italy the country in the European Union (EU) with the highest numbers of such arrivals (UNHCR 2017). This study identifies a series of measures adopted by Italian academic institutions and government—central and regional—to integrate refugees into the country’s higher education system. In this chapter, we will analyse the challenges refugees face in accessing tertiary education, and from this analysis, identify possible areas for improvement to enable students to make the most of their potential.
Chapter
This introductory chapter begins by pointing out the curious oversight of the research and books discussing migration to Australia from Eastern Europe. The chapter starts with a short historical overview of the Eastern European migration to Australia since 1947, when Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics shows that Eastern Europeans comprised 37% of all arrivals to Australia, making them the most numerous immigrant group of non-British descent. It notes the dramatic increase in migration of Eastern European migrants to Australia since the 2000s, highlighting the new forms and paths of migrants from Ukraine, Hungary and the Czech Republic associated with the regime crises and political/economic turbulence in these sending states. The chapter concludes by explaining the conceptual model and methodology behind this book. Ultimately, this chapter sets up the background for the insights into the diversities and complexities of the reasons and employment outcomes of this new wave of Eastern European migration to Australia that come to light in the following chapters.
Article
Starting from the empirical evidence that minorities are more likely to work on flexible contracts, we investigated the existence of an ethnic gap in flexible contracts between the native Dutch population and sub‐Saharan African immigrants between 2006 and 2012. The migrant group is taken as a test case of ‘outsiders’. This study found, quite surprisingly and contrary to what several theories predict, that the expected ethnic gap in job status between the two groups disappeared in the 6 years between 2006 and 2012. Many sub‐Saharan Africans successfully transformed their flexible contracts into permanent ones, catching up with the native Dutch by 2012. The analysis of the statutory provisions showed that the workforce numerical composition in the cleaning industry was important for the inclusiveness of sub‐Saharan immigrants. This numerical compositional effect was facilitated by the collective agreements negotiated by trade unions, agreements that were extended to temp workers. Sub‐Saharan Africans, overrepresented in the cleaning industry, have benefited disproportionally from the settled agreements. We thus conclude that trade unions can improve the inclusion of migrants not only by explicitly focusing on migrant representation but also by targeting sectors with an overrepresentation of migrants.
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The interplay of migrants’ minority and majority identity is an important indicator for social climate, interethnic dialogue and migrant well-being. However, ethnic identity is often studied one-dimensionally, either focussing on minority or majority identity. Migrants’ social status takes a crucial role in conveying such a one-dimensional perspective. Status is often expected to promote mutual exclusiveness of identities, i.e. relating negatively to minority identity and positively to majority identity. But empirical evidence suggests that across and within migrant generations, the relationship between status and ethnic identity is more complex. This book explores possible conditions that contribute to this increased complexity. It takes a bidimensional and intergenerational perspective on ethnic identity, aiming to improve our understanding of how it relates to status. Starting from a general theoretical model, status and ethnic identity are studied with respect to migrant visibility, status mismatch and exposure time. Analysing German survey data of 25 to 65 year old first- and second-generation migrants (N = 2,094), the book reveals that status is not necessarily associated with assimilated identity but positively related to majority identity in both generations. The findings further indicate support for the so-called “integration paradox”: High-status migrants whose migration background is more visible and migrants with high education and comparably low job positions (status mismatch) show weaker majority identity than non-mismatched and less visible high-status migrants. Also, visible high-status and mismatched-status migrants show weaker minority identity. Compared to status, however, the duration of living in the receiving society is more important for ethnic identity. Overall, the results indicate an assimilation trend that tends to be faster for higher-status migrants in the first, but not the second generation. Nevertheless, there are signs of longer-term status effects, particularly regarding migrants with comparably weak ethnic identity. Importantly, this migrant group distributes across status levels, encouraging further research.
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Extending free movement of workers (FMW) to the new Member States from Central and Eastern Europe was one of the most controversial political decisions in the history of the European Union. In this article, we study how the introduction of FMW affected immigrants’ labor market integration in Germany. Using data from the IAB-SOEP Migration Sample,1 we show that the introduction of FMW was associated with a higher influx of skilled workers. Moreover, FMW has increased the probability of labor market entry within one year after arrival by 12 percentage points. Correspondingly, FMW improved welfare not only by increasing the scale of migration but also by raising immigrants’ skill level and reducing the time before entry into the labor market. Our findings thus yield new insights on the beneficial effects of FMW on labor market integration of immigrants in the Common Market.
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This paper compares within-country programmes of initial vocational education and training (IVET) in Austria, the Czech Republic and Germany and their outcomes. Specifically, it aims to analyse and compare the labour market success of graduates of different tracks at the ISCED 3 level in both early and later stages of their careers. The comparison is based on the analysis of PIAAC 2013 OECD study data. A composite multidimensional indicator was constructed to measure labour market success and subsequently used as a dependent variable in regression models. The results indicate that in the systems with dual IVET at the ISCED 3 level (Germany and Austria), graduates are indeed more successful at the labour market than their counterparts with other ISCED 3 tracks. However, their advantage diminishes in later stages of the career. Additionally, in Austria, the success of dual education young graduates is mediated by individual characteristics. In the system with only school-based IVET (the Czech Republic), this track does not guarantee substantively higher labour market success for young graduates compared to other ISCED 3 tracks and also to those with lower education. Czech apprentices in the later stages of career succeed even less than those with below ISCED 3 education.
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The present study aims at comparing physical and mental health outcomes of different migrant groups and the native German population, testing for the presence of a healthy migrant effect (HME) and its potential differences between groups. The HME is marked by an observed health advantage for migrants compared to the host population, which declines with increasing years since migration. Macroeconomic, institutional and cultural differences of sending countries or regions define the pre-migration and the host country situation differently for European, Non-European and internal migrants. These conditions are assumed to have an impact on initial health differences as well as on health differences after longer exposure to the host country. Using cross-sectional data from the 2016 wave of the German Socioeconomic Panel, physical and mental health outcomes (generated from the SF-12) are compared between recent international and internal migration groups (≤10 years since migration), non-recent international and internal migration groups (>10 years since migration) and the native German-born population without migration experience. Propensity score matching analyses reveal the presence of a HME for both European and Non-European migrants and for internal migrants. This effect differs on the outcome measure and the native comparison group.
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Deutschland hat sich in den vergangenen Jahren zu einem der weltweit wichtigsten Einwanderungsländer entwickelt und die kulturelle Vielfalt prägt mehr denn je die bundesdeutsche Gesellschaft. Diese steigende Diversität spiegelt sich bisher nur in geringem Maße in den öffentlichen Organisationen, insbesondere der öffentlichen Verwaltung. Der Beitrag gibt eine Übersicht über den Forschungsstand zur interkulturellen Öffnung der öffentlichen Verwaltung in Deutschland. Darauf aufbauend präsentiert er zwei grundlegende theoretische Forschungsperspektiven zur Untersuchung des Umgangs der Behörden und Einrichtungen des öffentlichen Dienstes mit kultureller Diversität. Eine erste, die sich mit sozialen Ungleichheiten in Organisationen auseinandersetzt und eine zweite, welche Konsequenzen eines kulturell vielfältigen Personals für die Leistungsfähigkeit der Organisationen und die Einstellungen der Beschäftigten in den Mittelpunkt stellt. Ausgehend von diesen beiden Forschungsperspektiven leitet der Beitrag die wesentlichen Forschungsfragen und die Struktur dieses Buches ab.
Article
The industrial restructuring in China has led to constant adjustments in employment. Migrant workers play an important role in the labor market, and the relationship between migrant employment and industrial evolution is worthy of attention. Previous studies have revealed the negative impact of industrial restructuring on the employment of migrant workers, but few studies have paid attention to the employment choice of migrant workers under the background of industrial evolution, and how these choices affect their lives. Based on data from Beijing, this study empirically finds that, compared with the control group, migrant workers are more likely to work in industries in which the proportion of value-added in GDP continues to decline. After controlling individual characteristics, the wage level, social integration, and settlement intention of migrant workers employed in declining industries are significantly lower than those in non-declining industries. This paper contributes to the literature on understanding the integration and stability of migrant workers from the perspective of industry choice. The findings provide insights for improving the employability of migrant workers and their adaptability to China's industrial restructuring as well as for promoting the process of migrant citizenization.
Article
We investigate ‘employment incongruity’ among skilled migrants from Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries – that is, whether the jobs they achieve in Australia match the jobs they expect to be doing after they arrive or not – along with the factors that shape outcomes and the gendered dimensions of these outcomes. We analyse data collected from qualitative interviews with 15 females and eight male skilled MENA migrants, a median of seven years after arrival and apply an intersectionality lens and consider influences at the macro, meso and micro level that affect the power of female MENA migrants and shape their employment outcomes. We identify that what appears to shape employment incongruity are: organisational practices regarding recognition of overseas qualifications and demands for ‘local experience’; norms supporting discriminatory behaviour; the difficulties skilled MENA migrants have with accessing networks; and intra-family cultural norms. These findings are significant for current and future skilled MENA migrants, with the employment outcomes of most of the participants in this study revealing a mismatch between government immigration policies and organisational practices.
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As a result of an initiative by the European Statistical Office as part of its Statistical Harmonisation Programme, a prototype of a common European Socio-economic Classification (ESeC) has been created. ESeC is a categorical social class schema based on the concept of employment relations. The paper explains the conceptual basis of ESeC, describes the categories of the classification and how they may be collapsed for analytic purposes, as well as indicating how it is operationalised. The operational variants of ESeC, depending on the data available for its construction, are also discussed. In the second part of the paper some key findings of comparative analyses which use ESeC to examine issues relating to unemployment, education, poverty, deprivation and health across the EU are summarised. These analyses demonstrate the potential of ESeC as a major advance for an improved understanding of the patterns of European social inequalities. As such, this new classification should be of vital importance to both academic and policy researchers.
Article
When immigrants arrive in a new country, they are confronted with new labour market requirements such as language proficiency, familiarity with job search procedures and work practices which they are not always able to satisfy. These obstacles affect not only new immigrants, but, surprisingly, their children too, even if the children are born and educated in the receiving country. This publication presents reviews of the labour market integration of immigrants and their children in four OECD countries (Australia, Denmark, Germany and Sweden), and provides country-specific recommendations. Governments have a role to play in promoting language and vocational training, and encouraging diversity in the workplace. Immigrants themselves must accept the requirements of the host country employers. The viability of future migration policies, in particular greater recourse to immigration, will depend to a large extent on how successful OECD countries and immigrants are in achieving these objectives.
Article
This essay traces the development of the research enterprise, known as the social resources theory, which formulated and tested a number of propositions concerning the relationships between embedded resources in social networks and socioeconomic attainment. This enterprise, seen in the light of social capital, has accumulated a substantial body of research literature and supported the proposition that social capital, in terms of both access and mobilization of embedded resources, enhances the chances of attaining better statuses. Further, social capital is contingent on initial positions in the social hierarchies as well as on extensity of social ties. The essay concludes with a discussion of remaining critical issues and future research directions for this research enterprise.
Article
This paper explores the unemployment dynamics of various immigrant groups in Germany. Several different groups are compared against the native-born population: guest workers, ethnic Germans, immigrants from the ED-15 or other western industrialized countries, non-EU immigrants and finally second-generation immigrants. Event history techniques are applied to German Socio-Economic Panel data from the second half of the 1990s. The analyses underscore the importance of human capital and labour market segmentation in the employment exclusion of immigrant populations. The study contends that the higher risk of unemployment among guest worker immigrants, more recent newcomers from outside the EU and ethnic Germans is only partially related to their inferior human capital characteristics. In fact it appears largely due to their unfavourable labour market allocation, i.e. their over-representation in occupations and economic branches particularly vulnerable during economic slowdown and restructuring. The analyses also show that unemployed immigrants, with the exception of those coming recently from ED-15 countries and second-generation immigrants, retain their outsider status even if successful in finding employment, being largely channelled into the unskilled labour market. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Article
This study examines immigrants’ employment careers and their (dis)similarity with careers of the native-born in West Germany. Applying the sequence analysis technique, the study shows that ethnic Germans born abroad and immigrants from EU-15 countries experience employment patterns more similar to those of native-born Germans than do other immigrant groups. The career paths of labor migrants from Turkey remain extremely dissimilar to those of Germans, even when differences in the age structure and the educational level are taken into account. Long and frequent unemployment are among the factors contributing to this dissimilarity. Immigrants, particularly Turks, are not only more likely to be long-term unemployed, they are also pushed into unskilled occupations. The second-generation immigrants, although displaying the strongest degree of similarity to the employment career patterns of native-born Germans, do not fully catch up with the socio-demographically comparable native-born when it comes to occupational assimilation.
Article
This study investigates whether the life circumstances of immigrants and natives in Germany have converged in recent decades. To answer this question adequately, the fact that Germany experienced demographic change and educational expansion at the same time has to be taken into account. On the theoretical side, the connection of demographic variables, education, and a basic assimilation argument is derived from an investment and production view of social behaviour. On the empirical side, a method is proposed that combines the multivariate regression approach with common measures of segregation. This technique allows an opportune and convenient assessment of assimilation trends controlling for relevant structural variables. An analysis of scientific use files of population censuses in1970, 1989, and 1996 indicates that immigrants and Germans clearly converged net of the structural changes, at least over generations. Demographic change plays an ambiguous role within this process. Educational expansion, however, has led to a widening educational gap resulting in barriers to further structural assimilation.
Article
This article focuses on how receiving societies’ structural and institutional characteristics affect immigrants’ labour market performance and progress. Using German census data for 1996 and 2000, and Israeli labour force surveys for the same years, the article compares patterns of self-selection and labour market integration of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel and Germany during the 1990s. The greater rigidity of the German labour market as compared with the Israeli, combined with the more generous benefits provided to FSU immigrants by the German than the Israeli state, explain many of the cross-national differences in initial labour market performance (unemployment level and occupational status) and labour market progress of FSU immigrants in Israel and Germany. However, contrary to economic theories of immigrant selectivity, we found no appreciable differences in patterns of educational self-selection of immigrants to Israel and Germany.
Article
Using data gathered in a series of interviews with management and union officials in over 75 companies between 1964 and 1969, this report analyzes the concept of the internal labor market and describes its relevance for federal manpower policy. The management interviews, which were mostly in personnel, industrial engineering, and operations areas of manufacturing companies, were supplemented by data on the disadvantaged provided by civil rights, poverty, and manpower agencies. The report utilizes the framework established in the study to show that the internal market does not imply inefficiency and may represent an improvement in dealing with structural unemployment. (BH)
Article
In the labor market, net disadvantages of immigrants, so-called “ethnic penalties”, may stem from rather different sources, among them discrimination by employers or self-exclusion processes. This paper attempts to indirectly disentangle these two mechanisms by studying ethnic penalties from a time-related perspective. Using the EULFS 2000 ad hoc module on school-to-work transitions, a comparative event-history analysis of entry into stable higher status employment is conducted for two European countries, Belgium and Spain. These countries differ considerably in their immigration contexts and patterns of school-to-work transitions, requiring different hypotheses about the relevance of the self-exclusion mechanism. The results show that in Belgium ethnic penalties for non-EU immigrants exist and remain constant irrespective of the length of the job search. In Spain the gap between non-EU immigrants and the native-born is even more pronounced and, importantly, increases significantly over time. This leads to the conclusion that discrimination seems to be relevant in both contexts and that self-exclusion resulting from early abandonment of job search activities is a further important factor in Spain.
Article
Abstract This essay traces the development of the research enterprise, known as the social resources theory, which formulated and tested a number of propositions concerning the relationships between embedded resources in social networks and socioeconomic attainment. This enterprise, seen in the light of social capital, has accumulated a substantial body of research literature and supported the proposition that social capital, in terms of both access and mobilization of embedded resources, enhances the chances of attaining better statuses. Further, social capital is contingent on initial positions in the social hierarchies as well as on extensity of social ties. The essay concludes with a discussion of remaining critical issues and future research directions for this research enterprise.
Article
We show that immigrant managers are substantially more likely to hire immigrants than are native managers. The finding holds when comparing establishments in the same 5-digit industry and location, when comparing different establishments within the same firm, when analyzing establishments that change management over time, and when accounting for within-establishment trends in recruitment patterns. The effects are largest for small and owner-managed establishments in the for-profit sector. Separations are more frequent when workers and managers have dissimilar origin, but only before workers become protected by EPL. We also find that native managers are unbiased in their recruitments of former co-workers, suggesting that information deficiencies are important. We find no effects on entry wages. Our findings suggest that a low frequency of immigrant managers may contribute to the observed disadvantages of immigrant workers.
Article
In this paper, I study temporary migrations, and its consequences for immigrants' behaviour. I distinguish between temporary migrations where the return time is exogenous, and temporary migrations where the migrant chooses when to return. I then illustrate the consequences both types of temporary migration have for migrants' behaviour (as opposed to a permanent migration). If migrations are non-permanent, then this has also consequences for the way em- pirical models need to be specified. The problems arising for empirical work are discussed in the second part of the paper. Finally, I summarise some empirical evidence which is consistent with the hypothesis that the behaviour of temporary migrants is different from that of migrants with permanent migration intentions.
Article
This paper analyzes the way in which the earnings of the immigrant population may be expected to differ from the earnings of the native population because of the endogeneity of the migration decision. The conditions that determine the nature of the self-selection are derived and depend on economic and political characteristics of the sending and receiving countries. The empirical analysis shows that differences in the U.S. earnings of immigrants with the same measured skills, but from different home countries, are attributable to variations in conditions in the country of origin at the time of migration. Copyright 1987 by American Economic Association.
Article
Exxon Mobil and ConocoPhillips stock price has been predicted using the difference between core and headline CPI in the United States. Linear trends in the CPI difference allow accurate prediction of the prices at a five to ten-year horizon.
The Economic Sociology of Immigration: Essays on networks, Ethnicity, and Entrepreneurship, Russell Sage Foundation
  • A Portes
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Portes, A. 1995.The Economic Sociology of Immigration: Essays on networks, Ethnicity, and Entrepreneurship, Russell Sage Foundation, New York. Portes, A., and R.G. Rumbaut 2001 Legacies, University of California Press, Berkeley.
Author Journal Compilation Ó 2010 IOM NOTES 1. Immigrants from the former Soviet Union are largely comprised of the Jewish quota refugees, since FSU ethnic Germans are included in a separate category of Aussiedler
  • Ó Kogan
Kogan Ó 2010 The Author Journal Compilation Ó 2010 IOM NOTES 1. Immigrants from the former Soviet Union are largely comprised of the Jewish quota refugees, since FSU ethnic Germans are included in a separate category of Aussiedler.
25** )0.92** )1.72** )1.62** )0.86** )0.87** FSU )0.48** )0
  • Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia )1.25** )0.92** )1.72** )1.62** )0.86** )0.87** FSU )0.48** )0.78** )0.54 )0.68 )0.24 )0.30
Dynamics of immigration in a non-immigrant country: Germany
  • H Rudolph
Rudolph, H. 1994 ''Dynamics of immigration in a non-immigrant country: Germany'', in H. Fassman and R. Munz (Eds), European Migration in the Late Twentieth Century, Edward Elgar, Lazenburg.
58** )0.97 )1.08 )1.34** )1.33** Ethnic Germans )0.89** )0.63** )1
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America )0.35** )0.58** )0.97 )1.08 )1.34** )1.33** Ethnic Germans )0.89** )0.63** )1.47** )1.45** 0.06 0.02 YSM 0.00 0.03** )0.04 )0.03 0.01 0.01
From guests to permanent stayers? – From the German 'guestworker' programmes of the sixties to the current ''green card'' Initiative for IT Specialists
  • Ó Iom Kogan
  • H Werner
Kogan Ó 2010 The Author Journal Compilation Ó 2010 IOM Werner, H. 2001 ''From guests to permanent stayers? – From the German 'guestworker' programmes of the sixties to the current ''green card'' Initiative for IT Specialists'', IAB Labour Market Research Topics, no. 43, IAB, Nuremberg. xxxx 1
Auf Suche nach einer Erklärung für die spezifischen Arbeitsmarktnachteile von Jugendlichen türkischer Herkunft
  • Kalter
From guests to permanent stayers? - From the German ‘guestworker’ programmes of the sixties to the current “green card” Initiative for IT Specialists IAB Labour Market Research Topics
  • H Werner