Scorpion sting: Update

ArticleinThe Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 60(1):46-55 · June 2012with61 Reads
Source: PubMed
Abstract
Scorpion envenomation is an important public health hazard in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Envenomation by scorpions can result in a wide range of clinical effects, including, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity and respiratory dysfunction. Out of 1500 scorpion species known to exist, about 30 are of medical importance. Although a variety of different scorpion species exist, majority of them produce similar cardiovascular effects. Scientists and clinicians have studied patho-physiology of scorpion envenomation by critical observations of clinical, neurotransmitters studies, radioisotope studies, echocardiography and haemodynamic patterns. Regimen including scorpion antivenom, vasodilators, intensive care management have been tried to alleviate the systemic effects of envenoming. In spite of advances in patho-physiology and therapy the mortality remains high in rural areas due to lack of access to medical facilities, moreover the medical attendee from developing tropical countries may not be aware of the advances in the treatment of scorpion sting. Since the advent of scorpion Antivenom, vasodilators, dobutamine and intensive care facilities, the fatality due to severe scorpion sting has been significantly reduced in areas where these treatment modalities are used.
    • "However, in very few cases, the pain at the local of sting can progress to erythema, oedema, arterial hypotension and vomiting [6]. The severity of envenoming is related to age, and size of the scorpion, the season of the year, and to the time elapsed between sting and hospitalization [4]. Scorpion venoms are complex chemical mixtures containing a variety of toxic protein and non-protein toxins, enzymes, nucleotides , lipids, biogenic amines, and other unknown substances presenting biological activity [5]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal venoms have been widely recognized as a major source of biologically active molecules. Bothriurus bonariensis, popularly known as black scorpion, is the arthropod responsible for the highest number of accidents involving scorpion sting in Southern Brazil. Here we reported the first attempt to investigate the neurobiology of B. bonariensis venom (BBV) in the insect and mammalian nervous system. BBV (32 mg/g) induced a slow neuromuscular blockade in the in vivo cockroach nerve-muscle preparations (70 ± 4%, n ¼ 6, p < 0.001), provoking repetitive twitches and significantly decreasing the frequency of spontaneous leg action potentials (SNCAPs) from 82 ± 3 min À1 to 36 ± 1.3 min À1 (n ¼ 6, p < 0.05), without affecting the amplitude. When tested in primary cultures of rat hippocampal cells, BBV induced a massive increase of Ca 2þ influx (250 ± 1% peak increase, n ¼ 3, p < 0.0001). The disturbance of calcium homeostasis induced by BBV on the mammalian central nervous system was not accompanied by cellular death and was prevented by the co-treatment of the hippocampal cells with tetrodotoxin, a selective sodium channel blocker. The results suggest that the biological activity of BBV is mostly related to a modulation of sodium channels function. Our biological activity survey suggests that BBV may have a promising insecticidal and therapeutic potential.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2016 · Ceylon Medical Journal
    • "Hottentotta tamulus stings observed in the Jaffna peninsula were associated with clinical features of autonomic nervous system overactivity such as changes in pulse rate and blood pressure, sweating, diaphoresis and pulmonary oedema. Myocardial injury with elevated cardiac biomarkers has not been reported in Sri Lanka, although it is a known complication after the 'red scorpion' stings in India [1,2]. Scorpion venom contains a mixture of several low molecular weight basic proteins, neurotoxins, "
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2016
    • "There are no available accurate statistics on scorpion stings worldwide , but the literature indicates that all settings usually affected by this problem, as well as geographical characteristics and health facilities, affect outcomes, which are serious in some regions [4]. It is recognized that of the more than 1500 scorpion species in the world, few cause severe toxicity; the reports represent more than 1.23 million stings annually, of which approximately 3250 (0.27 %) cause death [1,3456. Previous studies indicate a high prevalence of scorpion envenomation as well as related mortality in developing countries compared to developed nations, reflecting a lack of adequate health care facilities, low socioeconomic backgrounds, and inadequate authentic information about this affliction in poor regions789. "
    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016 · Ceylon Medical Journal
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