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Analysis of carotenoids in ripe jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) kernel and study of their bioconversion in rats

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Vitamin A deficiency is of public health importance in Sri Lanka. Carotenoids are a significant source of provitamin A. The objective of this study was to analyse the carotenoid composition of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus sinhala: Waraka) kernel using MPLC and visible spectrophotometry and to determine the bioavailability and bioconversion of carotenoids present in jackfruit kernel by monitoring (i) the growth and (ii) levels of retinol and carotenoids in the liver and serum of Wistar rats provided with jackfruit incorporated into a standard daily diet. Carotenoid pigments were extracted using petroleum ether/methanol and saponified using 10% methanolic potassium hydroxide. Six carotenoids were detected in jackfruit kernel. The carotenes β-carotene, α-carotene, β-zeacarotene, α-zeacarotene and β-carotene-5,6-epoxide and a dicarboxylic carotenoid, crocetin, were identified, corresponding theoretically to 141.6 retinol equivalents (RE) per 100 g. Our study indicated that jackfruit is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids, though not as good as papaya. Serum retinol concentrations in rats supplemented with jackfruit carotenoids were significantly higher (p = 0.008) compared with the control group. The same was true for liver retinol (p = 0.006). Quantification was carried out by RP-HPLC. These results show that the biological conversion of provitamin A in jackfruit kernel appears satisfactory. Thus increased consumption of ripe jackfruit could be advocated as part of a strategy to prevent and control vitamin A deficiency in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry
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Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture J Sci Food Agric 85:186190 (2005)
DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.1918
Analysis of carotenoids in ripe jackfruit
(Artocarpus heterophyllus) kernel
and study of their bioconversion in rats
UG Chandrika,1ER Jansz1and ND Warnasuriya2
1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka
2Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka
Abstract: Vitamin A deficiency is of public health importance in Sri Lanka. Carotenoids are a significant
source of provitamin A. The objective of this study was to analyse the carotenoid composition of jackfruit
(Artocarpus heterophyllus sinhala: Waraka) kernel using MPLC and visible spectrophotometry and to
determine the bioavailability and bioconversion of carotenoids present in jackfruit kernel by monitoring
(i) the growth and (ii) levels of retinol and carotenoids in the liver and serum of Wistar rats provided with
jackfruit incorporated into a standard daily diet. Carotenoid pigments were extracted using petroleum
ether/methanol and saponified using 10% methanolic potassium hydroxide. Six carotenoids were detected
in jackfruit kernel. The carotenes β-carotene, α-carotene, β-zeacarotene, α-zeacarotene and β-carotene-
5,6-epoxide and a dicarboxylic carotenoid, crocetin, were identified, corresponding theoretically to 141.6
retinol equivalents (RE) per 100 g. Our study indicated that jackfruit is a good source of provitamin
A carotenoids, though not as good as papaya. Serum retinol concentrations in rats supplemented with
jackfruit carotenoids were significantly higher (p=0.008)compared with the control group. The same
was true for liver retinol (p=0.006). Quantification was carried out by RP-HPLC. These results show
that the biological conversion of provitamin A in jackfruit kernel appears satisfactory. Thus increased
consumption of ripe jackfruit could be advocated as part of a strategy to prevent and control vitamin A
deficiency in Sri Lanka.
2004 Society of Chemical Industry
Keywords: jackfruit; carotenoids; bioavailability; bioconversion
INTRODUCTION
Vitamin A deficiency is a nutritional deficiency
disorder of public health importance in Sri Lanka.
A recent national survey1revealed that 36% of
preschool children in Sri Lanka suffer from vitamin
A deficiency (serum retinol <20 µgdl
1). In view of
its well-established association with child morbidity2
and mortality,3this is a cause for concern. The
main strategy for prevention of vitamin A deficiency
in Sri Lanka has been the promotion of general
consumption of vitamin A, especially as carotenoids
from plant sources. Yellow fruits and dark-green leafy
vegetables have been especially advocated. Owing to
the current controversy surrounding the bioavailability
of provitamin A carotenoids from dark-green leafy
vegetables,4it would be useful to identify as many
yellow and orange fruits and vegetables as possible
for their potential contribution as a dietary source of
provitamin A carotenoids. Among these carotenoids,
all-trans-β-carotene, with two unsubstituted β-ionone
rings and an attached polyene side chain, is expected to
give the highest vitamin A activity. Many carotenoids
not meeting these structural requirements lead to less
or no vitamin A activity. In addition to this traditional
role, carotenoids with or without vitamin A activity are
known to be involved in immunoenhancement5and
the treatment and prevention of cancer and to possess
antioxidant capacity.6
Even if provitamin A carotenoids are present,
the utilisation of provitamin A may not be entirely
satisfactory, as there are factors that interfere with
its availability. The bioavailability and bioconversion
of carotenoids present in the diet depend mainly on
the efficiency of their absorption into mucosal cells as
well as their conversion to retinol. Fruits of the jack
tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus) are readily available in
rural Sri Lanka. The jackfruit is the largest tree-borne
fruit in the world, reaching approximately 35 kg in
weight, 90 cm in length and 50 cm in diameter. The
exterior of the compound fruit is yellow when ripe.
The interior consists of large edible bulbs of yellow,
banana-flavoured flesh (kernel) that encloses smooth,
Correspondence to: ER Jansz, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila,
Nugegoda, Sri Lanka
E-mail: erjansz@sjp.ac.lk
Contract/grant sponsor: IPICS; contract/grant number: SRI:07
(Received 9 June 2003; revised version received 19 April 2004; accepted 2 June 2004)
Published online 12 October 2004
2004 Society of Chemical Industry. J Sci Food Agric 0022 5142/2004/$30.00 186
Carotenoids in jackfruit kernel
oval, light-brown seeds. There may be 100 or up to
500 seeds in a single fruit. Each kernel weighs about
5 g. The ripe kernel is yellow in colour owing to its
content of carotenoids. To our knowledge, there has
not been any study on the carotenoid composition of
jackfruit kernel. Therefore the objective of this study
was to analyse the carotenoid composition of jackfruit
kernel using MPLC and visible spectrophotometry and
to determine the bioavailability and bioconversion of
carotenoids present in jackfruit kernel by monitoring
(i) the growth and (ii) levels of retinol and carotenoids
in the liver and serum of Wistar rats provided with
jackfruit incorporated into a standard daily diet. This
would serve to determine if jackfruit kernel could
contribute to the alleviation of vitamin A deficiency in
Sri Lanka.
METHODOLOGY
Sampling
Five ripe (judged by their strong fruity odour)
jackfruits were collected in and around the suburbs
of Colombo, Sri Lanka and cut open. The bulbs
of kernels and seeds were removed and the seeds
were separated and discarded. A total of 500 –750 g
of kernel is available in a single jackfruit. The kernels
were cut into small pieces and homogenised in a
mechanical blender.
Sample preparation
A homogeneous, representative sample of fruit pulp
(50 g) was ground with cold acetone and celite
using a mortar and pestle and filtered through
a sintered glass crucible. Grinding and filtration
were repeated until the residue was colourless (four
times). The carotenoids were transferred to petroleum
ether at room temperature (25 C) by adding small
portions of the combined acetone extract to 100 ml
of petroleum ether (specified boiling range 60 –80 C)
in a separatory funnel. After each addition, water
was poured in gently, the two layers were allowed to
separate and the lower aqueous layer was discarded.
When the entire extract had been added, the petroleum
ether layer was washed five times with water to
remove residual acetone, and the combined extract
was collected in an Erlenmeyer flask. The petroleum
ether layer was saponified for 16 h (in the dark at
room temperature) with an equal volume of 10%
potassium hydroxide in methanol containing butylated
hydroxytoluene (1% in petroleum ether). The alkaline
solution was washed with water in a separatory funnel
until neutral. The carotenoid solution was then dried
with anhydrous sodium sulphate, concentrated in
a rotary evaporator (35 C) and used for medium-
pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC).
Medium-pressure liquid chromatography
The carotenoid sample in petroleum ether (1 ml) was
injected onto an MPLC column (10 cm ×1.5 cm)
of MgO (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany)/celite (1:1,
activated for 2 h at 110 C) at 15 ml min1flow rate,
equilibrated with 100% petroleum ether. The fractions
were eluted successively with 2, 5, 8, 10, 15 and
20% acetone in petroleum ether; separation of the
carotenoids was monitored visually and each separated
fraction was collected as it left the column. The
visible spectra of carotenoid bands in 1 cm quartz
cuvettes were recorded from 350 to 600 nm on a
Shimadzu (Kyoto, Japan) UV-1601 visible recording
spectrophotometer.
Identification of carotenoids
The carotenoids were identified through a combina-
tion of several parameters such as visible absorption
spectra, position on the column, TLC on silica gel
G60 (6% methanol in toluene solvent system) as
well as chemical reactions such as iodine-catalysed
isomerisation7and epoxide tests.7The identification
procedures and interpretation of the results were car-
ried out according to Rodriguez-Amaya.7
Quantification of carotenoids
The concentrations of the various carotenoids were
determined spectrophometrically using molar extinc-
tion coefficients as described by Rodriguez-Amaya.7
Five different ripe jackfruit kernel samples of similar
colour (visually) were analysed in duplicate.
Biological assay
Healthy 4-week-old male Wistar rats (weight 200 ±
8.6 g) purchased from the Medical Research Institute,
Colombo, Sri Lanka, were used. They were housed
in stainless steel cages under standard conditions
and randomly divided into two groups of eight rats
each. All rats were weighed weekly using a single-pan
spring balance. Before commencement of the feeding
schedule, all rats were given a standard control diet
without added vitamin A for 2 weeks and blood was
collected from the tail vein for the determination of
serum retinol levels. For the test diet, jackfruit kernel
was incorporated (20% dry weight) into the standard
World Health Organisation rat and mouse breeding
feed8in the morning. Each day for 4 weeks, one group
received the test diet and the other (control) group was
given only the standard diet. At weekly intervals, body
weights were recorded for the determination of growth
rates. At the end of 4 weeks, all rats were anaesthetised
with diethyl ether and their blood was collected by
heart puncture using a 5 ml disposable syringe. The
blood was allowed to clot and the serum was separated
by centrifugation. The livers of the animals were also
removed. Serum and liver samples were stored at
20 C prior to analysis.
Analysis of serum vitamin A
Serum (100 µl),ethanol(100 µl)and retinyl acetate
as an internal standard were mixed vigorously in
a vortex mixer. HPLC-grade hexane (600 µl)was
added and the contents were mixed again until the
J Sci Food Agric 85:186 190 (2005) 187
UG Chandrika, ER Jansz, ND Warnasuriya
bottom layer was thoroughly extracted. The contents
were centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 5 min, then the
upper hexane layer (400 µl)was transferred to a
small test tube and evaporated under nitrogen. The
remaining residue was dissolved in 50 µl of 95%
methanol and analysed using RP-HPLC. Both the
retinyl acetate internal standard and a linear standard
curve (r2=0.9926)were used for quantification.
Liver vitamin A extraction
The extraction method used was a slight modification
of a previously published procedure.9Liver tissues
(0.5 g) were first homogenised (Ultra-Turrax T-25-
Basic, IKA-WERKE, Colombo, Sri Lanka), then
anhydrous sodium sulphate and retinyl acetate internal
standard were added. After the addition of 2
volumes (v/w) of 2-propanol/dichloromethane (1:1)
the mixture was vortexed and allowed to stand for
23 min. The extract was decanted and the insoluble
residue was re-extracted three or four times more
with dichloromethane as previously described.9After
filtration, 200 µl portions of the pooled extract were
evaporated to dryness using nitrogen gas and dissolved
in 95% methanol for the analysis of vitamin A. An
aliquot (20 µl)was analysed by RP-HPLC.
RP-HPLC for vitamin A analysis
For reverse phase gradient HPLC, Waters Associates
(Milford, MA, USA) pumps (model 515), Shimpak
column CLC-ODS (M) C18, 25 cm ×4.6 mm, rheo-
dyne injection valve, SCL-6A system controller and
CR-6A recorder were used. Serum extract solution
(20 µl)was injected onto the RP-HPLC column, and
vitamin A levels were analysed using methanol/water
(95:5) as mobile phase and detection at 325 nm. Cal-
culation of the retinol concentration was done using
standard curves to verify linearity over the sample con-
centration and passage of graph through the origin. A
one-point calibration was carried out on each day of
analysis. Retinyl acetate was used as an internal stan-
dard for extraction correction factor. Linear standard
curve r2=0.9926. Small correction factors needed to
be applied to values calculated for liver and serum
samples respectively.
RP-HPLC for β-carotene analysis
β-Carotene was analysed in the same HPLC system
but using acetonitrile/methanol/trifluoroacetic acid
(58:35:7) as mobile phase and detection at 450 nm.
Plasma β-carotene concentrations were calculated
using standard curves to verify linearity over the
sample concentration and passage through the origin.
A one-point calibration was carried out on each day
of analysis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The characteristics that helped identify the major
provitamin A and non-provitamin A carotenoids in
jackfruit kernel were UV spectra, chemical tests
and TLC Rfvalues (Table 1). Six carotenoids were
detected in jackfruit kernel, namely β-carotene, α-
carotene, β-zeacarotene, α-zeacarotene, β-carotene-
5,6-epoxide and a dicarboxylic carotenoid, crocetin.
Fig 1 shows that the solvent system adopted gives a
good separation of carotenoids. Petroleum ether sep-
arated the hydrocarbon (non-oxygenated) carotenes,
namely α-carotene and β-carotene, while the oxy-
genated carotenoids and crocetin were progressively
eluted with increasing % acetone; the most oxygenated
required the highest % acetone.
α-carotene PE
PE
2% AC in PE
5% AC in PE
10% AC in PE
50% AC in PE
α-zeacarotene
β-carotene
β-zeacarotene
β-carotene 5.6 enoxide
crocetin
Figure 1. Separation pattern and eluting solvents of carotenoids from
saponified jackfruit extract on MgO/celite column (ascending
chromatography). PE, petroleum ether; AC, acetone.
Table 1. Major provitamin A and non-provitamin A carotenoids in jackfruit kernel
Characterisation method
λmax in petroleum
ether (nm)
Response to
chemical tests7
Rfvalue in methanol/toluene
(95:5)
Provitamin A carotenoids
β-Carotene 422, 449, 476 Positive to trans form 1
β-Carotene-5,6-epoxide 424, 444.5, 468 Positive to trans form,
positive to 5,6-epoxide
test (one group)
0
α-Carotene 422, 445, 472 Positive to trans form 1
β-Zeacarotene 403, 426, 447 Positive to trans form 0.95
Non-provitamin A carotenoids
α-Zeacarotene 399, 421, 447.5 Positive to trans form 0.93
Crocetin 402, 423, 450 0.33
188 J Sci Food Agric 85:186190 (2005)
Carotenoids in jackfruit kernel
The carotenoid profile of jackfruit kernel is shown in
Table 2. The calculated retinol equivalent was 141.6
RE per 100 g. The results show that, although jackfruit
kernel is a good source of provitamin A, it is not as
good as papaya, which has an RE range of 152280.10
However, as jackfruit is cheap, found more commonly
island-wide, and the kernel, like papaya, is well
accepted organoleptically by the population, it is clear
that jackfruit kernel could be as significant a source of
vitamin A as papaya in Sri Lanka. This is important,
Table 2. Quantification of major provitamin A and non-provitamin A
carotenoids in jackfruit kernel
Concentration (µgg
1)
Provitamin A carotenoids
β-Carotene 5.6±0.3
β-carotene-5,6-epoxide 3.1±0.3
α-Carotene 1.7±0.1
β-Zeacarotene 3.1±0.3
Non-provitamin A carotenoids
α-Zeacarotene 3.5±0.2
Crocetin 2.1±0.1
Calculations were done in duplicate for each jackfruit kernel; n=5
jackfruits. Retinol equivalent 141.6 RE per 100 g.
as papaya is the most advocated source of vitamin A
at present.
Fig 2 shows that rats fed the diet supplemented with
ripe jackfruit kernel had slightly higher rates of growth,
but the differences were not significant.
The carotenoids of jackfruit kernel are clearly
both bioavailable and bioconvertible (Table 3). Serum
retinol levels increase significantly (p=0.008)on
supplementation of feed with jackfruit kernel. Liver
retinol also shows a significant increase (p=0.006)
over control (unsupplemented) feed.
The β-carotene content in the liver of rats fed a
supplement of jackfruit kernel was 23.4±2.2µgg
1.
Other provitamin A and non-provitamin A carotenoids
were seen to be present on the HPLC scan, though to
such a small extent that they were not quantified.
There was no detectable β-carotene in the liver
in the control group, which was not unexpected.
β-Carotene was also not detected in the serum
of rats in both groups studied. This is probably
due to transport of β-carotene in chylomicrons and
rapid uptake of serum β-carotene not only by the
liver but also perhaps by adipose and other tissues,
indicating that β-carotene has a short residence time
in the serum.
Duration of supplementation (weeks)
Weight of rats (g)
Figure 2. Growth of rats supplemented with ripe jackfruit kernel.
Table 3. Effects of jackfruit kernel supplementation on rat serum and liver retinol concentrations
Serum retinol (µgdl
1)Liver retinol (µgg
1)
Control Test Control Test
Before supplementation 43.4±11.539.9±12.1ND ND
After supplementation 33.1±4.750.0±8.91.0±0.53.6±1.7∗∗
Values are mean ±SD of eight determinations. ND, not detected. Significantly different from control at p=0.008. ∗∗ Significantly different from
control at p=0.006.
J Sci Food Agric 85:186 190 (2005) 189
UG Chandrika, ER Jansz, ND Warnasuriya
Biological conversion of provitamin A in jackfruit
kernel appeared satisfactory after 4 weeks of feeding
rats the diet supplemented with jackfruit kernel. This
showed good bioavailability and bioconversion of the
provitamin A carotenoids of jackfruit kernel. The fact
that β-carotene levels increase significantly in the
liver of rats on the kernel-supplemented diet shows
that the quantity of β-carotene in the supplement is
sufficient to saturate the bioconversion to retinal by the
dioxygenase system, and therefore some β-carotene is
absorbed without bioconversion.
It is concluded that increased consumption of ripe
jackfruit could be advocated as part of a strategy to
prevent and control vitamin A deficiency in Sri Lanka.
However, it would be useful to carry out follow-up
studies on bioavailability using a human model.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Financial assistance through IPICS research grant
SRI:07 is gratefully acknowledged.
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190 J Sci Food Agric 85:186190 (2005)
... Phytochemicals reported from leaves, stem, bark, and roots are: betullic acid sapogenins, cycloartenone, cycloartenol, cycloartenyl acetate, cycloheterophyllin, ß-sitosterol, heteroflavanones A, heteroflavanones B. heterophylol, ursolic acid, and tannin (Hari et al. 2014;Vazhacharickal et al. 2015). Several other useful bio-compounds have also been identified: artocarpine, artocarpin, artocarpesin, artocarpetin, artocarpetin A, artocarpetin B, artocarpanone, artocarpanoneone A, artoindonesianin F, cycloartocarpanone A, artonin A, artonin B, artoflavone, cycloheterophyllin, morin, dihydromorin, oxydihydroartocarpesin, cynomacurin, cyanomaclurin, cudraflavone A, isoartocarpin, cyloartocarpin, cycloartinone, norartocarpetin, heteroartonin A, kuwanone T, 25-hydroxycycloart-23-en-3-one, dadahol A, morachalcone A, artoheterophyllin B, cycloheterophyllin, isocycloheterophyllin, moracin C, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-zeacarotene, α-zeacarotene, and crocetin (Chandrika et al. 2005;Prakash et al. 2009;Rao and Mukhopadhyay 2010;Yao et al. 2016). ...
... Carotenoids, proanthocyanidin, flavonoids, volatile acids, sterols, and tannins are some of the phytochemical compounds present in the jackfruit [2][3][4][5]. The antidiabetic effect of jackfruit has been reported in several in vitro and in vivo studies [6][7][8][9][10][11]. ...
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Background/Objectives Medical nutrition therapy along with pharmacological interventions as a multidisciplinary approach is required to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study evaluated the efficacy of Jackfruit365™ green jackfruit flour as an integral part of daily meal in patients with T2DM. Subjects/Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted between May 2019 and February 2020. Patients of either sex aged ≥18 to ≤60 years with a diagnosis of T2DM for >1 year receiving oral antihyperglycemic agents were randomized (1:1) to receive either jackfruit flour 30 g/day (Group A) or placebo flour (Group B) (breakfast and dinner) daily for 12 weeks replacing an equal volume of rice or wheat flour. The primary endpoint was a mean change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Other endpoints were mean changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), lipid profile, and body weight. The independent t -test was used to compare changes between the groups. Results A total of 40 patients were enrolled ( n = 20 each). A significantly higher reduction in HbA1c was observed in Group A compared to Group B from baseline to week 12 [−2.73 mmol/mol (−0.25%) vs. 0.22 mmol/mol (0.02%), p = 0.006]. The mean change in FPG and PPG was significantly higher in Group A than that of Group B ( p = 0.043 and p = 0.001). The continuous glucose monitoring showed decreasing mean blood glucose in 7 days of administration of jackfruit flour meal. Conclusion Patients from Group A had a significantly higher reduction in HbA1c, FPG, and PPG than Group B demonstrating the efficacy of jackfruit flour in glycemic control as medical nutrition therapy replacing an equal volume of rice or wheat flour in daily meal. Clinical trial registry CTRI/2019/05/019417.
... Of the five treatments, T5 (wine from over ripe pulp) had the highest mean color acceptability rating of 6.90, which is equivalent to "like moderately" in the 9point hedonic scale. This is possible because of all the co-products used in the study, it is only the pulp that contains beta carotene as exhibited by its dark yellow color [22]. The beta carotene could be the one responsible for the product's yellow color. ...
... Phytochemicals reported from leaves, stem, bark, and roots are: betullic acid sapogenins, cycloartenone, cycloartenol, cycloartenyl acetate, cycloheterophyllin, ß-sitosterol, heteroflavanones A, heteroflavanones B. heterophylol, ursolic acid, and tannin (Hari et al. 2014;Vazhacharickal et al. 2015). Several other useful bio-compounds have also been identified: artocarpine, artocarpin, artocarpesin, artocarpetin, artocarpetin A, artocarpetin B, artocarpanone, artocarpanoneone A, artoindonesianin F, cycloartocarpanone A, artonin A, artonin B, artoflavone, cycloheterophyllin, morin, dihydromorin, oxydihydroartocarpesin, cynomacurin, cyanomaclurin, cudraflavone A, isoartocarpin, cyloartocarpin, cycloartinone, norartocarpetin, heteroartonin A, kuwanone T, 25-hydroxycycloart-23-en-3-one, dadahol A, morachalcone A, artoheterophyllin B, cycloheterophyllin, isocycloheterophyllin, moracin C, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-zeacarotene, α-zeacarotene, and crocetin (Chandrika et al. 2005;Prakash et al. 2009;Rao and Mukhopadhyay 2010;Yao et al. 2016). ...
... ese bioactive compounds were reported to have antimicrobial activity [35]. Furthermore, Modilal et al. [39] and Ranasinghe et al. [40] also reported that different researchers [41][42][43] showed that the presence of these compounds greatly contributes to the antiviral, antibacterial, antihelminthes, anti-inflammatory, and antifungal properties of herbal plants. Moreover, similar studies on plant extracts that contained tannins showed potential antibacterial and antioxidant activities [39,44,45]. ...
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Jackfruit is considered as the largest edible fruit in the world and found to contain large quantities of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Both the fruits and the seeds of jackfruit have been consumed widely. Most importantly, several countries have developed food products namely jam, jellies, marmalades, and ice creams using jackfruit. In addition, several parts of jack tree such as, latex, leaves, and barks have been extensively used in traditional medicine as well. Studies by various research groups documented the anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, wound healing, and hypoglycemic effects along with digestive and immunological benefits of jackfruit. Therefore, this book chapter intends to disseminate the evidence on nutritional, digestive, and immunological benefits of jackfruit/seeds to promote its utilization for commercial scale food production.
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Pollination techniques could affect fruit size, whereas optimal maturity stage during harvest could affect postharvest life and the eating quality of fruit. Therefore, the right pollination technique and timing to harvest fruit is an important factor in reducing postharvest losses. The objective of this study was to determine the physico-chemical changes of jackfruit harvested at four different maturity stages and produced from natural and assisted pollination. This study was conducted at a jackfruit commercial farm in Bukit Beruntung, Selangor, Malaysisa. For assisted pollination, the selected female inflorescences were covered with bags before anthesis. Hand pollination was performed by gently rubbing mature male inflorescences over the surface of receptive female inflorescences. For natural pollination, female inflorescences were left to develop into syncarps by themselves. Syncarps at the age of 12, 13, 14 and 15 weeks after anthesis (WAA) were used in this study. For each maturity stage, four syncarps were harvested and allowed to ripen naturally at 27±2 °C and 70−80% relative humidity until a sweet aroma was detected. Physico-chemical characteristics such as colour, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, β-carotene, lycopene content, sugars, organic acid content and antioxidant activity were evaluated. In this study, the pollination technique did not affect the eating quality of jackfruit flesh. However, the physico-chemical quality of jackfruit flesh was affected by ripening level and WAA. The initial stages of syncarp maturity, the L*, C* and ho values, remained unaffected. However, the L*, C* and ho decreased significantly from 14 WAA onwards when the syncarp rind turned fully yellow. This indicated that the rind and bulb colour became lighter and less intense with a green colour changing to yellow during ripening. Rind and flesh firmness decreased as ripening progressed due to cell wall modification and starch hydrolysis when ripening occurred. The β-carotene content of fleshy syncarps harvested at 14 and 15 WAA was higher than those harvested at 12 and 13 WAA. Sugar content such as glucose, fructose and sucrose increased as syncarps ripened. Total phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant content were higher after syncarps ripened compared to before ripening. The ripe edible parts of jackfruit contain high levels of antioxidant and thereby signify the nutritional value of jackfruit for human health. In conclusion, harvesting stages affect the nutritional quality of jackfruit cv. Tekam Yellow, and it is recommended that the optimal harvesting stage of jackfruit is 14 WAA for local markets and 12 WAA for long-distance markets.
Article
The antibacterial potential of extracts from the residues of fruits dekopon, kiwifruit, blueberry, sapodilla, tamarillo (peel), and noni (peel, seed and mixture of peel and seed) was evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria viz. Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, and Serratia marcescens. It was found that extracts of mixture of noni seed and peel residues in acetone 40–80%, ethanol 40–80% and methanol 50–80% were effective against 4, 3 and 2 bacteria, respectively, being B. cereus and S. marcescens not inhibited by any extract. Highlight to the extract of mix noni seed and peel in 80% ethanol which was most effective against E. coli and S. aureus, with diameters of the inhibition zone (DIZ) around 14.0 mm. The extracts of dekopon peel in methanol 50, 70 and 80% and extract of kiwifruit peel in ethanol 40% were the only ones that showed antimicrobial potential, inhibiting S. enteritidis and S. aureus, respectively (DIZ of 9.0 mm). The extracts of blueberry peel were most effective against the Gram-negative bacteria, being E. coli and S. marcescens more sensitive to extracts of this residue in 80% and 70% ethanol (DIZs of 12–13 mm), respectively. The extracts of sapodilla peel in 70% and 80% acetone were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria, with DIZs between 10.0 and 12.0 mm. Finally, the extracts of tamarillo peel only inhibited E. faecalis (extracts in 60 and 70% ethanol), E. coli (extracts in 50–80% ethanol) and S. enteritidis (extract in methanol 80%). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) were determined for the bacteria more sensitive to extracts of fruits residues. The selected extracts inhibited the bacteria with the lowest MIC of 0.39 mg/mL and eliminate with MBC values > 200 mg/mL. However, the 70% ethanol blueberry peel extract was the highlight, since that inhibited and eliminated E. coli with the lowest concentration (0.39 mg/mL). In this study, the residues of these exotic fruits, which are commonly discarded, showed a great potential for use as natural antibacterial therapies.
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Vitamin A deficiency is a disorder of public health importance in Sri Lanka. A recent national survey revealed that 36% of preschool children in Sri Lanka have vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol <0.2 µg ml−1). In view of its well-established association with child morbidity and mortality, this is a reason for concern. One of the main fruits which has been recommended for prevention of vitamin A deficiency in Sri Lanka is papaya (Carica papaya L). In this study the carotenoid profiles of yellow- and red-fleshed papaya were analysed by medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. A section of yellow-fleshed papaya showed small carotenoid globules dispersed all over the cell, whereas in red-fleshed papaya the carotenoids were accumulated in one large globule. The major carotenoids of yellow-fleshed papaya were the provitamin A carotenoids β-carotene (1.4 ± 0.4 µg g−1 dry weight (DW)) and β-cryptoxanthin (15.4 ± 3.3 µg g−1 DW) and the non-provitamin A carotenoid ζ-carotene (15.1 ± 3.4 µg g−1 DW), corresponding theoretically to 1516 ± 342 µg kg−1 DW mean retinol equivalent (RE). Red-fleshed papaya contained the provitamin A carotenoids β-carotene (7.0 ± 0.7 µg g−1 DW), β-cryptoxanthin (16.9 ± 2.9 µg g−1 DW) and β-carotene-5,6-epoxide (2.9 ± 0.6 µg g−1 DW), and the non-provitamin A carotenoids lycopene (11.5 ± 1.8 µg g−1 DW) and ζ-carotene (9.9 ± 1.1 µg g−1 DW), corresponding theoretically to 2815 ± 305 µg kg−1 DW mean RE. Thus the carotenoid profile and organisation of carotenoids in the cell differ in the two varieties of papaya. This study demonstrates that carotenoids can be successfully separated, identified and quantified using the novel technique of MPLC. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Substantial evidence has accumulated in recent years that suggests new nutritional roles for certain carotenoids in addition to the value of some as a source of vitamin A. Unfortunately, the commonly used calculation of the carotenoid contents of foods as retinol equivalents does not take the non-provitamin A activities of carotenoids into account. Thus, there is a need to express the content of β-carotene and, perhaps, other carotenoids in foods in milligrams, and to establish a new and separate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for such nutrients.
Article
Orally administered all-trans retinoyl β-glucuronide, after its absorption from the intestine, is distributed widely in the tissues, except for brain, of both vitamin A-sufficient (A+) and vitamin A-deficient (A−) rats. Although the digestion and rate of absorption of retinoyl β-glucuronide are similar in A+ and A− rats, the rates of hydrolysis of retinoyl β-glucuronide to retinoic acid markedly differ. Thus, after an oral dose (6.3 μmol) of all-trans retinoyl β-glucuronide in corn oil, retinoic acid peaks at 4 hr in the plasma at a concentration of 2.5 to 4.2 μM in A− rats, up to 40-fold higher than in A+ rats. The peak retinoic acid concentration in A− rats increased with the severity of the deficiency. Similarly, the ratio of retinoic acid/retinoyl β-glucuronide in various tissues of A− rats is 1.3 to 12.5-fold higher than in those of A+ rats. In the absence in tissues of retinol or its ester, A− rats clearly use administered retinoyl β-glucuronide as a ready source of retinoic acid.
Article
There is little evidence to support the general assumption that dietary carotenoids can improve vitamin A status. We investigated in Bogor District, West Java, Indonesia, the effect of an additional daily portion of dark-green leafy vegetables on vitamin A and iron status in women with low haemoglobin concentrations (Every day for 12 weeks one group (n=57) received stirfried vegetables, a second (n=62) received a wafer enriched with β-carotene, iron, vitamin C, and folic acid, and a third (n=56) received a non-enriched wafer to control for additional energy intake. The vegetable supplement and the enriched wafer contained 3·5 mg β-carotene, 5·2 mg and 4·8 mg iron, and 7·8 g and 4·4 g fat, respectively. Assignment to vegetable or wafer groups was by village. Wafers were distributed double-masked. In the enriched-wafer group there were increases in serum retinol (mean increase 0·32 [95% Cl 0·23-0·40] μmol/L), breastmilk retinol (0·59 [0·35-0·84] μmol/L), and serum β-carotene (0·73 [0·59-0·88] μmol/L). These changes differed significantly from those in the other two groups, in which the only significant changes were small increases in breastmilk retinol in the control-wafer group (0·16 [0·02-0·30] μmol/L) and in serum β-carotene in the vegetable group (0·03 [0-0·06] μmol/L). Changes in iron status were similar in all three groups.An additional daily portion of dark-green leafy vegetables did not improve vitamin A status, whereas a similar amount of β-carotene from a simpler matrix produced a strong improvement. These results suggest that the approach to combating vitamin A deficiency by increases in the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids from vegetables should be re-examined.
Article
Over 1500 preschool urban Indian children were followed weekly for morbidity from 12 to 18 mo. Examination for mild xerophthalmia (Bitot's spots and night blindness) was done initially and at 6 and 12 mo. Children with mild xerophthalmia at the start of a 6-mo interval developed respiratory disease in the interval twice as often as children with normal eyes at the start of the interval. No association was found between mild xerophthalmia and incidence of diarrhea.
Article
An average of 3481 preschool-age rural Indonesian children were re-examined every 3 months for 18 months. The mortality rate among children with mild xerophthalmia (night blindness and/or Bitot's spots) was on average 4 times the rate, and in some age groups 8 to 12 times the rate, among children without xerophthalmia. Mortality increased, almost linearly, with the severity of mild xerophthalmia (night blindness, Bitot's spots, and the two combined). These relations persisted after stratification for respiratory disease, wasting, gastroenteritis, pedal oedema, and childhood exanthems. Mild vitamin A deficiency was directly associated with at least 16% of all deaths in children aged from 1 to 6 years. These results suggest that mild xerophthalmia justifies vigorous community-wide intervention, as much to reduce childhood mortality as to prevent blindness, and that night blindness and Bitot's spots are as important as anthropometric indices in screening children to determine which of them need medical and nutritional attention.
Article
There is little evidence to support the general assumption that dietary carotenoids can improve vitamin A status. We investigated in Bogor District, West Java, Indonesia, the effect of an additional daily portion of dark-green leafy vegetables on vitamin A and iron status in women with low haemoglobin concentrations (< 130 g/L) who were breastfeeding a child of 3-17 months. Every day for 12 weeks one group (n = 57) received stir-fried vegetables, a second (n = 62) received a wafer enriched with beta-carotene, iron, vitamin C, and folic acid, and a third (n = 56) received a non-enriched wafer to control for additional energy intake. The vegetable supplement and the enriched wafer contained 3.5 mg beta-carotene, 5.2 mg and 4.8 mg iron, and 7.8 g and 4.4 g fat, respectively. Assignment to vegetable or wafer groups was by village. Wafers were distributed double-masked. In the enriched-wafer group there were increases in serum retinol (mean increase 0.32 [95% CI 0.23-0.40] mumol/L), breastmilk retinol (0.59 [0.35-0.84] mumol/L), and serum beta-carotene (0.73 [0.59-0.88] mumol/L). These changes differed significantly from those in the other two groups, in which the only significant changes were small increases in breastmilk retinol in the control-wafer group (0.16 [0.02-0.30] mumol/L) and in serum beta-carotene in the vegetable group (0.03 [0-0.06] mumol/L). Changes in iron status were similar in all three groups. An additional daily portion of dark-green leafy vegetables did not improve vitamin A status, whereas a similar amount of beta-carotene from a simpler matrix produced a strong improvement. These results suggest that the approach to combating vitamin A deficiency by increases in the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids from vegetables should be re-examined.
Breeding and care of laboratory animals. WHO/Lab/88
  • M A Sabourdy
Sabourdy MA, Breeding and care of laboratory animals. WHO/Lab/88.1.1:45 (1998).