Article

The Glass Cliff: Evidence that Women are Over‐Represented in Precarious Leadership Positions

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Abstract

There has been much research and conjecture concerning the barriers women face in trying to climb the corporate ladder, with evidence suggesting that they typically confront a ‘glass ceiling’ while men are more likely to benefit from a ‘glass escalator’. But what happens when women do achieve leadership roles? And what sorts of positions are they given? This paper argues that while women are now achieving more high profile positions, they are more likely than men to find themselves on a ‘glass cliff’, such that their positions are risky or precarious. This hypothesis was investigated in an archival study examining the performance of FTSE 100 companies before and after the appointment of a male or female board member. The study revealed that during a period of overall stock-market decline those companies who appointed women to their boards were more likely to have experienced consistently bad performance in the preceding five months than those who appointed men. These results expose an additional, largely invisible, hurdle that women need to overcome in the workplace. Implications for the evaluation of women leaders are discussed and directions for future research are outlined.

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... Mistaken identity is but one burden women in the position experience. Additional research suggests that few women attain presidencies, chancellorships, or vice chancellor roles (Shepard, 2017), that women of color experience even greater barriers to leadership attainment (Davis and Maldonado, 2015), and that women are likely experience both a "glass ceiling" (Eddy and Ward, 2015;Wroblewski, 2019) and a "glass cliff " (Ryan and Haslam, 2005;Peterson, 2015;Glass and Cook, 2016). Consequently, women often find themselves trapped in low-level managerial roles (Airini et al., 2011), unsupported when they do attain leadership positions of White and Burkinshaw (2019), and underrepresented on powerful committees and in meaningful decision-making bodies (O'Connor, 2018). ...
... Furthermore, as Ryan and Haslam (2005) suggest, women are more likely to be hired into organizations marked by turbulence, discord, and often insurmountable problems. Known as a glass cliff hire (Ryan and Haslam, 2005), these appointments come with an increased risk of failure and potential subsequent loss of personal and professional prestige (Glass and Cook, 2016). ...
... Furthermore, as Ryan and Haslam (2005) suggest, women are more likely to be hired into organizations marked by turbulence, discord, and often insurmountable problems. Known as a glass cliff hire (Ryan and Haslam, 2005), these appointments come with an increased risk of failure and potential subsequent loss of personal and professional prestige (Glass and Cook, 2016). In sum, this research suggests that due to the glass ceiling, women are more likely to accept challenging positions rather than not be promoted at all. ...
Article
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The paucity of women in leadership roles in the academy has been the focus of the literature in higher education for several decades. The discussion has lamented how few women attain presidencies, chancellorships, or vice chancellor roles, that women of color experience even greater barriers to leadership attainment, and that women are likely to experience both a “glass ceiling” and a “glass cliff”. As a result, women often find themselves trapped in low-level managerial roles, unsupported when they do attain leadership positions, and underrepresented on powerful committees and in meaningful decision-making bodies. Drawing on data from a large study of the department chair, this qualitative study explores the experiences of twenty women who hold the position. Findings suggest that women department chairs continue to face ongoing gendered challenges to their leadership and that barriers to their success are still very much present in the academy. Coping with these challenges requires a balancing act within oneself, with others, and within the institution. Each challenge is then reflected in tensions that must be negotiated rather than resolved. Recommendations for structural and cultural changes are offered.
... While there have been significant gains in women reaching senior management positions in private firms, thus cracking the "glass ceiling," research suggests these appointments may not be equal, placing female leaders on a so-called "glass cliff," a term coined by Michelle Ryan and S. Alexander Haslam (2005) in response (at least partially) to Judge (2003), who reports that FTSE companies with women appointed to their boards underperform compared to those with all-male boards. While one may interpret that as evidence that women are somehow worse board members than men, Ryan and Haslam (2005) explore the contexts in which women are appointed to boards of FTSE 100 companies, and find that women are more likely to be appointed in times of general decline. As a result, women are disproportionately charged with making dramatic corporate recoveries, apparently with the very real consequence of (perceived or real) underperformance. ...
... There is a theoretical basis in the literature that suggests this phenomenon may exist in education as well. Ryan and Haslam (2005) draw on management literature to develop their conception of the "glass cliff," and each of their connections draws a close parallel to education. First, from the management perspective, the literature suggests that women managers are more likely to hold support roles than operating functions (Vinnicombe, 2000), and that women managers are more likely to be appointed in service sectors than industrial sectors, and are more likely to be selected where there are more women in lower level positions (Goodman, Fields, and Blum;2003). ...
... For these reasons, education is firmly aligned with the management literature in its conception of the "glass cliff" phenomenon. Ryan and Haslam (2005) also draw on literature from finance, citing the "link between company performance and turnover" (p. 83); they cite evidence that private firms are more likely to make changes when there are negative stock performance patterns (Kaplan, 1995), and that directors of successful companies are more likely to become directors in other places (Fama and Jensen, 1983), noting that corporate performance is not necessarily always an effect; rather, it is a cause for other behaviors. ...
... The first is when women are placed in such managing positions as tokens to deflect accusations of prejudice and discrimination, or to signal for a more egalitarian organization (i.e., Tokenism; Kanter, 1977). The second situation appears when the company is facing periods of crisis or downturn, when the risk of failure is highest (i.e., Glass Cliff; Ryan & Haslam, 2005). ...
... There is another situation on which women may seemingly access high status positions within the organizational hierarchy, namely the Glass Cliff. Ryan and Haslam (2005) proposed the first description of the Glass Cliff phenomenon, which is defined as putting a woman -and more generally, a member of a minority group -in charge of a company when it faces difficulties (Cook & Glass, 2014). ...
... In the organizational setting, this principle translates into the assumption that an unsuccessful organization will be less likely induce gender projection from its member than a successful one. This assumption explains why, despite an increased representation in the executive suites of numerous companies, women remain relatively scarce in higher-ranking companies (e.g., Fortune 500), except when the company is in trouble (Ryan & Haslam, 2005). Research on the Glass Cliff phenomenon (see Ryan et al., 2016), however, raises several questions. ...
Preprint
The purpose of the present paper is to introduce the Gender Projection Model. After a short review of the different accounts and theories on gender discrimination in the workplace, and of the three main phenomena: the glass ceiling, the backlash effect and the glass cliff, we present the gender projection model (GPM), a cognitive and motivational model for predicting the selection and self-selection of women in management positions. Our model posits gender projection, the assignment of typical gender characteristics to the position of manager, as a central mechanism accounting for the development of the manager prototype, both the (discriminatory) behavior and attitudes of personnel decision-makers (e.g., selection and/or evaluation of a male/female candidate) and the motivation and performance of (prospective) male and female managers. We believe this model will allow a better understanding of the construction of the manager prototype to explain the under-representation of women at the highest levels of the organizational hierarchy.
... On balance, when women are present in decision-making, there are better outcomes for women, although this link is mediated by context and institutional factors especially at the executive government level (Childs & Lovenduski, 2013;O'Brien et al., 2020). Simultaneously, crises can affect the presence of women in decision-making: crises can be moments of opportunity where women can gain executive office, what is known as the 'glass cliff' phenomenon (Ryan & Alexander Haslam, 2005), yet it is also theorised that male leadership will be preferred when in high threat conditions as voters prefer 'strong' leadership stereotypically associated with masculinity and men (Holman et al., 2016). ...
... Simultaneously, political context matters and can impact the composition of government. For instance, crises can affect the presence of women in decision-making to begin with: crises can be moments of opportunity where women can gain executive office, what is known as the 'glass cliff' phenomenon (Ryan & Alexander Haslam, 2005). Yet, it is also theorised that male leadership will be preferred in high threat conditions as voters prefer 'strong' leadership stereotypically associated with masculinity and men (Holman et al., 2016). ...
... This goes somewhat against previous literature that suggests women leaders are no more likely than their male counterparts to appoint women to high prestige posts as a consequence of the opportunities and constraints facing men and women leaders (O'Brien et al., 2015). It is contested whether crises are a moment of opportunity or constraint for women's representation (Lawless, 2004;Ryan & Alexander Haslam, 2005;Simas, 2020), this initial analysis suggests they may be a moment of opportunity for women leaders to diversify who is present in decision-making. Similarly, we may see this as a moment of opportunity for women to 'act for' women. ...
Article
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This paper shows how the gender composition of executive government impacts national responses to crises through the case study of the COVID-19 pandemic. Building on descriptive accounts of women’s underrepresentation in COVID-19 decision-making I consider the causes and consequences of their (non)presence. Using data from the UN COVID-19 Global Gender Response Tracker, I find that: (i) across 62 countries, women average 25 per cent of members of government taskforces responding to the crisis and are siloed into advisory as opposed to decision-making positions; and, (ii) Women leaders shape who is present in policy-making, and policy outcomes. Women-led countries, although limited in number, have higher proportions of women on taskforces, especially decision-making ones. A country being woman-led has a large, although non-significant, positive effect on whether a policy response is gender-sensitive, whilst a higher proportion of women on all taskforces combined has a significant, yet small, positive effect.
... (Berg and Lien, 2002;Klawitter, 2015;Bagett et al., 2021). Moreover, asset-pricing factor model regressions using stock and portfolio returns allow to explicitly test for whether LGBT CEOs are disproportionately represented in precarious leadership positions in firms with historically poor performance, i.e., the "rainbow cliff" (or "pink cliff") hypothesis, analogous to a well-documented "glass cliff" for female CEOs (Ryan and Haslam, 2005;Ryan et al., 2016). ...
... There are notable increases in the number of LGBT CEOs after the Great Recession and during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, which supports Padungsaksawasdi et al. (2022), who find increased adoption of corporate LGBT-inclusivity subject to high uncertainty and might hint towards the existence of a "rainbow cliff", with companies appointing LGBT CEOs during crises and periods of uncertainty to increase their social responsibility appeal and due to lower competition from relatively more privileged members of the corporate establishment, similar to the concept of "glass cliff" associated with female CEOs and widely documented in prior literature (Ryan and Haslam, 2005;Ryan et al., 2016). As the number of LGBT CEO stocks globally has been close or above ten since at least 2014, it suggests that an ethical fund investing exclusively in such companies is in principle implementable and would even be satisfactorily diversified. ...
... exists, and members of the LGBT community are disproportionately represented in precarious leadership positions, one would expect to find LGBT-led stocks having poor prior fundamental and market performance, in line with the established literature on "glass cliff" (Ryan and Haslam, 2005;Ryan et al., 2016;Elsaid and Ursel, 2018). The testable implications of this claim revolve around the sign and significance of the profitability beta (robust-minus-weak exposure) and the momentum and reversal exposures. ...
... Other examples include difficult terms and conditions related to maternity leave, or a woman being appointed acting head or deputy rather than being given a permanent post. There is also the phenomenon known as 'the glass cliff' (Ryan and Haslam 2005;Peterson 2016) where women seem more likely than men to be appointed to leadership positions which are extremely difficult to manage successfully. A third of the participants in the Aurora leadership programme for women felt that they had been placed in impossible leadership positions (Barnard et al. 2016). ...
... At a national level, there is a need for more national research to expose and monitor the myriad of ways in which women and others who do not fit the 'norm' are disadvantaged and excluded from top levels of leadership (Broadbridge and Simpson 2011;Fitzgerald 2016;O'Meara, Culpepper and Templeton 2020). There are also calls for research that exposes more subtle aspects of gender discrimination such as the 'ice cliff' (Ryan and Haslam 2005;Peterson 2016) as well as research on good practice, examples of ways in which bias can be reduced in hiring practices in higher education. For example, the use of 'nudge theory' (Thaler and Sunstein 2008) is an aspect of behavioural economics, where quite small, imposed, changes bring about relatively large, desired, improvements. ...
Chapter
This chapter, ‘National and District Support for Women Aspiring to Careers in School Leadership in Ethiopia’, is by Turuwark Zalalam Warkineh, Tizita Lemma Melka and Jill Sperandio. These authors focused on the experiences of women leaders as they are struggling to make a career in administrative districts and school principalship in Ethiopia. This chapter is based on rich qualitative experiences of twenty-one women currently employed in one district and also serving in some elementary schools. The authors bring attention to structural barriers of patriarchy and gender stereotypes at play against women as they navigate careers in educational leadership and working against traditional stereotypes of the role of women in society. Their analysis highlights why women continue to be under-represented in all levels of educational leadership in Ethiopia, despite policy efforts. The authors end with helpful recommendations on what needs to be done to advance women already serving in educational leadership and those in the pipeline who aspire to serve as school principals. They draw implications for leadership development and bring attention to the need to provide guidelines for pre-leadership training for women at national level and to establish forums for women educational leaders at district level. A more poignant suggestion is made regarding the need for explicit commitment to gender equality through gender training of male officials and principals to change their attitudes and mindsets about their treatment and perceptions of women and their place in society.
... For example, Rosette et al. (Rosette et al., 2008) empirically demonstrated an implicit cognitive connection between race and leader capabilities, such that participants assume that leaders are White and that White leaders are more effective than Black leaders (see also Gündermir et al., 2014). In addition to assumptions made about leadership potential and success, meta-analytic evidence shows that the glass cliff effect-the placement of certain people into risky or precarious leadership positions (see (Ryan & Haslam, 2005))-is stronger for Black individuals, compared to White individuals, signaling that either organizations are motivated to pursue demographic changes during crises or that anti-Black racism is a driver of the glass cliff effect (Morgenroth et al., 2020). Further, once in leadership roles, anti-Black racism manifests as internal attributions made for failures and external attributions for successes of Black leaders, while the opposite is observed for White leaders (Carton & Rosette, 2011). ...
... The placement of particular people in "risky or precarious" positions of leadership (Ryan & Haslam, 2005) Imposter phenomenon ...
Article
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In the wake of recent, highly publicized examples of anti-Black racism, scholars and practitioners are seeking ways to use their skills, resources, and platforms to better understand and address this phenomenon. Naming, examining, and countering anti-Black racism are critical steps toward fostering antiracist science and practice. To support those efforts, this paper details key insights from past research on anti-Black racism in organizations, draws from critical race perspectives to highlight specific topics that warrant consideration in future research, and offers considerations for how scholars should approach anti-Black racism research. Future research ideas include: specific manifestations of anti-Black racism within organizations, the double-bind of authenticity for Black employees, intersectionality among Black employees, and means of redressing anti-Black racism in organizations. Suggested research considerations include: understanding the history of anti-Black racism within research and integrating anti-Black racism research insights across organizational science. Research insights, ideas, and considerations are outlined to provide context for past and current experiences and guidance for future scholarship concerning anti-Black racism in organizations.
... The immunity of women directors from dismissal may also be garnered from the supplyside perspective of female directors. The continued under-representation of female directors is frequently attributed to the limited supply of women directors (Gabaldon et al., 2016;Main and Gregory-Smith, 2018;Ryan and Haslam, 2005). A recent survey of boards of directors suggests that organizational top leadership believes that there is a lack of qualified women candidates that can be selected as directors, and firms are hesitant to appoint women who do not have executive experience (Naumovska, Wernicke and Zajac, 2020). ...
... Psychological theories related to implicit biases (Eagly and Karau, 2002) suggest that these social expectations are rooted in gender-based stereotypes, which consist of shared beliefs about the qualities and attributes associated with women and men (Giacomin, Tskhay and Rule, 2021;Sidhu et al., 2021;Zhang, 2020). These gender stereotypes associate women with communal qualities, such as compassion, kindness and less assertiveness (Cooper et al., 2021;Eagly and Karau, 2002;Ryan and Haslam, 2005) due to their traditional role as homemaker rather than provider (Kennedy, McDonnell and Stephens, 2016). Perusing this line of research, developmental psychologists observe the gender differences in ethical stances and report that women, compared to men, care more about moral and ethical reasoning through which they feel more responsible for others' wellbeing (Byron and Post, 2016). ...
Article
In this study, we consider the role of social environment in boards’ decisions whether to replace women directors or not following corporate financial misconduct. To explain the board's decision, two competing hypotheses are presented. The immunity perspective suggests that women directors benefit from growing social pressures to increase women's representation on boards, resulting in a lower turnover, while the susceptibility perspective proposes that societal gender stereotypes that give rise to biased boards’ decisions result in a higher turnover. Using a sample of Chinese firms involved in financial misconduct during 2011–2019, we find strong support for the susceptibility perspective and show a higher turnover of women directors following financial wrongdoing. Further, we find that board gender diversity and a firm's belonging to male‐dominated industries increase women directors’ turnover. Our findings make important contributions to directors’ turnover literature and practice.
... The available literature also throws light on the studies which depict an adverse relation between board gender diversity and firms' financial performance. Ryan and Haslam (2005), in a study of FTSE 100 companies, find that firms that appointed women directors during a declining stock market experience worse performance than those with male directors. This trend has been experienced globally. ...
Article
Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the impact of gender diversity on corporate boards on firms’ financial performance in the context of the Indian information and technology (IT) sector. The Companies Act 2013 brought forth mandatory provisions for the appointment of women directors for a certain class of companies. This study explores the case of board gender diversity in the Indian IT sector’s unique setting. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses a fixed effect panel data regression model to achieve its objectives. Two widely used diversity measures, Blau Index and Shannon Index, have been used to enhance the robustness of the results. Findings: The results of the study indicate an insignificant relationship between gender diversity and firms’ financial performance. Even the diversity indices portray insignificant results confirming the outcomes of the study. The study indicates that IT sector firms have not been able to leverage the benefits of board gender diversity. Research limitations/implications: The results of the study have important policy implications for the government, regulatory bodies and corporates. The outcomes point out that the benefits that could have accrued based on the diversity aspect could not be harnessed, as the women’s representation on corporate boards is extremely low. Policymakers and government shall focus on devising stringent laws so that better representation of women directors can be used for the interests of the firms. Originality/value: The study is an attempt to fill the gap in the extant literature which has a scarce number of studies conducted in the unique setting of the IT sector (both in developed and developing economies). To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the influence of board gender diversity in the IT sector of a developing economy, backed by socio-cultural reasons.
... It concerns the biggest and most difficulties that women of color face, not only because of their gender (sexism) but also because of their color (racism), in relation to white women, in order to advance professionally (Phipps, 2020). The "glass cliff", however, presents a phenomenon where women tend to be promoted to positions of power in times of crisis or recession, when during their leadership there is a high probability of failure (Ryan, & Haslam, 2005). British researchers Michelle K. Ryan, Alexander Haslam and Julie S. Ashby of the University of Exeter in the United Kingdom have been credited with inventing the term, based on their research on the 100 companies listed on the 100-Year Financial Listings Index. ...
Article
In recent years there has been an increase in the presence of women in management positions. However, many studies have shown that women are treated stereotypically in the workplace. In particular, both the biological and the social sex as it is formed through stereotypes and prejudices, create obstacles, inhibiting the promotion of women to leadership positions. These obstacles are usually invisible and are the so-called Glass Ceiling phenomenon. As a result, women are under-represented in high-ranking positions as they are evaluated by different criteria than men. In the field of education, although the majority of teachers are women, the leadership of the educational units is presented to belong to men in a way that exudes "hegemonic masculinity" (Daraki, 2007), since it is governed by masculine values. Nevertheless, women have entered the field of work education dynamically, with the result that the 20th century is characterized as a century of women. Of course, the "weak sex" has given and gives many struggles in its effort to break the Glass Roof and strengthen its position in the labor and social sector.
... However, in spite of this support from governments to improve the welfare state from a gender perspective, more policies and interventions in favour of women should be developed, as there are still barriers to be faced. The concepts "glass ceiling", "glass elevators" and "glass cliffs" or "labyrinth" are metaphors that highlight these barriers when women try to reach leadership positions (Eagly and Carli, 2007;Ryan and Haslam, 2005). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to delve deep into the differences observed in leadership acquisition and development between men and women and analyse the impact of certain extra-curricular activities demonstrated to influence leadership acquisition. With this evidence, this study intends to detect areas that require deeper analysis and suggest actions to redress the balance and promote a more egalitarian leadership in education in both teaching and management positions. Design/methodology/approach Accidental, as opposed to random, sampling was used via a cross-curricular study with a quasi-experimental design. The participants in this study were 335 teacher training students in Spanish universities. The Teamwork Skills Questionnaire was used to evaluate leadership and a self-assessment questionnaire to measure extracurricular activities. Findings Female students score lower in leadership skills and are engaged in fewer activities associated with successful leadership skills development. Very few students receive any training on leadership, with even fewer female than male students. Furthermore, the practice of certain extra-curricular activities can boost leadership skills. It has also been noted that these activities are carried out in different ways, depending on student gender. Originality/value This study has two points of focus: the level of leadership among education students, differentiating between male and female students, and the impact of certain extra-curricular activities carried out during the academic year, which have proven to have a considerable effect on the development of leadership skills.
... While much is written on glass ceiling and related concepts (glass walls, sticky floors, glass elevator and glass labyrinth) there is no denying that some women break through this invisible barrier and those who do are now faced with a glass cliff (Ryan and Haslam, 2005;Sabharwal, 2015). While glass cliffs are specific challenges that women face when in leadership positions, there is no consensus on the challenges that cause the leadership gap in the first place. ...
... Furthermore, Ryan et al. (2016) discussed the marked tendency for women to be appointed to risky and precautious leadership positions in organizations more than men. Ryan and Haslam (2005) clarified this phenomenon as "the glass cliff", where women are appointed to leadership roles during periods of crisis or downturn when the risk of failure is higher. Moreover, Peterson (2015) claims that female participants might have a leadership advantage of moving into leadership positions amid challenges and turmoil in the workplace, based on the "glass cliff" concept. ...
Conference Paper
Purpose: This paper examines insights into leadership communication at German public universities during the Covid-19 pandemic. It aims to answer the following two research questions: Did the communication of rectors and vice-rectors during the pandemic show signs of transformational, transactional, or servant leadership styles, and were there gender differences? Did the rectors communicate in a positive, neutral, or negative tone, and did this communication differ by gender? Design/methodology/approach: We examine three leadership styles (i.e., transformational, transactional, and servant leadership styles) in a sentiment-based qualitative study of web-based data, such as online texts and verbal statements from publicly available communication channels. The significance of this study is to examine gender differences in text and verbal messages and also to understand how communication and social media reflect on leadership. Findings: The findings support our hypotheses, and confirm gender differences: Women are more likely to have a transformational leadership style than men. Men are often attributed to transactional leadership characteristics. Furthermore, women's communication is more favorable than that of male rectors and vice-rectors at German public universities, whilst communicating messages more positively has the power to encourage and inspire. Research limitations/implications: The manually collected data (for an intense time period for public universities) appears to create the possibility that not all of the individual's online communication statements are captured. Practical Implications: The statements' content appears mainly in German, and the tone and message may appear to be linguistic inconsistencies. All comments are translated into English by an online translator. Originality/value: How women exercise leadership and publicly communicate in a crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, has not yet been researched extensively. Workspace gender equality is an essential aspect of leadership, despite decades of regulation and intended interventions to ideally promote gender-equal representation in leadership positions. The findings positively contribute to the academic literature and encourage greater representation of women in leadership positions, as their potential remains untapped.
... Additionally, the report finds that discrimination and stereotypes have less to contribute to the ceiling when compared with factors such as past experiences and assignments, type of occupation, geographic mobility, work/life responsibilities, and willingness to serve in supervisory roles. While much is written on glass ceiling and related concepts (glass walls, sticky floors, glass elevator, and glass labyrinth) there is no denying that some women break through this invisible barrier and those who do are now faced with a glass cliff (Ryan & Haslam, 2005;Sabharwal, 2015). While glass cliffs are specific challenges that women face when in leadership positions, there is no consensus on the challenges that cause the leadership gap in the first place. ...
Chapter
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Women were 30% of the labor force in 1950 and 48.6% of the workforce today. Women are also currently outpacing men in the attainment of college degrees – 36% of women aged between 25- 29 years have a bachelor’s degree compared to 28% of males in the same age group and have surpassed men in college graduation rates. Despite these growing numbers, women have yet to reach a critical mass in leadership positions. Women represent less than 5% of CEOs in Fortune 500 companies. Out of 195 state heads around the world, only 15 are currently women. Less than 20% of members of the US Congress are women, and women hold only 21% of US Senate seats. Even in the nonprofit world where more than 75% of all workers and volunteers are women, only 45% of women will go on to secure a top position and only 21% of these CEOs will have access to budgets of $25 million or more (Renock, 2017). Certainly, women have come a long way since first gaining voting rights in 1920. However, we live in interesting times, and challenges remain. Women continue to be stereotyped as unfit for certain jobs because of biological reasons. Women continue to be subject to issues of the glass ceiling and glass cliffs, and inequities persist as women earn 77 cents to a dollar when compared with their male counterparts. Clearly, we have not achieved gender parity in the workplace. Moreover, leadership continues to be viewed as a masculine trait (Eagly & Karau, 2002). The “think manager think male” paradigm is dominant in organizations, continuing to pose challenges for women who aspire to or are currently in leadership roles (Ryan et al., 2016). Stivers (1993) argued that “these images not only have masculine features but help to keep in place or bestow political and economic privileges on the bearers of culturally masculine qualities at the expense of those who display culturally feminine ones” (p. 84). Indeed, workplaces in the public sector remain gendered (Connell, 2006; Guy & Newman, 2004; Riccucci, 2009; Sabharwal, 2015) challenging the neutrality of public administration. Although Stivers’ work on gender images in 1993 laid the foundation for feminist theorists in public administration, the questions posed in this chapter are: What are some of the challenges women leaders in public administration encounter? What are the gender differences that persist in the field? The chapter will also discuss the implications of research in gender and leadership on scholarship and practice of public administration. Thus, we provide a detailed narrative based on the characterization of women and leadership in the public administration literature and beyond.
... Since the first formulation of the glass cliff hypothesis by Ryan and Haslam (2005) in 2005, more than a dozen studies have tested the glass cliff hypothesis in different countries (e.g., UK, US, Germany) and in different domains (e.g., corporate leadership, political elections). Most of the studies designed scenario experiments in which students or working adults were asked to decide whom they would promote based on a hypothetical scenario describing either a well-performing company or a company in crisis (e.g., Bruckmüller & Branscombe, 2010;Kulich, Lorenzi-Cioldi, Iacoviello, Faniko, & Ryan, 2015). ...
... Si tratta, cioè, della questione dell'accesso delle donne alle posizioni manageriali, oggetto di riflessione di molti studiosi e studiose, in particolare, delle esponenti dell'approccio WIM (Women In Management), uno dei più ampi e fecondi filoni degli studi di genere nelle organizzazioni (Monaci, 1997). Eppure, se guardiamo ai dati, possiamo rilevare che la presenza femminile nelle posizioni di leadership porta una serie di vantaggi oggettivi, come migliori performance finanziarie, aumento del prezzo delle azioni e minor declino del prezzo del titolo delle aziende (Catalyst, 2004;Ryan e Haslam, 2005;Ferrary, 2010). Nonostante il successo femminile nelle posizioni di leadership, la "sottorappresentazione" cronica di donne in posizioni di autorità, sia nella sfera economica sia in quella politica, rende necessaria una riflessione per capire le radici di tale fenomeno. ...
Chapter
A dispetto della sua diffusione e dell’importanza per l’economia mondiale, il family business non è ancora stato studiato in tutti i suoi aspetti. Anche un tema ampiamente discusso come il passaggio generazionale presenta lacune nel campo della ricerca scientifica, sia a livello di analisi empirica che dei modelli teorici interpretativi. La letteratura economica ha sempre prestato scarsa attenzione agli aspetti psicologici; la letteratura di ambito psico-sociale, d’altro canto, ha spesso trascurato l’impresa famigliare come specifico oggetto di studio, concentrandosi sulla famiglia in sé. Alcuni anni fa Pieper (2010) sottolineava la necessità di indirizzare la ricerca verso una psicologia dell’impresa famigliare, integrando le evidenze rese disponibili dalla letteratura manageriale ed organizzativa. Questo articolo quindi si focalizza sul processo di trasmissione d’impresa da madre a figlia, descrivendone le caratteristiche e le dinamiche specifiche. Fornisce inoltre un’interpretazione di tali dinamiche, applicando un modello teorico derivato dalla psicologia sociale delle relazioni famigliari. L’articolo infine fornisce alcuni suggerimenti allo scopo di rendere meno logorante dal punto di vista psicologico e incerto dal punto di vista organizzativo il passaggio generazionale tra madre e figlia.
... As Prime Minister, Theresa May was the embodiment of the 'glass cliff', a term developed by Michelle Ryan (2005) to describe a phenomenon in which women are likely to be promoted to leadership roles in times of crisis or downturn, when the risk of failure is high. May was elected leader at a time of uncertainty in British politics, and was ousted by a group of aggressive male colleagues. ...
Conference Paper
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The seventies and eighties of the 20th century were remarkable decades, full of transformations and advances. All of these changes have profoundly marked history, society and culture. These events were especially evident in women's fashion. As mentalities progressed in the 20th century, especially in the 70s and 80s, social and cultural changes began to focus on women's liberation. The women's struggle involved domestic liberation and the freedom to dress in comfort and to be modern. The impulse of feminism has spread, as have clothes. In the proposed article, we intend to study the combination of women's fashion in the 70s and 80s with feminism, analyzing the communication between fashion and women's empowerment in the same period. However, Portugal lived in a totalitarian state until the mid-1970s, the study explores the backwardness that the country experienced compared to the rest of the West. We will analyze the communication between fashion and feminism, starting from literary studies, archives, periodicals and the cinematographic content of the epochs highlighted. For the analysis of the differences, it will be used the interviews carried out in the context of the doctoral research and the bibliography corresponding to the years described. This investigation aims to highlight and sustain the preponderance of fashion and clothing in women's empowerment.
... Organizational scholars have also reported on another common pattern that may result in worse media coverage for relatively successful women. Studies have found that women and minorities are more likely to be promoted to risky and precarious leadership positions, with higher turnover rates and professional instability, a phenomenon that some have referred to as a "glass cliff" (Cook and Glass 2013;O'Brien 2015;Ryan and Haslam 2005). When organizations are in crisis, for example in the form of a scandal, very poor financial performance, or a political party losing its seat share, they often look for a change of pace. ...
Article
Past quantitative studies have shown that most media coverage is of men. Here we ask if the scarce coverage that women get is qualitatively different from that of men. We use computer-coded sentiment scores for 14 million person names covered in 1,323 newspapers to investigate the three-way relationship between gender, fame, and sentiment. Additional large-scale data on occupational categories allow us to compare women and men within the same profession and rank. We propose that as women’s fame increases their media coverage becomes negative more quickly when compared to men (a “paper cut”), because their violation of gender hierarchies and social expectations about typical feminine behavior evokes disproportionate scrutiny. We find that while overall media coverage is much more positive for women than for men, this difference disappears and even reverses at higher levels of fame. In encyclopedic sentiment data we find no biographic basis for women’s disproportionate decline in media coverage sentiment at high fame, consistent with the conjectured double standard in media discourse.
... This study mainly focused on the variable "board gender diversity" in the literature; some studies have adopted the percentage of female directors on board (% of women) as a measurement of the variable (e.g., Adams and Ferreira 2009;Owen and Temesvary 2018;Naghavi et al. 2021), while others used the number of female board directors or a dummy variable on the basis of the premise that a critical mass is required prior to the emergence of the influence of female board directors (Lückerath-Rovers 2013). We employed the proportion of woman directors on the board as measure of gender diversity to increase reliability and to facilitate a more dynamic analysis (Ryan and Haslam 2005). Notably, the aspect of gender diversity has been receiving growing attention due to the increasing demand for regulation in many developed countries ensuring females are given more and/or equal representation on company boards (Fernández-Temprano and Tejerina-Gaite 2020). ...
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The aim of this paper was to examine the effect of managerial/board gender diversity and corporate governance structure on firm performance in a Jordanian business environment—a developing economy that has a distinct environment from that of developed economies. The current study focuses on the unique context of an emerging economy (i.e., Jordan). Data were collected from nonfinancial companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange from 2018 to 2020. Data analysis was carried out using the random-effects estimator, which was considered as the most suitable for this study. The results disclose that female representation on the board of executives of Jordanian companies had a positive but insignificant effect on corporate performance, as measured by the return on equity, indicating that this variable has no effect on the performance of firms in Jordan. Both family ownership and board size had negative significant effects on performance, but for the moderating effect, corporate governance structure had no effect on the relationship among CEO duality, institution ownership, government ownership, independent directors, and firm performance. The current study only focused on Jordanian industrial firms listed on ASE, thus rendering the findings nongeneralizable to other sectors and nations. Further investigations are urged to broaden the context of the study to achieve more enriched findings. Managers can use the findings to achieve a deeper understanding of the way governance structure affects firm performance. Additionally, regulators at the Jordan Securities Commission can attain valuable insight about the adequacy of the current regulations regarding the role of gender diversity and corporate governance structure in Jordan. The current study contributes to the literature concerning the effect of managerial gender diversity and corporate governance structure on performance. Furthermore, this investigation aims to fill the current research gap in the context of Jordan, which is an emerging economy in the Arab region that is under-represented in this field of research.
... Further, we extend the so-called "glass-cliff" that reveals that women are often considered more suitable for managing crisis situations (Kulich & Ryan, 2017;Ryan et al., 2016). Previous contributions suggest that women are more likely to achieve top positions when they are accomunated with crisis and a higher risk of failure (Bruckmüller & Branscombe, 2010;Haslam & Ryan, 2008;Ryan & Haslam, 2005). On the contrary, as long as a firm performs well, there should be no apparent need to change, following in a bias toward preserving the status quo (Bruckmüller & Branscombe, 2010). ...
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Building on social construction theory, this paper investigates how the presence of women on the board may affect access to credit because of lenders’ gender-stereotyped views. In our view this translates into different levels of the firm's bank debt. To evaluate the impact of gender as a social construct, we designed a within-country analysis in Italy by distinguishing between egalitarian and non-egalitarian contexts. To test our hypotheses, we used a sample of 3514 Italian listed and unlisted firms. Results showed a lower level of bank debt for firms with a relevant number of women in the boardroom (i.e., critical mass) if located in a non-egalitarian context. This effect was partially mitigated in firms during a crisis situation. While extant research explains gender-based differences in a firm’s financial structure by a change in inner-board mechanism/dynamics caused by differences in men/women characteristics, we argue that the social construction of gender may also induce lenders in different contexts to view boards with women differently in relation to access to credit.
... ---Insert Table 3 (Bruckmuller & Branscombe, 2010;Ryan & Haslam, 2005;. As the organization is in crisis during the appointment of the woman leader, she is especially vulnerable to be seen as failing in the leadership position. ...
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Although management scholars have devoted considerable attention in conceptualizing how diversity manifests in various organizational outcomes, several aspects of diversity remain undertheorized. In this article, I examine the model minority—a specific, understudied racialized other. To make sense of the position of the model minority in the contemporary workplace, I analyze the protagonist in the series, The Chair. Juxtaposing The Chair against germane discourses related to the model minority, I consider some of the salient, though not fully understood, challenges to inclusion at work. I develop theoretical insights on how the model minority encounters specific forms of institutional racism that encumber their inclusion in organizations. Namely, I contend that the construction of an organizational member of color as the model minority effectively positions them in: (1) double consciousness, and, (2) the leadership conundrum. Double consciousness refers to the phenomenon wherein the model minority is subjected to latent or overt forms of institutional racism while, at the same time, pressured to remain within the restrictive parameters of the model minority stereotype. The leadership conundrum refers to how the model minority is cast with expectations to behave in ways not expected of their white colleagues who occupy the same role, which ultimately sets the model minority leader for failure. This article contributes to ongoing debates in critical diversity studies on the limits of workplace inclusion.
... Female board members are often thought to be more independent than their male counterparts (Carter et al., 2010). Women are more likely to be placed in leadership roles during a downturn, according to Ryan & Haslam (2005). The consequence is that shareholders may interpret the presence of women on the board as a sign of major change, increasing their confidence in the company's success. ...
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Effective administration of a firm depends largely on the quality and commitment of the board of directors, who are expected to control the activities of the firm based on ethical and professional standards to ensure that corporate affairs are in line with corporate objectives. This study examines the mediating effect of earnings quality on the relationship between corporate board attributes and the value of listed insurance companies in Nigeria. The study utilized secondary sources of data collected from annual reports of the sampled companies for the periods 2009 to 2018. The population of the study comprises of all twenty seven (27) insurance companies listed on the Nigerian stock exchange, out of which fifteen (15) were selected as study sample. Data generated were examined by means of descriptive statistics to provide summary statistics for the variables and subsequently, correlation analysis was carried out using Pearson correlation technique for the correlation between the dependent, independent variables and the mediating variable. Path analysis using Structural Equation Modeling was used; also Monte Carlo's test was employed to determine the significant of the indirect effect. It was found that board size, board meetings and women directorship significantly affect firm value. It also reveals that board size and board independence significantly affects earnings quality of listed insurance companies in Nigeria. Furthermore, the study finds that earnings quality does not significantly mediates the relationship between board size, board independence, women director, board meeting and firm value. However, it is mediating partially. This indicates that board attributes through the quality of the reported earnings a higher firm value will be achieved. Hence the study concludes that the direct association between boards attributes mechanisms and firm value is more crucial than their indirect association mediated by the earnings quality. Thus, the study recommends that investors should pay more attention to companies with high number of directors, as provided in the NAICOM code of corporate governance. Also, in order to have proper checking by independent directors, NAICOM should also ensure a strict adherence to the provision of the code to improve the quality of earnings and enhance the value of the listed insurance companies in Nigeria.
... According to Sabharwal, (2013) women in senior executive positions face what is known as the 'Glass Cliff'. This term was coined by Ryan & Haslam, (2005). It refers to a scenario where women may be substituted in leadership roles; this scenario has increased the risk of negative consequences. ...
... Ryan and Haslam use the glass metaphor to draw attention to the invisible barriers encountered by women in their professional careers. For them, besides confronting glass ceiling obstacles and not having access to a glass elevator in their professional careers, women are also more likely to be placed in glass cliff situations (Ryan and Haslam 2005). By the glass cliff metaphor, women (and other minorities) are more likely to achieve leadership positions in precarious conditions, usually associated with an increased risk of failure, and to be blamed for negative results already set in motion before their appointment Haslam 2006, 2005;Bruckmüller and Branscombe 2010;Kulich and Ryan 2017). ...
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Following the 2016 British referendum, Theresa May was officially appointed as PM. She was classed as a weak PM, and her legacy was considered a huge failure in Brexit negotiations. Yet, few analyses focus on how she became a PM in such a challenging moment for UK-EU relations. This article explores the paths that lead May to this position, based on the glass cliff literature. Then, May’s brinkmanship strategy on Brexit is analysed in light of Complex Adaptive Systems’ approach to crises. We apply the CDE model to understand May’s response to the Brexit vote. Finally, the concept of men glass cushion will be introduced to explain May’s replacement by Boris Johnson. This work joins efforts to employ perspectives from other areas, such as administration and psychology, to understand women in leadership roles and to bring light to the study of gender in politics.
... Even though current situations have substantially changed, women leaders are still underrepresented worldwide. Usage of the terms "glass ceiling", "glass cliff" and "labyrinth" (Bass and Avolio, 1994;Ryan and Haslam, 2005;Eagly et al., 2007) concerning women leadership demonstrates how women leaders face a challenging leadership journey as compared to their male counterparts. From Eagly and Karau's (1991) ground-breaking meta-analysis on gender and leadership emergence to Badura et al.'s (2018) recent meta-analysis, we find that men tended to emerge as leaders more often than women. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of both work and non-work domain contextual factors (family support, workplace social support, mentoring support, networking and visible assignment) on the general self-efficacy (GSE) of women leaders in India. Also, we tried to explore whether GSE is connected to women leaders' career aspirations. Design/methodology/approach This is a survey-based study where data was collected and analysed from 145 women leaders working in a large public sector organisation in India. Findings Results suggest that except for workplace social support, all other factors have a significant positive impact on the GSE of women leaders. GSE is also significantly associated with women leaders' career aspirations. Originality/value Uniqueness of the article is that we have empirically tested the enablers and deterrents of women leadership in the GSE context, taking note of both work and non-work domains of women leaders. The implications of the results for women's leadership development have been detailed.
... When it comes to gender equality, recent research in higher education institutions shows that despite the rapid increase in women's educational attainment globally over the past 23 years, the underrepresentation of women compared to the male population in HEIs is still evident in various aspects (UNESCO IESALC 2021). First of all, inequalities affect women, among others, in terms of recruitment and career development, achieving managerial positions (Legato and Glezerman 2017), and there is a strong overrepresentation of women on precariat managerial positions at universities (Ryan and Haslam 2005) and women earn less. Hence, the general perspective is still based on the assumption that the "gender gap" in academia exists, however, the participation of women in academia is slowly and constantly growing (Lone and Hussain 2017;Uhly, Visser, and Zippel 2017). ...
... According to Sabharwal, (2013) women in senior executive positions face what is known as the 'Glass Cliff'. This term was coined by Ryan & Haslam, (2005). It refers to a scenario where women may be substituted in leadership roles; this scenario has increased the risk of negative consequences. ...
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1. Chatterjee, Monali and Poonam Jha, (2018) “Surmounting the Glass Ceiling at the Workplace.”Nirma University Journal of Business and Management Studies. Vol.1, Nos. 2 & 3; April-September 2018,Pp. 45-64 (NUJBMS) ISSN 2249-5630.
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Consumer satisfaction is a widespread measure of company success, and it shows positive interdependence with several key performance indicators of an enterprise. Although many researchers emphasize that women directors have a positive influence on the economic success of a firm, little research has focused on the impact that females on a board of directors have on customer satisfaction. This paper resumes previous insights on determinants of customer satisfaction and shows that a more balanced gender representation in corporate governance bodies can positively affect customer satisfaction with a company.
Article
Purpose As women increasingly take on leadership roles during these turbulent times, the differences in their leadership styles in comparison to males in similar positions will continue to attract attention as it has in the past. The aim of this paper is to explore appropriate leadership styles that women in senior leadership positions facing the glass cliff have at their disposal. Design/methodology/approach This research method was qualitative. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews from a total of 17 participants in corporate South Africa; purposive and snowball sampling was used to select women in senior leadership positions. Findings Participants expressed overwhelming support for a transformational leadership style due to its characteristics; however, women leaders believe a style or combination of styles are used based on the situation at hand. Research limitations/implications Using only qualitative research has limited the scope and applicability of this study significantly. Practical implications The representation of women in senior leadership positions has increased over the years more especially in organisations where there is crisis, attention now is the difference in kind of leadership styles they use. Originality/value Very few research studies have gone in-depth into the effectiveness of the leadership styles that were used by women in corporate South Africa. The study, therefore, presents a major implication indicating that to show positive results, women need to be able to identify an appropriate leadership style based on carefully reviewing their specific organisational situation.
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The chapter analyses gender diversity in Italian banks starting from the regulatory framework, first by looking at the Golfo-Mosca Law, which was reiterated with amendments by the 2020 Budget Law. Alongside these regulations, the chapter illustrates numerous additional initiatives, such as the establishment of an Observatory that studies and promotes gender equality by the Bank of Italy, together with the Department for Equal Opportunities of the Italian Presidency of the Council of Ministers and the Italian Companies and Exchange Commission (Commissione nazionale per le società e la Borsa, CONSOB). Another initiative is the charter by the Italian Banking Association inviting signatories to strengthen their governance following the principles of inclusiveness and equal opportunities. Not least, the proposal by the Bank of Italy, following its 2015 diversity benchmark, of introducing a gender quota in the administrative and control bodies of banks. The chapter ends with an analysis and commentary on the female presence and the gender pay gap in Italian banks (with a focus on listed banks) based on data extrapolated from corporate governance and remuneration policy reports.
Article
Purpose This paper compares how women leaders in four US industries–higher education, faith-based non-profits, healthcare and law–experience 15 aspects of gender bias. Design/methodology/approach This study used convergent mixed methods to collect data from 1,606 participants. It included quantitative assessment of a validated gender bias scale and qualitative content analysis of open-ended responses. Findings Results suggest that, while gender bias is prevalent in all four industries, differences exist. Participants in higher education experienced fewer aspects of gender bias than the other three industries related to male culture, exclusion, self-limited aspirations, lack of sponsorship and lack of acknowledgement. The faith-based sample reported the highest level of two-person career structure but the lowest levels of queen bee syndrome, workplace harassment and salary inequality. Healthcare tended towards the middle, reporting higher scores than one industry and lower than another while participants working in law experienced more gender bias than the other three industries pertaining to exclusion and workplace harassment. Healthcare and law were the two industries with the most similar experiences of bias. Originality/value This research contributes to human resource management (HRM) literature by advancing understanding of how 15 different gender bias variables manifest differently for women leaders in various industry contexts and by providing HRM leaders with practical steps to create equitable organizational cultures.
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Indian society is characterized as highly democratic, humanistic and advanced. But still the arguments regarding the equality of people with regard to social class, gender, race etc still persists. A “glass ceiling” represents all invisible barriers present in the workplace which are beyond the thoughts of the women. These hidden parameters become the hurdles between the middle and top management for the women. Glass Ceiling and Gender inequality are the prominent challenges these days which are stopping women from holding high positions of prominence in the business world. Due to the presence of this phenomenon working women in India are often struggling to go up in the corporate hierarchies and faces exclusions from significant decision-makings also. The present research paper explores the presence of glass ceiling effect in leading industries/sectors in India along with a focus on highlighting obstacles, key concerns and possible remedies on account of this. This study also attempts to identify the factors which create the grounds of glass ceiling amongst working women in an organization.
Article
The gender stereotype of female top management team (TMT) member replacement following poor performance remains under-researched, especially in the hospitality and tourism industry. From the lens of the behavioral theory of the firm, this study uses the method of cluster-adjusted fixed-effects regression to investigate the impact of perceptive poor performance on female TMT member replacement. The results show that the perceptive poor performance can increase female TMT member replacement, which implies a think crisis-think male stereotype rather than a think crisis-think female stereotype. A positive moderating effect of TMT education level, and negative moderating effects of government ownership and slack were identified. These findings could contribute to the gender stereotype literature and shed light on offering implications for decision-makers of hospitality and tourism firms and policymakers.
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Cinsiyet eşitsizliği kadın ve erkeklerle ilgili yapılan pek çok araştırmaya konu olmuştur ve dün-yanın pek çok yerinde hala araştırılmakta ve tartışılmaktadır. Türk toplumunda ise işsizlik seviyelerine göre dalgalanmasına rağmen, insanların değişen ekonomik ve dünya görüşlerinden kaynaklı olarak, kadınlar günümüzde iş dünyasında hiç olmadıkları kadar aktif durumdadırlar (Türkiye İstatistik Kuru-mu [TÜİK], 2015). Ancak günümüzde bile Türk toplumunda kadınlar Avrupa, Batı toplumları, uzak doğudaki ya da kadar iş hayatında aktif değillerdir ya da yer alamamışlardır (Healy, Özbilgin ve Alie-fendioğlu, 2005; Örtlek, Tekelioğlu, Başer ve Aydınlı, 2012; TÜİK, 2015). Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı (MEB) bünyesinde faaliyet gösteren eğitim kurumlarında durumun daha iyi olduğu geçmişten beri bilinmek-te, günümüzde de kadın öğretmenlerin yüzdesel olarak daha fazla olduğu bilinmektedir (Abazaoğlu, Yıldırım ve Yıldızhan, 2014). Çelikten (2004) ise genel, sektörler arası bir yüzde aktarmakta ve orta ve üst düzey yönetim kademelerinde bulunan kadınların oranının sadece %10 olduğunu ifade etmekte-dir. Abazaoğlu, Yıldırım ve Yıldızhan'ın (2014) MEB İnsan Kaynakları Genel Müdürlüğü'nün 2012 yılı verilerine dayanarak araştırmalarında sundukları bilgiye göre ise eğitim sektöründe yönetim kademe-lerinde kadınların yüzdesi yalnızca %9,9'dur. Björk (2000) tarafından eğitim sektöründeki kadın yöne-ticiler üzerine yapılan araştırma alan yazınının değerlendirmesi niteliğindeki bir makalede ise ABD'de tüm öğretmenler içerisinde kadın öğretmenlerin % 65, yöneticilerin ise % 43'ünü oluşturduğunu ifade edilmektedir. Diğer çeşitli pozisyonlarda ise merkez yönetim ofislerindeki yöneticilerin % 57'sinin, yönetici yardımcılarının ise % 33'ünün kadın olduğu aktarılmaktadır. Türkiye'deki durum ile karşılaştırıldığında kadınların eğitim ve okul yönetimine katılımda ne kadar geride oldukları oldukça açık bir biçimde görülmektedir. Eğitim sistemimizde kadın öğretmenlerin sayı olarak erkek öğretmen-lerden daha fazla oldukları değerlendirilirse yönetim kadrolarındaki kadın öğretmen/yönetici sayısının erkeklerin bu denli gerisinde kalması üzerinde önemle durulması gereken bir konu olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Feminizm sözcüğü ilk kez Fransa'da 1837 yılında kullanılmış, daha sonra İngilizceye geçmiş po-püler bir ifade haline gelmiştir (Yörük, 2009). Feminist teori kadın ve erkeklere eşit imkânların sağ-lanmasını, toplumda eşitliği savunan, aynı zamanda da kadınların karşılaştıkları baskı ve ikinci planda kalma durumlarını analiz eden ve önlemeyi amaçlayan bir yaklaşımdır (Aktaş, 2013; Vikipedia, 2016; Yüksel, 2003;). Bu bağlamda Türkiye devleti ve toplumu da kadın ve erkeklere eşit imkânları oluştur-mayı hedeflemektedir.
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La lucha por la equidad o la igualdad de género ha adquirido mayor relevancia en las últimas décadas en América Latina y en particular en Colombia. Sin embargo, cuenta con antecedentes significativos desde la época colonial. Sus mayores expresiones se pusieron de manifiesto durante el proceso independentista, pero luego fueron incrementándose con la mayor consolidación de la vida republicana, en la medida en que otras contradicciones sociales e ideológicas se intensificaban. En tanto ha aumentado el protagonismo de las mujeres en la vida socioeconómica, política y cultural en esta región, se ha tomado mayor conciencia de que la igualdad de género —dadas las naturales diferencias no solo biológicas, sino también de las funciones societales entre hombres y mujeres— constituye una utopía abstracta. Sin embargo, las luchas por la equidad de género expresan un derecho humano algo más realizable, aunque no menos utópico, pero sin duda concreto
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Purpose This paper aims to study vertical gender segregation, which persists even in the fields where women are represented at junior levels. Academia is an example. Individual performance and lack of a critical mass do not fully explain the problem. Thus, this paper adopted an intergroup perspective (i.e. social identity and competition theories) to study how a majority (i.e. men) can influence the advancement of a minority (i.e. women). Design/methodology/approach The paper investigated promotions from associate to full professor in Italy. The original data set included all promotions from 2013 to 2016. To study intergroup dynamics, individual-level variables were analysed together with structural factors, such as gender representation and availability of resources. Findings The effect of gender representation was significant in that promotions were more likely when full professor ranks within academic institutions were men-dominated and associate professor ranks were women-dominated. Concurrently, the analysis of individual-level variables supported the existence of discrimination against women. The paper argues that the majority grants more promotions under the pressure of change; however, this does not contrast with discrimination at the individual level. Research limitations/implications The paper focused only on one country. However, the framework can be applied in other contexts and used to study segregation based on factors other than gender. Originality/value This study explored gender segregation from a new perspective, highlighting the importance of the interplay between individual and structural factors. This interplay might be one of the causes of the slow progress of gender equality.
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For the first time in history, women in Australian diplomacy have equal or near-equal representation in leadership whilst the institution they represent is shrinking — in funding, footprint and status. Even if simply a natural shift in policy priorities, this diplomatic ‘glass cliff’ has specifically gendered effects. Indeed, ‘hard’ militaristic agencies — where funding and prestige flow — remain pockets of gender resistance in Australian international affairs. This article employs a combination of qualitative interview analysis as well as quantitative longitudinal data on gender representation and agency funding across four case agencies to argue that women are gaining positions of diplomatic leadership just as diplomacy’s relative power, influence and funding decreases. It contributes to women’s leadership research in finding that women’s increased opportunities in leadership are therefore constrained by the declining status or shrinking nature of the institution to which they are gaining access.
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Although there are preliminary indications that resilience is a key factor for women on their way to top leadership positions, research on this topic is scarce. To narrow this research gap, we applied an exploratory interview study focusing on the development of women leaders’ resilience. We conducted 25 biographical interviews with women in top leadership positions in medium and large companies listed in Germany. Through a qualitative content analysis, we identified three critical phases for the development of women leaders’ resilience—early life, early career, and upper leadership—as well as phase-specific resilience factors—i.e., individual, situational, and behavioral factors. We integrated these findings in a process model that provides insights into the interlinkages of the different phases and factors and can serve as a starting point for future research.
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Çalışan kadınların karşılaştıkları sorunlardan dolayı performansları azalmakta, iş tatminleri düşmekte ve işten çıkma durumunda kalmaktadır. Bu durum da işgücü kaybına sebep olmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın sebebi kadın yöneticilerin çalışma hayatında karşılaştığı engellerin kişisel performanslarına etkilerinin analiz edilmesidir. Bu doğrultuda ilk olarak çalışma hayatında kadınının birinci rolü ve yerinden bahsedilecektir. İkinci olarak çalışma hayatında kadınların karşılaştığı problemler anlatılacaktır. Bu sorunların yanı sıra çalışma hayatında kadınlara yönelik modellerden birisi olan cam tavan sendromu, kraliçe arı sendromu, mentör eksikliği, bariyerler, cam asansör (cam yürüyen merdiven), cam uçurum) ve kadın işçilerin çalışma hayatında karşı karşıya olduğu birtakım adaletsizlikler (eğitimde eşitsizlik, iş bulma ve terfide eşitsizlik, ücretlerde eşitsizlik, cinsel taciz, cinsiyet ayrımcılığı). Bununla birlikte kadın işçilerin kendilerine koydukları zorluklar ve kadın yönetici algısı ile ilgili problemlerden bahsedilecektir.
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The Problem There has been sparse research on the intersectional nature of the leadership practices of women of color since the last special issue in Advances in Developing Human Resources (ADHR). Included here are insights and recommendations for HRD practitioners and scholars on developing women leaders of color. The Solution In this concluding article, we make recommendations for future theory and practice centered on leadership for women of color using Amanda Gorman's 2021 inaugural poem as a backdrop. Stakeholders In order to encourage further thought and action for researchers and practitioners in Human Resource development (HRD), this article is intended to provoke thought on women leaders of color and provide impetus toward future HRD scholarship.
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We present a social psychological perspective on the barriers that women face in the workplace. We begin by reviewing the prevailing theories of gender differences such as social role theory, role congruity theory, and prescriptive gender norms and stereotypes and then extrapolate from these social psychological mechanisms for gender differences in organizations to explain various barriers, including discrimination, prejudice, performance devaluation, backlash, and more. The genesis of many of these barriers thus result from the prescriptive, at times constrictive, social expectations that influence both the external social sanctions applied to women's behavior as well as women's individual preferences. We then review four domains in which women and men differ in their preferences and behavior in the workplace: leadership, decision‐making, negotiation, and influence. Finally, we acknowledge how the concept of gender is continuing to evolve, discuss its implications for economic inequality, and pose questions that will update our understanding of women in the workplace in the future.
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Women use power in more prosocial ways than men and they also engage in more emotional labor (i.e., self-regulate their emotions to respond and attend to the needs and emotions of other people in a way that advances organizational goals). However, these two constructs have not been previously connected. We propose that gendered emotional labor practices and pressures result in gender differences in the prosocial use of power. We integrate the literature on emotional labor with research on the psychology of power to articulate three routes through which this happens. First, women may be more adept than men at the intrapersonal and interpersonal processes entailed in emotional labor practices—a skill that they can apply at all hierarchical levels. Second, given women’s stronger internal motivation to perform emotional labor, they construe power in a more interdependent manner than men, which promotes a more prosocial use of power. As a result, female powerholders tend to behave in more prosocial ways. Third, when they have power, women encounter stronger external motivation to engage in emotional labor, which effectively constrains powerful women’s behaviors in a way that fosters a more prosocial use of power. We discuss how, by promoting prosocial behavior among powerholders, emotional labor can be beneficial for subordinates and organizations (e.g., increase employee well-being and organizational trust), while simultaneously creating costs for individual powerholders, which may reduce women’s likelihood of actually attaining and retaining power by (a) making high-power roles less appealing, (b) guiding women toward less prestigious and (c) more precarious leadership roles, (d) draining powerful women’s time and resources without equitable rewards, and (e) making it difficult for women to legitimize their power in the eyes of subordinates (especially men). Thus, emotional labor practices can help explain the underrepresentation of women in top leadership positions.
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Recent economic literature highlighting the influence of gender discrimination on firm performance suggests that promoting gender diversity is key for boosting a company’s efficiency. This paper analyses the channels through which gender discrimination affects a specific performance indicator: the probability of a firm’s survival. The available evidence is controversial. We argue that a complex set of information at various levels (firm, sector, country, time, etc.) is required to correctly address these issues, i.e., that the data are likely to have a hierachical structure. Against this background, we generalize the standard business demography approach and propose the application of a non-linear, multilevel Cox model. For the empirical application, we focus on the survival probability of European firms in the textile and garment sector, which is characterized by a high percentage of women employees, a wide gender wage gap, and high discrimination. In line with standard business demography studies, we show that size and internationalization modes positively affect firms’ survival probability, while gender-related variables have a significant and negative impact.
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Nonprofits are critical partners in the delivery of government‐funded human services in the US, but there is evidence of a persistent racial leadership gap in the sector, whereby Black and Latino Executive Directors are dramatically under‐represented. Why does this gap persist despite increased attention to this issue in recent years? And what organizational and community‐level factors do shape the likelihood that nonprofits will hire a Black or Latino Executive Director? We answer these questions through a mixed‐methods sequential design, drawing on survey data from 606 nonprofit organizations across the US, along with interview data from 12 nonprofit executives representing expert informants in the Chicago metro area. Consistent with theories of representation and publicness, we find demographic representation at the board level positively linked to the hiring of a Black or Latino ED, but government funding has inconsistent effects. We further elaborate on these findings through our qualitative data.
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List of Tables. List of Figures. Acknowledgements. Series Editor's Introduction. Part I: Leadership and Information Processing. Part II: Perceptual and Social Processes. Part III: Leadership and Organizational Performance. Part IV: Satbility, Change, and Information Processing. Bibliography. About the Authors. Index.
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Alex Haslam has thoroughly revised and updated his ground-breaking original text with this new edition. While still retaining the highly readable and engaging style of the best-selling First Edition, the author presents extensive reviews and critiques of major topics in organizational psychology - including leadership, motivation, communication, decision making, negotiation, power, productivity and collective action - in this thoroughly revised edition. New to the Second Edition: An entirely new chapter on organizational stress which deals with highly topical issues of stress appraisal, social support, coping and burnout.; New, wider textbook format and design making the entire book much more accessible for students.; A wide range of pedagogical features are included - suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter and comprehensive glossaries of social identity, social psychological and organizational terms
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In this article, research is reviewed on the emergence of male and female leaders in initially leaderless groups. In these laboratory and field studies, men emerged as leaders to a greater extent than did women. Male leadership was particularly likely in short-term groups and in groups carrying out tasks that did not require complex social interaction. In contrast, women emerged as social leaders slightly more than did men. These and other findings were interpreted in terms of gender role theory, which maintains that societal gender roles influence group behavior. According to this theory, sex differences in emergent leadership are due primarily to role-induced tendencies for men to specialize more than women in behaviors strictly oriented to their group's task and for women to specialize more than men in socially facilitative behaviors.
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Prejudicial evaluation is often cited as an explanation for the apparent failure of competent women to achieve as much success as men have. In this paper we review research on the evaluation of the qualifications and performance of men and women, and research on attributions about the causes of performance. Although most of the studies reviewed show pro-male evaluation bias, contradictory evidence has also been found. Three factors affecting these research findings are discussed: (1) the level of inference required in the evaluation situation, (2) the effects of sex-role incongruence, and (3) the effect of level of qualifications and performance involved.
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This paper provides evidence on a previously unidentified source of managerial incentives: concerns about post-retirement board service. Both the likelihood that a retired CEO serves on his own board two years after departure, as well as the likelihood of serving as an outside director on other boards, are positively and strongly related to his performance while CEO. Retention on the CEO's own board depends primarily on stock returns, while service on outside boards is better explained by accounting returns. The evidence also suggests that firms consider ability in choosing board members.
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In this article, research is reviewed on the emergence of male and female leaders in initially leaderless groups. In these laboratory and field studies, men emerged as leaders to a greater extent than did women. Male leadership was particularly likely in short-term groups and in groups carrying out tasks that did not require complex social interaction. In contrast, women emerged as social leaders slightly more than did men. These and other findings were interpreted in terms of gender role theory, which maintains that societal gender roles influence group behavior. According to this theory, sex differences in emergent leadership are due primarily to role-induced tendencies for men to specialize more than women in behaviors strictly oriented to their group's task and for women to specialize more than men in socially facilitative behaviors.
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This paper addresses men's underrepresentation in four predominantly female professions: nursing, elementary school teaching, librarianship, and social work. Specifically, it examines the degree to which discrimination disadvantages men in hiring and promotion decisions, the work place culture, and in interactions with clients. In-depth interviews were conducted with 99 men and women in these professions in four major U.S. cities. The interview data suggest that men do not face discrimination in these occupations; however, they do encounter prejudice from individuals outside their professions. In contrast to the experience of women who enter male-dominated professions, men generally encounter structural advantages in these occupations which tend to enhance their careers. Because men face different barriers to integrating nontraditional occupations than women face, the need for different remedies to dismantle segregation in predominantly female jobs is emphasized.
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This research is an attempt to explore and understand the prominence of the concept of leadership in our collective consciousness. In three archival studies, we examined the attention and interest in leadership as reflected in a variety of publications, in conjunction with national, industry, and firm variations in performance. In a series of experimental studies, we examined the effects of performance outcome levels on the strength of leadership attributions. The results of these studies supported an attributional perspective in which leadership is construed as an explanatory concept used to understand organizations as causal systems; results were interpreted in terms of a romanticized conception of leadership.
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[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 112(3) of Psychological Bulletin (see record 2008-10512-001). Some of the numbers in the Value columns of Table 1, page 11, were aligned incorrectly. The corrected version of Table 1 is provided in the erratum.] Reviews research on the evaluation of women and men that occupy leadership roles. While holding the characteristics, except for sex, constant and varying the sex of the leader, these experiments investigated whether people are biased against female leaders and managers. Although this research showed only a small overall tendency for Ss to evaluate female leaders less favorably than male ones, this tendency was more pronounced under certain circumstances. Specifically, women in leadership positions were devalued relative to their male counterparts when leadership was carried out in stereotypically masculine styles, especially when this style was autocratic or directive. Also, the devaluation of women was greater when leaders occupied male-dominated roles and when the evaluators were men. Findings are interpreted from a perspective that emphasizes the influence of gender roles within organizational settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Within the next decade, women will constitute around half of the total workforce in the UK [United Kingdom]. However, despite the introduction of sex discrimination and equal pay legislation, the majority of women are still concentrated in low pay, low status, gender segregated jobs. I believe that equal opportunities is a key issue for the 1990s, which will be a decade when the promotion of women's opportunities in the workplace will be far higher than ever before on the business and the boardroom agenda. "Shattering the Glass Ceiling—The Woman Manager" is a highly welcome publication which will be of use to employers and to all women who would like to pursue a career in management and business. This book clearly illustrates that equal opportunities is no longer a marginal issue, but a European and, of course, a national mainstream economic, as well as a social issue. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Recent papers by Cornelissen (2002a, 2002b) and Gioia, Schultz and Corley (2002a, 2002b) have debated the utility of organizational identity as a metaphor for understanding organizational life. In the present paper we argue that this debate is limiting because it frames issues of organizational identity purely in metaphorical terms and fails to explore the social psychological basis and consequences of the discontinuity between personal and organizational identity. Extending this debate, we argue that the power of organizational identity as a theoretical and applied construct derives from the fact that it has the capacity to be both an externally shared and negotiated product and an internalized aspect of the collective self. Consistent with recent research informed by the social identity approach to organizational psychology, we discuss how an appreciation of the identity-based dynamic between the social facts of organizations and the socially-structured psychology of organizational members is essential for both theoretical and practical understanding of organizational life.
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Theorists suggest that gender differences in moral reasoning are due to differences in the self-concept, with women feeling connected to others and using a care approach, whereas men feel separate from others and adopt a justice approach. Using a self-categorization analysis, the current research suggests that the nature of the self–other relationship, rather than gender, predicts moral reasoning. Study 1 found moral reasoning to be dependent upon the social distance between the self and others, with a care-based approach more likely when interacting with a friend than a stranger. Study 2 suggests that when individuals see others as ingroup members they are more likely to utilize care-based moral reasoning than when others are seen as outgroup members. Further, traditional gender differences in moral reasoning were found only when gender was made salient. These studies suggest that both the self and moral reasoning are better conceptualized as fluid and context dependent.
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In this article we challenge the notion of stable, gender-related differences in the way people acquire and process information, with men more likely to utilize separate knowing and women connected knowing. An alternative analysis highlights malleability and the importance of social context in determining knowing style. We examined the responses of 186 women and 81 men on the Attitudes Toward Thinking and Learning Survey (ATTLS; Galotti, Clinchy, Ainsworth, Lavin, & Mansfield, 1999) across 3 contexts. Results revealed that both men and women were more likely to use connected knowing in the context of similar in-groups compared to the context of dissimilar out-groups. Gender differences were only apparent where gender was made salient. Our data support an analysis of ways of knowing as flexible and context dependent and question the notion that knowing is intrinsically related to gender.
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This paper investigates the determinants of appointments of outsiders — directors previously employed by banks (bank directors) or by other nonfinancial firms (corporate directors) — to the boards of large nonfinancial Japanese corporations. Such appointments increase with poor stock performance; those of bank directors also increase with earnings losses. Turnover of incumbent top executives increases substantially in the year of both types of outside appointments. We perform a similar analysis for outside appointments in large U.S. firms and find different patterns. We conclude that banks and corporate shareholders play an important monitoring and disciplinary role in Japan.
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The essence of corporate control includes the hiring and firing of key managers. We examine changes in equity values when the Board of Directors appoints and dismisses top-level managers. The evidence suggests that management changes signal shifts in company policy and raise shareholder wealth, internal promotions confirm the soundness of investment by large companies in firm-specific human capital while external appointments do not, promotions occur more often than external appointments but decline in importance as firm size decreases, and dismissal is not a favored means to handle managerial underperformance but is associated with stock price increases when used.
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This paper examines executive turnover-both for management and supervisory boards-and its relation to firm performance in the largest companies in Germany in the 1980s. Turnover of the management board increases significantly with poor stock performance and particularly poor (i.e. negative) earnings, but is unrelated to sales growth and earnings growth. These turnover-performance relations do not vary with measures of stock ownership and bank voting power. Supervisory board appointments and turnover also increase with poor stock performance, but are unrelated to other measures of performance. Copyright Blackwell Publishers Ltd. 1995.
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Investigated the extent to which sex role stereotypes influence the evaluation of leadership behavior. 225 male and 57 female business students were administered 1 of 2 versions of a questionnaire containing 4 stories, each depicting a leadership style based on 1 of the following leadership dimensions: initiating structure, consideration, production emphasis, and tolerance for freedom. Managers' names were altered in the 2 versions to indicate males or females. Answers to 8 evaluative questions for each of the leadership styles confirm the hypothesis that sex has an effect on evaluations of managerial behavior, although the effect varied for different leadership styles. Female managers received more positive scores than male managers on the consideration style. Initiating structure behavior was valued more highly when engaged in by male managers. Manager sex had no significant influence on evaluations of the production emphasis and tolerance for freedom styles. Sex of S effects also were noted on all but the consideration style. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The hypothesis that explanations for differences between prototypical and nonprototypical members of categories would focus more on attributes of the latter than on those of the former was examined. Explanations for alleged gender differences in the behavior of voters, elementary school teachers, and college professors were elicited. As predicted, explanations for gender differences within the 3 categories emphasized the qualities of the "deviant" member. Ss' explanations of alleged gender gaps in the behavior of voters and college professors focused more on qualities of women than on qualities of men. In contrast, Ss' explanations of an alleged gender gap in the behavior of elementary school teachers focused more on qualities of men than on qualities of women. The results are interpreted in terms of Kahneman and Miller's (1986) norm theory.
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This article presents a synthesis of research on the relative effectiveness of women and men who occupy leadership and managerial roles. Aggregated over the organizational and laboratory experimental studies in the sample, male and female leaders were equally effective. However, consistent with the assumption that the congruence of leadership roles with leaders' gender enhances effectiveness, men were more effective than women in roles that were defined in more masculine terms, and women were more effective than men in roles that were defined in less masculine terms. Also, men were more effective than women to the extent that leader and subordinate roles were male-dominated numerically. These and other findings are discussed from the perspective of social-role theory of sex differences in social behavior as well as from alternative perspectives.
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A role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders proposes that perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles leads to 2 forms of prejudice: (a) perceiving women less favorably than men as potential occupants of leadership roles and (b) evaluating behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman. One consequence is that attitudes are less positive toward female than male leaders and potential leaders. Other consequences are that it is more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that these consequences occur, especially in situations that heighten perceptions of incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles.
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A meta-analysis of 45 studies of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles found that female leaders were more transformational than male leaders and also engaged in more of the contingent reward behaviors that are a component of transactional leadership. Male leaders were generally more likely to manifest the other aspects of transactional leadership (active and passive management by exception) and laissez-faire leadership. Although these differences between male and female leaders were small, the implications of these findings are encouraging for female leadership because other research has established that all of the aspects of leadership style on which women exceeded men relate positively to leaders' effectiveness whereas all of the aspects on which men exceeded women have negative or null relations to effectiveness.
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This paper provides evidence on a previously unidentified source of managerial incentives--concerns about post-retirement board service. Both the likelihood that a retired CEO serves on his own board two years after departure, as well as the likelihood of serving as an outside director on other boards, are positively and strongly related to his performance while CEO. Thus, the prospect of continued board service appears to have the potential to help offset horizon problems in the final years of employment with the firm. Retention on the CEO's own depends primarily on stock returns while service on outside boards is better explained by accounting returns.
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The primary aim of the paper is to place current methodological discussions in macroeconometric modeling contrasting the ‘theory first’ versus the ‘data first’ perspectives in the context of a broader methodological framework with a view to constructively appraise them. In particular, the paper focuses on Colander’s argument in his paper “Economists, Incentives, Judgement, and the European CVAR Approach to Macroeconometrics” contrasting two different perspectives in Europe and the US that are currently dominating empirical macroeconometric modeling and delves deeper into their methodological/philosophical underpinnings. It is argued that the key to establishing a constructive dialogue between them is provided by a better understanding of the role of data in modern statistical inference, and how that relates to the centuries old issue of the realisticness of economic theories.
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We examine the number of external appointments held by corporate directors. Directors who serve larger firms and sit on larger boards are more likely to attract directorships. Consistent with Fama and Jensen (1983), we find that firm performance has a positive effect on the number of appointments held by a director. We find no evidence that multiple directors shirk their responsibilities to serve on board committees. We do not find that multiple directors are associated with a greater likelihood of securities fraud litigation. We conclude that the evidence does not support calls for limits on directorships held by an individual. Copyright 2003 by the American Finance Association.
Article
This paper analyzes the survival of organizations in which decision agents do not bear a major share of the wealth effects of their decisions. This is what the literature on large corporations calls separation of "ownership" and "control." Such separation of decision and risk bearing functions is also common to organizations like large professional partnerships, financial mutuals and nonprofits. We contend that separation of decision and risk bearing functions survives in these organizations in part because of the benefits of specialization of management and risk bearing but also because of an effective common approach to controlling the implied agency problems. In particular, the contract structures of all these organizations separate the ratification and monitoring of decisions from the initiation and implementation of the decisions. Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. XXVI, June 1983. Separation of Ownership and Control * Eugene F. Fama and Michael C. Jensen Journal of...
Bankruptcy, boards, banks and blockholders
  • S. Gilson
  • S. Gilson
Appointments of outsiders to Japanese boards
  • S. N. Kaplan
  • B. Minton
  • S. N. Kaplan
  • B. Minton
Perceiving and responding to gender discrimination in organizations Social identity at work: Developing theory for organizational practice
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  • N Ellemers
  • N R Branscombe
  • M T Schmitt
  • N Ellemers
  • N R Branscombe