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Checkmate? The role of gender stereotypes in the ultimate intellectual sport

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Abstract

Women are surprisingly underrepresented in the chess world, representing less that 5% of registered tournament players worldwide and only 1% of the world's grand masters. In this paper it is argued that gender stereotypes are mainly responsible for the underperformance of women in chess. Forty-two male–female pairs, matched for ability, played two chess games via Internet. When players were unaware of the sex of opponent (control condition), females played approximately as well as males. When the gender stereotype was activated (experimental condition), women showed a drastic performance drop, but only when they were aware that they were playing against a male opponent. When they (falsely) believed to be playing against a woman, they performed as well as their male opponents. In addition, our findings suggest that women show lower chess-specific self-esteem and a weaker promotion focus, which are predictive of poorer chess performance. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... This threatening situation of being negatively stereotyped involves the fear of being treated differently, or of feeling the perspective of confirming the stereotype (Steele, 1997). A concern about confirming the legitimacy of the negative characterisation of a certain stereotype has been shown to undermine women's performance in distinct domains, for example in math (Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999), chess (Maass, D'ettole, & Cadinu, 2008), car driving (Yeung & Von Hippel, 2008), balancing and force tasks (Chalabaev, Brisswalter, et al., 2013;Chiviacowsky, Cardozo, & Chalabaev, 2018), and also in sport contexts such as tennis (Hively & El-Alayli, 2014), golf (Stone & McWhinnie, 2008), basketball (Hively & El-Alayli, 2014), and soccer (Chalabaev, Sarrazin, Stone, & Cury, 2008). ...
... The resulting reduction in performance appears to materialise via different pathways, such as by directing attention to conscious control of movement (Beilock, Jellison, Rydell, McConnell, & Carr, 2006); increasing anxiety (Stone, Lynch, Sjomeling, & Darley, 1999 ); reducing working memory (Beilock & McConnell, 2004), perceived competence (Cardozo & Chiviacowsky, 2015;Heidrich & Chiviacowsky, 2015;Maass et al., 2008), and intrinsic motivation (Moè, Cadinu, & Maass, 2015); and also by the use of prevention focus as a regulatory strategy Maass et al., 2008;Stone & McWhinnie, 2008). ...
... The resulting reduction in performance appears to materialise via different pathways, such as by directing attention to conscious control of movement (Beilock, Jellison, Rydell, McConnell, & Carr, 2006); increasing anxiety (Stone, Lynch, Sjomeling, & Darley, 1999 ); reducing working memory (Beilock & McConnell, 2004), perceived competence (Cardozo & Chiviacowsky, 2015;Heidrich & Chiviacowsky, 2015;Maass et al., 2008), and intrinsic motivation (Moè, Cadinu, & Maass, 2015); and also by the use of prevention focus as a regulatory strategy Maass et al., 2008;Stone & McWhinnie, 2008). ...
Article
Studies involving the manipulation of instructions regarding the negative characteristics of a group or comparisons with members of another group (explicit activation of stereotypes) have shown that age, weight, and gender stereotypes can be harmful to motor performance and learning. To date, however, no study has observed whether implicit stereotype threats, such as the sex of the coach or experimenter, can also influence the acquisition of motor skills. In the present study, the individual and combined impact of implicit and explicit influences of gender stereotype on women's soccer performance and learning was examined. In a 2 × 2 design, 60 women were divided into four groups according to the presence or absence of explicit (ES) and implicit (IS) stereotypes: ES/IS, ES, IS, and control. The groups with implicit activation practiced in the presence of a male experimenter. The groups with explicit activation received instructions activating the gender negative stereotype. The control group practiced without stereotype activations. The results showed that both explicit and implicit activation additively impaired soccer performance and learning, with both main effects being significant for practice and retention. The ES/IS group showed lower scores on the task relative to the other groups, while the ES and IS groups showed worse scores compared with the control group. The findings suggest that stigmatized populations may be forced to cope with more than one social identity threat while learning sport motor skills and indicate the importance of further studies testing strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of negative stereotypes.
... In particular, the present study investigates the influence of the gender stereotype threat in the game of chess. Although it is gradually changing and there are differences between countries, chess still is a largely male-dominated game in terms of number of players and in terms of the best chess players [12][13][14][15]. This is substantiated by information from the international chess federation (FIDE) that shows that, in most western countries, women's participation rate of active chess players is less than 10% [15]. ...
... Both experimental and observational studies support the presence of a stereotype threat in chess [14,15,20]. Rothgerber and Wolsiefer demonstrated, using data from chess tournaments, that females performed worse than expected (based on their chess rating) when playing against a male opponent. ...
... Rothgerber and Wolsiefer demonstrated, using data from chess tournaments, that females performed worse than expected (based on their chess rating) when playing against a male opponent. However, if women are unaware of their opponent's gender, for instance, during online chess where identities are hidden through the use of sobriquets, their level of performance was not affected [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that exposure to gender stereotypes has a detrimental impact on women’s performance. In chess, it has been demonstrated that the performance level of women is negatively influenced when they are exposed to negative stereotypes about their ability to play chess. However, it is still largely unclear whether the influence of a negative stereotype of women’s ability to play chess is only limited to their level of performance, or whether it could also affect their opponent’s performance. The present study investigated this reversed stereotype threat in online chess playing an unrated game. It was expected that a chess player’s performance would be influenced by the gender of their opponent. However, the participants’ online opponent was neither a female nor male chess player, but rather, unknown to the participants, it was a computer program that either played with a male or female nickname. The results showed that participants who played against a female nickname played less well, lost more games, and made more mistakes and blunders than participants who played against a male nickname. In sum, findings indicate that, in chess, the influence of a gender stereotype is not limited to the group the stereotype is targeted at, but also reduces the performance of the opponent’s level of play, leading to a reversed stereotype threat.
... From this approach, the huge disparity in chess performance between males and females originates in the underrepresentation of women in the domain, thus, higher Elo rating scores arise in the larger population (i.e., men). On the other hand, a variety of biological and cultural agents have also been proposed to accounting for the observed differences (de Bruin, Smits, Rikers, & Schmidt, 2008;Howard, 2005aHoward, , 2014aMaass, D'Ettole, & Cadinu, 2008). With data from six chess tournaments, we examined this controversy and whether two intertwined factors related with the Elo rating (age and practice), contributed to explain sex differences in chess skill. ...
... Review studies have made the case for the key influence of social pressures to explaining the preponderance and better performance of males over females in quantitative and scientific areas (Benbow, 1988;Steele, 1997) while arguing for equivalent innate aptitudes of males and females (Spelke, 2005). Thus, future research efforts about sex differences in chess performance could address environmental influences, such as encouragement towards the domain, stereotyping factors, and particularly child rearing responsibilities, which might ultimately elicit less leisure time, and less opportunity to participating in chess tournaments (Eccles & Harold, 1991;Maass et al., 2008). ...
... In addition, a number of factors not controlled in the present study such as starting age (Gobet & Campitelli, 2007), other forms of practice (de Bruin et al., 2008;Howard, 1999), handedness (Gobet & Campitelli, 2007), or social role factors (Maass et al., 2008), could contribute to account for the unexplained gap in Elo ratings between males and females. Sex differences in expertise domains are due to a multiplicity of factors and intricate relationships. ...
Article
This study analyzed sex differences in chess Elo ratings with chess tournament data. We evaluated whether sex differences were due to differential participation rates of males and females, and whether age and practice were able to predict differences in chess ability. There were meaningful sex differences in Elo ratings unrelated to different participation rates. Age and practice predicted sex differences in Elo chess ratings for females, but not for males. The findings paralleled those concerning sex differences in cognitive ability research, and supported that biosocial factors (i.e., age and practice) rather than divergences in participation rates of males and females in the domain influenced the extreme sex differences in Elo ratings.
... However, there is an additional explanation stating that stereotypes may affect the quality of chess playing, namely by making women less confident and reducing the likelihood that they will play aggressively (Maass, D'Ettole & Cadinu, 2008). No gender specific differences exist in intellectual performance in humans concerning chess playing despite several opposing opinions (Howard, 2005;Bilalić, Smallbone, McLeod, & Gobet;Chabris & Glickman, 2006). ...
... No gender specific differences exist in intellectual performance in humans concerning chess playing despite several opposing opinions (Howard, 2005;Bilalić, Smallbone, McLeod, & Gobet;Chabris & Glickman, 2006). Women chess players represent less than 5% of registered tournament players worldwide and only 1% of the world's grandmasters (Maass, et al., 2008). This underrepresentation of women is unlikely to be caused by discrimination, because chess ratings objectively reflect competitive results (Chabris & Glickman, 2006). ...
... Women seem disadvantaged not because they are lacking cognitive or spatial abilities, but because they approach chess competitions with less confidence and with a more cautious attitude than male chess players (Maas, 2008). A motivational perspective may be better suited to understand the lower performance of women in chess (Maass et al., 2008;Csikszentmihalyi & Wong, 2014). Four major motivational factors contributing to chess performance have been identified: chess ability (tactical), chess-specific verbal knowledge (opening-, middle-, endgame knowledge and imagery), memory (recall for positions), and motivation (fear of failure and desire to win) ( Van der Maas & Wagenmakers, 2005). ...
Article
Women are underrepresented and underperformanced in chess at the top level. An explanation for the small number of female chess players because chess is an intellectually demanding activity would support the view of biological gender differences in intellectual abilities. However, despite different theories, there is no scientific evidence for sex specific intellectual performance differences. Furthermore, memory is heavily implicated in chess performance and is also often used to explain sex differences. Many novel findings are emerging and complementing cognitively-oriented research on chess. Sex stereotypes can have a greatly debilitating effect on female players leading to a sharp decline in performance when competing with males in chess. Women generally score lower than men both on aggressiveness and dominance and at the same time during a chess game, mental fatigue occurs earlier in women. This is usually explained by the fact that in the female body glycogen content is lower compared to males due to hormonal conditions and therefore unable to meet the demands for fast energy. Women also seem disadvantaged because they approach chess competitions with less confidence and with a more cautious attitude than their male counterparts. A motivational perspective may be better suited for understanding the underperformance of women as chess players. Studies of psychology, physiology and biochemistry of chess players should be used to improve the practice and pedagogy for male and female chess players.
... Within the sport domain, the different participation patterns of men and women have been scrutinized bearing in mind cultural influences that arise at early ages and vary with sex-role socialization practices (Eccles & Harold, 1991). In chess, stereotyping and motivational factors appear to underlie meaningful variations in chess playing strategic behaviour of men and women and their differential chess performance (Geres & Gränsmark, 2010;Horgan, 1992;Maass, D'Ettole, & Cadinu, 2008). ...
... Motivational and stereotyping factors have also been reported to impact the playing style and chess performance of men and women (Geres & Gränsmark, 2010;Horgan, 1992;Maass et al., 2008). However, fewer women than men enter at earlier ages and at the lower levels of competitive chess while dropping out earlier from the domain (Chabris & Glickman, 2006), which implies that women become involved in a lesser extent in practice activities than men (Blanch et al., 2015;de Bruin et al., 2008;Howard, 2014a). ...
Article
There is a persistent higher performance of men over women in chess that has been attributed to the disproportioned participation rates of men and women in this domain, but also to biological and cultural factors. This study addresses the disparity between men and women in performance at the expert chess level. Actual sex differences in chess performance were contrasted with differences estimated from the divergent participation rates of men and women chess players from twenty-four countries in the Eurasian region. There was a male advantage in chess performance throughout all countries. Sex differences in chess performance emerged for all the studied countries, with remarkable and highly variable unexplained gaps that were unrelated to the men versus women ratios. The cross-country variability about sex differences in chess performance indicates differences in geographical and cultural factors that might elicit differential participation rates, starting age, and perseverance in the domain for men and women. These differences are also likely to underlie the remarkable disparity in expert chess performance of men and women than only differential participation rates.
... For example, in a 1963 interview, future world champion Bobby Fisher remarked that women were "terrible chess players" and thought they lacked the intellectual capacity for the game. In one study, when experienced, expert female chess players were told their Internet opponent was male as opposed to female, they were much more likely to lose (Maass, D'Ettole, & Cadinu, 2008). Stereotype threat may offer one explanation for why females tend to be less prominent among chess elites. ...
... The smaller number of middle school females in the tournaments we studied may reflect this as well. On the surface, the lack of overall effects for middle-school 88 Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 17(1) participants seems difficult to reconcile with recent evidence of stereotype threat susceptibility among adult chess players (Maass et al., 2008). Because this latter study examined expert players who are heavily identified with chess, it may be that they are more vulnerable to stereotype threat associated with it. ...
Article
The present research sought to determine whether young female chess players would demonstrate stereotype threat susceptibility in a naturalistic environment. Data from 12 scholastic chess tournaments indicated that females performed worse than expected when playing against a male opponent, achieving 83% of the expected success based on their own and their opponent's prerating. These effects were strongest for the youngest players in lower elementary school but also present for those in upper elementary. Stereotype threat susceptibility was most pronounced in contexts that could be considered challenging: when playing a strong or moderate opponent and when playing someone in a higher or the same grade. As evidence of disengagement, those most vulnerable to stereotype threat were less likely to continue playing in future chess tournaments. These results were not found in a matched comparison male group suggesting the outcomes were unique to stereotype threat and not universal to young chess players.
... Во-первых, сталкиваясь со «стереотипной угрозой», человек прикладывает меньше усилий для подготовки к заданию и становится жертвой «выученной беспомощности» (Appel et al., 2011;Stone, 2002). Во-вторых, стремясь не допустить провала, человек меньше рискует , отдает предпочтение защите перед нападением (Maass et al., 2008), выбирает роли, предполагающие зависимость от партнера (Davies et al., 2005). Деидентификация с областью • деятельности. ...
... Horgan and Morgan (1990) showed that their sample of elite chess players (aged around 11 years) scored higher on a visuo-spatial reasoning test (i.e., Raven's Progressive Matrices) and on an abstract reasoning test based on the ability to take different perspectives (i.e., the Piagetian Three Mountain Task). In this vein, chess necessarily involves spatial abilities, including mental rotation, because the board is rotated according to the player's color of pieces (e.g., a piece in a8 appears to the upper left or lower right depending on the color assigned) (Maass et al., 2008). Interestingly, chess cognition was found related primarily to occipital/parietal lobes, further indicating that playing chess involves visual and spatial processing, including mental rotation (see Atherton et al., 2003). ...
Article
The game of chess is a valuable extracurricular activity for children, with positive effects on their cognitive skills and academic achievements. We investigated the extent to which the Giant Chess Game (GCG) played on a giant chessboard enhances working memory in “navigational-vista” space and “reaching” space. We also assessed if the GCG enhances mental rotation skills. For 10 weeks, 15 children (GCG group) were involved in a giant chess class, while 15 gender and age-matched children were involved in standard didactics (control group—CG). Children were tested twice, before (T0) and after (T1) the GCG, by tasks aimed at measuring: visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) in the navigational-vista space (Walking Corsi test); VSWM in the reaching space (Corsi Block-Tapping task); mental rotation (Rotating Flowers test). We found that the GCG group significantly improved its performance more than the CG in VSWM in both navigational-vista space and reaching space, as well as in mental rotation. Our results suggest that the GCG has positive effects on visuo-spatial abilities underlying topographical skills. Therefore, the training using GCG can help enhancing spatial ability and may have a role in contrasting the spreading of navigational deficits such as the Developmental Topographical Disorientation (DTD).
... Cognitive load can be individuated as the amount of decisional processes and strategic thinking required to perform the task. Some of the studies employed simple moves such as to contract the quadriceps as fast and as forcefully as possible (Chalabaev, Brisswalter, et al., 2013), while in other studies stereotype threat was directed to activities like chess playing that are mainly based on strategic thinking (Maass, D'Ettole, & Cadinu, 2008) . Since the load in working memory has been proposed as an explanation of poor performance under stereotype threat, the amount of strategic thinking and cognitive load required has been dummy coded (low vs. high) and its effect considered as a possible moderator of the stereotype threat effect on physical and sport activities. ...
... player Elo rating at the time of play) was not taken into account. The difference in aesthetic quality of play could have been due simply to playing strength because men, on average, tend to have higher ratings than women despite some controversy in this area of research as well [11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. Our objectives in the present research were therefore; 1) to perform a more thorough examination of the aesthetic quality of chess sequences taken from games between men and women using artificial intelligence (AI) as in the previous work; 2) to determine if there were any significant differences and; 3) to use the results in order to derive recommendations for training and promotion methods to females in order to improve their participation in the sport. ...
Conference Paper
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Aesthetics or beauty in chess is a quality appreciated by most players. However, there is scant research on the differences of aesthetic perception between the genders, especially given the lower participation of females in this domain. Using an experimentally-validated computational aesthetics model for chess, we evaluated a fair selection of winning chess move sequences taken from games played between women and men. Contrary to previous research that was not as thorough, we found no statistically significant difference in the aesthetic quality of those sequences between the groups. The results suggest that aesthetic ability, perception and appreciation in the game are likely not affected by gender. This also implies that training methods and promotion of the game to girls or young women have less, if any, basis for being any different from those that pertain to boys or men. Furthermore, the arguably absolute lack of participation of women in the sub-domain of chess problem composition - in which aesthetics plays an even more significant role - likely has little, if anything, to do with innate capability unless otherwise demonstrated.
... Finally, stereotype threat (Spencer et al., 1999) has been offered as an explanation of gender differences in chess performance. An experimental study by Maass, D'Ettole, and Cadinu (2008) found that women chess players who played matches against male players on a computer with the same chess ratings performed worse than their rating would predict when they were made aware that they were playing against a male opponent. This reduced performance is surprising because the participant's chess ratings were based on tournament performance, that would have included many matches against males. ...
Article
Full-text available
In two studies, the SCRABBLE skill of male and female participants at the National SCRABBLE Championship was analyzed and revealed superior performance for males. By collecting increasingly detailed information about the participants' engagement in practice-related activities, we found that over half of the variance in SCRABBLE performance was accounted for by measures of starting ages and the amount of different types of practice activities. Males and females did not differ significantly in the benefits to their performance derived from engagement in SCRABBLE-specific practice alone (purposeful practice). However, gender differences in performance were fully mediated by lower engagement in purposeful practice by females and by their rated preference for playing games of SCRABBLE—an activity where more extended engagement is not associated with increased SCRABBLE performance. General implications from our account of gender differences in skill acquisition are discussed, and future research is proposed for how the duration of engagement in effective deliberate practice can be experimentally manipulated.
... This has been shown to be a factor in differences in intelligence test scores between different ethnic groups, men and women, people of low and high social status and young and old participants. [11] c. Education: There is controversy as to whether education affects intelligence in that education has a complicated relationship with intelligence; it is both a dependent and independent variable. ...
Article
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Intelligence is a singular faculty that is brought to bear in any problem-solving situation. A century ago, intelligence was considered a quality that could be measured by an intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The study of intelligence is important because findings can give a better understanding of human creativity, psychological development, and emotion. The existence of intelligence has been attributed to both nature and nurture, but the truth behind it may be something of a mix of both. There has been great interest in the field of intelligence research to determine environmental influences on the human development. Environment is an open system, every element of it, whether living or non-living is interrelated. With the passing of time, the human being gradually occupies the central place in it. This is because the activities of the human beings are increasingly influencing the direction of development of environment. Environment and intelligence are correlated with each other and environment is having great impact on different levels of intelligence. The objective of this paper is to review the evidence for an association between environment and intelligence.
... Adapting the new generation to the current needs of the societies in which they live turns the game of chess into an extremely valuable teaching tool. Maass et al. (2008) examined the emergence of the stereotype in the game of chess. Using games played on the Internet, they noticed that women recorded negative results when they knew they were playing against men. ...
Article
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The role of attention in chess is obvious because the game is an ongoing battle between two players whose main purpose is to checkmate the opponent’s king. Every single move represents a decision that cannot be changed and therefore the ability to concentrate and maintain attention for a limited period of time is essential. Compared to other sports, the game of chess can be played on the Internet, so physical presence does not limit its development. By using the computer, chess is played in better conditions because there is no space limit for people involved in the tournament. The main focus of the game is to move slowly but steadily to another direction. Besides the fact that chess helps to develop intellectual abilities, it can also play a role in the psychomotor development. Twenty third-grade children were selected and equally divided into two parts, the experimental group, and the control group. The Bender-Santucci test (spatial orientation), Kraepelin test, and Toulouse-Pieron test (attentional abilities) were applied to observe the role played by chess in children’s learning process. The independent samples t-test was used to highlight the statistical difference between the results. The Pearson correlation was also used for both groups to emphasize the level of correlation between the two tests. The experimental group recorded better results in both tests, and these results were statistically correlated.
... Yet they are the sorts of beliefs that underlie sexism. Studies that show how males and females are conditioned to behave in certain ways and view their abilities in certain ways have been replicated time and again in different contexts [17][18][19][20][21][22] , whereas the studies that claim to show that these behaviours and abilities are biologically hard-wired or at least precede socialisation have not been replicated. Yet the latter belief is what keeps men and women 'in their places' and sexism entrenched. ...
... Recent research indicates that increasing cognitive accessibility of stereotypical information in a particular situation (stereotype activation; Wheeler and Petty, 2001) can influence the extent to which gender stereotypes influence evaluations (Dardenne et al., 2007). More specifically, associating a particular job with stereotypical information increases cognitive accessibility of stereotypes and highlights collective (group-based) expectations about performance on the targeted task (Maass et al., 2008). People who subscribe to stereotypes tend to be more vulnerable to the effect of stereotype activation compared to those who do not endorse stereotypical beliefs and, by definition, have low chronic stereotype accessibility (Schmader et al., 2004). ...
Article
Evaluation of new business ideas is an important topic in management research and practice. Studies indicate that evaluation of business ideas often are influenced by perceptions and cognitive biases. This study examines the role of gender stereotypes in evaluation of male- and female-typed new business ideas. Specifically, it investigates how modern sexism and stereotype activation interact to influence men and women's evaluation of male- and female-typed new venture ideas. Using an experimental design to collect data from young men and women, it is found that, under certain conditions, gender stereotypes can influence evaluations of male- and female-typed venture ideas, even when the ventures are similar in all other respects. Research contributions and practical implications are discussed.
... Women in the stereotype threat group wrote down at least twice as many negative thoughts about the test than the control group, and this eventually impacted on their performance. Both groups attained an average of 70% of the answers correct in the first half of the test, but by the end of the test, the stereotype threat group's score went down to 56%, while the control group's score went up slightly to 81%. 15 Stereotype threats have been shown to produce gender differences in math tests and also in several other fields, such as chess, 16 mental rotation tasks, 17 working memory capacity, 18 driving 19 and negotiations. 20 As Fine explains, "the deadly combination of 'knowing-and-being' (women are bad at maths and I am a woman) can lower performance expectations, as well as trigger performance anxiety and other negative emotions" (ref. ...
Article
A new technique called non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been developed, which can detect a range of genetic and chromosomal diseases, as well as fetal sex earlier, more easily and more reliably. NIPT, therefore, potentially expands the market for sex determination and sex selective abortion. This paper argues that both practices should be prevented by not including fetal sex in prenatal test reports. This is because there is a discrepancy between what parents are concerned with (gender) and what the prenatal test can provide (sex). The paper first presents arguments, which indicate a difference between sex and gender before presenting parental motivations for sex selection and sex determination to show that parents are not concerned with their child's sex chromosomes, or even their genitalia, but the gender role that their child will espouse. That, however, is not something that a prenatal test can provide. We are thus left with a situation in which what parents are told, and what they think they are being told, are two different things. In other words, as the conflation of sex with gender is implicit in the disclosure of fetal sex, it may be more accurate to refer to it as misinformation. This misinformation promotes sexism via gender essentialism, which is neither in the interests of the future child nor society.
... However, previ- ous work with regard to chess-playing ability and gender has found, for instance, that women are more risk-averse in playing (Gerdes and Gränsmark, 2010), though more males enter the sport at lower levels in the game which translates to more men at the highest levels (Chabris & Glickman, 2006). Some research suggests that women play as well as men only when they are playing against other wom- en but show a performance drop when playing against men (Maass, D'Ettole & Cadinu, 2008). Yet other research suggests that the lower performance of women in chess may be due to statistical sam- pling, i.e. far fewer women in the game (Bilalić, Smallbone & McLeod, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Chess is typically a male-dominated sport. However, women play the game as well but usually against each other. The reasons for this are debatable. Aesthetics is also an important part of the game and the reason why many people play. It is an essential component of the (even more so) male-dominated world of chess composition. In this research, our goal was to determine if games between men and games between women showed any statistically significant difference in terms of aesthetics. We analyzed using a computational aesthetics model two sets of games (one small, one large) between males and between females irrespective of playing strength and age. We found in the smaller set that there was no difference but in the larger set that the games between men were, on average, more beautiful than those between women. This suggests that men are more likely to have a better artistic sense in the game and therefore appreciate it more. It might also help to explain the relative non-existence of master female chess problem composers. It follows that, similarly, women may have better artistic senses in other games or domains as compared to men. Video Version: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCElBB6zvZs
... ST has been studied extensively in a laboratory setting, in a number of different populations, and the findings are ubiquitous. Effects of threats to intellectual ability have been found in highly educated African Americans (Steele & Aronson, 1995), women (Adams, Garcia, Purdie-Vaughs, & Steele, 2006;Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999;Steele & Ambady, 2006), chess players (Maass, D'Ettole, & Cadinu, 2008), and, according to a growing literature, older adults when they are made aware of culturally held negative stereotypes associating memory loss and old age (Andreletti & Lachman, 2004;Barber & Mather, 2013a,b;2014;Chasteen, Bhattacharyya, Horhota, Tam, & Hasher, 2005;Hess, Auman, Colcombe, & Rahhal, 2003;Hess & Hinson, 2006;Hess, Hinson, & Hodges, 2009). ...
Article
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While an awareness of age-related changes in memory may help older adults gain insight into their own cognitive abilities, it may also have a negative impact on memory performance through a mechanism of stereotype threat (ST). The consequence of ST is under-performance in abilities related to the stereotype. Here, we examined the degree to which explicit and implicit memory were affected by ST across a wide age-range. We found that explicit memory was affected by ST, but only in an Early Aging group (mean age 67.83), and not in a Later Aging group (mean age 84.59). Implicit memory was not affected in either the Early or Later Aging group. These results demonstrate that ST for age-related memory decline affects memory processes requiring controlled retrieval while sparing item encoding. Furthermore, this form of ST appears to dissipate as aging progresses. These results have implications for understanding psychological development across the span of aging.
... There exists no gender specific intellectual performance in humans for chess playing despite several different opinions [102,118119120121122123124. Since both women and men use glycogen from brain liver and muscle for fast energy during physical stress and during chess playing, mental fatigue occurs earlier in women [125,126], because their body glycogen content is lower if compared to men due to hormonal conditions127128129130131 and chess demand for fast energy for women is equal to men. ...
Article
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Chess is a competitive sport in the classical meaning of the word. One of the most important factors for chess and sport competence is the accumulated time of training. In order to obtain a high level of competence, chess players and athletes alike must spend up 10 years of specific training. In chess and classical sport energy needed for brain activity is first derived from glycogen stores in brain, muscles and liver and later from adipose tissue. Both, chess and classical sport rely on shared energy from glycogen and fat. When the brain needs additional energy, muscles and liver share energy with the brain. When muscles Need additional energy, brain complies with the request of muscles. Energy expenditure, O2 uptake and CO2 production during chess games are similar to those obtained during a marathon. Mental and physical fatigue begin with similar metabolic states: deprivation of glycogen. During competitive chess, athletes must be in good physical condition. Mental profiles of chess players and other athletes correlate with processes such as attention, conflict control, memory, motivation and recognition. In chess there exists no gender-specific excellence; glycogen availability, however, is less developed in female chess players. In chess and in classical sports, the brain, spinal cord, nerves and muscles cooperate in complete harmony. The brain commands everything: in chess the figures, in sport the cellular receptors (baro-, lactate-, gluco-, metabo-, chemo-, thermo-, respiratory-) “send” signals via eyes or metabolic changes to the brain. The brain then decides, what to do: in chess, the player moves a figure; in sports, muscles react according to demand. Physical exercise or chess must be defined by a motor activity completely controlled by the central nervous system (CNS) in combination with a specific competence. In chess as well as in physical exercise, physical stress prepares brain to cognitive stimulation. With respect to biochemical, physiological, neuronal and psychological aspects, chess is equals classical physical exercise and must be recognized as sport.
... The ST has been usually demonstrated for stigmatized groups (e.g., Afro-Americans, unemployed people, homosexuals, see Bosson, Haymovitz, & Pinel, 2004;Bourguignon, Desmette, Yzerbyt, & Herman, 2007;Steele & Aronson, 1995) but also for non-stigmatized groups (e.g., white men in sports, Stone, Lynch, Sjomerling, & Darley, 1999; men regarding their emotional expression, Leyens, Désert, Croizet, & Darcis, 2000; for other examples, see Aronson, Lustina, Good, Keough, & Brown, 1999;Koenig & Eagly, 2005;Pansu et al., 2016). In addition, ST is known to affect one's performance in various domains (e.g., mathematics, intellectual abilities, sports, social task, childcare skills, performance in chess; for examples see Bagès & Martinot, 2011;Bosson et al., 2004;Chalabaev, Sarrazin, Stone, & Cury, 2008;Desombre, Anegmar, & Delelis, 2018;Kray, Thompson, & Galinsky, 2001;Maass, D'Ettole, & Cadinu, 2008;Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999). Further developments in this field proposed a multi-threat framework assuming that there are six different ST that should be considered (see Shapiro, 2011Shapiro, , 2012Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007). ...
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Stereotype threat (ST) refers to the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about one's group. Distinct forms of ST can be elicited based on both the target and the source of the threat. Here, we focused on how peculiar ST sources distinctly impact performance for individuals who face self-based threats. More particularly, we hypothesized that the decrease in performance would be stronger for individuals who face a self-concept threat (triggered by a private self-evaluation) in comparison with those who face an own-reputation threat (triggered by a public evaluation). In two studies, participants were randomly assigned to one of the following experimental conditions: control, self-concept, or own-reputation threat. Results confirmed the hypothesis by showing that participants in the control condition perform better than those in the own-reputation threat condition, who performed better than those in the self-concept threat condition. The contributions of this work as well as the limitations are discussed.
... Beyond biological sex, self-evaluated non-masculine gender role decreases self-efficacy associated with computing technology (Huffman, Whetten, & Huffman, 2013). Women also experience stereotype threat when playing strategy games such as Chess (Backus, Cubel, Guid, Sanchez-Pages, & Mañas, 2016;Maass, D'Ettole, & Cadinu, 2008;Rothgerber & Wolsiefer, 2014) and while playing video games (Kaye & Pennington, 2016;Vermeulen, Castellar, Janssen, Calvi, & Van Looy, 2016). Some evidence suggests that the consequences of sexbased stereotype threat related to games depend on the specific gaming context. ...
Article
Male/female-based stereotypes appear to be widespread, providing a potential barrier to women's participation and success in gaming contexts, such as recreational gaming, competitive eSports, and game-based learning. Differences in the strength of stereotypes associated with different kinds of games, which would have implications for reducing these barriers, are currently unknown. In an online between-participants experiment manipulating the platform (analog tabletop, digital tablet computer, digital desktop computer) of the game Splendor, 105 participants responded to questions asking them to separately rate their perceptions of men's and women's affinity for the game. Confirming extant research on gaming stereotypes, they perceived women as having less of an affinity for this game. While this trend emerged similarly between all platforms of the game depicted, the magnitude of this difference was less when participants had a stronger social group identification with gamers. These perceptions did not depend on social group identification with women. Given the potential for stereotypes to discourage women from gaming and threaten their performance and learning in gaming contexts, as well as the prominent and persistent public interest in gaming, we suggest researchers further examine stereotypes and identity in the study of diverse games, game platforms, and powerful perceptions.
... Steele and Aronson (1995) first developed the construct of "stereotype threat" 25 years ago in order to explain why African-American high school students with equal grade point averages and standardized test scores to white students underperformed compared with whites once they arrived at college. Since that seminal paper, hundreds of studies have shown that if people believe that their behavior could reinforce a negative stereotype of their group, they tend to perform less well -from women concerned about gender stereotypes related to chess to white men's concerns that their basketball skills are inferior to those of African-American men (Maass et al., 2008;Stone et al., 1997). However, additional research has identified that a broader sense of threat is experienced by those with non-dominant identities, which came to be called social identity threat (Steele et al., 2002). ...
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Aim/Purpose: This paper illustrates the relationship between graduate students’ social identities and their ability to persevere in an academically rigorous graduate setting. Through our analysis we show that while many students experience marginalization and threats to their identity, they display no less grit than those who do not experience marginalization and threats to their identity. Background: There are contentious debates in higher education about the role that universities should play in promoting equity, diversity, and inclusion principles. Existing arguments rarely consider students’ social identity in conjunction with their academic mindsets and ability to succeed in the graduate school environment, but instead make assumptions of who students are and of what they are capable. Methodology: Survey methods and quantitative analyses, including regression and ANOVA testing. Contribution: While demonstrating that students who experience marginalization and social identity threat display no less grit than their counterparts, we claim that all students would still desire to live and work in a society in which their social identities are respected and honored. Findings: Many students, even those successfully navigating graduate school, still identify as oppressed or marginalized, which is strongly related to certain social identities and to social identity threat. No demographic or oppression-based variable alone correlates negatively or positively with perseverance as tested by the grit scale we used. Recommendations for Practitioners: We recommend that universities uphold a commitment to diversity and inclusion in order to create welcoming environments for all students to thrive. Recommendation for Researchers: We recommend that researchers focus on the intersections of identity, perseverance, and policy to fully address the issues of marginalization and social identity threat at graduate school campuses. Impact on Society: Our paper works to counter the often-negative perception of students who identify as marginalized and who demand more inclusive university environments. Future Research: In future studies, it would be beneficial for the field to address other social identities and examine their perceptions of marginalization and inclusion and assess impacts on academic mindset.
... On analyzing the main variables' relative frequencies in respect of conventional games (see Table S3), we observe patterns in line with prior research: White's has a first-mover advantage over Black (35% compared with 26% of games won) (Ribeiro, Mendes, Lenzi, del Castillo-Mussot, & Amaral, 2013), and men are vastly overrepresented (Maass, D'Ettole, & Cadinu, 2008). In centaur and engine games, new patterns become apparent. ...
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We apply a resource-based view to investigate how the adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) affects competitive capabilities and performance. Following prior work on using chess as a controlled setting for studying competitive interactions, we compare the same players’ capabilities and performance across conventional, centaur, and engine chess tournaments. Our analysis shows that AI adoption triggers interrelated substitution and complementation dynamics, which make humans’ traditional competitive capabilities obsolete, while creating new sources of persistent heterogeneity when humans interact with chess engines. These novel human-machine capabilities are unrelated, or even negatively related, to traditional capabilities. We contribute an integrated view of substitution and complementation, which identifies AI as the driver of these dynamics and explains how they jointly shift the sources of competitive advantage.
... There are a wide range of views about the nature of intelligence, starting from the view that intelligence is fixed upon birth to the view that it is malleable and can be developed and changed depending on an individual's mindset and efforts (Deary, 2000;Haimovitz and Dweck, 2016). Furthermore, there are a wide range of opinions regarding how intelligence is related to other factors (Garlick, 2002;Maass et al., 2008;Johnson et al., 2010). Efforts have been devoted to find a correlation between traditional construct of general intelligence (g) with the performance in school or in workplace. ...
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The current study investigated correlations among gifted students’ academic performance; emotional, social, analytical, creative, and practical intelligence; and their implicit theories of intelligence. Furthermore, it studied the effect of gender and grade on these variables. The participants included 174 gifted fifth (41.4%) and sixth (58.6%) grade students, comprising 53.4% male and 46.6% female. The following analytical, creative, and practical intelligence tests were administered: Aurora Battery, the emotional intelligence scale, the implicit theories of intelligence scale, and an assessment scale of students’ performances. The results revealed significant correlations among academic performance, kinds of intelligence, and implicit theories of intelligence. There were no significant differences between the male and female students in these measures. There were, however, significant differences between the fifth and sixth grade students, with the sixth-grade students showing higher levels of all kinds of intelligence, except emotional intelligence. Moreover, the results indicated that the intelligence measures were non-significantly affected by either gender or gender–grade interaction. Overall, our results showed that most types of intelligence are related to giftedness, and that there were no gender differences among gifted students on measures of intelligence.
... (Merton, 1948) ou de ameaça de estereótipo (ex. Logel et al., 2009;Maass, D'Ettole e Cadinu, 2008;McGlone, Aronson e Kobrynowicz., 2006;Steele e Aronson, 1995). ...
Article
A informação contabilística tem como função fornecer dados necessários à tomada de decisão dos gestores. As perspetivas de género defendem existir diferenças nos valores e atitudes de risco. Neste estudo definiram-se dois objetivos: avaliar as diferenças de género no recurso à informação contabilística e observar a utilidade atribuída à informação contabilística e a sua importância para a tomada de decisão dos gestores em função do género. Com base em 609 gestores de microempresas selecionados por conveniência, delineou-se um design bifatorial de 2 (género: homens versus mulheres) X 2 (utilizador: sim versus não) com recurso a um inquérito online. Os resultados não apresentam diferenças significativas de género entre os gestores que utilizam a contabilidade como fonte de informação. No entanto, de entre os gestores não utilizadores da informação contabilística, as mulheres reconhecem de forma diferente a utilidade dessa informação.
... Whereas previous findings have been consistent with the concept of stereotype threat (Backus, Cubel, Guid, Sánchez-Pages, & Mañas, 2016;de Sousa & Hollard, 2015;Maass, D'Ettole, & Cadinu, 2008;Rothgerber & Wolsiefer, 2014), Stafford concluded that the opposite was the case: "Female players, far from suffering a stereotype threat, display a boost in performance when playing men compared with playing women." (p. ...
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One real-life domain in which sex differences in cognition are studied is chess, an intellectual sport in which men and women compete head-to-head. This commentary on Stafford (2018) demonstrates the importance of including other factors, namely players’ ages, in analyses of differences between men and women. Because female chess players are, on average, younger than male players, not taking into account the ages of both players could have consequential effects on the analyses. In my study of official chess data from around the world, I found that to indeed be the case.
... The present study focused specifically on gender stereotypes that may relate to STEM fields because of the negative impact that perceptions, such as women being more emotional and less cog nitively apt than men, can have on women pursuing these fields (Bian et al., 2017). For instance, previous studies have shown that women's knowledge that they are performing in a stereotypically masculine endeavor affected selfesteem and performance levels (Maass et al., 2008). NFC is a trait that should continue to be considered in future studies that examine in what situations these types of associa tions may be internalized, as well as whether they can be manipulated. ...
Article
Clothing type can have a significant impact on the way people are perceived. In this study, we were interested in the effect of business versus casual clothing on the perception of Asian American women, given various stereotypes about them. We used a between-subjects design with a sample of college students from a university in the United States. Participants saw 3 Asian American women (and 1 European American woman to distract from the nature of the study) in either business attire or casual outfits, and rated each woman on a series of descriptors based off various stereotypes of Asian American women. We used the Scale of Anti-Asian American Stereotypes to measure internal prejudice toward Asian Americans and the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory to measure sexism. The Scale of Anti-Asian American stereotypes was a significant covariate, F(4, 233) = 6.09, p < .001, ηp2 = .10. Participants rated models in business attire as less stereotypically Asian, F(1, 239) = 46.56, p < .001, ηp2 = .17, less sexualized, F(1, 239) = 12.91, p < .001, ηp2 = .05, and less invisible, F(1, 239) = 42.01, p < .001, ηp2 = .15. Our results show that stereotypes can indeed be influenced by business attire. It is important to note that future research may be oriented toward changing the attitudes of those who hold harmful stereotypes, rather than the actions (i.e., clothing choices) of the subjects of prejudice.
... The computer-controlled opponents were given gendered names to reinforce the manipulation (i.e., Connor or Alanna). This sort of subtle inclusion of stereotype threat was found to be an effective form of priming within competitive gaming contexts (e.g., with female chess players; Maass et al., 2008). Furthermore, in the context of video games, such an opponent-gender-perception measure has been found to influence player aggression (Eastin, 2006) as well as stress and own-skill ratings (Vermeulen et al., 2014). ...
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The connection between video games and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become a key focus for education and game scholars alike. While games may have the power to bring more students toward STEM fields, gender stereotypes about gaming ability may hinder this potential. To examine this issue, two studies were conducted to investigate whether stereotype threat induced in a gaming context would affect players’ game performance and their perceptions of STEM fields. The first study found that priming gender stereotypes influenced female participants’ video game performance as well as interest in and perceptions of STEM fields. A second study investigated this relationship through the use of both overtly gendered and nongendered forms of stereotype threat as well as avatar-induced identity salience. Interaction effects found between implicit/explicit stereotype threat and identity salience suggest a relationship between forms of stereotype threat and active self-concept.
... p=0.024 with the violation of the assumption of homogeneity of variance). This result is inconsistent with others who estimate that women are more prevention-oriented than men (Maass et al., 2008). The same analysis found that healthy subjects expressed higher SE compared to those with chronic diseases (t=3.227, ...
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Civil aviation is one of the sectors most affected by the Covid 19 pandemic. Due to the lack of marketing research in the Arab world on this topic, this study examined the causal and moderating relationships between Covid-19 anxiety, prevention focus, self-efficacy, information about Covid-19, and intention to travel by air. Data were collected via an electronic survey from a convenience sample of 515 Saudis. A structural equation modeling analysis showed that prevention focus had an influence on Covid-19 anxiety, which in turn had a negative impact on intention to travel by air. A multigroup analysis was also conducted. The results confirmed that the effect of Covid-19 anxiety on air travel intention is stronger when individuals have low levels of self-efficacy. Several theoretical implications and recommendations for management are discussed.
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The article concerns the unequal position of men and women in chess. This inequality is currently manifested in the male-dominated population of chess players, gender determined differences in the game level attained, and financial discrimination. Historical analysis shows that over the centuries chess has been regarded as a pastime suitable for both men and women. It was only the process of institutionalization of chess as a sport (and turning it into serious leisure activity, in R. Stebbins’ typology), which took place in the era of industrial society, that discrimination against women in chess came about. The emancipatory activities of women in this field, dating back to the second half of the 19th century, were commented on in the chess press in two ways, which are referred to in the text as the “Steinitz narrative” and the “de Coubertin narrative”. Both of these perspectives have remained resilient to this day, accompanying the progress in equalizing the position of men and women in chess that were seen in the 20th and 21st centuries.
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We apply a resource-based view to investigate how the adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) affects competitive capabilities and performance. Following prior work on using chess as a controlled setting for studying competitive interactions, we compare the same players’ capabilities and performance across conventional, centaur, and engine chess tournaments. Our analysis shows that AI triggers interrelated substitution and complementation dynamics, which make humans’ traditional competitive capabilities obsolete, while creating new sources of persistent heterogeneity when humans interact with chess engines. These novel human-machine capabilities are unrelated, or even negatively related, to traditional capabilities. We contribute by providing an integrated view of substitution and complementation, including the description of AI as a driver of the two, eventually explaining substantial shifts in the sources of competitive advantage.
Article
Not unlike the sport industry, the majority of sport management students in the United States are White, middle-class males. As women in male-dominated academic departments experience gender harassment more frequently than women in balanced or female-dominated departments, the purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of sport management doctoral students with gender microaggressions and stereotype threat by gender to examine if such experiences occur at this stage in academia. The results indicate that female students experience gender microaggressions of being excluded, being treated like a second-class citizen, and being placed in restrictive roles by program faculty due to their gender more frequently than male students. This study provides clarity into issues affecting female doctoral student progression postgraduation in sport management. In addition, this study provides context around the student experience in doctoral programs across male-dominated academic disciplines.
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The idea of human-like robots with artificial intelligence (AI) engaging in sports has been considered in the light of robotics, technology and culture. However, robots with AI can also be used to clarify ethical questions in sports such as boxing with its inherent risks of brain injury and even death. This article develops an innovative way to assess the ethical issues in boxing by using a thought experiment, responding to recent medical data and overall concerns about harms and risks to boxers. The thought experiment imagines a fight between a human and a robot. Critical issues about head trauma and brain injuries are then discussed. These can be summed up in two ethical questions: ‘why is it acceptable for a boxer to deliver concussive and recurrent subconcussive punches to a human head (skull and brain), powerful enough to achieve a knockout, or score more points, or to potentially inflict an injury immediately or eventually resulting in death?’, with the reciprocal question, ‘why is it acceptable to allow oneself to be injured in a like manner, possibly fatally, by an opponent?’ The two questions are explored using the thought experiment in two matching perspectives: where the human boxer is attacking and the robot boxer is defending; and conversely, where the human boxer is on the receiving end of punches delivered by the robot. Each perspective opens with some general remarks, followed by an analysis of the boxing contest and eliciting some implications for future opportunities for the sport.
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The unusually low number of religious affiliates in science has been a perplexing phenomenon ever since James Leuba originally reported his findings on the religiosity of scientists in 1914. It has been traditionally assumed that low religious turnout in science is a consequence of epistemological conflicts between religion and science dissuading religious affiliates from pursuing scientific careers. The potential contribution of the scientific institution itself (and its social practices), however, has been seldom questioned as a contributing factor. Herein I hypothesize and argue that several socio- psychological mechanisms of social bias potentiate discrimination within the scientific institution, favouring non-religious candidates in recruitment into the scientific role as well as during subsequent career advancement. These mechanisms include: (1) Boundary posturing and identity formation psychology; (2) Implicit association psychology and (3) Stereotype anxiety psychology. For reasons discussed, differences in educational attainment rates between religious affiliates and disaffiliates, differences in natural inclinations towards science and scientific topics, and socialization processes in academia towards secularism, are all unlikely explanations for the low number of religious affiliates in science. Discrimination against religious scientists, if present, should be made clearly recognized through study and ameliorated through educational and/or institutional policies if we are to both safeguard human dignity and foster a robust scientific enterprise necessary for the 21st century global economy.
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Beliefs about the importance of innate talent to success in a domain may affect persistence and effort over the life span. Researchers mainly have examined the domains of formal education and physical sports. The present study examined beliefs and their longitudinal effects in participants in an intellectual game; international chess. Most players surveyed believe in innate talent for chess and that top players have more talent but differ in beliefs about how far most players can go. Effects of the latter differing beliefs then were examined by comparing groups who believed or did not believe that most players could reach grandmaster or top ten levels. Effects were minimal. Differing beliefs about innate talent had little apparent impact in chess players.
Article
Purpose: Women remain underrepresented as biomedical faculty and are more likely than white and Asian men to lose interest in faculty careers in graduate school. However, some women maintain interest in academic research careers during PhD training and are the most likely candidates for faculty positions. This study explored how these women described and interpreted gender issues at early stages in their training. Method: Annual interviews from 2009 to 2014 with 22 female PhD students aspiring to research faculty careers were analyzed using an iterative, content analysis approach rooted in the interview data. Focusing on career intentions and experiences with gender, race, and ethnicity, authors arrived at 11 themes which describe a range of gendered experiences and strategies. Results: Of the 22 women, 19 (86%) acknowledged systemic gender inequities in science and/or reported instances of bias, while 15 of them also said they had not yet experienced unequal treatment. All 22 described using at least one "gender-explicit strategy," where they based decisions on gender or in response to perceived biases. "Gender-agnostic strategies" emerged for 12 (55%) who doubted that gender will affect their career. Conclusions: Findings show that women biomedical PhD students continue to face conditions that can lead to unequal treatment; gender biases continue to persist. Students displayed a range of perceptions and strategies in response to these conditions at this early training stage. Following these students over time will determine whether these or other strategies are required and sufficient to enable persistence toward academic careers.
Chapter
The discipline of psychology has historically been based upon Western, Eurocentric perspectives on human behavior. Critical theory has played a central role in pushing psychology out from its insularity and perceived objectivity. This chapter examines the role of critical pedagogist Paolo Freire and liberation psychologist Ignacio Martín-Baró in the shaping of a multicultural perspective within psychology that has revolutionized the way that psychologists understand and treat mental health conditions. Freire and Martín-Baró gave voice to the marginalized and disenfranchised and pushed psychologists to engage in their own conscientization of their history and complicitness in perpetuating oppression. Implications of their work are examined in light of their contributions to theoretical underpinnings, clinical diagnosis, and treatment approaches.
Chapter
The discipline of psychology has historically been based upon Western, Eurocentric perspectives on human behavior. Critical theory has played a central role in pushing psychology out from its insularity and perceived objectivity. This chapter examines the role of critical pedagogist Paolo Freire and liberation psychologist Ignacio Martín-Baró in the shaping of a multicultural perspective within psychology that has revolutionized the way that psychologists understand and treat mental health conditions. Freire and Martín-Baró gave voice to the marginalized and disenfranchised and pushed psychologists to engage in their own conscientization of their history and complicitness in perpetuating oppression. Implications of their work are examined in light of their contributions to theoretical underpinnings, clinical diagnosis, and treatment approaches.
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There is a growing literature looking at how men and women respond differently to competition. We contribute to this literature by studying gender differences in performance in a high-stakes and male dominated competitive environment, expert chess tournaments. Our findings show that women underperform compared to men of the same ability and that the gender composition of games drives this effect. Using within player variation in the conditionally random gender of their opponent, we find that women earn significantly worse outcomes against male opponents. We examine the mechanisms through which this effect operates by using a unique measure of within game quality of play. We find that the gender composition effect is driven by women playing worse against men, rather than by men playing better against women. The gender of the opponent does not affect a male player's quality of play. We also find that men persist longer against women before resigning. These results suggest that the gender composition of competitions affects the behavior of both men and women in ways that are detrimental to the performance of women. Lastly, we study the effect of competitive pressure and find that players' quality of play deteriorates when stakes increase, though we find no differential effect over the gender composition of games.
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The present study aims to illustrate the point of view of a variety of female sports journalists as they relate to the unique and defining experiences within their line of work; this in the hopes of identifying the key elements at play in the shaping of the practice of women in sports journalism and its impact on the coverage of women’s sports. 17 Israeli female sports journalists were interviewed concurrently, alongside a select number of male editors of various sports sections. In addition, a survey regarding readers’ views on the coverage of women’s sports and a content analysis of sport coverage in national newspapers was conducted. The analysis of the study's findings and particularly, of the female sports journalists' experiences, has even revealed similarities between the place of women in sports media and female presence within combative military units.
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Objective Studies show that public service broadcasters narrow knowledge gaps between politically interested and disinterested because such contexts encourage incidental learning. This reasoning, however, fails to explain why gendered knowledge differences persist in environments that equalize learning. Using stereotype threat theory, I argue that news content emits symbolic gender cues that encourage or discourage women to become politically informed. Methods Employing European Election Study 2009 voter data (N = 27,000), and multilingual news content analyses from 27 E.U. member states, I test whether more egalitarian representation of women as newsmakers correlates with narrower gaps between men and women. Results Aggregate and multilevel models show that greater representation of women as newsmakers correlates with smaller gaps in news exposure and political knowledge. Analyses also consider competing explanations such as women's electoral representation, education, labor force participation, and knowledge item guessing rates. Conclusion Findings support the theoretical expectations regarding symbolic cues and knowledge gaps.
Article
"Stereotype threat" has been offered as a potential explanation of differential performance between men and women in some cognitive domains. Questions remain about the reliability and generality of the phenomenon. Previous studies have found that stereotype threat is activated in female chess players when they are matched against male players. I use data from over 5.5 million games of international tournament chess and find no evidence of a stereotype threat effect. In fact women players outperform expectations when playing men. Further analysis shows no influence of degree of challenge, nor of player age, nor of prevalence of female role models in national chess leagues on differences in performance when women play men versus when they play women. Though this analysis contradicts one specific mechanism of influence of gender stereotypes, the persistent differences between male and female players suggest that systematic factors do exist and remain to be uncovered.
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From football to the ultimatum game to chess to World of Warcraft, games have been used in social and personality psychology research for decades. Games are a unique and powerful method: They are engaging and have the potential to both manipulate and measure psychological constructs. In fact, researchers have used physical games, board games, behavioral economics games, and digital games to study a range of individual differences, interpersonal processes, and social cognitive processes. Furthermore, researchers have the opportunity to create their own games that can be targeted directly toward their topic of interest. Our review provides a primer for social and personality psychologists interested in using existing games or creating new games for their research as a method for understanding attitudes, behaviors, emotions, cognitions, and perceptions.
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Background: Analysis of the Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery (FES) performance exam showed higher scores for men than women. Gender differences have been reduced with task-specific practice. We assessed the effect of simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) on FES performance exam differences by gender. Methods: Forty-seven surgical trainees [29 men (m), 18 women (w)] completed a SBML curriculum and were assessed by FES. Fourteen trained on the GI Mentor 2, 18 on the Endoscopy Training System, and 15 using the Surgical Training for Endoscopic Proficiency curriculum. Performance of male and female trainees was compared. Results: On the pre-training assessment, there were large differences between genders in FES pass rates (m 77%, w 15%, p < 0.001), total scores (m 69 ± 11, w 50 ± 12; p < 0.001), and in four of five FES sub-task scores (Navigation, m 73 ± 19, w 55 ± 22, p = 0.02; Loop reduction, m 34 ± 29, w 14 ± 22, p = 0.02; Retroflexion, m 81 ± 17, w 47 ± 27, p < 0.001; Targeting, m 89 ± 10, w 66 ± 23, p = 0.002). No differences were discernible post training (Pass rate, m 100%, w 94%, p = 0.4; Total score, m 77 ± 8, w 72 ± 12, p = 0.2; Navigation, m 91 ± 13, w 80 ± 13, p = 0.009; Loop reduction, m 49 ± 26, w 46 ± 36, p = 0.7; Retroflexion, m 82 ± 18, w 81 ± 15, p = 0.9; Targeting, m 92 ± 15, w 86 ± 12, p = 0.12). Time needed to complete curricula was not discernably different by gender (m 3.8 ± 1.7 h, w 5.0 ± 2.6 h, p = 0.17). Conclusions: Gender-based differences are nearly eliminated through task-specific SBML training. This lends further evidence to the validity argument for the FES performance exam as a measure of basic endoscopic skills.
Chapter
Mental health professionals often engage in professional work that resembles mediation and negotiation. Whether in the form of couples counseling, family therapy, parent–child counseling, or simply the setting of boundaries and ground rules in individual psychotherapy, mental health practice has much in common with the work that mediators do. In this chapter, we offer the perspectives of two practicing mediators on a subject that is critical to the work of both mediators and mental health professionals—namely, cultural and diversity issues.
Thesis
L'accidentalité des conducteurs de deux-roues motorisés (2RM) est au coeur des préoccupations de sécurité routière. Pourtant peu de publications scientifiques dédiées à leur étude évoquent les différences de sexe et/ou de conformité aux stéréotypes de sexe au sein de cette population, et, à notre connaissance, aucune ne traite réellement du sujet. Ce travail de thèse s'inscrit dans une démarche globale visant à apporter des connaissances sur les différences de sexe et de conformité aux stéréotypes de sexe au sein de cette communauté très stéréotypée masculine. Il a d'abord pu montrer que les femmes motocyclistes avaient des taux d'accidents corporels ou mortels bien inférieurs à ceux des hommes, et que leur mobilité en 2RM était essentiellement urbaine et liée aux déplacements domicile-travail. Une première étude a mis en évidence que les hommes déclaraient plus de comportements à risque accidentel intentionnels et les femmes plus de comportements à risque non-intentionnels. Une deuxième étude a montré que le type de motocyclette choisi avait un effet direct sur les comportements à risque accidentel, plus important que le sexe du motocycliste. Une troisième étude a montré que les individus qui se conformaient aux stéréotypes masculins déclaraient plus de violations que ceux qui se conformaient aux stéréotypes féminins (qui eux, déclarent plus d'erreurs), et ce, quel que soit leur sexe. Cette relation est expliquée par les motivations à conduire un 2RM. Enfin, ce travail a montré que les stéréotypes de sexe associés à la conduite d'une motocyclette existent déjà chez les adolescents, et ce, même s'ils sont conducteurs de 2RM ou si leurs parents conduisent eux-mêmes un 2RM. En conclusion, ce travail de thèse montre des différences significatives entre hommes et femmes conducteurs de 2RM, et plus particulièrement de motocyclettes, autant au niveau de leur accidentalité que de leurs prises de risque au guidon de leur véhicule. Ces différences ne sont pas liées au sexe biologique du motocycliste, mais à sa conformité aux stéréotypes de son groupe de sexe et les effets de celle-ci sur ses motivations à conduire une moto. De plus, nous avons également pu constater que des stéréotypes de sexe existaient bien pour cette population spécifique d'usagers de la route, en tout cas, chez les collégiens de la région marseillaise. Ces travaux permettent d'avoir une connaissance plus fine des comportements des conducteurs de 2RM, et ainsi, d'enrichir la réflexion sur les actions possibles en matière d'éducation routière et de prévention des risques routiers, en ciblant plus efficacement les sous-populations les plus à risque chez les conducteurs de 2RM. The powered two-wheelers (PTW) riders' accidentality is at the heart of road safety issues. However, few scientific publications dedicated to them have been written on sex differences and/or sex stereotypes conformity for this population, and, to our knowledge, no study has ever dealt with this subject. This PhD thesis is part of a comprehensive approach to generate knowledge on sex differences and sex stereotypes conformity within this very masculine stereotyped community. It first showed that female motorcyclists have much lower injury crashes and fatalities rates than males and that their mobility in powered two-wheelers (PTW) was mainly urban and for commuting. A first study showed that males declared more intentional risky behaviors and female more non-intentional risky behaviors. A second study showed that the PTW type chosen by the riders had a direct effect on the aberrant behaviors more important than sex differences. A third study showed that individuals who conformed to masculine stereotypes declared more violations than those who conformed to feminine stereotypes (who declared more lapses), whatever their sex. This relation was explained by the motivations to ride a PTW. Finally, this work showed that sex stereotypes associated with motorcycle riding already existed on the adolescent population, even if they are themselves moped riders or if at least one of their parents is a rider. As a conclusion, this PhD thesis revealed significant differences between male and female PTW riders, and more specifically motorcycle riders, in terms of accidentology and risk taking while riding. These differences are not linked to the rider's biological sex, but to his/her conformity to his/her sex group sex stereotypes and to the effects of this conformity on his/her motivations to ride a PTW. Moreover, it also made clear that there are sex stereotypes for this specific road users' population, at least, for the Marseille's area pupils. This work led to a more detailed understanding of PTW riders' aberrant behaviors, and thus, to enrich the thinking for possible actions with regard to road safety education and road risk prevention, by more effectively targeting the PTW riders' subpopulation the most at risk.
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Do you need to be a genius to be good at chess? What does it take to become a Grandmaster? Can computer programmes beat human intuition in gameplay? The Psychology of Chess is an insightful overview of the roles of intelligence, expertise, and human intuition in playing this complex and ancient game. The book explores the idea of ‘practice makes perfect’, alongside accounts of why men perform better than women in international rankings, and why chess has become synonymous with extreme intelligence as well as madness. When artificial intelligence researchers are increasingly studying chess to develop machine learning, The Psychology of Chess shows us how much it has already taught us about the human mind.
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A widely cited result asserts that experts' superiority over novices in recalling meaningful material from their domain of expertise vanishes when they are confronted with random material. A review of recent chess experiments in which random positions served as control material (presentation time between 3 and 10 sec) shows, however, that strong players generally maintain some superiority over weak players even with random positions, although the relative difference between skill levels is much smaller than with game positions. The implications of this finding for expertise in chess are discussed and the question of the recall of random material in other domains is raised.
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This chapter provides a brief overview of research on stereotype threat, and considers whether this phenomenon is specific to minority groups (defined as low status groups), or whether similar deficits may also be observed in groups that generally enjoy a high status in society but that are negatively stereotyped in a specific domain. We then review a number of individual difference variables that moderate stereotype threat and that may explain why some people are highly vulnerable to stereotype activation while others appear to resist its influence. Next, we consider what processes drive stereotype threat, including anxiety, intrusive thoughts, shift towards caution, expectancy, and disengagement. In the subsequent section we compare the stereotype threat model with other theories dealing with the link between stereotypes and performance, in particular self-fulfilling prophecy and the expectancy value model. The final sections of the chapter concern areas of application in which stereotype threat may account for performance gaps between social groups, and how to prevent it.
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"Like many other Blacks," recounted African American tennis great Arthur Ashe, "when I find myself in a new public situation, I will count" (Ashe, 1993, p. 131). Ashe, who played a sport that was and still is dominated by Whites, counted his "Blackness" frequently. By "counting", Ashe was referring to the difficulty he encountered as a member of a group that is outnumbered and devalued in American society; he counted the number of Black faces in a room to determine how well his social identity was valued and represented. It turns out that many of us engage in a similar, albeit less conscious, form of mental arithmetic. We scan the environment and "count" those features about ourselves that stand out. When those features are related to a stigmatized social identity, we, like Ashe, may be distressed and burdened by negative stereotypes associated with our identity. For the past few years, our research
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Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group. Studies 1 and 2 varied the stereotype vulnerability of Black participants taking a difficult verbal test by varying whether or not their performance was ostensibly diagnostic of ability, and thus, whether or not they were at risk of fulfilling the racial stereotype about their intellectual ability. Reflecting the pressure of this vulnerability, Blacks underperformed in relation to Whites in the ability-diagnostic condition but not in the nondiagnostic condition (with Scholastic Aptitude Tests controlled). Study 3 validated that ability-diagnosticity cognitively activated the racial stereotype in these participants and motivated them not to conform to it, or to be judged by it. Study 4 showed that mere salience of the stereotype could impair Blacks' performance even when the test was not ability diagnostic. The role of stereotype vulnerability in the standardized test performance of ability-stigmatized groups is discussed.
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In this article, we meta-analytically examine experimental studies to assess the moderating effect of provocation on gender differences in aggression. Convergent evidence shows that, whereas unprovoked men are more aggressive than women, provocation markedly attenuates this gender difference. Gender differences in appraisals of provocation intensity and fear of danger from retaliation (but not negative affect) partially mediate the attenuating effect of provocation. However, they do not entirely account for its manipulated effect. Type of provocation and other contextual variables also affect the magnitude of gender differences in aggression. The results support a social role analysis of gender differences in aggression and counter A. H. Eagly and V. Steffen's (1986) meta-analytic inability to confirm an attenuating effect of provocation on gender differences in aggression.
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The extent to which the acquisition of expertise in knowledge-rich domains, such as chess, can be influenced by general individual characteristics, such as intelligence, has remained unclear. Some previous studies with children have documented significant correlations between chess skill and performance on some psychometric tests, such as performance IQ. However, we found no evidence for a correlation between chess skill and visual memory ability in a group of adult chess players (N = 36, age = 28.4 years). This finding, together with other data in the literature, suggests that there is surprisingly little evidence that chess skill and visuospatial ability are associated in adults. Thus, visual memory ability, and perhaps visuospatial intelligence, may be relatively unimportant factors in the long-term acquisition of chess skill.
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Although research has shown that priming negative stereotypes leads to lower performance among stigmatized individuals, little is understood about the cognitive mechanism that accounts for these effects. Three experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat interferes with test performance because it reduces individuals' working memory capacity. Results show that priming self-relevant negative stereotypes reduces women's (Experiment 1) and Latinos' (Experiment 2) working memory capacity. The final study revealed that a reduction in working memory capacity mediates the effect of stereotype threat on women's math performance (Experiment 3). Implications for future research on stereotype threat and working memory are discussed.
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Recent work suggests that stereotype threat (ST) harms performance by reducing available working memory capacity. Is this the only mechanism by which ST can occur? Three experiments examined ST's impact on expert golf putting, which is not harmed when working memory is reduced but is hurt when attention is allocated to proceduralized processes that normally run outside working memory. Experiment 1 showed that well learned golf putting is susceptible to ST. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that giving expert golfers a secondary task eliminates ST-induced impairment. Distracting attention away from the stereotype-related behavior eliminates the harmful impact of negative stereotype activation. These results are consistent with explicit monitoring theories of choking under pressure, which suggest that performance degradation can occur when too much attention is allocated to processes that usually run more automatically. Thus, ST alters information processing in multiple ways, inducing performance decrements for different reasons in different tasks.
Book
The Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology is an essential resource for researchers and students of social psychology and related disciplines.
Article
Stereotype threat occurs when knowledge of a negative stereotype about a social group leads to less-than-optimal performance by members of that group. Although the stereotype threat phenomenon has been extensively studied in academic and cognitively-based tasks, it has received little attention in sport. This article reviews the existent literature on stereotype threat and discusses its implications for sports performance. The causal mechanisms of stereotype threat in sport are examined, followed by a discussion of why the cognitive processes thought to govern negative stereotype-induced performance decrements in academic and cognitively based tasks (e.g., GRE or SAT tests) may not unequivocally extend to sport skills. Finally, factors that should moderate the impact of stereotype threat in sport are outlined. Because stereotype threat has important consequences for athletics (e.g., impairing athletic performance, maintaining the underrepresentation of minority athletes in certain sports), it is a phenomenon that deserves greater attention in sport and exercise psychology research.
Article
Although there are no sex differences in general intelligence, reliable differences are found on some tests of cognitive abilities. Many of the tasks that assess the ability to manipulate visual images in working memory show an advantage for males, whereas many of the tasks that require retrieval from long-term memory and the acquisition and use of verbal information show a female advantage. Large effects favoring males are also found on advanced tests of mathematical achievement, especially with highly select samples. Males are also overrepresented in some types of mental retardation. Effects sizes are variable and often large. These differences are generally found cross-culturally and across the life span. The nature–nurture dichotomy is rejected as an interpretive framework. In light of recent findings that environmental variables alter the biological underpinnings of intelligence and individuals actively participate in creating their environments, we prefer a psychobiosocial model for understanding sex differences in intelligence.
Article
Chess players' recall of auditorily presented chess positions were studied in three experiments. The results of the first two experiments showed that the skilled chess players are better at recalling game and random positions. This contradicts the standard finding that they perform better only in game positions. In the third experiment, the memory load was increased by increasing the number of positions to be recalled simultaneously from one to four positions. Skilled subjects are still far better at recalling game positions, but they score no more than moderately skilled subjects in recalling four random positions.The results are in contradiction with the direct chunking hypothesis. Skilled chess players do not fail to recall random positions because there are no chunks in them, but because they are not, under some special conditions, able to encode them properly. It is necessary to postulate more complicated encoding mechanisms than a simple recognition-based activation of a chunk in long-term memory.
Article
Two experiments examined the use of behavioral self-handicapping as a strategy for coping with stereotype threat. Using sports as the performance context, it was predicted that if a sports test was framed as a measure of “natural athletic ability,” White participants would feel threatened about confirming the negative stereotype about poor White athleticism and would practice less before the test as compared to control groups. The data from Experiment 1 supported the prediction and showed that the effect of stereotype threat on self-handicapping was moderated by participants’ level of psychological engagement in sports. Experiment 2 showed that engaged White participants practiced less than engaged Hispanic participants when their performance was linked to natural athletic ability. The discussion focuses on the processes by which the salience of a negative stereotype in a performance context induces proactive strategies for coping with the implications of a poor performance.
Article
When women perform math, unlike men, they risk being judged by the negative stereotype that women have weaker math ability. We call this predicamentstereotype threatand hypothesize that the apprehension it causes may disrupt women's math performance. In Study 1 we demonstrated that the pattern observed in the literature that women underperform on difficult (but not easy) math tests was observed among a highly selected sample of men and women. In Study 2 we demonstrated that this difference in performance could be eliminated when we lowered stereotype threat by describing the test as not producing gender differences. However, when the test was described as producing gender differences and stereotype threat was high, women performed substantially worse than equally qualified men did. A third experiment replicated this finding with a less highly selected population and explored the mediation of the effect. The implication that stereotype threat may underlie gender differences in advanced math performance, even those that have been attributed to genetically rooted sex differences, is discussed.
Article
Can the superiority of some countries and groups at certain activities be explained solely by the relative sizes of the participating populations? We focus on the expected highest achievement, max, as a function of the participating group's size. For several relevant statistical distributions, max can be shown to be approximately log-linear in sample size, with a slope of about 0.7 SD units. We use this relation (max is log-linear ∼0.7: MILL7) to examine differences in performance in chess by men and women and by different countries. The expected differences under MILL7 are very close to the observed differences. We also examine the implications of MILL7 for the interpretation of other group differences and discuss its limitations.
Article
Two experiments showed that framing an athletic task as diagnostic of negative racial stereotypes about Black or White athletes can impede their performance in sports. In Experiment 1, Black participants performed significantly worse than did control participants when performance on a golf task was framed as diagnostic of "sports intelligence." In comparison, White participants performed worse than did control participants when the golf task was framed as diagnostic of 'natural athletic ability." Experiment 2 observed the effect of stereotype threat on the athletic performance of White participants for whom performance in sports represented a significant measure of their self-worth. The implications of the findings for the theory of stereotype threat (C. M. Steele, 1997) and for participation in sports are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The chapter begins by introducing regulatory focus as a distinct motivational principle. Regulatory focus constitutes a motivational duality concerning 2 types of self-regulation: self-regulation with a promotion focus and self-regulation with a prevention focus. Evidence is then presented to show how regulatory focus, both as an individual-difference variable and as a situational variable, influences people's affective reactions to events. Next, the impact of regulatory focus on the processes underlying evaluative judgments and decisions is discussed. The chapter ends with a discussion of some implications of promotion and prevention for understanding the evaluative processes underlying attitudes and impressions, as well as the effects of these processes on interpersonal relationships, attitude–behavior relations, and persuasion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reports some unexpected byproducts of experiments with chess-playing tasks and computer simulation of skilled performance and problem solving. First, the theory of the processes used by expert chess players in discovering checkmating combinations and the MATER computer simulation of these processes are reviewed. Next phenomena involving the perceptual bases of mastery in chess and eye movements at the chess board are described. Perceptual processes were evaluated by way of the MATER program, and a new program, PERCEIVER, was used to explain the eye movement phenomenon. To further refine the above findings, other more sophisticated simulation programs were introduced. Findings indicate that acquisition of chess skills depends, in large part, on building up recognition memory for many familiar chess patterns. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A new task goal elicits a feeling of pride in individuals with a subjective history of success, and this achievment pride produces anticipatory goal reactions that energize and direct behavior to approach the task goal. By distinguishing between promotion pride and prevention pride, the present paper extends this classic model of achievement motivation. Regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) distinguishes between a promotion focus on hopes and accomplishments (gains) and a prevention focus on safety and responsibilities (non-losses). We propose that a subjective history of success with promotion-related eagerness (promotion pride) orients individuals toward using eagerness means to approach a new task goal, whereas a subjective history of success with prevention-related vigilance (prevention pride) orients individuals toward using vigilance means to approach a new task goal. Studies 1–3 tested this proposal by examining the relations between a new measure of participants' subjective histories of promotion success and prevention success (the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire (RFQ)) and their achievement strategies in different tasks. Study 4 examined the relation between participants' RFQ responses and their reported frequency of feeling eager or vigilant in past task engagements. Study 5 used an experimental priming technique to make participants temporarily experience either a subjective history of promotion success or a subjective history of prevention success. For both chronic and situationally induced achievement pride, these studies found that when approaching task goals individuals with promotion pride use eagerness means whereas individuals with prevention pride use vigilance means. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Two large, diverse samples of tournament-rated chess players were asked to estimate the frequency and duration of their engagement in a variety of chess-related activities. Variables representing accumulated time spent on serious study alone, tournament play, and formal instruction were all significant bivariate correlates of chess skill as measured by tournament performance ratings. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that among the activities measured, serious study alone was the strongest predictor of chess skill in both samples, and that a combination of various chess-related activities accounted for about 40% of the variance in chess skill ratings. However, the relevance of tournament play and formal instruction to skill varied as a function of skill measurement time (peak vs. current) and age group (above vs. below 40 years). Chess players at the highest skill level (i.e. grandmasters) expended about 5000 hours on serious study alone during their first decade of serious chess play-nearly five times the average amount reported by intermediate-level players. These results provide further evidence to support the argument that deliberate practice plays a critical role in the acquisition of chess expertise, and may be useful in addressing pedagogical issues concerning the optimal allocation of time to different chess learning activities. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
In an investigation of gender-related differences in cognitive ability factors, analyses were undertaken of a series of administrations over a 9-yr period of a comprehensive test battery used to select medical school applicants in West Germany. Fifteen correlation matrices based on a total of 96,968 males and 90,142 females were factor analysed. Three factors were extracted in every case and rotated to an orthogonal simple structure using the Varimax procedure. In every instance, the three factors were identified as reasoning, perceptual speed, and memory with congruence coefficients across administration ranging from 0.89 to 0.99. Highly similar factors were also identified when the data of males and females were factored separately. In all 15 analyses, males scored higher on the reasoning factor than did females, and females scored higher than males on the memory factor, in each case about one-half of a standard deviation. Clear changes over the years were not in evidence, except for a tendency for the female advantage in memory to decline.
Article
Based on their theory that sex differences in spatial abilities originated in human evolution as a function of division of labor, Silverman and Eals (1992) demonstrated in a series of studies that females consistently surpassed males in recall of locations of objects in a spatial array. The present studies were replications of the above, but with the inclusion of uncommon objects, for which subjects would not possess verbal labels. Female superiority for recall of locations of common objects as observed in Silverman and Eals was replicated across incidental and directed learning conditions. The female advantage occured as well for uncommon objects, but only under incidental learning conditions. Conjectures are offered regarding sex differences in attentional and imagery processes that could account for this pattern of results.
Article
A new approach examined two aspects of chess skill, long a popular topic in cognitive science. A powerful computer-chess program calculated the number and magnitude of blunders made by the same 23 grandmasters in hundreds of serious games of slow (“classical”) chess, regular “rapid” chess, and rapid “blindfold” chess, in which opponents transmit moves without ever seeing the actual position. Rapid chess led to substantially more and larger blunders than classical chess. Perhaps more surprisingly, the frequency and magnitude of blunders did not differ in rapid versus blindfold play, despite the additional memory and visualization load imposed by the latter. We discuss the involvement of various cognitive processes in human problem-solving and expertise, especially with respect to chess. Prior opposing views about the basis of general chess skill have emphasized the dominance of either (a) swift pattern recognition or (b) analyzing ahead, but both seem important and the controversy appears currently unresolvable and perhaps fruitless.
Article
Rising population intelligence should be impacting in the real world and performance in intellectual games such as chess may be good indices of such impact. Previous research suggests that chess players recently have been reaching high performance levels at younger and younger ages, consistent with rising population ability, but this conclusion is based on very limited data. Sample size was small and data mostly were only from 1970. The present study was able to use all international chess rating list data and some new data back to 1880 to investigate this issue thoroughly. Longitudinal data show that the age effect really is something quite new, not being apparent before 1970. The age effect mostly is occurring in the very top players, who are getting on the list at progressively younger ages, but also is occurring in female players, though not as strongly. The age effect mainly seems due to progressively more very talented young players entering the rating list very young and quickly rising. The data also allow some other interpretations of the age effect to be partly excluded. Top players do not seem to be getting any more practice and the peak rating age still seems to be around 35 years old, as it has been for many decades. The effect thus is unlikely to be due to recent changes in the chess environment. The best interpretation is that the natural talent pool has greatly improved in recent years, consistent with rising population ability.
Book
What does a chessmaster think when he prepartes his next move? How are his thoughts organized? Which methods and strategies does he use by solving his problem of choice? To answer these questions, the author did an experimental study in 1938, to which famous chessmasters participated (Alekhine, Max Euwe and Flohr). This book is still usefull for everybody who studies cognition and artificial intelligence.
Book
There are few topics so fascinating both to the research investigator and the research subject as the self-image. It is distinctively characteristic of the human animal that he is able to stand outside himself and to describe, judge, and evaluate the person he is. He is at once the observer and the observed, the judge and the judged, the evaluator and the evaluated. Since the self is probably the most important thing in the world to him, the question of what he is like and how he feels about himself engrosses him deeply. This is especially true during the adolescent stage of development.
Article
A pesar de la relativamente corta historia de la Psicología como ciencia, existen pocos constructos psicológicos que perduren 90 años después de su formulación y que, aún más, continúen plenamente vigentes en la actualidad. El factor «g» es sin duda alguna uno de esos escasos ejemplos y para contrastar su vigencia actual tan sólo hace falta comprobar su lugar de preeminencia en los modelos factoriales de la inteligencia más aceptados en la actualidad, bien como un factor de tercer orden en los modelos jerárquicos o bien identificado con un factor de segundo orden en el modelo del recientemente desaparecido R.B.Cattell.
Article
A new paper-and-pencil test of spatial visualization was constructed from the figures used in the chronometric study of Shepard and Metzler (1971). In large samples, the new test displayed substantial internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson 20 = .88), a test-retest reliability (.83), and consistent sex differences over the entire range of ages investigated. Correlations with other measures indicated strong association with tests of spatial visualization and virtually no association with tests of verbal ability.
Article
In recent years, the magnitude, consistency, and stability across time of cognitive sex differences have been questioned. The present study examined these issues in the context of spatial abilities. A meta-analysis of 286 effect sizes from a variety of spatial ability measures was conducted. Effect sizes were partitioned by the specific test used and by a number of variables related to the experimental procedure in order to achieve homogeneity. Results showed that sex differences are significant in several tests but that some intertest differences exist. Partial support was found for the notion that the magnitude of sex differences has decreased in recent years. Finally, it was found that the age of emergence of sex differences depends on the test used. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for the study of sex differences in spatial abilities.
Article
Does placing females in environments in which they have contact with males cause deficits in their problem-solving performance? Is a situational cue, such as gender composition, sufficient for creating a threatening intellectual environment for females--an environment that elicits performance-impinging stereotypes? Two studies explored these questions. Participants completed a difficult math or verbal test in 3-person groups, each of which included 2 additional people of the same sex as the participant (same-sex condition) or of the opposite sex (minority condition). Female participants in the minority condition experienced performance deficits in the math test only, whereas males performed equally well on the math test in the two conditions. Further investigation showed that females' deficits were proportional to the number of males in their group. Even females who were placed in a mixed-sex majority condition (2 females and 1 male) experienced moderate but significant deficits. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of distinctiveness, stereotype threat, and tokenism.
Article
The authors hypothesized that activated self-stereotypes can influence the strategies of task solution by inducing regulatory foci. More specifically, positive self-stereotypes should induce a promotion focus state of eagerness, whereas negative stereotypes should induce a prevention focus state of vigilance. Study 1 showed that a negative ascribed stereotype with regard to task performance leads to better recall for avoidance-related statements whereas a positive stereotype leads to better recall for approach-related statements. In Studies 2 and 3, both an experimental manipulation of group performance expectation and the preexisting stereotype of better verbal skills in women than in men led to faster and less accurate performance in the positive as compared with the negative stereotype group. Studies 4 and 5 showed that positive in-group stereotypes led to more creative performance whereas negative stereotypes led to better analytical performance. These results point to a possible mechanism for stereotype-threat effects.
Article
This study introduces the Amsterdam Chess Test (ACT). The ACT measures chess playing proficiency through 5 tasks: a choose-a-move task (comprising two parallel tests), a motivation questionnaire, a predict-a-move task, a verbal knowledge questionnaire, and a recall task. The validity of these tasks was established using external criteria based on the Elo chess rating system. Results from a representative sample of active chess players showed that the ACT is a very reliable test for chess expertise and that ACT has high predictive validity. Several hypotheses about the relationships between chess expertise, chess knowledge, motivation, and memory were tested. Incorporating response latencies in test scores is shown to lead to an increase in criterion validity, particularly for easy items.
Article
This study investigated the role of negative thinking as a potential mediator of performance deficits under stereotype threat. After being assigned to a stereotype-threat or a no-threat condition, 60 female participants were asked to complete a difficult math task. Using the thought-listing technique, women under stereotype threat reported a higher number of negative thoughts specifically related to the test and to mathematics compared with women in the no-threat condition. Moreover, women under stereotype threat also showed a sharp decrease in performance that (a) was most pronounced in the second half of the test and (b) was mediated by the increase in negative thinking.
Article
In 3 experiments, the authors investigated how strategic inclinations associated with promotion versus prevention orientations--that is, eager approach versus vigilant avoidance, respectively--affect the use of language. It is hypothesized that eager promotion strategies used to attain desired end states entail using more abstract language than used with vigilant prevention strategies. This is shown to hold for experimentally induced relationship goals (Experiment 1) and communication goals (Experiment 2). In the 3rd experiment, the authors examined the impact of abstractly and concretely worded messages upon the behavioral intentions of chronically prevention- and promotion-oriented individuals and found support for the hypothesis that behavioral intentions to engage in specific activities are stronger when there is a fit between message wording and chronic orientation than when there is no fit. The broader implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
Studies of the mental processes of chess grandmasters have revealed clues to how people become experts in other fields as well. Skills at chess can be measured, broken into components, subjected to laboratory experiments and readily observed in its natural environment, the tournament hall. The blindfolded master supplements such knowledge with details of the game at hand as well as with recollections of salient aspects of past games. The possession of such structured knowledge explains not only success at blindfold play but also other abilities of chess masters, such as calculation and planning, then expertise in the game would depend not so much on innate abilities. The expert relies not so much on an intrinsically stronger power of analysis as on a store of structured knowledge. Motivation appears to be the most important factor than innate ability in the development of experts. The preponderance of psychological evidence indicates that experts are made, not born.
Article
Only 1% of the world's chess grandmasters are women. This underrepresentation is unlikely to be caused by discrimination, because chess ratings objectively reflect competitive results. Using data on the ratings of more than 250,000 tournament players over 13 years, we investigated several potential explanations for the male domination of elite chess. We found that (a) the ratings of men are higher on average than those of women, but no more variable; (b) matched boys and girls improve and drop out at equal rates, but boys begin chess competition in greater numbers and at higher performance levels than girls; and (c) in locales where at least 50% of the new young players are girls, their initial ratings are not lower than those of boys. We conclude that the greater number of men at the highest levels in chess can be explained by the greater number of boys who enter chess at the lowest levels.
Test of memory and learning
  • C R Reynolds
  • E D Bigler
Reynolds, C. R., & Bigler, E. D. (1994). Test of memory and learning. Austin, TX, USA: Pro-Ed.
Stereotype threat: Performance deficits of the stigmatized
  • A Maass
  • M Cadinu
Maass, A., & Cadinu, M. (2003). Stereotype threat: Performance deficits of the stigmatized. European Review of Social Psychology, 13, 243–275.
Chess bitch: Women in the ultimate intellectual sport
  • J Shahade
Shahade, J. (2005). Chess bitch: Women in the ultimate intellectual sport. Los Angeles, USA: Siles Press.
Stigma and group inequality: Social Psychological perspectives
  • M. Inzlicht
  • C. Good
Advances in experimental social psychology
  • C. M. Steele
  • S. J. Spencer
  • J. Aronson
The role of deliberate practice in chess expertise
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  • M Tuffiesh
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  • E Vasyukova
Charness, N., Tuffiesh, M., Krampe, R., Reingold, E., & Vasyukova, E. (2005). The role of deliberate practice in chess expertise. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 151-165.
Perception and memory in chess
  • A D De Groot
De Groot, A. D. (1965). Thought and choice in chess. The Hague: Mouton. de Groot, A. D., & Gobet, F. (1996). Perception and memory in chess. Assen, NL: Van Gorcum.