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Abstract

Personality trait attribution can underpin important social decisions and yet requires little effort; even a brief exposure to a photograph can generate lasting impressions. Body movement is a channel readily available to observers and allows judgements to be made when facial and body appearances are less visible; e.g., from great distances. Across three studies, we assessed the reliability of trait judgements of point-light walkers and identified motion-related visual cues driving observers' judgements. The findings confirm that observers make reliable, albeit inaccurate, trait judgements, and these were linked to a small number of motion components derived from a Principal Component Analysis of the motion data. Parametric manipulation of the motion components linearly affected trait ratings, providing strong evidence that the visual cues captured by these components drive observers' trait judgements. Subsequent analyses suggest that reliability of trait ratings was driven by impressions of emotion, attractiveness and masculinity.

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... However, a number of studies showed that judgments of a person's personality and mood can be based on the observation of a naturalistic (Guy, Kim, Lin, & Manocha, 2011;Wolff, 1973) or point-light display (Montepare & Zebrowitz-McArthur, 1988; Thoresen, Vuong, & Atkinson, 2012) of that person's gait. It was found that straighter walking trajectories and higher walking speeds are generally related to higher aggression ratings, whereas a more evasive gait was associated with pronounced shyness (Guy et al., 2011). ...
... It was found that straighter walking trajectories and higher walking speeds are generally related to higher aggression ratings, whereas a more evasive gait was associated with pronounced shyness (Guy et al., 2011). It is interesting that while gait-based attributions of certain personality traits showed high interrater consistency, these attributions did not necessarily correspond to that person's selfrated personality traits (Montepare & Zebrowitz-McArthur, 1988; Thoresen et al., 2012). Despite that, Thoresen et al. (2012) concluded that gait can be considered as a significant marker for personality traits. ...
... It is interesting that while gait-based attributions of certain personality traits showed high interrater consistency, these attributions did not necessarily correspond to that person's selfrated personality traits (Montepare & Zebrowitz-McArthur, 1988; Thoresen et al., 2012). Despite that, Thoresen et al. (2012) concluded that gait can be considered as a significant marker for personality traits. This argumentation follows the line of evidence showing that accurate gait-based information can be obtained with respect to mood (Crane & Gross, 2007;Michalak et al., 2009), gender (Kozlowski & Cutting, 1978), age (Montepare & Zebrowitz-McArthur, 1988), identity (Loula, Prasad, Harber, & Shiffrar, 2005), and vulnerability (Johnston, Hudson, Richardson, Gunns, & Garner, 2004). ...
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In everyday situations, pedestrians deploy successful strategies to avoid collisions with other persons crossing their paths. In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to investigate to what extent personal or situational characteristics affect role attribution and contribution to successful collision avoidance in human locomotion. Pairs of subjects walked at their natural speed from a start to a goal point. Walking paths were defined in such a way that subjects would collide halfway on their trajectory, if they did not actively avoid colliding by speed or path adjustments. In the first experiment, we investigated whether crossing order, path, and speed adjustments correlate with subject-specific parameters, such as gender, height, and personality traits. It is interesting that individuals' collision avoidance behavior was not correlated with any of these factors. In the second experiment, initial walking speed and heading were used to predict the crossing order. It was found that these 2 parameters are sufficient to estimate future role attribution with 95% confidence already 2.5 m before the crossing; that is, even before any collision avoidance behavior is initiated. In sum, this suggests that collision avoidance strategies in human locomotion are based on situational rather than on personal characteristics. These situational characteristics result in role attributions, which are highly predictable within and across pairs of pedestrians, whereby the role-dependent contribution of the pedestrian giving way is of greater relevance for successful collision avoidance. (PsycINFO Database Record
... It is possible that we overgeneralize emotion cues more broadly, such as linking vocal traits or body posture to the traits of others. For example, traits such as agreeableness and trustworthiness can be reliably identified from voice as well as postural gait, and postural expressions of dominance and submission are recognizable even when viewed for only 40 ms (Rule et al., 2012;Schild et al., 2019;Thoresen et al., 2012). It is possible that postural emotional expressions in particular could be overgeneralized to trait judgments just as facial expressions are. ...
... Both adults and 5-8-yearolds showed similar patterns, suggesting the influence of bodies on trait judgments emerges early in development, although children were not yet fully adult-like. Our results echo recent work highlighting the range of information people use to judge others' traits, including faces, bodies, and voices (Rule et al., 2012;Schild et al., 2019;Thoresen et al., 2012), and suggest that emotion attributions to postural expressions may be one mechanism by which bodies influence trait judgments. ...
Article
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Perceptions of others’ traits (e.g., trustworthiness or dominance) are influenced by the emotion displayed on their face. For instance, the same individual appears more trustworthy when they express happiness than when they express anger. This overextension of emotional expressions has been shown with facial expression but whether this phenomenon also occurs when viewing postural expressions was unknown. We sought to examine how expressive behaviour of the body would influence judgements of traits and how sensitivity to this cue develops. In the context of a storybook, adults (N = 35) and children (5 to 8 years old; N = 60) selected one of two partners to help face a challenge. The challenges required either a trustworthy or dominant partner. Participants chose between a partner with an emotional (happy/angry) face and neutral body or one with a neutral face and emotional body. As predicted, happy facial expressions were preferred over neutral ones when selecting a trustworthy partner and angry postural expressions were preferred over neutral ones when selecting a dominant partner. Children’s performance was not adult-like on most tasks. The results demonstrate that emotional postural expressions can also influence judgments of others’ traits, but that postural influence on trait judgments develops throughout childhood.
... In particular, researchers have shown that people respond to computer systems in similar ways to how they would respond to a human, for instance by attributing certain personality traits to computer partners [41,52]. A specific set of characteristics is on the one hand believed to explain the way people respond to others in social settings [47,57], and provides on the other hand an explanation why it influences the quality of interactions [13,47]. As for the question, which personality traits in specific are more desirable in CAs, there is no definite answer to it. ...
... For a comprehensive assessment of individuals, the following five fundamental traits or dimensions have been defined and derived through factorial studies: Conscientiousness, openness, neuroticism, agreeableness and extraversion which refers to the extent to which people enjoy company and seek excitement and stimulation [10]. This specific set of characteristics is believed to explain the way people respond to others in social settings, [47,57] and also provides an explanation as to why it influences the quality of interactions between people [13,42,47]. Verbal interactions by means of language can therefore be useful for capturing lower-level personality processes, since language is more closely associated with objective behavioral outcomes than traditional personality measures [7]. ...
Conference Paper
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Communication with conversational agents (CA) has become increasingly important. It therefore is crucial to understand how individuals perceive interaction with CAs and how the personality of both the CA and the human can affect the interaction experience. As personality differences are manifested in language cues, we investigate whether different language style manifestations of extraversion lead to a more anthropomorphized perception (specifically perceived humanness and social presence) of the personality bots. We examine, whether individuals rate communication satisfaction of a CA similar to their own personality as higher (law of attraction). The results of our experiment indicate that highly extraverted CAs are generally better received in terms of social presence and communication satisfaction. Further, incorporating personality into CAs increases perceived humanness. Although no significant effects could be found in regard to the law of attraction, interesting findings about ambiverts could be made. The outcomes of the experiment contribute towards designing personality-adaptive CAs.
... It is possible that we overgeneralize emotion cues more broadly, such as linking vocal traits or body posture to the traits of others. For example, traits such as agreeableness and trustworthiness can be reliably identified from voice as well as postural gait, and postural expressions of dominance and submission are recognizable even when viewed for only 40 ms (Rule et al., 2012;Schild et al., 2019;Thoresen et al., 2012). It is possible that postural emotional expressions in particular could be overgeneralized to trait judgments just as facial expressions are. ...
... Both adults and 5-8-yearolds showed similar patterns, suggesting the influence of bodies on trait judgments emerges early in development, although children were not yet fully adult-like. Our results echo recent work highlighting the range of information people use to judge others' traits, including faces, bodies, and voices (Rule et al., 2012;Schild et al., 2019;Thoresen et al., 2012), and suggest that emotion attributions to postural expressions may be one mechanism by which bodies influence trait judgments. ...
Preprint
Perceptions of traits (such as trustworthiness or dominance) are influenced by the emotion displayed on a face. For instance, the same individual is reported as more trustworthy when they look happy than when they look angry. This overextension of emotional expressions has been shown with facial expression but whether this phenomenon also occurs when viewing postural expressions was unknown. We sought to examine how expressive behaviour of the body would influence judgements of traits and how sensitivity to this cue develops. In the context of a storybook, adults (N = 35) and children (aged 5 to 8 years; N = 60) selected one of two partners to help face a challenge. The challenges required either a trustworthy or dominant partner. Participants chose between a partner with an emotional (happy/angry) face and neutral body or one with a neutral face and emotional body. As predicted, happy over neutral facial expressions were preferred when selecting a trustworthy partner and angry postural expressions were preferred over neutral when selecting a dominant partner. Children’s performance was not adult-like on most tasks. The results demonstrate that emotional postural expressions can also influence judgements of others’ traits, but that postural influence on trait judgements develops throughout childhood.
... Past victimization may predict future risk because: (1) being victimized alters the individual in some way (e.g., individuals who are victimized may experience anxiety, and research suggests that highly anxious individuals are at an increased risk for experiencing victimization; Lauritsen and Quinet 1995), or (2) because there is an unmeasured aspect of the victim that fosters their repeated selection by offenders (e.g., they exhibit risk-taking tendencies and/or work in a dangerous profession; Lauritsen and Quinet 1995;Sparks 1981). It has been argued that the delineation of gait behavior in particular, is a key component in nonverbal communication between individuals (Thoresen et al. 2012) and could act as an important cue for offenders (e.g., Grayson and Stein 1981). ...
... Alternatively, it is possible that the observers simply had difficulty ascertaining personality from the point-light footage. For example, Thoresen et al. (2012) found that observers "… make reliable, albeit inaccurate, trait judgments, and these [are] linked to a small number of motion components derived from Principal Component Analysis of…motion data" (p. 261). ...
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that certain individuals exhibit vulnerability through their gait, and that observers select such individuals as those most likely to experience victimization. It is currently assumed that the vulnerable gait pattern is an expression of one’s submissiveness. To isolate gait movement, Study 1 utilized kinematic point-light display to record 28 individuals walking. The findings suggested that victimization history was related to gait vulnerability. The results also indicated that, contrary to expectation, individuals with more vulnerable features in their gait were more likely to self-report dominant personality characteristics, rather than submissive characteristics. In Study 2, a sample of 129 observers watched the point-light recordings and rated the walkers on their vulnerability to victimization. The results suggested that observers agreed on which walkers were easy targets; they were also accurate in that the walkers they rated as most likely to experience victimization tended to exhibit vulnerable gait cues. The current research is one of the few to explore the relationship between internal dispositions and non-verbal behavior in a sample of self-reported victims. The findings provide exciting insights related to the communicative function of gait, and the characteristics that may put some individuals at a greater risk to be criminally targeted.
... [Oosterhof and Todorov 2008]), linguistic style (e.g. [Walker et al. 1997]), finger movements [Wang et al. 2016], kinematic pattern [Giraud et al. 2015], walk cycle [Thoresen et al. 2012], and correlations with parameters of Laban Movement Analysis [Durupinar et al. 2016]. ...
... Many researchers employ a decoding approach where they capture movement that displays particular aspects of personality and try to distill what factors in the movement lead to this perception (e.g. [Kiiski et al. 2013;Koppensteiner and Grammer 2010;Thoresen et al. 2012]). Other studies (including this one) take an encoding approach, whereby variations are algorithmically inserted and their effects validated through perceptual studies. ...
Article
Applications such as virtual tutors, games, and natural interfaces increasingly require animated characters to take on social roles while interacting with humans. The effectiveness of these applications depends on our ability to control the social presence of characters, including their personality. Understanding how movement impacts the perception of personality allows us to generate characters more capable of fulfilling this social role. The two studies described herein focus on gesture as a key component of social communication and examine how a set of gesture edits, similar to the types of changes that occur during motion warping, impact the perceived personality of the character. Surprisingly, when based on thin-slice gesture data, people's judgments of character personality mainly fall in a 2D subspace rather than independently impacting the full set of traits in the standard Big Five model of personality. These two dimensions are plasticity, which includes extraversion and openness, and stability, which includes emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. A set of motion properties is experimentally determined that impacts each of these two traits. We show that when these properties are systematically edited in new gesture sequences, we can independently influence the character's perceived stability and plasticity (and the corresponding Big Five traits), to generate distinctive personalities. We identify motion adjustments salient to each judgment and, in a series of perceptual studies, repeatedly generate four distinctly perceived personalities. The effects extend to novel gesture sequences and character meshes, and even largely persist in the presence of accompanying speech. This paper furthers our understanding of how gesture can be used to control the perception of personality and suggests both the potential and possible limits of motion editing approaches.
... If Taylor is correct, the automatic action of walking could contain information about personality traits. We know of only one other study that has explored this interesting question and in their investigation, Thoresen et al. (2012) did not find a relationship between gait and Big Five personality traits. It is possible that Thoresen et al. did not find a relationship between personality and gait due to their choice of gait analysis. ...
... However, this technology does record more information than a human could process (our equipment captures movement at 200 Hz), suggesting that our results may present the available cues to personality in biomechanical recording and not the available cues to personality in visual perception. This concern was also raised by Thoresen et al. (2012) which is why they chose to analyze their movement based on what was visually salient. In our study, we opted to use the gait analysis more typical of the biomechanics literature as we are interested in the relationship between the actual movement involved in gait and personality (rather than how people make judgements about gait), which may explain the difference between our findings and those of Thoresen et al. ...
Article
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Behavioral observation techniques which relate action to personality have long been neglected (Furr and Funder in Handbook of research methods in personality psychology, The Guilford Press, New York, 2007) and, when employed, often use human judges to code behavior. In the current study we used an alternative to human coding (biomechanical research techniques) to investigate how personality traits are manifest in gait. We used motion capture technology to record 29 participants walking on a treadmill at their natural speed. We analyzed their thorax and pelvis movements, as well as speed of gait. Participants completed personality questionnaires, including a Big Five measure and a trait aggression questionnaire. We found that gait related to several of our personality measures. The magnitude of upper body movement, lower body movement, and walking speed, were related to Big Five personality traits and aggression. Here, we present evidence that some gait measures can relate to Big Five and aggressive personalities. We know of no other examples of research where gait has been shown to correlate with self-reported measures of personality and suggest that more research should be conducted between largely automatic movement and personality.
... It has already been shown that dynamic cues and motion kinematics convey a great deal of information ranging from people's sex, their age, their emotional state, their dancing abilities, and their actual and perceived personality [17][18][19][20][21][22][23]. The current study uses such work as a starting point and intends to transfer the takete-maluma effect to dynamic cues embedded in the behavioral stream. ...
... Therefore, a follow-up of the work presented here should investigate whether jerky body movements classified as takete are also classified as aggressive and whether rounded movements classified as maluma also appear friendly. Previous findings on body motion already revealed that motion cues are related to perceptions of friendliness [20,23]. Linking this to our findings on the takete-maluma effect could reveal that common patterns perceived in different modalities may have a similar impact on impression formation. ...
Article
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People assign the artificial words takete and kiki to spiky, angular figures and the artificial words maluma and bouba to rounded figures. We examined whether such a cross-modal correspondence could also be found for human body motion. We transferred the body movements of speakers onto two-dimensional coordinates and created animated stick-figures based on this data. Then we invited people to judge these stimuli using the words takete-maluma, bouba-kiki, and several verbal descriptors that served as measures of angularity/smoothness. In addition to this we extracted the quantity of motion, the velocity of motion and the average angle between motion vectors from the coordinate data. Judgments of takete (and kiki) were related to verbal descriptors of angularity, a high quantity of motion, high velocity and sharper angles. Judgments of maluma (or bouba) were related to smooth movements, a low velocity, a lower quantity of motion and blunter angles. A forced-choice experiment during which we presented subsets with low and high rankers on our motion measures revealed that people preferably assigned stimuli displaying fast movements with sharp angles in motion vectors to takete and stimuli displaying slow movements with blunter angles in motion vectors to maluma. Results indicated that body movements share features with information inherent in words such as takete and maluma and that people perceive the body movements of speakers on the level of changes in motion direction (e.g., body moves to the left and then back to the right). Follow-up studies are needed to clarify whether impressions of angularity and smoothness have similar communicative values across different modalities and how this affects social judgments and person perception.
... Effective body language reading is preserved in healthy aging, with particular tuning to displays portraying happiness (Spencer et al., 2016). Point-light gait can drive reliable judgments of personality traits such as approachability, neuroticism, trustworthiness, and warmth (Thoresen et al., 2012; see also Pavlova, 2012 on the Russian psychiatrist Pyotr B. Gannushkin who was reportedly able to recognize mental conditions of patients simply by observing their changing outline as they moved about in a dimly lit room). ...
Article
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While reading covered with masks faces during the COVID-19 pandemic, for efficient social interaction, we need to combine information from different sources such as the eyes (without faces hidden by masks) and bodies. This may be challenging for individuals with neuropsychiatric conditions, in particular, autism spectrum disorders. Here we examined whether reading of dynamic faces, bodies, and eyes are tied in a gender-specific way, and how these capabilities are related to autistic traits expression. Females and males accomplished a task with point-light faces along with a task with point-light body locomotion portraying different emotional expressions. They had to infer emotional content of displays. In addition, participants were administered the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, modified and Autism Spectrum Quotient questionnaire. The findings show that only in females, inferring emotions from dynamic bodies and faces are firmly linked, whereas in males, reading in the eyes is knotted with face reading. Strikingly, in neurotypical males only, accuracy of face, body, and eyes reading was negatively tied with autistic traits. The outcome points to gender-specific modes in social cognition: females rely upon merely dynamic cues while reading faces and bodies, whereas males most likely trust configural information. The findings are of value for examination of face and body language reading in neuropsychiatric conditions, in particular, autism, most of which are gender/sex-specific. This work suggests that if male individuals with autistic traits experience difficulties in reading covered with masks faces, these deficits may be unlikely compensated by reading (even dynamic) bodies and faces. By contrast, in females, reading covered faces as well as reading language of dynamic bodies and faces are not compulsorily connected to autistic traits preventing them from paying high costs for maladaptive social interaction.
... Personality traits are closely related to body movements (Koppensteiner and Grammer, 2010;Thoresen et al., 2012). Some studies have shown that agreeableness and pelvic motion, as well as extraversion and thoracic motion, are positively correlated, and conscientiousness and thoracic motion are negatively correlated (Satchell et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Personality affects an individual’s academic achievements, occupational tendencies, marriage quality and physical health, so more convenient and objective personality assessment methods are needed. Gait is a natural, stable, and easy-to-observe body movement that is closely related to personality. The purpose of this paper is to propose a personality assessment model based on gait video and evaluate the reliability and validity of the multidimensional model. This study recruited 152 participants and used cameras to record their gait videos. Each participant completed a 44-item Big Five Inventory (BFI-44) assessment. We constructed diverse static and dynamic time-frequency features based on gait skeleton coordinates, interframe differences, distances between joints, angles between joints, and wavelet decomposition coefficient arrays. We established multidimensional personality trait assessment models through machine learning algorithms and evaluated the criterion validity, split-half reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity of these models. The results showed that the reliability and validity of the Gaussian process regression (GPR) and linear regression (LR) models were best. The mean values of their criterion validity were 0.478 and 0.508, respectively, and the mean values of their split-half reliability were all greater than 0.8. In the formed multitrait-multimethod matrix, these methods also had higher convergent and discriminative validity. The proposed approach shows that gait video can be effectively used to evaluate personality traits, providing a new idea for the formation of convenient and non-invasive personality assessment methods.
... Despite the absence of many visual form cues (e.g., shape, colour, etc.), adults readily perceive these point-lightdisplays (PLDs) as a human body when the PLDs are dynamic but not when they are static (Johansson, 1973). Importantly, adults are able to quickly extract socially-relevant information from biological motion, such as sex (Mather & Murdoch, 1994), emotional expressions (Atkinson et al., 2004;Volkova et al., 2014a,b) and psychological traits (Thoresen et al., 2012), even in the absence of static and dynamic facial information (Bassili, 1979;Willis & Todorov, 2006). While new-born infants show sensitivity to biological compared to other types of motion (Simion et al., 2008), it is less clear when the ability to identify emotions from biological-motion cues develops, especially when the body expressions of emotion occur in natural settings. ...
Article
Full-text available
Body movements provide a rich source of emotional information during social interactions. Although the ability to perceive biological-motion cues related to those movements begins to develop in infancy, processing those cues to identify emotions likely continues to develop into childhood. Previous studies use posed or exaggerated body movements, which may not reflect the kind of body expressions children experience. The present study used an event-related potential (ERP) priming paradigm to investigate the development of emotion recognition from more naturalistic body movements. Point-light displays of male adult bodies expressing happy or angry emotional movements while narrating a story were used as prime stimuli, while audio recordings of the words “happy” and “angry” spoken with an emotionally neutral prosody were used as targets. We recorded the ERPs time-locked to the onset of the auditory target from 3- and 6-year-old children, and compared amplitude and latency of the N300 and N400 responses between the two age groups in the different prime-target conditions. There was an overall effect of prime for the N300 amplitude, with more negative-going responses for happy compared to angry PLDs. There was also an interaction between prime and target for the N300 latency, suggesting that all children were sensitive to the emotional congruency between body movements and words. For the N400 component, there was only an interaction between age, prime and target for latency, suggesting an age-dependent modulation of this component when prime and target did not match in emotional information. Overall, our results suggest that the emergence of more complex emotion processing of body expressions occurs around 6 years of age, but it is not fully developed at this point in ontogeny.
... Participants are also able to correctly identify emotions (Dittrich et al., 1996;Atkinson et al., 2004;Clarke et al., 2005;Chouchourelou et al., 2006;Alaerts et al., 2011) and distinguish themselves from people they know and strangers (Loula et al., 2005;Prasad and Shiffrar, 2009;Blasing and Sauzet, 2018). Without any other information about the person, participants are also able to reliably infer personality traits (Thoresen et al., 2012), intentions (Sebanz and Shiffrar, 2009), vulnerability (Gunns et al., 2002), gender (Kozlowski and Cutting, 1977;Mather and Murdoch, 1994) and sexual orientation (Johnson et al., 2007) of the PLD. Finally, attractiveness ratings of womenbased walking PLD are highly correlated to those based on videos (Morrison et al., 2018) underscoring the importance of movement in such judgments. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual objectification of others has seen a growing research interest in recent years. While promising, the field lacks standardized stimuli, resulting in a confusion between sexualization and sexual objectification, which limits the interpretability of published results. In this study, we propose to use point-light display (PLD) as a novel methodology for manipulating sexualization levels as a first step toward isolating movement from other visual cues (e.g., clothing or physical appearance) for studying effects of sexual objectification of others. To do so, we first developed 8 virtual reality animations varying on 3 dimensions: 1) nature of movement (dance vs. walk), 2) level of sexualization (low vs. high), and 3) animation speed (slow and fast). Then, we validated these stimuli with perception ratings from 211 participants via an online survey. Using mixed linear regression models, we found evidence that our manipulation was successful: while participants took longer, were less accurate, and less confident in their response when confronted with a dancing, sexualized PLD, they also rated it as significantly more sexualized. This latter effect was stronger for participants perceiving a woman dancing compared to participants who perceived other genders. Overall, participants who reported more frequent sexual objectification behaviors also perceived the animations as more sexualized. Taken together, these results suggest that sexual suggestiveness can be manipulated by rather simple movement cues, thus validating the use of PLD as a stepping stone to systematically study processes of sexual objectification. From there, it is now possible to manipulate other variables more precisely during immersions in virtual reality, whether by adding a skin to the animated skeleton, by situating the PLD into different context, by varying the amplitude and the nature of the movements, or by modifying the context of the virtual environment.
... Despite the absence of many visual form cues (e.g., shape, colour, etc.), adults readily perceive these point-light-displays (PLDs) as a human body when the PLDs are dynamic but not when they are static (Johansson, 1973). Importantly, adults are able to quickly extract socially-relevant information from biological motion, such as sex (Mather & Murdoch, 1994), emotional expressions (Atkinson et al., 2004;Volkova et al., 2014a, b) and psychological traits (Thoresen et al., 2012), even in the absence of static and dynamic facial information (Bassili, 1979;Willis & Todorov, 2006). While new-born infants show sensitivity to biological compared to other types of motion (Simion et al., 2008), it is less clear when the ability to identify emotions from biological-motion cues develops. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Body movements provide a rich source of emotional information during social interactions. Although the ability to perceive biological-motion cues related to those movements begins to develop in infancy, processing those cues to identify emotions likely continues to develop into childhood. Previous studies use posed or exaggerated body movements, which may not reflect the kind of body expressions children experience. The present study used an event- related potential (ERP) priming paradigm to investigate the development of emotion recognition from more naturalistic body movements. Point-light displays of human adult bodies spontaneously expressing happy or angry emotional movements were used as prime stimuli, while audio recordings of the words “happy” and “angry” spoken with an emotionally neutral prosody were used as targets. We recorded the ERPs time-locked to the onset of the auditory target from 3- and 6-year-old children, and compared amplitude and latency of the N300 and N400 responses between the two age groups in the different prime- target conditions. Three-year-old children showed an interaction between the prime and target for the N400 amplitude, suggesting that they were sensitive to the emotional congruency between body movements and words. Six-year-old children did not show this congruency effect; however, they had earlier N300 and N400 latency than the younger children, suggesting that older children may process the stimuli more quickly. Overall, our results suggest that both age groups can use naturalistic body movements to identify emotions, with developmental changes in how quickly emotional information from such body expressions are processed.
... There is evidence for a positive relationship between men's risk-taking behavior and women's assessments of men's dance attractiveness (Hugill, Fink, Neave, Besson, & Bunse, 2011). Other research on dance and personality characteristics showed that women were not able to accurately assess men's personality from their dance movements (Weege, Barges, Pham, Shackelford, & Fink, 2015)-a result that corroborates research investigating relationships of self-reported personality with observer-reports of personality based on gait (Thoresen, Vuong, & Atkinson, 2012). However, a negative correlation of men's (self-reported) neuroticism with women's assessments of their dance attractiveness suggested that certain kinematic characteristics (speed, amplitude, and velocity) might affect perceptions of dance such that people who associate elements of dance performance with desirable personality traits also rate that dance as more attractive. ...
Article
Dance is ubiquitous among humans and has received attention from several disciplines. Ethnographic documentation suggests that dance has a signaling function in social interaction. It can influence mate preferences and facilitate social bonds. Research has provided insights into the proximate mechanisms of dance, individually or when dancing with partners or in groups. Here, we review dance research from an evolutionary perspective. We propose that human dance evolved from ordinary (non-communicative) movements to communicate socially relevant information accurately. The need for accurate social signaling may have accompanied increases in group size and population density. Because of its complexity in production and display, dance may have evolved as a vehicle for expressing social and cultural information. Mating-related qualities and motives may have been the predominant information derived from individual dance movements, whereas group dance offers the opportunity for the exchange of socially relevant content, for coordinating actions among group members, for signaling coalitional strength, and for stabilizing group structures. We conclude that, despite the cultural diversity in dance movements and contexts, the primary communicative functions of dance may be the same across societies.
... There is evidence that the visual features of a PLW can be processed. For example, several psychophysics studies have revealed that the human visual system has a unique capacity for retrieving person-related information from a human PLW such as gender (Cutting, 1978;Davis and Gao, 2004;Mather and Murdoch, 1994;Pollick et al., 2005;Troje, 2002; van der Zwan and Herbert, 2012), person identification Troje et al., 2005;Westhoff and Troje, 2007), familiarity (Cutting and Kozlowski, 1977), self-other distinction (Jokisch et al., 2006), age (Montepare and Zebrowitz-McArthur, 1988), personality trait (Thoresen et al., 2012), emotion (Chouchourelou et al., 2006;Ikeda and Watanabe, 2009;Lee and Kim, 2017;Spencer et al., 2016;Troje, 2002), biomechanical constraints (Jacobs et al., 2004), and facing direction (Manera et al., 2012;Schouten et al., 2011;Sweeny et al., 2012;Van de Cruys et al., 2013;Vanrie and Verfaillie, 2006). Regarding the roles of top-down and bottom-up attention, several psychophysics studies have demonstrated that the role of top-down modulation and bottom-up processing in the detection of a human PLW depends on stimulus and task (Bosbach et al., 2004;Cavanagh et al., 2001;Mather et al., 1992;Thornton et al., 1998;Thornton et al., 2002;Thornton and Vuong, 2004;Vanrie and Verfaillie, 2006). ...
Article
Perception, identification, and understanding of others' actions from motion information are vital for our survival in the social world. A breakthrough in the understanding of action perception was the discovery that our visual system is sensitive to human action from the sparse motion input of only a dozen point lights, a phenomenon known as biological motion (BM) processing. Previous psychological and computational models cannot fully explain the emerging evidence for the existence of BM processing during early ontogeny. Here, we propose a two-process model of the mechanisms underlying BM processing. We hypothesize that the first system, the 'Step Detector,' rapidly processes the local foot motion and feet-below-the-body information that is specific to vertebrates, is less dependent on postnatal learning, and involves subcortical networks. The second system, the 'Bodily Action Evaluator,' slowly processes the fine global structure-from-motion, is specific to conspecific, and dependent on gradual learning processed in cortical networks. This proposed model provides new insight into research on the development of BM processing.
... In Surveillance, body movement is a channel readily available to observers and allows judgments to be made since facial and body appearances are less visible. Atkinson [80] suggested that motion cues were related to personality traits and subsequent analysis suggested that reliability of trait ratings was driven by impressions of emotion, attractiveness and masculinity. ...
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Loitering analytics is widely explored nowadays since it anticipates crimes by identifying suspicious behavioural pattern displayed by offenders and reacts to the circumstances without delay. The challenge in loitering detection lies in effective discrimination of the behavioural pattern of offensive loiter and innocuous loiter. In this paper, certain embodiments were proposed with dense trajectory features representing human gait parameters since, many of the Personality traits are manifested in it. Here, frame differencing of effectively represented frames by wavelet transform is used for moving blob detection. With the prior model developed from benchmark datasets using co-occurrence features, the motion blobs were classified as pedestrian or other moving objects using SVM classifier. Short term biometric features like the clothing colour and texture are successfully used to track the person in successive frames. Since the perceiver can make judgment on the target within 10 s under unacquainted condition, here short sequences of frames representing 10 s of video is used for processing. For the short sequence, data association matrix relating the frame number and the associated pedestrians in each frame based on minimum Euclidean distance is proposed. Missing tracks due to occlusion can be effectively handled by a completely unsupervised system using the proposed data association matrix. From the developed matrix the person staying in the Region of Interest for a long duration is identified and behavioural cues displayed by the person are extracted. Here, the spatio- temporal features extracted from Dense Trajectories and Motion Boundary Descriptors from the pre-learned model is used to characterize the person as loiter or not. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, PETS 2006, PETS 2007 and PETS 2016 datasets were used and the experiments show promising results comparable with the state of art techniques.
... Spatial perturbations can simply consist of showing the PLD using an unnatural orientation (e.g., Simion et al., 2008;Sumi, 1984;Verfaillie, 2000), playing it backward (e.g., or with shifting dots along the articulated limbs (e.g., Beintema & Lappe, 2002). Spatial transformations can also consist to average some PLDs with spatio-temporal morphing (e.g., Jastorff, Kourtzi, & Giese, 2006;Thoresen et al., 2012;Troje, 2002). Finally, it is possible to disturb the spatial coherence of the animation by scrambling the positions of the joints (Bscrambled motions^; e.g., Bidet-Ildei et al., 2014;Hiris, 2007;Simion et al., 2008), by using temporal or spatial bubbles (Thurman & Grossman, 2008), or by using pair-wise motions that preserve the local pendular movements associated with individual limbs (Kim, Jung, Lee, & Blake, 2015). ...
Article
The study of biological point-light displays (PLDs) has fascinated researchers for more than 40 years. However, the mechanisms underlying PLD perception remain unclear, partly due to difficulties with precisely controlling and transforming PLD sequences. Furthermore, little agreement exists regarding how transformations are performed. This article introduces a new free-access program called PLAViMoP (Point-Light Display Visualization and Modification Platform) and presents the algorithms for PLD transformations actually included in the software. PLAViMoP fulfills two objectives. First, it standardizes and makes clear many classical spatial and kinematic transformations described in the PLD literature. Furthermore, given its optimized interface, PLAViMOP makes these transformations easy and fast to achieve. Overall, PLAViMoP could directly help scientists avoid technical difficulties and make possible the use of PLDs for nonacademic applications.
... These judgments show high inter-rater agreement, and in some cases, significant accuracy (Gray, 2008). However, some traits, such as extraversion, do not demonstrate strong accuracy (Olivola & Todorov, 2010;Thoresen, Vuong, & Atkinson, 2012). Thus, it is unclear whether behavioral traits such as cannabis use could be accurately judged based upon appearance alone, although one study found that raters guessed individuals' general substance use based upon appearance with 60% accuracy (Olivola & Todorov, 2010). ...
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Objective: With increasing legalization of medicinal and recreational cannabis, use is on the rise. Research suggests individuals may be able to guess cannabis user status based upon appearance; however, these findings utilized a small sample of photographs that was not balanced on user status or gender. Further, no studies examined whether raters with cannabis experience are better at judging others' cannabis use, or what physical features they use to make these judgments. This study explored these factors using a larger, balanced photograph database. Method: An American sample (n = 249, 48.6% female, mean age = 35.19 years) rated 36 photographs (18 cannabis users, 18 nonusers) balanced on gender and age on the likelihood that the photographed individuals use cannabis, producing 8964 ratings. Respondents also reported physical features considered in their ratings, as well as their own cannabis use history. Results: As hypothesized, photographs of users received higher ratings on the Marijuana Use Likelihood Index relative to nonusers. Further, results revealed a gender by rater user status interaction, indicating that raters with no previous cannabis experience rated males higher than females, while raters with cannabis experience did not demonstrate this rating discrepancy. Cannabis use explained over 9% of the variance in ratings across all photographs. Conclusions: Results suggest individuals do rate cannabis users as more likely to be users, relative to nonusers, based upon appearance alone. These findings have important implications, not only for research on chronic cannabis use effects, but also for social and achievement factors such as potential stigma.
... Using the zero-acquaintance procedure, where the perceiver is asked about a target's psychological traits neither with acquaintance nor prior knowledge (Albright et al., 1988;Norman & Goldberg, 1966), a large number of studies have revealed above-chance levels of accuracy in judging some aspects of the big-five personality dimensions (Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness to Experience (O), Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C)) in a wide variety of contexts (Back & Nestler, 2016) ranging from physical appearance (Naumann, Vazire, Rentfrow, & Gosling, 2009) to short samples of behaviour (e.g. Borkenau et al., 2004;Carney et al., 2007;Thoresen et al., 2012). After observing 'thin slices' of behaviour (occupying less than 5 min, Ambady et al., 2000), sampled from mundane activities, such as reading aloud a standard text (Borkenau & Liebler, 1992, 1993, performing an unstructured dyadic interaction (Carney et al., 2007), singing a song or doing a self-introduction and so forth (Borkenau et al., 2004), perceivers can draw somewhat accurate inferences about E and C across different contexts but their performance in inferring the other three big-five dimensions seems to be inconsistent across different studies (e.g. ...
Article
Trait inferences occur routinely and rapidly during social interaction, sometimes based on scant or fleeting information. In this research, participants (perceivers) made inferences of targets’ big-five traits after briefly watching or listening to an unfamiliar target (a third party) performing various mundane activities (telling a scripted joke or answering questions about him/herself or reading aloud a paragraph of promotional material). Across three studies, when perceivers judged targets to be either low or high in one or more dimensions of the big-five traits they tended to be correct, but they did not tend to be correct when they judged targets as average. Such inferences seemed to vary in effectiveness across different trait dimensions and depending on whether the target’s behavior was presented either in a video with audio, a silent video or just in an audio track – perceivers generally were less often correct when they judged targets as average in each of the big-five traits across various information channels (videos with audio, silent videos and audios). Study 3 replicated these findings in a different culture. We conclude with discussion of the scope and the adaptive value of this trait inferential ability.
... In face-toface interactions, visual cues usually receive higher priority, even if exposed to for just a brief moment (Willis & Todorov, 2006). In fact, a one second glimpse is long enough for us to form an impression (Thoresen, Vuong, & Atkinson, 2012), and that visual cue can determine whether the impression is positive or negative (Milyavskaya, Reoch, Koestner, & Losier, 2010). Even if we spend more time reading than looking at a picture, we often remember visual information more clearly (Shepard, 1967). ...
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The existing literature presents ambivalent evidence regarding the significance of visual cues, as opposed to textual cues, in the process of impression formation. While visual information may have a strong effect due to its vividness and immediate absorption, textual information might be more powerful due to its solid, unambiguous nature. This debate is particularly relevant in the context of online social networks, whose users share textual and visual elements. To explore our main research question, “Which elements of one’s Facebook profile have a more significant influence on impression formation of extroversion—pictures or texts?” we conducted two complementary online experiments, manipulating visual and textual cues inside and outside the context of Facebook. We then attempted to identify the relevant underlying mechanisms in impression formation. Our findings indicate that textual cues play a more dominant role online, whether via Facebook or not, supporting assertions of a new-media literacy that is text based. Additionally, we found the participants’ level of need for cognition influenced the effect such that individuals with a high need for cognition placed more emphasis on textual cues. The number of “likes” was also a significant predictor of perceptions of the individuals’ social orientation, especially when the other cues were ambiguous.
... Personality trait judgments based upon appearance are made in 100 milliseconds or less (Todorov, Pakrashi, & Oosterhof, 2009;Willis & Todorov, 2006), but the accuracy is variable depending upon the trait being judged (Gray, 2008). For example, while individuals are generally inaccurate when judging personality traits such as conscientiousness or adventurousness (e.g., Albright, Kenny, & Malloy, 1988;Thoresen, Vuong, & Atkinson, 2012), there is some evidence that behavioral traits such as substance use (Olivola & Todorov, 2010) or even cannabis use status specifically (Hirst et al., 2016) can be accurately guessed. Hirst et al. (2016) investigated the presence of a "jay-dar" (i.e., the ability to detect whether an individual smokes marijuana joints, or "jays"), similar to the "gay-dar" shown in other research (Shelp, 2003). ...
Article
With increasing legalization of cannabis, global use has risen. While individuals may choose not to disclose cannabis use, if others can accurately guess based upon appearance there may be negative implications given common stereotypes about cannabis effects on cognition, particularly memory. This study examined (1) the ability of individuals to discriminate between cannabis users and non-users based upon appearance and (2) the relationship between ratings of Perceived Memory Performance and actual or perceived cannabis use. In Study 1, undergraduates (N = 244) rated photographs on the likelihood that the individuals use cannabis. As hypothesized, photographs of users received higher ratings than non-users. In Study 2, a separate group of undergraduates (N = 218) rated the photos as to how well they thought each individual would perform on a learning and memory test. While actual user status was unrelated to Perceived Memory Performance, perceived user status negatively related to Perceived Memory Performance. Results suggest cannabis users are rated as more likely to be users than non-users, based upon appearance. Further, results suggest a stereotype of memory deficits against individuals who “look like” cannabis users. These findings have important implications for potential stigma, as well as for research on cannabis use effects.
... Blindfolded, earplugged raters made social judgments about the body odor of an unknown donor, seated beside them for 1 min. We chose to use blindfolds and earplugs in order to maximize our participants' focus on olfactory information and minimize perceptual biases from visual information, which has been shown to influence first impressions (Willis and Todorov 2006;Günaydin et al. 2012;Tabak and Zayas 2012) and auditory information, which we were concerned would reveal information about gait, body weight, or other non-olfactory characteristics which might bias social judgments (Butler et al. 1993;Thoresen et al. 2012). In addition, the use of these tools allowed us to include an important experimental design feature: although raters judged between 4 and 10 different donors, we led them to believe they were judging twice as many unique donors. ...
Article
How does a person's smell affect others' impressions of them? Most body odor research asks perceivers to make social judgments based on armpit sweat without perfume or deodorant, presented on t-shirts. Yet, in real life, perceivers encounter fragranced body odor, on whole bodies. Our "raters" wore blindfolds and earplugs and repeatedly smelled same-sex "donors" in live interactions. In one condition, donors wore their normal deodorant and perfume ("diplomatic" odor) while in the other condition, donors were asked to avoid all outside fragrance influences ("natural" odor). We assessed the reliability of social judgments based on such live interactions, and the relationships between live judgments and traditional t-shirt based judgments, and between natural- and diplomatic odor-based judgments. Raters' repeated live social judgments (e.g., friendliness, likeability) were highly consistent for both diplomatic and natural odor, and converged with judgments based on t-shirts. However, social judgments based on natural odor did not consistently predict social judgments based on diplomatic odor, suggesting that natural and diplomatic body odor may convey different types of social information. Our results provide evidence that individuals can perceive reliable, meaningful social olfactory signals from whole bodies, at social distances, regardless of the presence or absence of perfume. Importantly, however, the social value of these signals is modified by the addition of exogenous fragrances. Further, our focus on judgments in same-sex dyads suggests that these olfactory cues hold social value in non-mating contexts. We suggest that future research employ more ecologically relevant methods.
... Applying the "point -light" technique and other methods of capturing or describing movements has revealed that motion patterns created by a wide range of human behaviours such as walking, dancing, and gesturing are carriers of social information. For instance, human gait and simple arm movements appear to contain enough variation to inform about emotional states and personality [10][11][12]. People are able to recognize emotions in body movements that are displayed by actors [13][14][15][16] and ascribe different intentions and interpersonal qualities to actors' displays of hero or villain like body movements [17]. ...
Article
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People ascribe purposeful behaviour to the movements of artificial objects and social qualities to human body motion. We investigated how people associate simple motion cues with social categories. For a first rating-experiment we converted the body movements of speakers into stick-figure animations; for a second rating-experiment we used animations of one single dot. Rating-experiments were “reversed” because we asked participants to alter the movements (i.e., vertical amplitude, horizontal amplitude, and velocity) of the stimuli according to different instructions (e.g., create a stimulus of high dominance). Participants equipped stick figures and dot animations with expansive movements to represent high dominance. Expansive and fast movements (i.e., high velocity) were mainly associated with high aggressiveness. Fast movements were also associated with low friendliness, low trustworthiness, and low competence. Overall, patterns found for stick figure and dot animations were similar indicating that certain motion cues convey social information even when only a dot and no body form is visible. The “reverse approach” we propose here makes the impact of different components directly observable. The data generated by this method offers better insights into the interplay of these components and the ways in which they form meaningful patterns. The proposed method can be extended to other types of nonverbal cues and a variety of social categories.
... In einer Nachfolgearbeit konzentrierte sich Kempter (1998) Thoresen et. al. (2012) lässt sich sagen, dass einfache und auffällige Bewegungsreize wichtige sozio-emotionale Inhalte vermitteln (Koppensteiner & Grammer, 2010;Koppensteiner, Stephan & Jäschke, 2016). Dies stützt auch die Annahme, dass Körperbewegungen eine wichtige Informationsquelle darstellen, um eine Person von größerer Distanz einzuschätzen (de Gelder, ...
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Wie andere Kommunikationskanäle auch (z.B., Gesichtsausdrücke, Stimme) können Körperbewegungen sozioemotionale Information vermitteln und somit beeinflussen, welches Bild sich Menschen von einem Gegenüber machen. Dies spielt eine besondere Rolle für Personen, die sich auf der öffentlichen Bühne bewegen und zum Beispiel WählerInnen von sich und ihren Ansichten überzeugen wollen. Studien zeigen, dass die Körperbewegungen von PolitikerInnen bei öffentlichen Auftritten oder in Reden die Eindrucksbildung beeinflussen und für simple Persönlichkeitseinschätzungen ebenso simple Bewegungsreize herangezogen werden. Dies stützt die Ansicht, dass Körperbewegungen eine grobe Beurteilung einer Person aus größerer Distanz ermöglichen. Insgesamt nutzen Menschen aber Information aus verschiedenen Kommunikationskanälen, um sich ein Bild von jemandem zu machen. PolitikerInnen scheinen also vor der Herausforderung zu stehen einen stimmigen Gesamteindruck zu vermitteln. Auf der anderen Seite vermögen RednerInnen, die auf allen nonverbalen und verbalen Kanälen überzeugen, emotional zu berühren und auf diese Weise Inhalte glaubhafter zu machen.
... Raters have also exhibited accuracy in determining criminality of individuals based upon photographs (Valla, Ceci, & Williams, 2011). However, other personality traits, such as conscientiousness or adventurousness, demonstrate quite poor accuracy in judgment, with no significant correlations between selfand peer-ratings (e.g., Albright, Kenny, & Malloy, 1988;Thoresen, Vuong, & Atkinson, 2012). Thus, accuracy may vary depending upon the trait or behavior being judged, making it critical to measure the accuracy of judgments made regarding specific personality traits in question such as substance use, or more specifically, cannabis use. ...
Article
Background: Few studies examining the cognitive effects of chronic cannabis use utilize research designs where examiners are blind to user status. Even in those that do, researchers may be able to guess the user status of participants, leaving these studies vulnerable to the expectancy effect confound. Objectives: The present study examined the ability of neuropsychologists (those who would conduct research on the cognitive effects of cannabis) to differentiate cannabis users and nonusers based on physical appearance from photographs. Method: We recruited 84 participants from an international neuropsychology listserv. The sample was 59.5% female and 95.2% Caucasian, with a mean age of 41.39 years (range 26-65). Each neuropsychologist rated 25 target faces (12 cannabis users, 13 nonusers) on a Marijuana Use Likelihood Index based upon individuals' photographs. Results: Results indicate a main effect of user group, as neuropsychologists ascribed higher ratings to cannabis users on the Marijuana Use Likelihood Index, suggesting they perceive them as more likely to be users, relative to nonusers. Results also demonstrated a main effect of gender, as males received higher user ratings than females, and a significant main effect of rater gender, as female raters were more likely to rate individuals as cannabis users relative to male raters. Conclusions/Importance: The results demonstrate the importance of assessing researchers' expectations when studying the effects of chronic cannabis use, as even those designs that keep examiners blind to participant user status may be vulnerable to expectancy effects if examiners are able to guess user status based upon appearance alone.
... In face-toface interactions, visual cues usually receive higher priority, even if exposed to for just a brief moment (Willis & Todorov, 2006). In fact, a one second glimpse is long enough for us to form an impression (Thoresen, Vuong, & Atkinson, 2012), and that visual cue can determine whether the impression is positive or negative (Milyavskaya, Reoch, Koestner, & Losier, 2010). Even if we spend more time reading than looking at a picture, we often remember visual information more clearly (Shepard, 1967). ...
Conference Paper
The existing research presents ambivalent evidence regarding the significance of visual cues, as opposed to textual cues, in the process of impression formation. While textual information might poses a stronger effect due to its solid and unambiguous character, visual information may have a stronger effect due to its vividness and immediate absorption. This debate is particularly relevant in the context of online social networks, as they are constructed on the sharing of textual and visual elements between their users. Two consecutive online studies test the main research question: Which elements of one's Facebook profile have a more significant influence on impression formation- pictures or texts? Study 1 found that outside the context of Facebook, textual cues were more dominant in the process of impression formation. Study 2, which tested impression formation via Facebook, further corroborated this result; suggesting that the textual cues are also dominant in the context of online profiles. Moreover, these effects were influenced by individual characteristics of the participants, such as 'need for cognition', in a manner that individuals with a high need for cognition placed more emphasis on textual cues. Amount of 'likes' also influenced the impression formation, especially when the profile owner was perceived as manipulative. Additional interactions and further implication are discussed.
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We discuss the results of an experimental public good game with group representatives in Germany and Japan, societies with varying levels of individualism. Representatives are permitted to communicate with their constituencies, but not with other representatives. We focus on accountability between representative and his constituency and on the risk taken in the interaction between representatives. We find that in Germany, subjects more readily trust a stranger's cooperativeness, groups reach agreement faster and are quicker to discuss and formulate a strategy in pre-play communication vis-a-vis Japanese subjects, where group formation takes longer. Further, we find a stronger end effect in Germany than in Japan, where the period of play explains much less variance in contribution behavior. Our study contributes to our understanding of intercultural differences in group formation and behavior when small group representatives invest in the public good, with implications for cross-cultural management, negotiation and leadership. Our evidence on between-country differences seems to empirically validate Yuki's (2003) framework for group behavior. We hope that our findings will stimulate further enquiry into human group behavior from a cross-cultural perspective.
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Movement is a universal response to music, with dance often taking place in social settings. Although previous work has suggested that socially relevant information, such as personality and gender, are encoded in dance movement, the generalizability of previous work is limited. The current study aims to decode dancers’ gender, personality traits, and music preference from music-induced movements. We propose a method that predicts such individual difference from free dance movements, and demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method by using two data sets collected using different musical stimuli. In addition, we introduce a novel measure to explore the relative importance of different joints in predicting individual differences. Results demonstrated near perfect classification of gender, and notably high prediction of personality and music preferences. Furthermore, learned models demonstrated generalizability across datasets highlighting the importance of certain joints in intrinsic movement patterns specific to individual differences. Results further support theories of embodied music cognition and the role of bodily movement in musical experiences by demonstrating the influence of gender, personality, and music preferences on embodied responses to heard music.
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When people speak, they gesture. However, is the audience watching a speaker sensitive to this link? We translated the body movements of politicians into stick-figure animations and separated the visual from the audio channel. We then asked participants to match a selection of five audio tracks (including the correct one) with the stick-figure animations. The participants made correct decisions in 65% of all cases (chance level of 20%). Matching voices with animations was less difficult when politicians showed expansive movements and spoke with a loud voice. Thus, people are sensitive to the link between motion cues and vocal cues, and this link appears to become even more apparent when a speaker shows expressive behaviors. Future work will have to refine and validate the methods applied and investigate how mismatches between communication channels affect the impressions that people form of politicians.
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Manipulative discourse can be described as a strategy that tries to derail the interpretative processes. Through the pragmatic theory of Context Selection Constraint, this article shows how a speaker/manipulator can bend the addressee's interpretation mechanisms. In particular, we see that some manipulative strategies rely on seduction in order to constrain effectively the interpretative processes of the addressee. The proposed analysis draws on the literature in cognitive psychology to argue that some well-known cognitive biases can be shown to be at work in seduction-based manipulation.
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Humans spontaneously attribute a wide range of traits to strangers based solely on their facial features. These first impressions are known to exert striking effects on our choices and behaviours. In this paper, we provide a theoretical account of the origins of these spontaneous trait inferences. We describe a novel framework ('Trait Inference Mapping') in which trait inferences are products of mappings between locations in 'face space' and 'trait space'. These mappings are acquired during ontogeny and allow excitation of face representations to propagate automatically to associated trait representations. This conceptualization provides a framework within which the relative contribution of ontogenetic experience and genetic inheritance can be considered. Contrary to many existing ideas about the origins of trait inferences, we propose only a limited role for innate mechanisms and natural selection. Instead, our model explains inter-observer consistency by appealing to cultural learning and physiological responses that facilitate or 'canalise' particular face-trait mappings. Our TIM framework has both theoretical and substantive implications, and can be extended to trait inferences from non-facial cues to provide a unified account of first impressions.
Chapter
Introduction The ability to perceive and act upon collision events has widespread practical value. People avoid collisions when they walk around obstacles, drive amid moving traffic, avoid being tackled in football, and avoid damage to blood vessels while performing surgery. People create collisions when they pick up objects, hit or catch baseballs, and control a plane’s contact with the runway to land smoothly. It is important to understand how collision events are perceived. Collision perception has been studied in various applied contexts such as driving (e.g., Caird and Hancock, 2002), sports (Gray, 2002; Gray and Sieffert, 2005), and aviation (Kruk and Regan, 1996). Studies of perceived collision focused on the perception of when a collision would occur or time-to-contact (TTC), and the perception of whether a collision would occur, or collision detection. This chapter collects results of both types of studies. It is concluded that collision perception is based on multiple information sources and that the information observers use depends on the context. It is essential to determine the conditions under which different information sources are used. Toward this aim, a conceptual framework is proposed. This chapter is organized into four sections. First, different types of collision events that people perceive are elucidated. The term “collision” includes contacting, intercepting, or reaching a target.
Conference Paper
Human face and facial features based behavior has a major impact in human-human communications. Creating face based personality traits and its representations in a social robot is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose an approach for a robotic face presentation based on moveable 2D facial features and present a comparative study when a synthesized face is projected using three setups; 1) 3D mask, 2) 2D screen, and 3) our 2D moveable facial feature based visualization. We found that robot’s personality and character is highly influenced by the projected face quality as well as the motion of facial features.
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Introduction Everyday experience makes it seem that hearing or auditory processing requires little if any effort under normal circumstances. In actuality, extensive research indicates that understanding information presented though the auditory channel (referred to as auditory cognition) can place significant demands on attentional resources, particularly in challenging listening environments or when multitasking is required (Baldwin, 2012). A focus of this chapter is key concepts in auditory perception that minimize the attentional demands of auditory cognition in order to maximize our ability to use this sensory channel effectively and safely in communications and auditory displays. We begin with some of the advantages and disadvantages of the auditory modality and then a brief discussion on when to use the auditory modality, followed by a section on auditory vigilance. We then discuss the psychoacoustics of auditory displays followed by a review of auditory warning recommendations and parameters. We conclude with examples of auditory displays and warnings in applied settings. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Auditory Modality The auditory modality has several unique characteristics that result in specific advantages and disadvantages when used to present information in displays. We begin by discussing some of the many advantages and then we point out some key disadvantages.
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Objective: It is not clear how well evaluations made by other people correspond with self-evaluations of esteem or confidence. To address this question, we compared measurements of confidence in participants with and without dandruff METHODS: Participants with dandruff were significantly different from healthy control participants on a quality of life measure of scalp dermatitis, but not on self-evaluations of esteem or confidence. To determine whether there were differences in the evaluation of confidence by others, both groups of participants were videoed while they prepared for or gave a presentation in an interview scenario RESULTS: Raters, who were unfamiliar with the identities of the participants, evaluated confidence from the muted videos. In contrast to their self-evaluations, male participants with dandruff were rated as having lower confidence compared to participants who reported a healthy scalp CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal a difference between explicit and implicit measures of self-esteem in men compared to women with dandruff. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Visual search is the process of finding specific target items within an environment using particular visual features or prior knowledge. Searches can be as easy as finding your friend with purple hair in a lecture hall or as complicated as finding a purposefully concealed weapon among thousands of harmless bags at an airport checkpoint. Visual searches take place in everyday, innocuous contexts such as finding your car in a parking lot, and in critical contexts, such as finding enemy combatants in an urban battlefield. We conduct searches all the time, and most searches are relatively commonplace. However, in some cases, visual searches can be critically important. For example, airport security screeners must identify harmful items in baggage, and radiologists must identify abnormalities in medical radiographs. Despite the ubiquitous nature of search and the fact that it is sometimes life-or-death critical, human visual search is far from ideal - errors are often made, and searches are typically conducted for either too little or too much time. Thus, some fundamental research questions are the following: How can we maximize search efficiency? What is the best way to increase both search speed and accuracy? Much academic research has focused on increasing search performance, but does such research adequately translate to situations outside the laboratory environment? These open questions are the foundation of research in applied visual search - the application of what has been learned about search accuracy and efficiency from lab-based experimentation to search conditions in the workplace for career searchers, with the goal of increasing performance.
Chapter
Introduction Researchers have studied sustained attention systematically for more than a half-century (Dember and Warm, 1979). Experiments with adults have identified crucial influences on an individual’s ability to remain vigilant - influences such as task parameters (Warm and Jerison, 1984), environmental conditions (Hancock, 1984), and individual differences (Shaw et al., 2010). By contrast, interest in sustained attention in children has only a short history, and its focus has been directed primarily to disorders of attention in clinical populations. As a consequence, studies of children have remained largely distinct from adult vigilance research and have borrowed only rarely from the extensive foundation in experimental work established by Warm and his colleagues (Parasuraman, Warm, and Dember, 1987; Warm, Dember, and Hancock, 1996; Warm and Dember, 1998). However, research on sustained attention, once centered on adult populations, now investigates infants and children, and clinical research directed to the diagnosis of disorders now seeks comparative knowledge on typically developing children. Lines of research that once ran parallel are revealing valuable points of intersection. This chapter explores those theoretical and methodological contacts. We first explore general theories of the development of childhood attention and the methods used to assess sustained attention in infants and children. Theories of Sustained Attention Few theories address the development of sustained attention in infancy and childhood. While no theories to date address change across all age ranges, several theories have been influential in guiding research on early attentional abilities. The following section addresses several of these theories, beginning with infancy and then moving on to childhood.
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Introduction The distinction between applied and basic science is indeterminate and dissolving; therefore so too is the border between careers in applied and basic science. (For a detailed analysis, see Hoffman and Deffenbacher, 2011.) While academic scientists/teachers do conduct applied research, it is also not infrequently the case that researchers who work in government, industry, and private sector institutions conduct research projects that have strong basic dimensions. Despite these fuzzy and dissolving boundaries, it is one thing to train for a career in applied psychology as an academic, but another thing to train for an applied career in government, and quite another thing altogether to train for an applied career in the private sector. Selection of one’s career track still implies the need for some degree of specialist training. Notwithstanding the preceding observations, in this chapter we provide a spectrum of advice that we hope will prove helpful to all those who might consider such graduate training and the diverse careers in applied psychology, human factors, cognitive engineering, and/or related applied domains that are available. We discuss a variety of work setting issues (such as the academic, private sector, and government differentiation) with respect to the current Zeitgeist of applied research. We also try to be candid, though this brings the risk of disillusioning those who are young in science and, as yet, unjaded. Hence, we make use of both humor and sarcasm to flavor our observations.
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The Resource Concept Resources are mental capacities that both support and limit performance. As originally conceived, resources constituted a single attentional “pool” from which tasks draw. Daniel Kahneman (1973) proposed that a single task, or even two simultaneous tasks, could be performed without effective limit as long as demand did not exceed the pool’s capacity. However, once single or joint demand exceeded capacity, performance was proposed to degrade in proportion to the excess demand. The single-pool concept of resources soon succumbed to observations that interference between tasks depends on similarities between the tasks (Brooks, 1968; Klee and Eysenck, 1973; Wickens and Sandry, 1982; Wickens, Sandry, and Vidulich, 1983). This should not happen with a single undifferentiated pool, because interference is predicted to depend only on the summed overall demands of the tasks. Similarity-based interference implies that the pool of resources is instead differentiated, so that the demands of two tasks on the same subset of resources cause more interference than do their demands on different subsets of resources. From these empirical observations emerged multiple resource theory (MRT; Wickens, 1984). In Chris Wickens’s seminal cube model, resources were envisioned as constituting three dimensions. The modality dimension consisted of visual and auditory resources on the input side of processing, and of manual and vocal resources on the output side.
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Introduction Driving is a demanding task combining complex motor and cognitive skills. A typical driving task may include maneuvering among other vehicles, paying attention to various road users (e.g., drivers and pedestrians), and discerning static and dynamic road signs and obstacles. The total amount and rate of information that is presented to the driver is more than a human brain can handle at a given time in terms of the quantity of information or its complexity (Chun, 2003). Thus, the road environment presents an array of perceptible information, but drivers notice and attend only to a small fraction of it (Hughes and Cole, 1986). Traffic crashes are a prominent killer among all drivers, and most prominent among those aged 15-24 (Shinar, 2007). However, the majority of people can drive for many years without being involved in a crash (approximately one crash every 10 years; Evans, 2004). The ability of drivers to cope with complex driving situations can be attributed to our sophisticated attentional mechanisms that help overcome the overload of information within a visual scene (Chun, 2003). In addition, operators in complex and dynamic environments, such as driving, use cognitive mechanisms to integrate important information from the environment and anticipate upcoming events, a capacity that is often referred to as Situation Awareness (Endsley, 1995a). By focusing on situations and their related concepts, the cognitive system simplifies many tasks such as recognizing objects and events and predicting actions of other agents. Additionally, since specific entities and events tend to occur in some situations more than others, capitalizing on such correlation-constraints facilitates processing (Yeh and Barsalou, 2006; see also Vicente and Wang, 1998).
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Introduction This chapter describes two related models of visual attention. SEEV (salience effort expectancy value) predicts how scanning is driven by the four components in the monitoring and control of complex workplaces like the aircraft cockpit, driving cab, or operating room. It distinguishes between ideal scanning, driven just by expectancy and value, and actual scanning, driven also by the attention capture of salient displays, and the inhibiting factor of the effort of scanning long distances. Data validating the model, and a computational example are presented. NSEEV (Noticing SEEV) predicts the latency and accuracy of noticing discrete events within the workplace, in the context of the ongoing scanning predicted by SEEV. Thus SEEV predicts the distribution of fixations at the time when an event to be noticed occurs, and hence the retinal eccentricity of that event. Event eccentricity, along with event salience and expectancy, predict how long it will take the event to be noticed. Validation data from NSEEV are also presented, and practical applications of both models are described. The SEEV Model High in the skies over Brazil, pilots in a small corporate jet failed to notice that a visual indicator in their cockpit had changed status, informing that their plane was no longer broadcasting its position to others in the sky.
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Introduction The ability to identify and interpret the movements and actions of others is fundamental to visual perception and cognition. It is important for effective communication and social interaction. The motions of living organisms such as people or animals - both whole-body motion as well as partial movements by hands, head, eye, and so on - are typically referred to as biological motions (Blake and Shiffrar, 2007; Johansson, 1973). This form of motion is central to our perception of the dynamic natural environment and for the process of inferring intent from the actions of others. Humans have a remarkable ability to recognize these stimuli. We can detect and interpret actions on the basis of only minimal information and in the presence of considerable visual noise and clutter. Even more remarkably, a basic sensitivity to biological motion appears to be present at or very soon after birth (Simion et al., 2008). The presence of this ability very early in life might allow us to detect conspecifics, such as a mother, in order to find food, protection, and care. Empirical research into biological motion dates back to Marey (1884) and his study of human and animal kinematics through the use of “chronophotography,” which involves capturing successive single images of a moving figure using a high-speed camera. However, it was the development of the point-light technique by Swedish psychologist Gunnar Johansson in the early 1970s that led to much of the modern research into how we perceive and understand the actions of others. Johansson discovered that by attaching lights to the joints of an actor and then filming the actor in near-darkness he could produce a stimulus that captured the dynamic motion information associated with human actions, with only minimal form details. This is illustrated in Figure 21.1. Points of light (e.g., light emitting diodes) are placed on the major joints of a moving actor and are filmed in low ambient light, such as in a dark room. Simple video postprocessing, such as increasing the contrast, can produce effective point-light biological motion stimuli. More recently, several labs (e.g., http://mocap.cs.cmu.edu/) have published online databases of more sophistic motion capture data that can be used to create biological motion stimuli.
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Introduction British soldiers are patrolling a dusty village somewhere in Afghanistan. The soldiers proceed with care; unpredictable improvised explosive devices deal death and severe injury to allied forces with alarming frequency in the battle zones of the War on Terror. A black Labrador retriever accompanies the soldiers and eases their fears. The dog’s nose twitches with each intake of air. The soldiers know their lives depend on the dog’s perceptual abilities. At a New York cafe, a young deaf girl sits reading a book. A brown shaggy dog with a bright orange cape keeps her company. The dog’s ears are erect and constantly swivelling, searching. A woman’s voice calls the girl’s name. The dog immediately nudges the girl’s leg with a firm tap of the nose and then heads for the person calling the girl’s name. The dog looks back at the girl. The girl’s ears do not hear, but the dog listens for her. Termites chew through the beams of a wood frame house in the American Southeast. The owners of the house are unaware of the insects’ activities, but a little beagle wearing a green cape tracks them. The beagle alerts his coworker the termite inspector.
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Introduction Over the past 20 years, it has become clear that the health care systems in the United States, and around the world, are not as safe as patients might expect. Brennan et al. (1991) published the first estimate of the widespread incidence of adverse events in hospitals. Later, Bogner (1994) highlighted sources of error across several areas of medicine for the human factors community. Several years later, the Institute of Medicine estimated that as many as 98,000 annual deaths could be attributed to medical errors in U.S. hospitals (Kohn, Corrigan, and Donaldson, 1999). To put this into perspective, if patient fatality due to medical error were considered a formal cause of death by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it would rank in the top 10 among all leading causes. In the years following publication of the Institute of Medicine report, the HealthGrades organization began studying Medicare records collected from more than 5,000 hospitals across all 50 U.S. states to compile a more accurate count of hospital-related fatalities. In a recent report covering the years 2007-2009 (Reed and May, 2011), they counted more than 708,000 total patient safety events and more than 79,000 patient deaths with an estimated cost of $7.3 billion. The health care community has recently begun to embrace simulation technology, for its potential to help reduce medical errors and improve patient safety (Gaba, 2004; Gallagher et al., 2005; Reznick and MacRae, 2006; Ziv, Wolpe, Small, and Glick, 2003). Training simulators offer several advantages. First, they allow students to practice on devices instead of on actual patients. Trainees can make mistakes and learn from them, without consequences for patients. Simulators provide opportunities to expose trainees to rare or unusual events and circumstances. Further, students can be required to reach a level of proficiency before treating actual patients. Simulators can also be used for aptitude testing, career-long training, procedural rehearsal, board examinations, and credentialing (Dawson, 2006).
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Introduction Manual control is a hallmark topic and paradigm of experimental psychology, dating to the earliest applied experimental psychology on airplane piloting and railroad engineering (see Hoffman and Deffenbacher, 1992). The study of manual control affords investigation of adaptive visual-motor activity. The essential operational feature of manual control experiments is that the operator can adjust his/her response on the basis of visual information from a computer screen that allows for investigation of a range of sensorimotor processes (e.g., Jagacinski and Flach, 2003). This adaptive control paradigm has its roots in traditional manual tracking experiments (Jones, 2000; Poulton, 1974) and has foundational operational links to contemporary human-computer interaction applications. Manual control has been studied extensively following two theoretical frameworks: information processing and dynamic pattern generation. The investigation of sensory, particularly visual, information in manual control includes standard manipulations that change the amount of information in the display from an information theory framework (Shannon and Weaver, 1949) that has been interpreted through the central processing of perceived information and its influence on the motor performance outcome (Wickens, 1984). In this chapter, we interpret the visual information presentation in the context of the dynamical information of the force output afforded the participant, and we emphasize the mutual influence between the perception of visual information and patterns of motor coordination and control. From the dynamic pattern perspective, different perception-action components of the system organize themselves into coordinative structures (Turvey, 1990). The structures do not reflect prescribed higher level commands but are self-organized as a consequence of emergent properties of the environmental and organismic system constraints/configurations (Newell, 1986).
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Introduction Virtual environment (VE) training technologies provide what many perceive as the panacea in training solutions. Such environments immerse trainees in a realistic context, affording the opportunity to “learn by doing,” “train like we fight,” and “involve me and I understand” (Stanney, Hale, and Cohn, 2012). While simulators and VE training systems have been in use for decades, the advancement of training science and appropriate utility of such systems have evolved from initial systems aimed at providing simulators with high levels of physical and functional fidelity (i.e., level of agreement between VE and real world) as the key design metric, to a more human performance-centered approach. The driving force behind system design for optimal training is psychological fidelity (i.e., level of agreement between a user’s perceptions, thoughts, and actions in VE versus real world) (Kozlowski et al., 2004). The objective is no longer to develop a simulator that provides an exact match with the physical nature of the real world, but rather to develop a training system that provides a real world experience. With this new focus, training system designers turn the spotlight on how a trainee perceives and acts on the VE and how well the physical, psychological, neural, and biological aspects of that perception-action cycle match interaction with the real world. The focus turns from recreating the physical world around the trainee to recreating the sights, sounds, smells, and feelings a trainee relies on to support human performance - thereby simulating the sensory experiences that directly relate to specified training objectives (Alexander, Brunyé, Sidman, and Weil, 2005).
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First impressions of people's personalities are often formed by using the visual appearance of their faces. Defining how quickly these impressions can be formed has critical implications for understanding social interactions and for determining the visual properties used to shape them. To study impression formation independent of emotional cues, threat judgments were made on faces with a neutral expression. Consequently, participants' judgments pertained to the personality rather than to a certain temporary emotional state (e.g., anger). The results demonstrate that consistent first impressions can be formed very quickly, based on whatever information is available within the first 39 ms. First impressions were less consistent under these conditions when the judgments were about intelligence, suggesting that survival-related traits are judged more quickly. The authors propose that low spatial frequencies mediate this swift formation of threat judgments and provide evidence that supports this hypothesis.
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