Article

Effects of Cooking Conditions on the Lycopene Content in Tomatoes

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Abstract

Raw tomato contains a high level of lycopene, which has been reported to have many important health benefits. However, information on the changes of the lycopene content in tomato during cooking is limited. In this study, the lycopene content in raw and thermally processed (baked, microwaved, and fried) tomato slurries was investigated and analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. In the thermal stability study using a pure lycopene standard, 50% of lycopene was degraded at 100 °C after 60 min, 125 °C after 20 min, and 150 °C after less than 10 min. Only 64.1% and 51.5% lycopene was retained when the tomato slurry was baked at 177 °C and 218 °C for 15 min, respectively. At these temperatures, only 37.3% and 25.1% of lycopene was retained after baking for 45 min. In 1 min of the high power of microwave heating, 64.4% of lycopene still remained. However, more degradation of lycopene in the slurry was found in the frying study. Only 36.6% and 35.5% of lycopene was retained after frying at 145 and 165 °C for 1 min, respectively.

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... Literature has indicated that lycopene bioavailability increases with cooking and heating. In contrast, more intense heat treatments can cause lycopene degradation reactions (Mayeaux, Xu, King, & Prinyawiwatkul, 2006). Increased cell wall degradation leads to increased access to lycopene (Page, Van Stratum, Degrou, & Renard, 2012). ...
... However, at 70 • C, the lycopene content of concentrated tomato juice decreased due to more intense heat treatment and lycopene degradation reactions. Other researchers have reported similar results for the degradation of tomato lycopene content by heat treatment (Mayeaux et al., 2006). In this respect, reducing the vacuum pressure increased the lycopene content. ...
... min) and total energy consumption (1.001 kWh) justified the possibility of using the ultrasound-thermal method under vacuum conditions to concentrate the tomato juice (Galviz-Quezada, Ochoa-Aristizábal, Zabala, Ochoa, & Osorio-Tobón, 2019). Also, the higher values of lycopene (28.08 mg 100 g − 1 ) and vitamin C (55.63 mg 100 g − 1 ) contents guarantee the quality of concentrated tomato juice (Mayeaux et al., 2006). ...
Article
We investigated the simultaneous effects of temperature, ultrasound, and vacuum pressure in the tomato juice concentration process. To this end, a novel ultrasound-thermal concentrator under vacuum conditions was fabricated. The process was performed at three levels of ultrasound power (48, 84, and 120 W), three vacuum pressures (10, 20, and 30 kPa), and three temperatures (50, 60, and 70 °C). Also, ultrasound effects were investigated using other experimental setups without ultrasound. We obtained the optimal conditions for the tomato juice concentration process through the ultrasound-thermal method with ultrasound power of 120 W, the vacuum pressure of 10 kPa, and at 64 °C also by the thermal method were obtained at 65.5 °C and a vacuum pressure of 10 kPa. Overall, applying ultrasound in tomato juice concentrating had positive effects such as reducing the concentration time (28.42%) and total energy consumption (4.94%), as well as increasing the lycopene (49.20%) and vitamin C contents (22.10%).
... Tomatoes and tomato products are the primary suppliers of lycopene to the human diet while other fruits such as apricots, pink grapefruit, watermelon, guava, and papaya are also recognized as (seasonal) dietary sources (Caseiro et al., 2020;Grabowska et al., 2019). As many tomato products are often processed in a variety of ways (as well as also often being cooked before eating), the effect of thermal treatments on carotenoids, and in particular lycopene, in tomato products has widely been studied (Badin, Quevedo-Leon, Ibarz, Ribotta, & Lespinard, 2021;Cámara et al., 2013;Cooperstone, Francis, & Schwartz, 2016;Graziani et al., 2003;Gupta, Balasubramaniam, Schwartz, & Francis, 2010;Hashemi et al., 2019;Mahieddine, Amina, Faouzi, Sana, & Wided, 2018;Makroo, Rastogi, & Srivastava, 2017;Mayeaux, Xu, King, & Prinyawiwatkul, 2006;Müller et al., 2011;Re, Bramley, & Rice-Evans, 2002;John Shi, Dai, Kakuda, Mittal, & Xue, 2008;Sramek, Schweiggert, van Kampen, Carle, & Kohlus, 2015). Various steps applied during the production of tomato products may cause the degradation of carotenoids, but they are also known to be necessary for enhanced carotenoid extraction, together which lead to conflicting results in different studies on carotenoid profiles (Schieber & Weber, 2016). ...
... This was different from the lycopene from red tomatoes which appeared to be relatively more stable to heat processing (Hackett, Lee, Francis, & Schwartz, 2004). In another study, Mayeaux et al. (2006) reported 10, 30, and 70 % degradation of pure lycopene after 10 min heating at temperatures of 100, 125, and 150 • C, respectively while these values increased to approximately 47, 79, and 95 %, respectively, after 60 min of heating. These results appear to indicate a poor stability for lycopene during long heating times and its rapid decomposition at temperatures above 150 • C. ...
... Additionally, microwave cooking (at 1000 W for 20, 30, 45, and 60 s), with a relatively lower processing temperature (max 100 • C) and shorter heating time, contributed to the highest degree of lycopene retention in tomato slurry. Here, the highest percentage loss was 35 % after 60 s of heating (Mayeaux et al., 2006). Isothermal heat treatment of crushed tomato at 70, 80, 90, and 100 • C for 120 min resulted in an increased rate of lycopene loss with increased temperature, leading to 23.94, 30.17, 45.05, and 55.24 % losses, respectively. ...
Article
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It has long been recognized that the antioxidants present in fresh plant materials may be very different to those we ingest via our food. This is often due to the use of food processing strategies involving thermal/non-thermal treatments. Current research mostly focuses on determining what is present in vegetative starting materials; how this is altered during processing; how this influences activity in the gut and following uptake into bloodstream; and which in vivo physiological effects this may have on human body. Having a better understanding of these different steps and their importance in a health-and-nutrition-context will place us in a better position to breed for improved crop varieties and to advise the food industry on how to optimize processing strategies to enhance biochemical composition of processed foods. This review provides an overview of what is currently known about the influence which food processing treatments can have on antioxidants and gives some pointers as to their potential relevance.
... In several studies, the effect of heat and cooking time on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of vegetables among which tomatoes have been demonstrated. Mayeaux et al. (2006) showed that the lycopene concentration significantly reduce with the increase in temperature and heating time. Sahlin et al. (2004) demonstrated that boiling and baking of tomatoes has little effect on their ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, lycopene contents and antioxidant activity, while frying significantly reduce these molecules. ...
... The significant decrease in this parameter from the 20 th to the 30 th min can be attributed to the decomposition of phenolic antioxidant and vitamins (Vitamin C and β-carotene) as these compounds have a limited thermal stability in certain conditions. These results are in accordance with those reported by Dewanto et al. (2002) and Mayeaux et al. (2006) who respectively showed that the amount of Vitamin C and lycopene significantly decreased with processing time at high temperature (88-150 o C). Similar observations were made by Agamy (2016) who demonstrated that microwave cooking significantly reduces the phenolic, Vitamin C and β-carotene content of tomato. ...
... However, according to Palermo et al. [16], the more intense the cooking treatment, such as frying, the greater the flavonoid degradation. Further, High frying temperatures, in fact, could cause the oil to produce hydroperoxide free radicals and accelerate the degradation of carotenoids, as well lead to a reduction in their bioactivity [17]. Accordingly, variation in losses and gains of phenolics like bioactives due to cooking treatments in studied leafy types could be due to the types of cooking, the nature of leaves, and the forms of the bioactives that are present in the plant matrices. ...
... Plants 2018, 7, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 10 as well lead to a reduction in their bioactivity [17]. Accordingly, variation in losses and gains of phenolics like bioactives due to cooking treatments in studied leafy types could be due to the types of cooking, the nature of leaves, and the forms of the bioactives that are present in the plant matrices. ...
Article
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling, steaming, and frying) on anti-inflammation associated properties in vitro of six popularly consumed green leafy vegetables in Sri Lanka, namely: Centella asiatica, Cassia auriculata, Gymnema lactiferum, Olax zeylanica, Sesbania grnadiflora, and Passiflora edulis. The anti-inflammation associated properties of methanolic extracts of cooked leaves were evaluated using four in vitro biological assays, namely, hemolysis inhibition, proteinase inhibition, protein denaturation inhibition, and lipoxygenase inhibition. Results revealed that the frying of all the tested leafy vegetables had reduced the inhibition abilities of protein denaturation, hemolysis, proteinase, and lipoxygenase activities when compared with other food preparation methods. Steaming significantly increased the protein denaturation and hemolysis inhibition in O. zeylanica and P. edulis. Steaming of leaves increased inhibition activity of protein denaturation in G. lactiferum (by 44.8%) and P. edulis (by 44%); hemolysis in C. asiatica, C. auriculata, and S. grandiflora; lipoxygenase inhibition ability in P. edulis (by 50%), C. asiatica (by 400%), and C. auriculata leaves (by 250%); proteinase inhibition in C. auriculata (100%) when compared with that of raw leaves. In general, steaming and boiling in contrast to frying protect the health-promoting properties of the leafy vegetables.
... To sum up, Mayeaux et al. (2006) and Shi et al., (2008) suggested that mild thermal processing could simultaneously increase lycopene concentration in carrot homogenate and tomato products by increasing the free extractable form of lycopene while degrading by oxidation. reported a decreased stability of pure lycopene standard, as a model system, during heating at 100 C to 150 C for 0 to 60 minutes. ...
... Effects of intensive thermal treatment a. DegradationSharma and LeMaguer (1996),Mayor-Miebach et al. (2005) andShi et al. (2008) explained that extreme heating of tomato products at high temperature (>100C) during processing for prolonged period causes the loss of lycopene by oxidation. Similarly,Mayeaux et al. (2006) ...
Thesis
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ABSTRACT Lycopene, which is claimed as a natural antioxidant and may provide protection against different cancers, is a natural coloring compound, which is found in some fruits and vegetables. The major source is tomato and tomato based food products. Tomato products such as tomato puree, tomato juice, tomato ketchup are processed with the application of thermal treatments and mechanical homogenization, which can influence lycopene stability. In addition, the formulation of tomato puree can also affect the lycopene stability. Heating, mechanical homogenization and changes in formulation of the puree might cause lycopene degradation and isomerization. There are limited studies available on the degradation and isomerization of lycopene during thermal treatment preceded by high pressure homogenization. The objective of this research was to study the effect of high pressure homogenization of tomato puree (with 5% olive oil) followed by thermal treatment (80 °C, 90 °C, 100 °C, 110 °C, 120 °C, 130 °C and 140 °C) for 0 min to 60 min on lycopene degradation and isomerization. In addition, the purpose was to determine the kinetic parameters that describe the rate of lycopene content changes. All-E- lycopene degradation and formation of total-Z-lycopene were modeled, while changes in other Z-lycopene isomers were studied without modeling. This knowledge could probably help to identify the optimal processing conditions for thermal treatments preceded by high pressure homogenization of tomato puree and other tomato products. The degradation of total lycopene was very high with the increase of treatment time (0 to 60 min) and treatment temperature (80 °C to 140 °C). Kinetic modeling was performed for all-E-lycopene and total-Z-lycopene by the use of SAS software. A two-step and a one-step modeling approach was used. The model parameters k and Ea were estimated for all-E-lycopene. Rate constants (k) between 0.045 and 0.228 min-1 and an activation energy (Ea) of 36.126 kJ/mol were obtained by two-step modeling. A rate constant (kref) of 0.113 min-1 and an activation energy of 35.115 kJ/mol were obtained using a one-step approach with a reference temperature of 110 °C. On the other hand, the formation/isomerization rate (k) for total-Z-lycopene was between 0.015 and 0.228 min-1 and the activation energy was 46.390 kJ/mol using two-step modeling. Applying one-step modeling resulted in a rate constant of 0.103 min-1 at 110 °C and an activation energy 54.775 kJ/mol.
... In several studies, the effect of heat and cooking time on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of vegetables among which tomatoes have been demonstrated. Mayeaux et al. (2006) showed that the lycopene concentration significantly reduce with the increase in temperature and heating time. Sahlin et al. (2004) demonstrated that boiling and baking of tomatoes has little effect on their ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, lycopene contents and antioxidant activity, while frying significantly reduce these molecules. ...
... The significant decrease in this parameter from the 20 th to the 30 th min can be attributed to the decomposition of phenolic antioxidant and vitamins (Vitamin C and β-carotene) as these compounds have a limited thermal stability in certain conditions. These results are in accordance with those reported by Dewanto et al. (2002) and Mayeaux et al. (2006) who respectively showed that the amount of Vitamin C and lycopene significantly decreased with processing time at high temperature (88-150 o C). Similar observations were made by Agamy (2016) who demonstrated that microwave cooking significantly reduces the phenolic, Vitamin C and β-carotene content of tomato. ...
... In several studies, the effect of heat and cooking time on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of vegetables among which tomatoes have been demonstrated. Mayeaux et al. (2006) showed that the lycopene concentration significantly reduce with the increase in temperature and heating time. Sahlin et al. (2004) demonstrated that boiling and baking of tomatoes has little effect on their ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, lycopene contents and antioxidant activity, while frying significantly reduce these molecules. ...
... The significant decrease in this parameter from the 20 th to the 30 th min can be attributed to the decomposition of phenolic antioxidant and vitamins (Vitamin C and β-carotene) as these compounds have a limited thermal stability in certain conditions. These results are in accordance with those reported by Dewanto et al. (2002) and Mayeaux et al. (2006) who respectively showed that the amount of Vitamin C and lycopene significantly decreased with processing time at high temperature (88-150 o C). Similar observations were made by Agamy (2016) who demonstrated that microwave cooking significantly reduces the phenolic, Vitamin C and β-carotene content of tomato. ...
Article
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This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling) on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of ripe tomato fruits. Fresh tomato fruits were divided into four groups amongst which three of them were respectively boiled at 98 °C for 10, 20 and 30 min. The last group was not processed and served as control. After processing, the fruits were dried, grounded and the natural antioxidants extracted with methanol. The dried extracts obtained were characterized by determining their total phenolic content and antioxidant activity [2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA), Ferric reducing Antioxidant power (FRAP) and Metal Chelation ability (MCA)]. Results showed that the total phenolic content of fresh tomato fruits significantly increase after boiling for 10 min (11.59-18.82 mg GAE/g) and that when boiled for more than 10 min, its concentration significantly decrease (18.82-9.36 mg GAE/g). The determination of the antioxidant activity of the extracts showed that processing time significantly reduce the DPPH-RSA, the FRAP and the MCA of ripe tomato fruits. No significant difference was registered between the radical scavenging activity of fresh tomato fruits and the sample boiled for 10 min at all concentrations. However, with the other tests, the activity of the sample boiled for 10 min was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to that of the fresh sample. Practical Applications Ripe tomato fruits should be boiled for a maximum of 10 min this in order to better preserve the natural antioxidants present, as they can significantly contribute to the reduction of the damages caused by oxidative stress in the body. Keywords: Tomato fruits, boiling, phenolic content, antioxidant activity.
... The decreasing singlet oxygen scavenging activity of leafy vegetables may be due to a reduction in carotenoid content in leaves as carotenoids are effective single scavenging molecules [1]. According to Gunathilake et al. [34], singlet oxygen scavenging ability of leaf extracts correlates with its carotenoid content. [1]. ...
... [1]. According to Gunathilake, et al. [34], singlet oxygen scavenging ability of leaf extracts correlates with its carotenoid content. Results showed that some leaves had increased antioxidant activity due to cooking and some leafy types reduced their antioxidant activity after subsequent cooking treatment. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling, steaming, and frying) on polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of six edible leaves. The total antioxidant capacity of the fresh and cooked leaves was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and singlet oxygen scavenging assays. The results revealed that frying caused a reduction in major bioactives and antioxidant activities in all leafy vegetables tested. However, steamed and boiled leaves of C. auriculata and C. asiatica have shown greater levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity compared with fresh leaves. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents of boiled S. grandiflora and G. lactiferum were higher than that of their fresh form. Boiled and steamed O. zeylanica and S. grandiflora have shown higher carotenoids. Boiled and steamed leaves of P. edulis have shown higher antioxidant activity. The impact of cooking on the changes in bioactive concentrations and antioxidant capacities are dependent on the species and the method of cooking.
... Therefore, various drying methods have been used to extend its shelf-life, however these techniques had a negative effect on lycopene content (Collins et al, 2006;Tran et al, 2008;Auisakchaiyoung and Rojanakorn, 2015;Pinthong et al, 2019). There are many factors that lead to the degradation of lycopene such as temperature, light, oxygen, processing time through isomerization and oxidation ( Giovanelli and Paradiso, 2002;Mayeaux et al, 2006;Vongsawasdi et al, 2007). ...
... Tanongkankit et al (2016) also reported the accelerated loss of lycopene in dried gac fruit aril as temperature of hot air increased from 60 to 70 and 80C. Lycopene in [577] Proceedings of RSU International Research Conference (2020) Published online: Copyright © 2016-2020 Rangsit University tomato slurry also decreased as hot air temperature and time increased from 177 to 218C and 15 to 45 min in baking process (Mayeaux et al, 2006). Spray drying, drum drying and freeze drying methods had been shown recently to have negative effect on lycopene content of gac fruit pulp and aril mixture as well (Pinthong et al, 2019). ...
Conference Paper
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Lycopene is the significant and the most abundant carotenoid in gac fruit aril. However, degradation of lycopene can occur during drying and storage and is influenced by factors such as heat, oxygen, and light. This research aimed to determine the optimal condition for drying of aril using vacuum drier that limits aril exposure to oxygen. Aril was dried at 50, 70 and 90C under 10 kPa vacuum, samples were collected every 2 h until their moisture content was less than 12% (wet basis) specified in the dried fruit standard. Properties of the dried aril were examined including moisture content, water activity, instrumental color, and percentage of lycopene retention. The time needed to achieve the required final moisture content when fresh aril was dried at 50, 70 and 90C were 18, 10 and 8 h, respectively. Properties of the dried aril were found to be depended on the drying conditions. It was found that the optimum temperature and time for drying of gac fruit aril were 90C and 8 h. The attained moisture content was 7.46% (wet basis) and water activity was 0.449 respectively. The dried aril exhibited the highest redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values compared to other conditions. The retention of lycopene was 27.18%, almost similar to other conditions. The results also revealed the possibility of using vacuum sealed laminated aluminum foil bag stored at ambient temperature as an option for storage of the dried aril resulting in the lycopene retention of 92.14% after 4 weeks.
... In thermal stability study using a pure lycopene standard, Mayeaux, et al., [5] have reported that, 50% of lycopene was degraded at 100⁰C after 60 min, at 125⁰C after 20 min and 150⁰C after less than 10 min. Only 64.1% and 51.5% lycopene was retained when the tomato slurry was baked at 177⁰C and 218 ᴼC for 15 min, respectively. ...
... Lycopene content of different treatments varied due to mixing with water in different ratios, factors affecting their concentrations and its thermal stability. Mayeaux, et al., [5] have reported that in thermal stability study using a pure lycopene standard it was found that 50% of lycopene was degraded at 100⁰C after 60 min., hence, T3 which resulted in lowest lycopene content ie. 4.05±0.16 ...
Article
A study on chemical properties of different treatments prepared using dried tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum), tomato pulp & water was carried out at School of Home Science, B.B.A.U, LUCKNOW during July 2020 to May 2021 to find out most appropriate treatment/puree having high content of lycopene and Vitamin-C, which can be used during off season for consumption, as a substitute to fresh tomatoes. Apart from lycopene & Vitamin-C; total soluble solids, acidity, ascorbic acid content, ash, moisture and pH of the samples drawn from different treatments were also studied during the investigation. Five different types of treatments viz. Dried tomato powder without food additives (T1), Mixture of tomato powder and water (ratio 1:10) without heating (T2), Mixture of tomato powder and water (ratio 1:10) heating at 60-70⁰C for 5 minutes (T3), Fresh tomato pulp (T4) & Tomato pulp cooked at 60-70⁰C for 35 minutes (T5) were used in the investigation. The effect of these treatments was discernible, as reflected on content of lycopene & Vitamin-C. The highest Lycopene content of 90.34±4.18 mg per 100 g was obtained from tomato pulp cooked at 60-70⁰C for 35 minutes followed by dried tomato powder without food additives (66.47±2.02 mg per 100 g). Similarly, highest content of Vitamin-C i.e. 109.03±6.68 mg per 100 g was obtained from dried tomato powder without food additives and lowest 19.43±0.95 mg per 100 g from mixture of tomato powder and water (ratio 1:10) heating at 60-70⁰C for 5 minutes. These results appeared highly promising considering the nature of powder & pulp.
... The lycopene in the tomato (raw and fried) as well as in the digesta aliquots samples was extracted following the protocol published by Mayeaux, Xu, King, and Prinyawiwatkul (2006) with some modifications (Heredia et al., 2010). According to this, sample (0.5 g) was weighed into 15 mL screw-top glass tubes; methanol, acetone, and hexane (6 mL, (1:1:1) (v/v/v)) were added followed by stirring for 30 min. ...
... Total lycopene content was considerably higher in fried than in raw tomato (5.1035 ± 0.0105 and 1.83 ± 0.04 mg/g of free-fat dry matter, respectively), with above 10% of trans-cis isomerization after frying. This fact, evidences the predominance of the release and solubilisation of lycopene from its crystallized form, versus its oxidation during frying in presence of oil (Mayeaux et al., 2006). The isomeric Total phenolic content (TPC) evolution expressed as mg eq. ...
Article
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Changes undergone by tomato-antioxidants during gastrointestinal digestion of raw and fried tomato, with or without presence of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730, were studied. Frying process enhanced the extractability of antioxidant compounds, being their content higher in fried than in raw tomato. In vitro digestion led to a significant loss of antioxidant activity (65 and 75% losses for raw and fried tomato, respectively), and total lycopene (60 and 50% losses for raw and fried tomato, respectively); and promoted trans-cis lycopene isomerization initiated during frying. Bioaccessibility of the antioxidant compounds was within 10% and 30%, being higher for phenolic compounds in raw tomato but lower for total lycopene. Finally, although the presence of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 reduced the bioaccessibility of antioxidant compounds, the results suggests that the tomato’s antioxidant compounds could have a protective effect against the loss of viability of the probiotic.
... However, many studies have shown that uptake of lycopene is greater from heatedprocessed tomato products than from unprocessed tomato. The reason for this occurrence is probably enhanced bioavailability due to breaking down of sturdy cell walls, thus making lycopene more accessible (Veljovic et al., 2012), and according to Mayeaux et al. (2006), thermal isomerization of lycopene is known to improve its bioavailability from food matrices. There is no data about lycopene content of jam melon which makes comparisons difficult. ...
Article
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Melon (Cucumis melo) is a fruit with high market value in Algeria with little details about its quality characteristics. Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters, sensorial profile, antioxidants content and antioxidant activity were evaluated in jam made from Algerian melon fruit (Cucumis melo). For that purpose, special attention was paid to total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), viscocity, total sugars (TS) and others, bioactive compounds and antiradical activity. Results show that jam made from melon had a comparatives physicochemical characteristic to other fruit jams and was highly hygienic with absence of microbiological contamination. wherease, the jam presents a low content of bioactive compounds, but it still remain an important source of antioxidants compounds with antioxidant potential in the diet.
... Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is a major vegetable that is widely consumed around the world. The health benefits of tomatoes are attributed to their abundant antioxidant components (Willcox et al., 2003); (Toor and Savage, 2005), such as lycopene and pro-vitamin A (Mayeaux et al., 2006), as well as ascorbic acid (Hanson et al., 2004), vitamin E (Lee et al., 2000), and other flavonoids (Dewanto et al., 2002). Tomatoes are consumed mainly as fresh or processed products. ...
Article
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This study was performed to evaluate the effect of using Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum EMCC 1027 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus EMCC 1102, used singly or together (1:1), (approximately 5- 6×109 colony forming units (CFUs)/ml) to produce fermented tomato juice. Tomato juice inoculated with L. plantarum, L. bulgaricus or their mixture exhibited significant decreases in pH (3.1, 3.8 and 3.5, respectively) after 3 days. Reducing sugar levels were found to be 1.9, 2.5, and 2.8 g/100 ml, respectively. The viscosity increased with time, was greater for the juice incubated with L. bulgaricus, and increased by 72% by the end of storage. The ΔE values did not change significantly during storage; only the redness of the juice increased in the pasteurized sample. Compared to all examined samples, juice inoculated with L. plantarum exhibited higher scores. Thus, probiotication of juice could serve as a method to prepare healthy beverages for lactose-allergic consumers.
... Lycopene is fat soluble, so it can be extracted with organic solvents; such as, acetone, petroleum ether, hexane, benzene, and chloroform. Recently, the addition of methanol, ethanol, or acetone to the main organic solvent was often used (Periago et al., 2004;Mayeaux et al., 2006;Colle et al., 2010;Poojary and Passamonti, 2015a). It was found that lycopene extracted by a solvent mixture, for example, hexane/acetone or hexane/ethanol was more stable than that extracted by other organic solvents (Van Den Berg et al., 2000). ...
Article
The extraction of lycopene from tomato paste using environmentally benign solvent was examined using several kinds of vegetable oil such as coconut oil, olive oil, soybean oil, palm oil, and sunflower oil as the solvent. Coconut oil resulted in the highest yield. A Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology was applied to optimize the process conditions (solvent/material ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time). A second-order equation was developed to express the lycopene yield as a function of the process variables. Its validity was evaluated by comparing the experimental results and a significant agreement was achieved. The optimum conditions were a solvent/material ratio of 50:1, temperature of 45 °C, and extraction time of 45 min, which achieved a maximum lycopene yield about 80%.
... Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is a major vegetable that is widely consumed around the world. The health benefits of tomatoes are attributed to their abundant antioxidant components ( Willcox et al., 2003); (Toor and Savage, 2005), such as lycopene and pro-vitamin A ( Mayeaux et al., 2006), as well as ascorbic acid (Hanson et al., 2004), vitamin E ( Lee et al., 2000), and other flavonoids ( Dewanto et al., 2002). Tomatoes are consumed mainly as fresh or processed products. ...
... The decrease of the lycopene content in extruded snacks enriched with various levels of powdered tomato ranged from 28.25% to 92.14% compared with the material before extrusion. Mayeaux et al. [2006] tested the effect of various heat treatment methods on the stability of lycopene, and showed that 64.4% of lycopene still remained after 1 min of high power microwaving. A similar treatment time was applied during the extrusion-cooking of tomato-supplemented snacks, and the results were comparable to lycopene losses during the aforesaid microwave treatment. ...
Article
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The paper discusses the infl uence of the addition of freeze-dried tomatoes on the chemical composition and selected physical properties of extruded corn snacks. Corn grits were replaced with dried tomatoes in the amount from 5 to 30% of corn mass. The total lycopene and phenolic content, the scavenging ability and the ferric reducing antioxidant power were determined along with the content of neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric acids and rutin. Also evaluated were selected physical properties, colour and the sensory profi le of corn snacks enriched with tomatoes. A greater tomato addition increased the volume of bioactive compounds, especially the total phenolic content. Snacks enriched with tomato exhibited a lower expansion ratio, water absorption and solubility indices, lightness and sensory characteristics but higher density, hardness and redness than corn snacks. Powdered tomato seems to be a functional additive with the high content of biologically-active compounds, and the enriched snacks displayed good physical properties if the tomato level did not exceed 20%. A higher amount of the additive signifi cantly lowered the expansion as well as increased the hardness of snacks. Still, the corn products with 25 and 30% of powdered tomato were more valuable due to their much higher level of bioactive components compared with the regular corn snacks.
... It's indicated the potential health benefits of a diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products (Mayeaux et al., 2006). ...
... The major secondary metabolites present in stigmatic lobes of saffron flower include crocin, saffranal and picrocrocin. Saffron has been reported to have potent antioxidant activity Crude lycopene was extracted from tomatoes by using the method of Mayeaux, Xu, King, and Prinyawiwatkul (2006) with slight modifications. 12 mL of each of petroleum ether and acetone (1:1) were added to tomato powder (2 g) in the dark amber colored flask. ...
Article
Nutritional quality of snacks prepared from cereals can be improved by the addition of crude lycopene (CL), tomato powder (TP) and saffron extracts (SE) which are known for their high photochemical content. The study was undertaken to prepare extruded snacks from whole wheat flour enriched with CL, TP and SE. Effect of extrusion on physicochemical, antioxidant and sensory properties of snacks was also investigated. Hardness of snacks containing CL and TP was higher than the control. Pasting properties of the formulations were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced upon addition of CL and TP. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the formulations with added TP increased significantly (p < 0.05). Antioxidant properties of snacks enhanced after enrichment. Extrusion significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the TPC, DPPH scavenging activity and pasting properties of snacks while, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation increased. Storage period lowered the hardness and antioxidant properties of snacks.
... to 100% after 30 min, but at 100 C losses of only 10% after 30 min and 40% after 60 min. In this same study, lycopene was better retained in the tomato matrix, regardless of cooking method and temperature, where even the most extreme heat treatment of panfrying at 165 C, roughly 30% of lycopene was retained [67]. Although the literature seems unanimous that very high temperatures above 100 C cause faster degradation of lycopene, there does not seem to be a consensus on an appropriate time frame of exposure, or to what extent or how rapidly moderately high temperatures below 100 C contribute to degradation. ...
... 3). These results are in accordance with other authors [Anguelova and Warthesen 2000, George et al. 2001, Sanchez-Moreno et al. 2006, Demiray et al. 2013], but not in accordance with Mayeaux al. [2006] Martínez-Hernandez et al. [2016] who found that lycopene has a decreasing stability in increased temperatures and long storage periods (degraded at 100°C after 60 min, 125°C after 20 min, and 150°C after less than 10 min). In dried tomato sample its content was ranged from 4.16 (genotype SPRM-20) to 6.06 (SPRZ) mg·100 g -1 sample. ...
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The aim of this study was to choose the genotypes of industrial tomato for the content of bioactive components (ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, total phenols and flavonoids) in fruits and its preservation during thermal treatment (by drying with parallel warm air at 60°C) and making of tomato juice (by pasteurization – cooking at 100°C for 7 minutes). For this research, a comparative trial has been set up with 7 genotypes, 1 commercial variety (SP-109) and 6 selected lines (SPP, SPSM, SPRZ, SPRM-20, S-60 and SPO) of high inbreeding generations. Experimental design has been done according to standard method of growing industrial tomato in random block system with three replications. By analysing the cumulative results of all researched genotypes for processing industry, the best for drying and fresh consumption was SPRZ and for juice extraction, SPSM was the best line.
... However, cooking at a temperature of 90°C could lead to the destruction of the leached antioxidant compounds at a higher temperature as observed in the current report. This is in agreement with report that some phytochemicals become unstable and decreased with increased time and temperature when exposed to a cooking temperature of 90°C [22]. Similarly, there are reports of the decrease in total phenolics and total antioxidant values of some selected cruciferous vegetables blanched at 98°C [23]. ...
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Most plant products undergo one or more different thermal processes before consumption despite the claims that cooking fruits and vegetables could have detrimental effects on the beneficial properties of the plants. This work investigated the changes in antioxidant status occurring in dried fruit of Xylopia aethiopica subjected to cooking at different temperatures. The analyses were performed on both raw and boiled samples to assess the total phenolic contents (TPCs) and the antioxidant potential through reduction of ferric chloride salt and bleaching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and pairwise comparisons by Tukey-Kramer test at p < 0.05. There was a significant heat-trend difference between the phenolic contents of the samples at the selected temperatures with the highest TPC recorded at 70°C. Similarly, the ferric reducing potentials of the cooked samples were significantly different (p <0.05) from the raw. However, uncooked samples had significantly (p <0.05) higher percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to cooked samples. The overall effect of cooking the dried fruit of X. aethiopica was due to an elevation in total phenolics concentrations and reducing potentials of the aqueous infusions. However, boiling decreases the DPPH radical scavenging ability of the samples. Therefore, this study suggests an optimum cooking temperature of 70°C which could result in the highest retention of phenolic contents and ferric reducing potentials in the fruit of X. aethiopica and lowest appropriate temperature to conserve its intrinsic radical-scavenging activity in order to assure a higher quality food for the maintenance of human health. Moreover, losses in the phenolic contents and antioxidant potential should be considered when the procedural temperature during processing is unalterable.
... Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is a major vegetable that is widely consumed around the world. The health benefits of tomatoes are attributed to their abundant antioxidant components ( Willcox et al., 2003); (Toor and Savage, 2005), such as lycopene and pro-vitamin A ( Mayeaux et al., 2006), as well as ascorbic acid (Hanson et al., 2004), vitamin E ( Lee et al., 2000), and other flavonoids ( Dewanto et al., 2002). Tomatoes are consumed mainly as fresh or processed products. ...
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This study was performed to evaluate the effect of using Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum EMCC 1027 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus EMCC 1102, used singly or together (1:1), (approximately 5-6×10⁹ colony forming units (CFUs)/ml) to produce fermented tomato juice. Tomato juice inoculated with L. plantarum, L. bulgaricus or their mixture exhibited significant decreases in pH (3.1, 3.8 and 3.5, respectively) after 3 days. Reducing sugar levels were found to be 1.9, 2.5, and 2.8 g/100 ml, respectively. The viscosity increased with time, was greater for the juice incubated with L. bulgaricus, and increased by 72% by the end of storage. The ΔE values did not change significantly during storage; only the redness of the juice increased in the pasteurized sample. Compared to all examined samples, juice inoculated with L. plantarum exhibited higher scores. Thus, probiotication of juice could serve as a method to prepare healthy beverages for lactose-allergic consumers.
... Sahlin et al. (2004) that frying reduces the lycopene contents of two tomato cultivars. Furthermore, Dewanto et al. (2002); Mayeaux et al. (2006); Murador et al. ...
... Sahlin et al. (2004) that frying reduces the lycopene contents of two tomato cultivars. Furthermore, Dewanto et al. (2002); Mayeaux et al. (2006); Murador et al. ...
... Although tomatoes are commonly consumed fresh, over Genetic variability in crops as manifested i n 80% of tomato consumption comes from processed morphological or molecular diversity is essential for crop products such as tomato juice, paste, puree, ketchup and improvement, leading to the production of preferred crop sauce [2]. Mayeaux et al [3] indicated the potential health types. Collection, characterization and evaluation of crop benefits of a diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products. ...
Article
Agronomic evaluation of crop genotypes is essential in identifying the genetic variability that exists within crop germplasm and it is also the starting point for genetic improvement of any crop species. To this end, nine tomato genotypes were evaluated for the variability in their agronomic characteristics and lycopene content. The tomato lines differ widely in the agronomic characters evaluated. Fruit weight ranged between 0.256g and 0.003g with'NHBig local' having the highest while 'NHCherry' had the lowest respectively. Genotype 'NHLeader' flowered the earliest with a mean number of days of 40.28, while 'NHCherry' flowered latest with a mean number of days of 72.389. 'NHCherry' had the highest number of fruits per truss and fruits per plant with a mean of 5.111 and 6.056, respectively. The content of Lycopene an important phytonutrient was also evaluated among the genotypes and it ranged from 70.25 to 147.29 µg/g, with 'NHLindo' having the lowest and 'NHLeader' having the highest. This paper gives information on the agronomic variation in the nine tomato genotypes assessed which can invariably serve as an index to selecting putative parents in breeding for new tomato variety that will combine desirable agronomic characteristics with high lycopene content. Key words: Antioxidant % Genotype % Germplasm % Phytonutrient % Putative % Variability INTRODUCTION of lycopene is directly related to ripeness and increasing
... Therefore, lycopene solubility in CO 2 increases when temperature and pressure parameters are both increased. By exceeding in elevating the temperature, degradation through isomerization and auto-oxidation of lycopene was often encountered, as observed by Mayeaux et al., especially during long heating times [66]. The effects of temperature and pressure on SFE were also investigated by Vàgi and colleagues who analyzed also the influence of air-dried and deep-frozen storages on lycopene recovery [67]. ...
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Growing attention to environmental protection leads food industries to adopt a model of “circular economy” applying safe and sustainable technologies to recover, recycle and valorize by-products. Therefore, by-products become raw material for other industries. Tomato processing industry produces significant amounts of by-products, consisting of skins and seeds. Tomato skin is very rich in lycopene, and from its seeds, high nutritional oil can be extracted. Alternative use of the two fractions not only could cut disposal costs but also allow one to extract bioactive compounds and an oil with a high nutritional value. This review focused on the recent advance in extraction of lycopene, whose beneficial effects on health are widely recognized.
... The results were reported in mg of gallic acid equivalent (mg GAE) per 100 g fresh weight. Lycopene content was determined following the protocol of Mayeaux et al. (2006) for obtaining the lycopene extract. Lycopene quantification was done using an adaptation of the method published by Anguelova and Warthersen (2000), using a high precision liquid chromatograph Agilent 2100 Series equipped with a Supelco Discovery® C18 column (5 cm x 4.6 mm x 5 µm), having a flow of 0.5 mL/min, and monitoring the eluent at 472 nm in a diode array detector. ...
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substrates formulated with different blends of sand-solarized manure and sand-vermicompost over yield, commercial and phytochemical quality of greenhouse tomatoes, and in addition to determine their benefit-cost (B/C) ratio for organic production of tomato. Six substrates were established consisting in blends of sand with 20, 30 or 40% of solarized manure (SM20, SM30 and SM40), and 20, 30 and 40% of vermicompost (VC20, VC30 and VC40), and control (TA) of sand fertilized with Steiner solution. Fruit yielding, commercial (fruit size, equatorial and longitudinal diameter, firmness, and soluble solids content), and nutraceutical quality (phenolic and lycopene content) were evaluated. In addition, cost-benefit (B/C) ratio of treatments was compared. Micro morphological analysis of the organic materials showed microscopic differences that could affect substrate functional properties. Substrate type affect yielding, and VC40 substrate had a higher yield than SM substrates, but SM20 had the highest phenolic and lycopene content in fruit, in addition to the highest cost-benefit production ratio (2.31). These results confirm that substrates formulated with blends of sand and either SM or VC can be used for organic production of tomato fruits with an adequate commercial and phytochemical quality without affecting yield, additionally to the economic advantages of such substrates for protected agriculture systems.
... It was reported that thermal processing of tomatoes into paste results in decreases in the lycopene concentration of 9-28% and longer processing may also result in increased losses [27]. Mayeaux et al. [28] also reported about 75% and 70% of lycopene loss during drying of tomatoes for 2 min at temperatures of 165 C and 145 C, respectively. is lycopene content decrease observed in the dried tomato could be due to the oxidation of the lycopene during the drying process [29]. ...
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In tomato drying, degradation in final quality may occur based on the drying method used and pre drying preparation. Hence, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of different pre-drying treatments on physicochemical quality and drying kinetics of twin-layer-solar-tunnel-dried tomato slices. During the experimental work, tomato slices of var. Galilea was used. As pre-drying treatments, 0.5% calcium chloride (CaCl 2), 0.5% ascorbic acid (C 6 H 8 O 6), 0.5% citric acid (C 6 H 8 O 7), and 0.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) were used. e tomato samples were sliced to 5 mm thickness, socked in the pretreatments for ten minutes, and dried in a twin layer solar tunnel dryer under the weather conditions of Jimma, Ethiopia. Untreated samples were used as control. e moisture losses from the samples were monitored by weighing samples at 2 h interval from each treatment. SAS statistical software version 9.2 was used for analyzing data on the physicochemical quality of tomato slices in CRD with three replications. From the experimental result, it was observed that dried tomato slices pretreated with 0.5% ascorbic acid gave the best retention of vitamin C and total phenolic content with a high sugar/acid ratio. Better retention of lycopene and fast drying were observed in dried tomato slices pretreated with 0.5% sodium chloride, and pretreating tomatoes with 0.5% citric acid resulted in better color values than the other treatments. Compared to the control, pretreating significantly preserved the overall quality of dried tomato slices and increased the moisture removal rate in the twin layer solar tunnel dryer.
... The content of lycopene in fresh S. lycopersicum fruit is around 0.88-7.74 mg/100 g and it differs according to the stage of fruit ripeness [110,111]. It is reported that lycopene content is higher in processed products because heating facilitates the release of lycopene from plant tissues and increases its bioavailability [111]. ...
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a primary cause of deaths worldwide. Thrombotic diseases, specifically stroke and coronary heart diseases, account for around 85% of CVDs-induced deaths. Platelets (small circulating blood cells) are responsible for the prevention of excessive bleeding upon vascular injury, through blood clotting (haemostasis). However, unnecessary activation of platelets under pathological conditions, such as upon the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques, results in thrombus formation (thrombosis), which can cause life threatening conditions such as stroke or heart attack. Therefore, antiplatelet medications are usually prescribed for people who are at a high risk of thrombotic diseases. The currently used antiplatelet drugs are associated with major side effects such as excessive bleeding, and some patients are resistant to these drugs. Therefore, numerous studies have been conducted to develop new antiplatelet agents and notably, to establish the relationship between edible plants, specifically fruits, vegetables and spices, and cardiovascular health. Indeed, healthy and balanced diets have proven to be effective for the prevention of CVDs in diverse settings. A high intake of fruits and vegetables in regular diet is associated with lower risks for stroke and coronary heart diseases because of their plethora of phytochemical constituents. In this review, we discuss the impacts of commonly used selected edible plants (specifically vegetables, fruits and spices) and/or their isolated compounds on the modulation of platelet function, haemostasis and thrombosis.
... However, it is important to highlight that thermic process must be done with caution because it leads not only to all trans-lycopene isomerization but also to degradation, which needs to be avoided as it affects the final products sensorial quality and health benefits (Murakami et al., 2018;Shi & Maguer, 2000). Mayeaux, Xu, King, & Prinyawiwatkul (2006) evaluated lycopene thermal stability and observed that some exposure to heat conditions led to a degradation of 50% in lycopene pattern, are they: 100 • C for 60 min, 125 • C for 20 min and 150 • C for less than 10 min. In another study, where lycopene thermal degradation kinetics was evaluated, in tomato juice, several heating conditions were evaluated in a water bath (70, 80, 90 and 100 • C for 20, 40, 60 and 80 min). ...
Article
Background Lycopene, a red-colored carotenoid, has several biological properties, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, antihypercholesterolemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, photoprotector and anticancer, making desirable its use as nutraceutical. Despite the fact that it can be found in several foods, tomato deserves great prominence because it is the major extraction source and the cheapest raw material, being therefore the human most ingested source. Tomato also stands out for being the source where lycopene was first discovered. Scope and approach This review article seeks to highlight the entire route that lycopene passes until its use as a nutraceutical, highlighting the main methods of extraction, concentration and quantification. Key findings and conclusions Solvent extraction and super-critical fluid extraction, centrifugation and evaporation and HPLC and UV–vis spectrophotometer were the researchers most chosen methods of extraction, concentration and quantification, respectively. It also was noted that its association with nanotechnology is desirable to circumvent limitations related to its physicochemical characteristics that limit, not only its extraction process but also its nutraceutical use.
... The method described by Mayeaux et al. (2006) was used for the extraction of crude lycopene from tomatoes. Kumpati et al. (2003) method was used for the extraction of saffron metabolites i.e. crocin, picrocrocin and saffranal. ...
Article
Demand for health-promoting food products rich in bioactive compounds and fibers is increasing. The current study was aimed to evaluate the physicochemical, antioxidant and sensory characteristics of whole wheat flour cakes enriched with tomato powder (TP), crude lycopene (CL) and saffron extracts (SE). Physical characteristics such as loaf weight of cakes containing TP increased significantly (p < 0.05) while loaf volume decreased as compared to the control. The color of the crust and crumb of cakes enriched with TP and CL was dark red while cakes containing SE were bright and yellowish. Firmness of the fresh cake samples was found in the range of 7.25-14.53 N. Antioxidant properties were significantly (p < 0.05) improved after enrichment of cakes with TP, CL and SE. The storage period increased the water activity while antioxidant activity and concentration of total carotenoids was reduced. Thus, cakes enriched with TP, CL and SE could be successfully developed with improved antioxidant properties, without compromising the sensory quality of the product. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13197-021-05267-2.
... This may be attributed to the difference in the structural characteristics of carotenoids and their localization/accumulation in the tomato. The lycopene loss under various household cooking conditions followed the order: frying > baking > microwaving (Mayeaux et al. 2006) and soaking tomato slices in only vinegar retained more lycopene than soaking in oil or oil/vinegar mixture (Sahlin et al. 2004). Temperature, oxygen permeability, moisture content and texture (fine or coarse) of the tomato sample are the factors that determine the stability of dehydrated tomato products. ...
... were 180.6, 73.6, 51.7, 10.4, 1.0 μg per gram in stages in the stages of red ripe to a large green, respectively Kläui and Bauernfeind (1981) Cultivar VT-145-7,879 had 30.16, 20.71, 12.18 mg/100 g of tomatoes at full red ripe, medium-red, and pink stages, respectively Nour, Trandafir, and Ionica (2014) Varies between 0.72 and 20 mg/100 g (WB Mayeaux, Xu, King, and Prinyawiwatkul (2006) Microwaving tomatoes at 700 W for 4 min resulted in a 10% decrease (WB) in lycopene content Barrett and Lloyd (2012) Cherry tomatoes had 86% decrease of lycopene when processed at 1-33 W/g at 40-80 C Heredia, Peinado, Rosa, and Andrés (2010) Microwave heating caused less than 13.52% loss of lycopene in tomatoes. The lycopene content of grape tomato without microwave heating was 26.93 ± 0.78 mg/kg FW. ...
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Developing more nutrient‐rich, sustainable food supply chains aligns with the co‐benefits of tackling malnutrition and minimizing food loss and waste. While food waste and nutrient loss as a function of food waste and processing have separately been a topic of much previous research, nutrient loss as a function of both processing and food waste from farm to fork has not been addressed. This critical analysis was motivated by the: challenge of nourishing a growing population, the economic impact of food waste, the societal costs of malnutrition, and the overall need to extend produce shelf life sustainably. Both food and nutrient loss and waste can occur simultaneously at various levels throughout the value chain as a function of different processing methods. Combined effects of food waste and nutrient availability/losses were determined through a systematic analysis of the available peer‐reviewed research data during thermal, nonthermal, and minimal processing for tomatoes, spinach, and kidney beans. The waste and loss datasets were derived from the USDA, the FAO, and the US EPA databases. This work presents a justification for more research to reduce nutrient loss and food waste to obtain a more sustainable supply of nutrients in the food industry. Practical Applications This analysis serves as a guide for food industry stakeholders concerned with nutrient retention as a result of processing and food waste in the food value chain. It also assesses the combined impact of processing and food waste on nutrient loss from farm to fork. Available nutrient retention data as a function of retort, microwave, high pressure, aseptic and fresh processing, and food waste were employed. To our knowledge, there has not been a study on food waste as a function of processing that considers nutrient retention and loss as a function of food waste within the entire value chain. A summary of specific research needs for a holistic view on nutrient retention affecting product, process, and package conditions through the value chain was presented.
... At the day one, the highest RSA (23.07±0.45%) was shown by stirred yoghurt, which was prepared with 8% (w/w) TPP, added "after fermentation", while the least value (1.58± Mayeaux et al. (2006); Shi (2000), the lycopene in tomato peel can be destructed due to the effect of heat. During the production of stirred yoghurts, milk is subjected to super pasteurization (90℃ for 10 min). ...
... It is also rich in ascorbic acid, lycopene and different phenolic compounds (Scalff et al., 2000). The potential health benefits of a diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products indicated by Mayeaux et al., 2006. Various micro element like potassium, vitamin C, folic acid and contains a mixture of different carotenoids, including vitamin A, effective β-carotene content as well as lycopene are also very rich in tomato (Wilcox et al., 2003). ...
Article
Performance of ten tomato hybrids were tested in randomized complete block design with three replications at the experimental field under the department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur from October 2015 to April 2016. Different agronomical traits were investigated. Analyses of variance for all the traits were showed significant differences among the hybrids. From the research work it was found that, significant difference was high in case of plant height, canopy width and number of marketable fruits per plant. Single fruit weight, days to 1 st flowering, fruit diameter and shelf life were showed moderate significant difference among the hybrids. Hybrid-6 was the highest yielding (2003.15 g plant-1) hybrid possessed highest single fruit weight (45.81g) with medium plant height (84.40 cm) and second highest fruit diameter (59.85 mm) producer. It also requires minimum days to 50% flowering (23.20) with medium canopy width (46.20 cm) and average number of marketable fruits plant-1 (41.40) in the same way medium shelf life (12.00 days) and fruit length (8.87 mm) too. The second highest yielding hybrid was Hybrid-10 which showed minimum thousand seed weight but produced lower fruit length (6.82 cm), fruit diameter (14.16 mm) and single fruit weight (29.78 g). The third highest yielding hybrid was Hybrid-4 (1913.32 g plant-1) and minimum thousand seed weight but revealed worsen performance to the other traits. So, it was recommended for further popularization of Hybrid-6 hybrid in Bangladesh especially in northern parts.
... The tomato lycopene was extracted using modified method of Mayeaux et al. (2006). 12 mL of each of petroleum ether and acetone were added to tomato powder (2 g) in the dark amber colored flask. ...
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The nutritional quality of bakery products keeps on degrading from the process of baking, packaging, transportation and storage. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of addition of tomato powder (2 & 4/100 g of flour) and crude lycopene (50 & 100 mg/100 g of flour), which have potent antioxidant activity, on the nutritional quality and shelf life of cookies prepared from whole wheat flour. Color values i.e., a* and b* of freshly prepared cookies containing tomato powder (TP) were found in the range of 5.40-6.21 and 33.20-33.40 respectively, and that of crude lycopene (CL) in the range of 5.18-5.24 and 32.50-34.90 respectively, higher than the control (4.53 and 32.50, respectively). Significant (p < 0.05) and non-significant (p > 0.05) increase was observed in the total phenolic content of dough containing TP (0.54-0.72 mg GAE/g) and CL (0.46-0.59 mg GAE/g), when compared to control (0.38 mg GAE/g). Antioxidant properties like, DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (ILP), and total carotenoid content (TCC) of dough and cookies increased significantly (p < 0.05) upon incorporation of TP and CL. Sensory properties of enriched cookies were comparable with that of control. Color values (a* and b*), hardness, TCC, ILP and TPC were reduced significantly (p < 0.05) with storage.
... Lyc content in tomatoes varies in function of many factors like cultivated variety, agricultural practices adopted, ripeness stage and storage conditions, and has been reported to range from 2.5 to 670 mg 100 g À1 w.w. (Mayeaux et al., 2006;Akbudak et al., 2009). In addition, extractability of lyc is strictly linked to the TP moisture that at higher value (i.e. that of TP raw ) reduced lyc vs. solvent interaction while at lower content got vegetal tissue dehydration lowering permeability. ...
Article
Tomato peels and seeds (TP) are the most abundant canning industry waste actually used to produce biogas. TP is rich in lycopene (lyc) and represent a more sustainable feedstock than tomato fruits actually employed. It was therefore chosen as feedstock together with supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE-CO2) technology to develop a TP-SFE-CO2 biorefinery, topic scarcely investigated. Two TP were tested and although TP-SFE-CO2 parameters were the same, lyc recoveries depended by peel structure changes occurred during pre -SFE-CO2 drying step. Higher moisture (102.7 g kg⁻¹ wet weight) permitted 97% lyc recovery and gave a water-in-oil emulsion as extract. Mass balance confirmed that lyc isomerisation did not cause lyc losses. After a significant oil extraction, exhaust TP showed a biodegradability 64% higher than the raw one, attributable to fibre structure disruption. The biorefinery proposed (SFE_CO2+anaerobic digestion) determined positive economic revenue (+787.9 € t⁻¹ TP) on the contrary of the actual TP management.
... Lycopene from TP is a major antioxidant source in the studied product. Mayeaux et al. [34] mentioned that even processing tomato slurry for 1 min at 100% power MWR retained more than 64% of the lycopene, whereas frying even at the lower temperature of 145⁰ C retained only 36.6% of the total lycopene. The high frying temperature of oil devalues antioxidants as oil can produce hydroperoxide free radicals and then increase the oxidation process, reducing antioxidants [35]. ...
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Extrudates were first prepared through extrusion-cooking and air-drying of different formulations obtained through a D-optimal Mixture Design containing blends of rice flour (RF), green lentil flour (GL), chickpeas flour (CP), and tomato powder (TP) in different proportions. These extrudates were subjected to deep oil frying (DOF) at 200⁰C or microwave roasting (MWR) at 75% power level (1000W oven) in order to develop desirable color and flavor characteristics. Physical properties including color (L*, a*, b*), expansion ratio (ER), breaking stress (BS) and antioxidant activity (AA) were evaluated, and the influence of product variables on output parameters was assessed. Increasing CP and GL in the formulations resulted in a decrease in the ER and an increase in the BS. However, the inclusion of CP and TP helped to produce snacks of golden yellow color and increased their overall acceptability. The addition of TP also improved the antioxidant activity of the resulting product. Both DOF and MWR resulted in a lower antioxidant activity; however, MWR led to more than 80% retention of the original antioxidants and higher sensory acceptability. ER and L* values had a strong positive correlation with the overall acceptability of products. The extrusion - air-drying - microwave roasting process produced healthy snacks with acceptable sensory quality, high protein (through added pulses), and enriched antioxidant (through added tomato powder) contents.
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Increased interest in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production requires breeding to create new cultivars with highly marketable values (e.g., regarding quality, nutrition, and health) and valuable sensorial parameters. The purpose of this research was to compare four tomato commercial hybrids—two newly created and two used as controls in the breeding process, cultivated in a high plastic tunnel, regarding a wide range of physico-chemical properties as well as nutritional and organoleptic components of the fruits, which are relevant for the quality of the tomatoes. The new AS 400 commercial hybrid registered the best results for carotenoids (16.64 mg 100 g−1 FW) and dry matter (6.88%). The highest total ascorbic acid value (28.03 mg 100 g−1 FW) was recorded in the other new hybrid, AS 300, while the highest values of total acidity were recorded on the Precos, used as the control (184.87 mg NaOH 100 g−1 FW). The correlations between the analyzed characteristics and the multivariate analysis provided insight into breeding tomatoes to meet the current fruit quality requirements. Based on the results, hypotheses have been formulated for the creation of new cultivars with anticipatory, prospective character, in order to ensure the future needs of the market and consumers.
Chapter
The influence of processing operations on bioactive compounds in foods depends on the processing method, types and contents of bioactive compounds, components of the food matrix, and structural characteristics of the food material. Physical loss, chemical degradation and biological reactions may occur in foods, semi-finished products or raw materials rich in bioactive substances during storage and processing, and the total content of nutrients in foods may change accordingly. At the same time, due to the destruction of plant tissues, and cell wall, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of bioactive substances may increase, and some complex nutrient matrix will decompose leading to simpler structures. This chapter briefly introduces the application of several processing methods for food preservation, sterilization and processing, such as traditional processing, new thermal processing and new non-thermal processing, and their impact on bioactive substances. In addition, the influential mechanism of common processing types and parameters on the structures and functions of different kinds of bioactive compounds is summarized.KeywordsThermal processesNon-thermal processesConventional methodsNovel techniques
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Tomatoes are known to be a rich source of vitamins, minerals and carotenoids, especially vitamin C, phosphorus, potassium, and lycopene and it may become an ideal addition to different types of processed foods. Keeping in view all these facts, dried tomato powder was prepared and analyzed for its vitamin C, lycopene and mineral contents. Tomato powder contain vitamin C 125 mg, lycopene 1.41 mg, iron 3.99 mg, phosphorus 173 mg, calcium 80 mg, magnesium 126 mg, Zinc 2.71 mg, copper 0.876 mg, manganese 1.83 mg, sodium 121.60 mg and potassium 2805.8 mg per 100 g. The results obtained showed that it is a good source of various macro and micro mineral elements. One hundred grams of tomato powder provides between 5.81-74.82% and 6.39-87.00% of the daily recommended intake for different macro and micro mineral elements for Indian male and female, respectively.
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Twenty tomato genotypes from the Institute for Vegetable Crops, Smederevska Palanka, Serbia were grouped in order to define the start material for breeding of cherry type tomato. Grouping was performed according to the average level of carotenoid (lycopene, β-carotene), total soluble solids (TSS) and fruit weight by applying PCA (Principal component analysis). The lowest level of lycopene was found in the genotype GK 115 (1.109 mg/100 g), and the highest level of lycopene in genotypes with extremely red fruits GK 128 (4.642 mg/100 g). In the studied genotypes the level of β-carotene varied from 0.015 mg/100g in GK115 to 0.454 mg/100 g in GK 133. The level of TSS was from 4.52 GK104 to 8 GK121. Fruit weight of the researched genotypes was divergent-from 11.8 g in GK133 to 306.4 g in GK121. The first two components explain 70.451% of total variability. The first main component was influenced by two (fruit weight and total soluble solids-TTS) out of four researched traits. The second main component (PC2) was influenced by the lycopene level, the third by β-carotene, while the fourth was influenced by TSS. Correlation matrix proved low correlation among the researched traits included in this study.
Chapter
Fruits and vegetables are living entities even after harvest with differential composition of nutrients with lot many biochemical and physiological process happening inside them. They are rich in water; and carbohydrate, protein, lipids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds are their major components, which can be altered by the metabolic processes such as respiration, transpiration and ripening. Fruit development, maturity and ripening are genetically regulated phenomenon leading to consumer appreciable quality attributes. Fruit and vegetable vary in their chemistry and physiology, which decides their processing stability, palatable quality, shelf life and storage behavior. Proper understanding of fruit chemistry and physiology, and control of ripening process using better storage techniques and genetic modification will help in reducing undesirable changes occurring due to ripening, hence keeping the produce more aesthetically as well as nutritionally sound for longer duration.
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Cooking at home has experienced a decline in many countries since the mid-20th century. As rates of obesity have increased, there has been an emphasis on more frequent home cooking, including its incorporation into several food-based dietary guidelines around the world as a strategy to improve dietary quality. With the recent trend towards the adoption of diets richer in plant-based foods, many consumers cooking at home may now be cooking plant foods such as vegetables, potatoes and pulses more often. It is, therefore, timely to explore the impact that different home cooking methods have on the range of nutrients (e.g. vitamin C and folate) and bioactive phytochemicals (e.g. carotenoids and polyphenols) that such plant foods provide, and this paper will explore this and whether advice can be tailored to minimise such losses. The impact of cooking on nutritional quality can be both desirable and/or undesirable and can vary according to the cooking method and the nutrient or phytochemical of interest. Cooking methods that expose plant foods to high temperatures and/or water for long periods of time (e.g. boiling) may be the most detrimental to nutrient content, whereas other cooking methods such as steaming or microwaving may help to retain nutrients, particularly those that are water-soluble. Dishes that use cooking liquids may retain nutrients that would have been lost through leaching. It may be helpful to provide the public with more information about better methods to prepare and cook plant foods to minimise any nutrient losses. However, for some nutrients/phytochemicals the insufficient and inconsistent research findings make clear messages around the optimal cooking method difficult, and factors such as bioaccessibility rather than just quantity may also be important to consider.
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Yield and nutraceutical quality of Sahel tomato cultivar under shade net was evaluated using different mixtures of organic substrates in Coahuila, northern Mexico. The treatments consisted of mixtures using sand (S), vermicompost (VC), solarized bovine manure (SB), agricultural soil (AS) and mineralized compost (MC). The treatments were: T1 (S:VC, 80:20), T2 (S:SB, 80:20), T3 (S:SB:AS, 80:15:05), T4 (S:VC:AS, 80:15:05), T5 (S:MC, 80:20), and a control treatment T6 (S, 100%) with Steiner solution. Yield results showed that the best organic treatments were T5 and T4 with 3.48 and 3.33 kg plant-1, respectively; while the highest yield was in control (T6) with 3.71 kg plant-1. The highest phenolic content in the organic treatment of fruits was 56.94 mg equivalent of gallic acid per 100 g in fresh weight for T5, while the treatment with chemical fertilization obtained 49.82. The greatest antioxidant capacity was obtained in T4, with 478.34 μM equivalent of Trolox/100 g fresh weight. Two colors were evaluated (yellow and red) corresponding to two ripeness phases. Lycopene content in tomatoes was in average 32% higher in the red colored fruits than in the yellow ones, with 3.12 and 2.24 mg lycopene 100 g pulp-1 values, respectively. For the red ones, treatment T5 showed the highest value (3.52) and in yellow ones T1 reported 2.35, while T2 presented the lowest values for both colors. Organic fertilizers based on S:VC can induce good amounts of lycopene in fruits of both colors, as well as improve phenols and antiOX.
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Phytoremediation as a technology whereby plants and microorganisms living in their rhizosphere are used to remediate contaminated soil, water and/or air, taking advantage of research methods of plant biology – e.g. botany, physiology and biochemistry – as well molecular biology, including genetic engineering. Phytotechnologies use mainly naturally occurring plant species which demonstrate the capability for effective removal of organic pollutants such as crude oil, herbicides, organic chlorine compounds or explosive substances and nonorganic ones including heavy metals, metalloids and radionuclides. Among popular plant species demonstrating a high phytoremediation potential are mustard, poplar, willow, sunflower and many others. Depending on a phytoremediation technique used, plants with a natural ability to accumulate pollutants have to be found – plants with an ability to build pollutants into their biomass (phytoextraction) or to immobilize xenobiotics in soil by their absorption and precipitation in the rhizosphere or to accumulate contaminants in root cells, thus lowering their bioavailability (phytostabilisation). Research on plant systems of pollutant enzymatic degradation (phytodegradation) or the ability of plants to release into the atmosphere volatile pollutants taken up from soil (phytovolatilisation) as well as to filtrate polluted water (rhizofiltration) has been conducted for many years. To increase the efficiency of phytoremediation processes, successful attempts to produce genetically modified (GM) plants boasting an enhanced ability to tolerate, accumulate or degrade pollutants have been also undertaken. The application of phytoremediation, for example to build parks or buffer shoreline in order to recover degraded land requires specialized knowledge of plants supported by laboratory and field investigations.
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Gardenia fruit pomace (GFP) is a byproduct during the Gardenia oil production and rich in Gardenia yellow pigment (GY) in which the major functional components are crocetin and crocetin derivatives (CDs). The application of GFP was still limited. In this research, the stabilities of CDs during thermal and lighting treatment were studied, food systems with GY or GFP were simulated to evaluate the effects of cooking methods on CDs. Seven CDs were identified and determined in GY and GFP by UPLC-QToF-MS and HPLC. The stability results showed that CDs were sensitive to heat and light, the great loss of total CDs and detachment of aglycon were observed during thermal treatment. Light-driven degradation reactions of CDs fitted the first-order model. Different cooking methods (boiling, baking, steaming) had distinct impacts on the CDs contents in the simulated food system with GY and GFP, steaming should be an appropriate method for cooking.
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The potential of microwave (MW) energy to offer significant reductions in heating time and load during commercial preservation operations such as drying, blanching, pasteurization and sterilization, and food preparation in domestic and commercial ovens makes it attractive to food and food service industry in terms of possibility of achieving better quality and sensory attributes of products. Microwave-processed foods may also have better texture, taste, and appearance than products processed by conventional methods. The objective of this chapter is to present overall effects of microwave heating on food physical properties, quality and nutritional attributes, composition, enzymes in different foods, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates as well as the formation of undesirable chemical compounds such as acrylamides (AAs) and compare those effects with other heating modes in various food processing operations.
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Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is among the most widely consumed vegetables worldwide and an important source of certain antioxidants (AO) including lycopene, β-carotene, and vitamin C. Improvement of tomato for content of AO and overall antioxidant activity (AOA) could potentially benefit human health in many countries. We evaluated 50 L. esculentum and three L. pimpinellifolium (L.) Mill. entries for contents of lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and two assays for antioxidant activity [anti-radical power (ARP) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (ILP)] for 2 years during the same period in south Taiwan. We detected high levels of genetic diversity for the AO and AOA measured in this study. Group means of the L. pimpinellifolium entries were significantly higher than L. esculentum group means for ARP, ILP, lycopene, ascorbic acid, phenolics, and soluble solids concentration, suggesting that introgression of alleles from L. pimpinellifolium may have potential to improve cultivated tomato for these traits. Ranking of entries for ILP and ARP were consistent between years, particularly for those entries with the highest means and these assays could be adopted by tomato breeders. Results from ILP and ARP assays were highly correlated (r = 0.82**) and it would be unnecessary to use both assays for tomato. Lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, soluble solids, and total phenolics were all positively correlated with ARP. Among AO, total phenolics content was most closely associated with ARP (r = 0.90**) and ILP (r = 0.83**); this suggests that phenolics make a major contribution to AOA in tomato fruit. Fruit size was negatively correlated with ARP (r = -0.74**) and ILP (r = -0.71**), indicating that combining large fruit size and high AOA will be challenging.
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Colorants: From the Physical Phenomenon to their Nutraceutical Properties: An Overview The Color Phenomenon Definition Human Perception Measurement Pigments Definition A World of Colorless Compounds Pigments in Biology Molecular Affinities of Pigments Natural Distribution of Pigments Classification of Food Colors Choice and Application of Colors Pigments as Food Colorants Colorants as Food Additives Safety of Food Colorants Inorganic and Synthetic Pigments: History, Sources and Uses Inorganic Synthetic Analytical Techniques and the Evaluation of Color Purity Natural Pigments: A Global Perspective Distribution Functions Carotenoids Definition Classification and Nomenclature Distribution Biosynthesis: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Functions Methodological Aspects Carotenoids as Food Colors Processing and Stability Production of Carotenoids in Bioreactors Anthocyanins and Betalains Anthocyanins Betalains Other Natural Pigments Chlorophylls Caramel Turmeric Cochineal, Carmine and other Natural Pigments from Insects Monascus Iridoids Chemicals and Colorants as Nutraceuticals Fundamentals Nutraceuticals and Related Terms: Definitions Food Items as Nutraceuticals Natural Colorants as Nutraceuticals Nutraceuticals: The Perspective Appendix: List of Abbreviations
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Consumption of tomato products has been associated with decreased risk of some cancer types, and the tomato antioxidant, lycopene, is thought to play an important role in the observed health effects. In this study, four carotenoids, trans-lycopene, phytofluene, phytoene, and ζ-carotene, were quantified in tomato products. Samples of raw tomatoes, tomato juice after hot break scalder, and final paste were obtained from two different processing plants over two years. Comparison of carotenoid levels throughout processing indicated that lycopene losses during processing of tomatoes into final paste (25−30 °Brix) ranged from 9 to 28%. The initial Brix level of the raw tomatoes appeared to influence the amount of lycopene loss that occurred, possibly due to the differences in processing time required to achieve the final desired Brix level of the paste. In general, no consistent changes in the other carotenoids were observed as a function of processing. The antioxidant activity of fresh tomatoes, tomato paste, and three fractions obtained from these products (i.e., aqueous, methanol, and hexane fractions) was also determined. In both a free radical quenching assay and a singlet oxygen quenching assay, significant antioxidant activity was found in both the hexane fraction (containing lycopene) and the methanol fraction, which contained the phenolic antioxidants caffeic and chlorogenic acid. The results suggest that in addition to lycopene, polyphenols in tomatoes may also be important in conferring protective antioxidative effects. Keywords: Carotenoids; phytofluene; phytoene; ζ-carotene; tomato paste
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An evaluation of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study has detected a lower prostate cancer risk associated with the greater consumption of tomatoes and related food products. Tomatoes are the primary dietary source of lycopene, a non-provitamin A carotenoid with potent antioxidant activity. Our goal was to define the concentrations of lycopene, other carotenoids, and retinol in paired benign and malignant prostate tissue from 25 men, ages 53 to 74, undergoing prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. The concentrations of specific carotenoids in the benign and malignant prostate tissue from the same subject are highly correlated. Lycopene and all-trans beta-carotene are the predominant carotenoids observed, with means +/- SE of 0.80 +/- 0.08 nmol/g and 0.54 +/- 0.09, respectively. Lycopene concentrations range from 0 to 2.58 nmol/g, and all-trans beta-carotene concentrations range from 0.09 to 1.70 nmol/g. The 9-cis beta-carotene isomer, alpha-carotene, lutein, alpha-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin are consistently detectable in prostate tissue. No significant correlations between the concentration of lycopene and the concentrations of any other carotenoid are observed. In contrast, strong correlations between prostate beta-carotene and alpha-carotene are noted (correlation coefficient, 0.88; P < 0.0001), as are correlations between several other carotenoid pairs, which reflects their similar dietary origins. Mean vitamin A concentration in the prostate is 1.52 nmol/g, with a range of 0.71 to 3.30 nmol/g. We further evaluated tomato-based food products, serum, and prostate tissue for the presence of geometric lycopene isomers using high-performance liquid chromatography with a polymeric C30 reversed phase column. All-trans lycopene accounts for 79 to 91% and cis lycopene isomers for 9 to 21% of total lycopene in tomatoes, tomato paste, and tomato soup. Lycopene concentrations in the serum of men range between 0.60 and 1.9 nmol/ml, with 27 to 42% all-trans lycopene and 58 to 73% cis-isomers distributed among 12 to 13 peaks, depending upon their chromatographic resolution. In striking contrast with foods, all-trans lycopene accounts for only 12 to 21% and cis isomers for 79 to 88% of total lycopene in benign or malignant prostate tissues. cis Isomers of lycopene within the prostate are distributed among 14 to 18 peaks. We conclude that a diverse array of carotenoids are found in the human prostate with significant intra-individual variation. The presence of lycopene in the prostate at concentrations that are biologically active in laboratory studies supports the hypothesis that lycopene may have direct effects within the prostate and contribute to the reduced prostate cancer risk associated with the reduced prostate cancer risk associated with the consumption of tomato-based foods. The future identification and characterization of geometric lycopene isomers may lead to the development of novel agents for chemoprevention studies.
Article
Most stability studies on carotenoid pigments and vitamins A in food systems concern autoxidation only. Trans-cis isomerization of all-trans lycopene (ATL) during tomato processing, and subsequent reversion in storage, lead to different sequence. Proposed reaction pathway scheme, based on known isomer characteristics and constituent reactions, includes lycopene autoxidation/isomerization relationships. The pathway may be applicable more generally to carotenoid degradation in other foods. Stage I: ATL oxidizes or isomerizes (up to 20%) to less colored, more oxidizable cis-forms which either autoxidize or revert to ATL. Processing and storage conditions influence distribution between two routes. Stage II: all forms autoxidize. Oxidized degradation products and fragments accumulate, with product fading and off-flavor. Presented scheme integrates available information, enables both kinetic and technological system considerations. Knowledge of lycopene behavior aids in improving tomato powder color retention and quality.
Article
Lycopene, a natural red pigment found in tomato, is correlated with reduced incidence of some cancers. Forty tomato varieties, including cluster F1 hybrid tomatoes, round breeding line tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and cherry tomato types (L esculentum var cerasiforme), grown under greenhouse and field conditions were evaluated for their lycopene content using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry. Lycopene content varied significantly among the tomato varieties, with cherry tomato types having the highest lycopene content. Greenhouse-grown cluster and round tomatoes contained more lycopene (mean = 30.3 mg kg−1) than field-grown tomatoes (mean = 25.2 mg kg−1), whereas cherry tomato types had a higher lycopene content in field-grown (mean = 91.9 mg kg−1) than in greenhouse-grown (mean = 56.1 mg kg−1) fruits. HPLC analysis of lycopene isomeric forms revealed a higher content of all-trans isomers in all tomato genotypes examined. However, the cis isomeric form was exceptionally higher in the field- and greenhouse-grown cherry tomato L esculentum var cerasiforme cv Gardener's Delight, which contained ∼9.3 and 9.9 mg kg−1cis isomers respectively. Results indicate that genetics and choice of cultivation environment may have a strong influence on tomato lycopene content. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Using high performance liquid chromatography, tomato cultivars which contain the Crimson gene (og) were usually found to have higher lycopene content (5086 to 5786 μg/100 g fresh weight) than those cultivars lacking the gene (2622 to 4318 μg/100 g fresh weight). A comparison of the color readings taken from tomatoes at the equatorial region with those of the homogenate prepared from the same region showed that the hue of tomato homogenate was a better indicator of lycopene content than tomato surface hue. The tomatoes' lycopene content was not affected by ethylene treatment or cooking for 4, 8, and 16 min at 100 °C.
Article
The chemical stability of lycopene in 2 commercial tomato powders was evaluated during storage. Liquid chromatography and spectral analysis were used to determine lycopene loss and the formation of cis isomers and degradation products. Tomato powder products were stored at 6 and 45 °C or under fluorescent light for up to 6 wk. Several lycopene degradation products were tentatively identified in the initial and stored powders. After 6 wk at 45 °C, 60% of the lycopene was degraded. At lower storage temperatures the losses were about 30% after 6 wk. Mechanisms of loss appear to be both isomerization and oxidation.
Article
Lycopene, a tomato carotenoid, has been associated with the inhibition of certain chronic diseases including prostate cancer. Tomato oleoresin is a lipid-rich material resulting from successive solvent extraction of the tomato fruit. Thermal stability and isomerization of lycopene in oleoresins prepared from 3 different tomato varieties, Roma, High Lycopene, and Tangerine, and tomato peel waste, were studied at 25 °C, 50 °C, 75 °C, and 100 °C in the dark. Thermally degraded lycopene compounds and isomers of lycopene were analyzed by a combination of C30 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatograph with a photodiode array detector, UV-visible spectrometer, or mass spectrometer. Effects of antioxidants on lycopene were also studied at 50 °C. As the storage temperature increased from 25 °C to 100 °C, the degradation of total lycopene in oleoresin from all samples increased significantly (P <0.05). Lycopene at 25 °C and 50 °C may degrade mainly through oxidation without isomerization. Isomerization of lycopene in tomato oleoresins increased at 75 °C and 100 °C. Tetra-cis lycopene in Tangerine tomato varieties followed different degradation and isomerization pathways compared with all-trans lycopene in other tomato varieties. Addition of α-tocopherol or butylated hydroxytoluene slowed the rate of degradation of lycopene in oleoresin.
Article
Three tomato cultivars (Excell, Tradiro, and Flavourine) grown under hydroponic conditions in a commercial greenhouse in New Zealand were semi-dried at 42 °C. The semi-dried tomatoes contained low levels of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural and were significantly (p < 0.05) darker (lower CIELAB L* values) and had a higher mean a*/b* value (1.6) than the fresh tomatoes (1.2). The mean total phenolics in the semi-dried samples of tomatoes (300 mg gallic acid equivalents, GAE/100 g dry matter (DM)) was significantly lower than that of fresh tomatoes (404 mg GAE/100 g DM). The mean total flavonoid, and lycopene contents in the fresh samples (206 mg rutin equivalents/100 g DM, 63 mg/100 g DM, respectively) also showed a significant decrease after semi-drying (179 mg rutin equivalents/100 g, 54 mg/100 g DM, respectively). Ascorbic acid content in fresh tomatoes (284 mg/100 g DM) decreased to 223 mg/100 g DM after drying. The total antioxidant activity of the semi-dried tomatoes (1783 μmole trolox equivalents antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/100 g DM) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of the fresh samples (2730 μmole TEAC/100 g DM).
Article
The thermal stability of lycopene was evaluated in a carrot cultivar with a high lycopene content (Daucus carota var. Nutri Red) by (a) exposure of carrot homogenates (with/without the addition of oil) to temperatures ranging from 25 to 140 °C; (b) applying convection and microwave vacuum drying to carrot slices. Heating carrot homogenates at temperatures above 100 °C initiated isomerisation of all-trans-lycopene under non-oxidising conditions, as indicated by a significant increase in 9-cis-lycopene. Isomerisation was enhanced at short treatment times, when sunflower oil was added prior to thermal treatment. Independent from an oil supplement, all-trans-lycopene was degraded at temperatures above 70 °C. The ratio of all-trans- to total-cis-isomers changed from 90:10 to 40:60, indicating a higher lycopene bioavailability due to generated cis-isomers. In oil containing carrot homogenates antioxidant properties of the methanol-soluble components raised after heat treatment at 130 °C for 0.5 h. Lycopene remained stable in dried carrots.
Article
Lycopene is the principle pigment found in tomatoes and is important not only because of the color it imparts but also because of the recognized health benefits associated with its presence. Heating and drying of tomato products under different processing conditions to manufacture tomato juice, pulp, powder etc. may cause degradation of lycopene. For an exact calculation of the rest concentration of a nutrient in a drying process one would have to know the material temperature and water concentration at each moment and the dependence of degradation reaction rate constant on temperature and moisture content. The objective of this study was to determine a mathematical model of the reaction kinetic of lycopene degradation to describe the rate of lycopene loss in a drying process of tomato pulp. Tomato pulps with different moisture contents were heated at specified temperatures for different time periods. A mathematical model giving rate constant of lycopene degradation as a function of material temperature and moisture content was derived from the changes of lycopene concentration in equal time intervals. This model was used to simulate the lycopene loss during two drying processes of tomato pulp. The first process was the concentration of tomato pulp with total solids concentration of 14% to approximately 40% final moisture content, whereas the second one was the spray drying of tomato pulp. It was concluded that there was a close agreement between the experimental and predicted values of lycopene loss during the tomato pulp concentration confirming the validity of the proposed model for this process. However, for the spray drying process a correction coefficient was introduced in the model, due to the more intense exposure of product surface to air.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of tomato processing on contents of lycopene, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol. Samples of tomato sauce, tomato soup, baked tomato slices, and tomato juice were taken at different times of heating, respectively, after each step of production. HPLC was used to analyze contents of carotenoids and vitamin E. Due to the loss of water during thermal processing, contents of lycopene, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol on a wet weight basis increased. On a dry weight basis, contents of lycopene increased or decreased depending on the origin of the tomatoes used, whereas the beta-carotene contents decreased or were quite stable. In contrast to lycopene, beta-carotene isomerized due to thermal processing. The alpha-tocopherol contents significantly rose during short-term heating. The increase was not caused by release of alpha-tocopherol from the seeds containing predominantly gamma-tocopherol and accounting for 2% of total alpha-tocopherol content only.
Article
Lycopene, a carotenoid without provitamin-A activity, is present in many fruits and vegetables; however, tomatoes and processed tomato products constitute the major source of lycopene in North American diet. Among the carotenoids, lycopene is a major component found in the serum and other tissues. Dietary intakes of tomatoes and tomato products containing lycopene have been shown to be associated with decreased risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases in several recent studies. Serum and tissue lycopene levels have also been inversely related with the chronic disease risk. Although the antioxidant properties of lycopene are thought to be primarily responsible for its beneficial properties, evidence is accumulating to suggest other mechanisms such as modulation of intercellular gap junction communication, hormonal and immune system and metabolic pathways may also be involved. This review summarizes the background information about lycopene and presents the most current knowledge with respect to its role in human health and disease.
Article
Several epidemiological studies suggest a lower incidence of prostate cancer in men who routinely consume tomato products. Tomatoes are the primary dietary source of lycopene, which is among the most potent antioxidants of the carotenoids. Men with clinical stage T1 or T2 prostate adenocarcinoma were recruited (n = 32) and consumed tomato sauce based pasta dishes for 3 weeks (equivalent to 30 mg of lycopene per day) before radical prostectomy. Prostate tissue from needle biopsy just before intervention and prostectomy after supplementation from a subset of 11 subjects was evaluated for both total lycopene and lycopene geometrical isomer ratios. A gradient HPLC system using a C(18) column with UV-vis absorbance detection was used to measure total lycopene. Because the absorbance detector was insufficiently sensitive, HPLC with a C(30) column and positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric (LC-MS) detection was developed as a new assay to measure the ratio of lycopene cis/trans isomers in these samples. The limit of detection of the LC-MS method was determined to be 0.93 pmol of lycopene on-column, and a linear response was obtained over 3 orders of magnitude. Total lycopene in serum increased 2.0-fold from 35.6 to 69.9 microg/dL (from 0.664 to 1.30 microM) as a result of dietary supplementation with tomato sauce, whereas total lycopene in prostate tissue increased 3.0-fold from 0.196 to 0.582 ng/mg of tissue (from 0.365 to 1.09 pmol/mg). all-trans-Lycopene and at least 14 cis-isomer peaks were detected in prostate tissue and serum. The mean proportion of all-trans-lycopene in prostate tissue was approximately 12.4% of total lycopene before supplementation but increased to 22.7% after dietary intervention with tomato sauce. In serum there was only a 2.8% but statistically significant increase in the proportion of all-trans-lycopene after intervention. These results indicate that short-term supplementation with tomato sauce containing primarily all-trans-lycopene (83% of total lycopene) results in substantial increases in total lycopene in serum and prostate and a substantial increase in all-trans-lycopene in prostate but relatively less in serum.
Article
Processed fruits and vegetables have been long considered to have lower nutritional value than their fresh commodities due to the loss of vitamin C during processing. This research group found vitamin C in apples contributed < 0.4% of total antioxidant activity, indicating most of the activity comes from the natural combination of phytochemicals. This suggests that processed fruits and vegetables may retain their antioxidant activity despite the loss of vitamin C. Here it is shown that thermal processing elevated total antioxidant activity and bioaccessible lycopene content in tomatoes and produced no significant changes in the total phenolics and total flavonoids content, although loss of vitamin C was observed. The raw tomato had 0.76 +/- 0.03 micromol of vitamin C/g of tomato. After 2, 15, and 30 min of heating at 88 degrees C, the vitamin C content significantly dropped to 0.68 +/- 0.02, 0.64 +/- 0.01, and 0.54 +/- 0.02 micromol of vitamin C/g of tomato, respectively (p < 0.01). The raw tomato had 2.01 +/- 0.04 mg of trans-lycopene/g of tomato. After 2, 15, and 30 min of heating at 88 degrees C, the trans-lycopene content had increased to 3.11+/- 0.04, 5.45 +/- 0.02, and 5.32 +/- 0.05 mg of trans-lycopene/g of tomato (p < 0.01). The antioxidant activity of raw tomatoes was 4.13 +/- 0.36 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of tomato. With heat treatment at 88 degrees C for 2, 15, and 30 min, the total antioxidant activity significantly increased to 5.29 +/- 0.26, 5.53 +/- 0.24, and 6.70 +/- 0.25 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of tomato, respectively (p < 0.01). There were no significant changes in either total phenolics or total flavonoids. These findings indicate thermal processing enhanced the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing the bioaccessible lycopene content and total antioxidant activity and are against the notion that processed fruits and vegetables have lower nutritional value than fresh produce. This information may have a significant impact on consumers' food selection by increasing their consumption of fruits and vegetables to reduce the risks of chronic diseases.
Article
A simple mixture process design based on the comparison of both quadratic and special cubic models and involving three mixture components (hexane/acetone/ethanol) as a solution for extracting lycopene from raw tomato, tomato sauce, and tomato paste was used to confirm the hypothesis that lycopene extraction rates are a function of the solvent used during the extraction process. Conventional criteria (p </= 0.15) were used to identify influencing effects in each model. Although the major component used in lycopene extraction was hexane, there was a positive secondary synergistic interaction of hexane with ethanol (all sample types) and with acetone (tomato paste samples); this suggests that a mixture including all three components is essential for optimizing the extraction process. The partial special cubic model yielded three stationary points, indicating the concentrations of hexane, acetone, and ethanol required to optimize lycopene extraction in raw tomato, tomato sauce, and paste.
Thermalprocessing ofcarrots:lycopenestabilityandisomerizationwithregardtoantioxidantpotential
  • Mayer
  • Meibache
  • Schuchmannhp
  • Regierm
  • Behsniliand
Mayer-MeibachE,SchuchmannHP,RegierM,BehsnilianD.2005.Thermalprocessing ofcarrots:lycopenestabilityandisomerizationwithregardtoantioxidantpotential. Food Res Int 38:1103–8
Chemicals and colorents as notraceuticals
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Delgado-Vargas F, Paredes-Lopez O. 2003. Chemicals and colorents as notraceuticals.
URLs and E-mail addresses are active links at www
  • C464 Journal
C464 JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE—Vol. 71, Nr. 8, 2006 URLs and E-mail addresses are active links at www.ift.org
Role of antioxidant lycopene in cancer and heart disease
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Rao AV, Agarwai S. 2000. Role of antioxidant lycopene in cancer and heart disease. J Am Coll Nutri 19:563-9.