Article

Preschoolers' Emotion Regulation Strategy Understanding: Relations with Emotion Socialization and Child Self‐regulation

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Abstract

Preschool-age children's ability to verbally generate strategies for regulating anger and sadness, and to recognize purported effective strategies for these emotions, were examined in relation to child factors (child age, temperament, and language ability) and maternal emotion socialization (supportiveness and structuring in response to child distress). The relation between strategy understanding and actual self-regulation was also examined. In a sample of 116 boys and girls, 4-year-olds recognized and generated strategies for anger more than 3-year-olds but 3- and 4-year-olds recognized and generated strategies similarly for sadness. Age effects for strategy generation were explained by expressive language skill. Maternal support in response to child distress was related to strategy recognition and generation but in different ways. Maternal structuring was related only to strategy generation for anger. Child strategy understanding of anger and sadness predicted different child behaviors when children had to deal with frustration alone. The findings suggest that emotion regulation strategy understanding can be assessed in young children and that such understanding has implications for self-regulatory behavior.

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... Finally, knowledge about socially accepted, adaptive, and functional strategies of emotion regulation develop from the age of four onward. First, behavioral regulation strategies and later cognitive regulation strategies are recognized and labeled (8). In Table 1, the development of the components of emotion knowledge is summarized. ...
... DIF was small with estimated deviances from zero between 0.302 (SE = 0.114) and 0.332 (SE = 0.085) Because multilingual children scored significantly lower on all components except for component 1, their total score was lower. All estimated deviances from zero were very low in components 1 and 2 and slightly higher in the more complex components, which is in line with hypothesis 4. The highest deviance was found in component 5. DIF for multilingualism was found for eight items (items 3, 8,11,14,16,19,20,33). However, monolingual children scored higher than multilinguals on five of them (items 3, 8,11,16,33) and lower on the other three (item 14,19,20). ...
... All estimated deviances from zero were very low in components 1 and 2 and slightly higher in the more complex components, which is in line with hypothesis 4. The highest deviance was found in component 5. DIF for multilingualism was found for eight items (items 3, 8,11,14,16,19,20,33). However, monolingual children scored higher than multilinguals on five of them (items 3, 8,11,16,33) and lower on the other three (item 14,19,20). Highest deviance in favor of monolingual children was found for item 3 with 0.540 (SE = 0.110). ...
Article
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Children with an advanced knowledge of emotions are generally more socially competent, less likely to suffer from psychopathology, and more likely to succeed in school, both socially and academically. The assessment of children's emotion knowledge has thus gained importance in recent decades - both in psychiatric practice and in developmental and educational psychology. However, there is still a lack of appropriate instruments for assessing children's emotion knowledge in a performance test reliably, and for a broad age range. The Adaptive Test of Emotion Knowledge (ATEM 3–9) is a newly developed measure which encompasses seven components of emotion knowledge in 3–9-year-olds. The ATEM 3–9 is an adaptive test which uses skip and dropout rules to adjust for children's varying levels of knowledge. In addition to German, the ATEM has been translated into English and Hebrew. The German norming sample of the ATEM 3–9 comprises N = 882 (54% female, 21% bilingual) children between the ages of 3 and 9 years, who were divided into seven age groups. Test items, which are ordered according to the item response theory, showed a good fit to a seven-dimensional model reflecting the seven components. The internal consistencies of the dimensions are acceptable to good. Construct validity was examined by means of correlations with other measures of emotion knowledge, as well as measures on language skills and executive functions in a subsample. This resulted in medium size correlations in the expected directions. In addition, children with externalizing and internalizing disorders who were recruited in psychiatric in- and outpatient clinics showed deficits in various components of emotion knowledge when compared to their agemates in the norming sample. Overall, the ATEM 3–9 is well suited to measure individual components of emotion knowledge in children and to obtain a differentiated picture of the various aspects of emotion knowledge. The ATEM 3–9 thus supports the investigation of the development of social-emotional competencies in normative development (e.g., school readiness) and in social-emotional-learning interventions. Furthermore, it is suitable as an instrument for the differentiated assessment of (progress of) children's emotion knowledge in clinical child psychology and psychiatry.
... In addition, it is also worth noting that the development of selfregulated emotions is unique, varies from person to person, and only becomes more evident in the middle of childhood (Eisenberg et al., 2004). During this period, the people and environment these children are in close contact with are essential to developing emotion regulation skills (Bahrami et al., 2018;Cole et al., 2009;Thompson & Meyer, 2007). With emotional regulation, a child can establish better student-teacher and peer relationships, learn better, and attain psychological and mental wellbeing. ...
... The findings also confirm the literature review, which posits that parents play an essential role in cultivating children's emotional regulation skills, and parents' emotional performance will subconsciously educate their children on what emotions are appropriate in the familial environment (Morris et al., 2007). In addition, when parents are aware of their emotional state and maintain emotional stability, their children are more likely to develop emotional regulation skills (Cole et al., 2009). ...
... For example, longitudinal studies have found that early supportive emotion socialization is associated with positive emotional and behavioral outcomes, and that unsupportive emotion socialization is associated with worse emotional and behavioral outcomes (e.g., Johnson et al., 2017). Parent emotion socialization has also been specifically linked with ER development in cross-sectional (Cole et al., 2009) and longitudinal (Breaux et al., 2018) studies. ...
... Does early emotion socialization predict later ER difficulties?. Based on previous literature (e.g., Breaux et al., 2018;Cole et al., 2009), we predict that higher quality early emotion socialization (more supportive/less unsupportive) will be predictive of less ER difficulty. Emotion socialization had a greater impact on ER difficulties in children and adolescents with ADHD symptoms relative to typically developing youth (Breaux et al., 2018;Oddo et al., 2022). ...
Article
Objective This study examined emotion socialization and neural activity during frustration as predictors of emotion regulation (ER) difficulties, and the interplay of emotion socialization and neural activity, in children with and without hyperactivity/impulsivity (H/I). Method At Time 1, neural activity (P1, N2, P3) during a frustration task, H/I symptoms, and emotion socialization were assessed in 68 children (aged 4–7 years old). At Time 2 (1.5–2 years later), child-report, maternal-report, and observation measures of ER difficulties were assessed. Results H/I symptoms moderated the relation between predictors and ER difficulties; there were significant relations for children with high, but not low, levels of H/I. Further, as emotion socialization quality increased, relations between event-related potentials and later ER difficulties became weaker. Conclusion The processes underlying ER difficulties differ for children with H/I symptoms. High quality emotion socialization may have a protective effect for children whose neural patterns indicate risk for later ER difficulties.
... Parents' role in the socialisation of emotion emerged in the Developmental Psychology literature in the 1990s [25,26,28] as an important parenting dimension with links to a range of child outcomes, such as emotion regulation, behaviour, social functioning, and academic performance [16,37,46,58,74]. Parents help children to understand, regulate, and appropriately express emotions through the way they express emotions, how they react to their children's emotions, and how they discuss (or not discuss) emotions [25]. ...
... Parents' reports showed a range of reactions to children's emotions which are considered supportive and most benefcial for children's emotional development [16,46,49,90]. As illustrated in the fndings, these included reactions that were emotion-focused (e.g., directing the child to the toy to help them feel better), problem-focused (e.g., supporting the child in solving the problem that caused the emotions), or encouraging of emotional expression (e.g., encouraging the child to express their feelings and their causes once they had calmed down enough to talk). ...
Conference Paper
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Emotion-related parent-child interactions during early childhood play a crucial role in the development of emotion regulation, a fundamental life skill central to well-being. However, limited work in HCI has explored howtechnology could support parents in adopting supportive emotion socialisation practices. In this paper, we explore how an embodied, in-situ intervention in the form of a smart toy can impact emotion-related parent-child interactions in the home. We draw on (1) interviews with 29 parents of young children who had the smart toy for at least 1 month; (2) co-design workshops with 12 parents and 8 parenting course facilitators. We discuss how the smart toy impacted parent-child interactions around emotions for a subset of families, and draw on workshop data to explore how this could be designed for directly. Finally, we propose a set of design directions for technology-enabled systems aiming to elicit and scafold specifc parent-child interactions over time.
... ilizing other expression modalities Camras et al., 1990;Hernández et al., 2016;Quas et al., 2000. b Ekman & Friesen, 1978 Kerns et al., 2014;Penza-Clyve & Zeman, 2002;Perwien et al., 2008. d Pollak et al., 2000. f Sullivan et al., 2008. g Miller et al., 2005. h Nook et al., 2020. i Pons et al., 2003. j Nock et al., 2008. k Shields & Cicchetti, 1997. l Cole et al., 2009. m Milojevich, Levine, Cathcart, & Quas, 2018Milojevich, Russell, & Quas, 2018. o Rubin et al., 1995. p The ability to reasonably infer the emotional expressions of others using facial, vocal, and bodily cues • Most commonly, present children with a set of pictures via paper or computer in which unknown or known people (typically adults ...
... Parents' own beliefs about the importance of emotion socialization, their acknowledgement and instruction regarding children's emotions, and their own emotion perception predict children's subsequent emotion perception (Castro et al., 2015). For example, parents' belief in the importance of guiding children's emotional development is associated with 4-to 10-year-old children's superior emotion perception (Cole et al., 2009;Dunsmore & Karn, 2001;Dunsmore et al., 2009). Similarly, parents who verbally label emotions for their children and are better at inferring the emotional state of others have children who show better emotion perception at an earlier age (Castro et al., 2015). ...
Article
Exposure to early adversity has been linked to variations in emotional functioning. To date, however, the precise nature of these variations has been difficult to pinpoint given widespread differences in the ways in which aspects of emotional functioning are defined and measured. Here, more consistent with models of emotional functioning in typically developing populations (e.g., Halberstadt et al., 2001), we propose defining emotional functioning as consisting of distinct domains of emotion expression, perception, knowledge, reactivity, and regulation. We argue that this framework is useful for guiding hypothesis generation about the specific impact of early adversity on children’s emotional functioning. We operationalize the construct of emotional functioning, highlight what is currently known about the association between adversity exposure and each domain of emotional functioning, propose potential mechanisms for these associations, and set the stage for future research examining the development of emotional functioning in the context of early adversity.
... Dereli (2016), aile ve çocuk ilişkilerinin çocukların duygu düzenleme becerileri üzerinde etkili olduğunu ve çocukların ailelerinden gördüğü duygu düzenleme stratejilerini kullanma eğiliminde olduğunu ifade etmiştir. Bununla birikte Cole, Smith-Simon, Dennis ve Cohen (2009), aileleri tarafından olumsuz duygularla başa çıkma konusunda desteklenen çocukların, duygusal farkındalık ve duygu düzenleme becerisi kazandıklarını belirtmişlerdir. Maths ve Bierman'ın (2015), yaptıkları araştırma sonucunda da çocuk ve aile bireyleri arasındaki ılımlı ilişkiler ile çocukların duygu düzenleme becerileri arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişki olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. ...
... Miragoli, Milani, Di Blasio, and Camisasca (2020) stated that the differences in emotion regulation skills result from parenting behaviors. While children who are supported by their families in dealing with negative emotions gain emotional awareness and emotion regulation skills, those who do not may lack of emotion regulation skills (Cole, Smith-Simon, Dennis, & Cohen, 2009). The findings unveiled that the emotion regulation sub-dimension scores of the children who were only child in the family were significantly higher than those having three siblings in terms of emotion regulation skills. ...
... During preschool, ER skills undergo two important developmental phases. First, there is a marked shift from using parents as co-regulators of their emotions (i.e., support-seeking, comforting) to more efforts directed at selfregulation, perhaps because children are exposed to increased social interactions with same-age peers, and hence, they require more autonomy in managing emotionally arousing situations (Cole et al., 2009;Sameroff & Fiese, 2000). ...
... Although we proposed hypotheses in relation to general ER strategies, and this study was more exploratory in terms of emotion-specific effects, we expected that the abovementioned predictions would be informative for variations in ER for anger, sadness, and fear. Also, in the current study age, gender, and expressive language skills were employed as covariates due to research suggesting their influence on preschoolers' ER (Cole et al., 2010;2009). ...
Article
The current study's aim was to investigate longitudinally the extent to which individual differences in attachment influence children's general and emotion‐specific (anger, sadness, fear) regulatory skills. A sample of 229 preschool‐age children participated in this study. Children's internal working models of attachment and verbal abilities were assessed at baseline, whereas parents and teachers reported on children's use of emotion regulation (ER) strategies at both baseline and 7 months follow‐up. The results indicated that: (1) parent and teacher ratings of children's use of ER strategies exhibited low cross‐informant correlations; and (2) significant longitudinal patterns of attachment representation effects on ER were found in relation to co‐regulation and under‐regulation, but not for self‐regulation and over‐regulation. More precisely, securely attached children more frequently used teachers as a source of co‐regulation, particularly for anger and sadness, compared to avoidantly attached children. Furthermore, secure children were less likely to exhibit under‐regulation compared to preschoolers classified as disorganized or insecure avoidant, especially in relation to anger. These findings may be informative for designing parent and teacher trainings focused on enhancing children's ER skills and reducing the risk of psychopathology.
... Модель эмоциональной социализации Eisenberg et al. (1998) описывает три вектора специфического родительского поведения, связанного с эмоциональной социализацией ВОЗРАСТНАЯ ПСИХОЛОГИЯ (ERSBs, Emotion-Related Socialization Behaviors): 1) реакции родителей на проявления эмоций детьми; 2) эмоциональная выразительность родителей; 3) обсуждение родителями эмоций с детьми (разговоры об эмоциях). Согласно модели ERSBs и выполненным в рамках данной модели исследованиям (Cole et al., 2009;Denham et al., 2014), эмоциональная социализация определяется как динамический процесс, разворачивающийся в ходе непосредственного взаимодействия родителей с детьми и включающий более широкий эмоциональный контекст отношений, специфические социализирующие практики, стратегии эмоциональной социализации и результаты эмоционального развития детей (Eisenberg et al., 1998;Lougheed et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Введение. Цель данного исследования – изучение поддерживающих и не поддерживающих стратегий реагирования родителей на негативные эмоции и эмпатические реакции детей дошкольного возраста. Методы. В исследовании приняли участие родители детей 5–7 лет в количестве 52 человек (23 женского и 29 – мужского пола). Диагностический инструментарий: опросник «Характер проявлений эмпатических реакций и поведения у детей» Щетининой А.М.; Шкала преодоления негативных эмоций у детей (CCNES) Fabes, R. A., Poulin, R., Eisenberg, N., & Madden-Derdich, D. A. Статистическая обработка данных проводилась в программе SPSS Statistics 25 с применением корреляционного анализа по критерию Спирмена. Результаты. Анализ полученных эмпирических данных проводился в несколько этапов: выделены исследуемые переменные (формы эмпатических реакций детей по их оценке родителями – гуманистическая, эгоцентрическая, смешанная); типы реагирования родителей на негативные эмоции детей (дистресс-реакции; карательные реакции; экспрессивное поощрение; реакции, ориентированные на эмоции; реакции, ориентированные на проблему; реакции минимизации). Определены базовые статистические характеристики переменных, на основе которых проведен статистический корреляционный анализ. Показаны различия в оценках родителями эмпатических проявлений детей и типах реагирования родителей на негативные эмоции, соответствующие двум стратегиям эмоциональной социализации – поддерживающей, оптимальной для дошкольников, и не поддерживающей, дисгармоничной. Основываясь на модели эмоциональной социализации, ключевое понятие которой – ориентированное на эмоции социализирующее поведение (Emotion-Related Socialization Behaviours) родителей, в исследовании изучены стратегии реагирования родителей на негативные эмоции детей как компонент эмоциональной социализации, подчеркивается их уникальная роль в формировании у дошкольников базового эмоционального опыта. Обсуждение результатов. Проведенное исследование показывает оптимальные типы реагирования родителей на эмоциональные проявления детей, их вклад в эмоциональное развитие и формирование социально-эмоциональной компетентности дошкольников.
... 31,32 Most researchers generally agree that preschool is the critical period when children learn to use emotion regulation strategies. [33][34][35] As young children begin to socialize during the preschool period, emotional adjustment plays a major role in the development of a healthy personality and the establishment of positive social relationships with other children. 36,37 Children often express the intensity of their emotions by using the voice as the instrument to express such feelings. ...
Article
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Introduction: Vocal fold nodules (VNs) in children are benign, bilateral, callous-like lesions at the junction of the anterior third and posterior two-thirds of the true vocal folds. Chronic, repetitive, and intense vocal behavior is often cited as the primary etiology; however, difficulties with emotional adjustment may predispose some children towards extreme and possibly phonotraumatic vocal activity, thereby contributing secondarily to the development of VNs. Objectives: This case-control study examined the association between features of emotional adjustment and VNs in children. Methods: Parents of children with VNs (N = 40, Mage = 7.5, SDage = 2.03) and two medical control groups [ie, voice disordered, but not VNs (VDCs; N = 40, Mage= 7.09, SDage = 2.01) and vocally normal controls (VNCs; N = 40, Mage = 7.6, SDage = 1.54)] participated in the study. Features of emotional adjustment were assessed using two inventories: the Parent Rating scale for Reactive and Proactive Aggression and the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale - Parent version. Results: As compared with the VNCs, children with VNs were significantly more aggressive (P = 0.042, Cohen's d = 0.47) whereas the VDCs were more depressed (P = 0.013, Cohen's d = 0.60). Furthermore, VDCs experienced more separation anxiety than VNs (P = 0.038, Cohen's d = 0.45) and VNCs (P = 0.021, Cohen's d = 0.55). No other significant between-group differences were identified between the VNs and VDCs. Conclusions: When present, elevated aggression may represent a risk factor for VNs formation in children, and possibly influence treatment outcomes. Therefore, the current results highlight the importance of understanding the role of emotional adjustment in the evaluation and treatment of dysphonia in children.
... Of the limited work that has examined emotional awareness in early childhood, researchers predominantly focused on different, more basic features of emotional awareness, such as having children self-report valence and intensity of emotions using a series of paired comparisons between faces (Warren & Stifter, 2008). Indeed, it cannot be assumed that distinct physiological and cognitive emotional awareness dimensions are necessarily measurable in preschool children, given that these abilities are hypothesized to be nascent and under rapid development in early childhood (Cole et al., 2009). Basic empirical work on early emotional awareness that reflects how the construct is measured in therapy is needed to elucidate both the early development of emotional awareness and its clinical efficacy. ...
Article
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Emotional awareness supports emotion regulation. Psychologists have children “color in feelings” to assess emotional awareness, yet whether this relates to emotion regulation is unknown. The present study used a novel coloring task examining behaviors related to coloring in and dictating emotions to assess children’s (N = 95) emotional awareness. Furthermore, it was tested whether performance on this task predicted emotion regulation. Children’s coloring behaviors indicating physiological emotional awareness predicted better emotion regulation. Results may inform the use of emotional awareness tasks in community and clinical settings. Findings also suggest that physiological emotional awareness may be a more salient clinical target in children.
... Overall, effective and supportive emotion-related parent practices are positively associated with children's emotion awareness (Stegge & Meerum Terwogt, 2007), emotion expression (Eisenberg et al., 2001), emotion regulation (e.g., Cole et al., 2009;Fivush et al., 2009), and empathy (e.g., Taylor et al., 2013); whereas unsupportive reactions, such as minimizing the child's experience, punishing the child for expressing emotions, or becoming distressed themselves, have all been found to be related to higher levels of negative emotionality and reduced coping ability in children (Eisenberg et al., 1999;Lunkenheimer et al., 2007). ...
Article
Hearing loss can have a significant impact on children’s development. It can diminish children’s ability to perceive and produce spoken language, which has been studied extensively. However, hearing loss can also negatively affect children’s socioemotional development because it limits access to the social environment. Interestingly, there is little research on this. In this chapter, the authors begin by discussing the development of four aspects of emotional competence (emotion awareness, empathy, Theory of Mind, and the ability to express moral emotions) and their link to young children’s hearing loss. Parents are a huge part of young children’s social environment and therefore play an important role in the development of emotional competence in their children. The second part of the chapter discusses challenges that parents of children with hearing loss may encounter, for example with regard to parent–child interaction and parenting stress. The chapter ends with a discussion of clinical implications.
... Previous studies have shown that language abilities play a role in children's emotional competence by making emotions explicit and communicable (Cole et al., 2009;Ornaghi et al., 2017Ornaghi et al., , 2019. Moreover, delay in language development is associated with lower emotion recognition skills (Nelson et al., 2011). ...
Article
Rhythmicity characterizes both interpersonal synchrony and spoken language. Emotions and language are forms of interpersonal communication, which interact with each other throughout development. We investigated whether and how emotional synchrony between mothers and their 9-month-old infants relates to infants’ word segmentation as an early marker of language development. Twenty-six 9-month-old infants and their German-speaking mothers took part in the study. To measure emotional synchrony, we coded positive, neutral and negative emotional expressions of the mothers and their infants during a free play session. We then calculated the degree to which the mothers’ and their infants’ matching emotional expressions followed a predictable pattern. To measure word segmentation, we familiarized infants with auditory text passages and tested how long they looked at the screen while listening to familiar versus novel words. We found that higher levels of predictability (i.e. low entropy) during mother-infant interaction is associated with infants’ word segmentation performance. These findings suggest that individual differences in word segmentation relate to the complexity and predictability of emotional expressions during mother-infant interactions.
... Healthy parental influences have also been found to play a role in children's recognition of appropriate ER strategies. For example, greater maternal supportiveness when children are feeling distressed increased children's ability to endorse and recognize effective anger regulation strategies (Cole, Dennis, Smith-Simon, & Cohen, 2009). ...
Article
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[Published in The Undergraduate Research Journal of Psychology at UCLA] While it has been long posited that humility involves a higher self-judgement accuracy, there is no existing empirical evidence to support this proposition. In this study, participants were assigned to humility or neutral conditions and completed a logical reasoning task. Subsequently, they estimated their actual performance on the task (independent estimates), and that compared to their peers (relative estimates). Despite non-significant results, trends in the results indicated that the humility condition had higher independent and relative self judgement accuracy. These results demonstrate that inducing humility can produce greater self-judgement accuracy, thereby underscoring the role of humility in skill learning, goal-setting, and academic performance. Future research can utilize an enduring state humility manipulation and explore possible mediators of the relationship between humility and self-judgement accuracy.
... Children communicate with their peers when expressing their emotions, developing self-regulation skills, and taking part in social interactions (Holodynski, 2013;Molina et al., 2014;Ewing et al., 2019;Nakamichi et al., 2019). Interaction with their peers allows them to think flexibly, have social competence, express themselves, and make ground among their peers (Liew et al., 2004;Cole et al., 2009;Dennis & Kelemen, 2009;Supplee et al., 2011), for which they must have developed social skills. Preschool children develop social skills by sharing and interacting with their family members at home and with peers at school. ...
Article
This study aimed to determine whether there is any conspicuous difference in the social adaptation skills of five-year-old preschool children who did not attend any social skills intervention program besides the ongoing curriculum but continued their education process in different environments (face-to-face/online) because of the pandemic. Included in the study were 296 children enrolled in independent kindergartens, who were within the five-year-old age group and were from similar socioeconomic families. Among them, 159 attended face-to-face and 137 attended online classes. At the beginning of their formal education, the Social Adaptation Skills Scale (SASS) was administered to the children in both groups as a pre-test. At the end of the trimester, the SASS was repeated as a post-test. A significant difference was found between the face-to-face education group and the online education group, in favor of the former, in terms of the social adaptation sub-factor of the SASS. Furthermore, the social incompatibility sub-factor scores of the face-to-face education group were significantly lower than those of the children in the online education group.
... These socialization reactions were divided into two categories: supportive reactions and non-supportive reactions (Fabes et al., 2002). Supportive reactions are defined as adult responses, including emotionfocused reactions, problem-focused reactions, and expressive encouragement that provide reassurance and comfort in challenging situations (Cole et al., 2009). Nonsupportive reactions are defined as the adverse reactions of adults, including 6 minimization reactions and punitive reactions when children have negative emotions or difficult times. ...
Thesis
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The purpose of the study was to underline the early childhood educators’ emotion regulation and socialization of young children’s negative emotions. With this aim, the strategies of early childhood educators’ emotion regulation and socialization of young children’s negative emotions in emotionally difficult times and the relationship between the early childhood educators’ emotion regulation and socialization of young children’s negative emotions was investigated. For the current thesis a correlational study was designed. The data of the study were collected from 394 early childhood educators working in Ankara, Eskişehir, and Konya, the cities selected as a part of Yukarı Sakarya and Konya Districts of the Central Anatolia Region. The data was collected via three different data collection instruments: Demographic Information Form, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and The Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Scale – Teacher Form. The Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Scale – Teacher Form was translated, adapted and validated within the scope of the current study. To address the aim of the study, an initial model was defined through a literature review, and then a final model was built through a path analysis. In this way, the relationships between variables were detected and presented within the scope of the findings. The study revealed correlations between early childhood educators’ emotion regulation and socialization of young children’s negative emotions. In this context, the extent to which early childhood educators’ socialization of young children’s negative emotions with supportive or non-supportive reactions by regulating their emotions through cognitive reappraisal or suppression is explained.
... At this age, the control function of language also develops to detach oneself from the dominant situational context and activate a subdominant impulse according to the action-guiding goal (Goschke, 2003). As studies show, there are positive correlations between speech ability and emotion regulatory competence (Cole et al., 2009;Eisenberg et al., 2005;Whedon et al., 2021). Very important for this process is the development of verbal language and emotional talk (Newton et al., 2016). ...
Article
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A deficit in emotion regulation skills could be an important factor influencing the vulnerability and maintenance of symptoms in selective mutism (SM). Unfortunately, to date only a few studies have examined emotion regulation in SM. Therefore, the present study investigated whether SM is associated with dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies. We compared a sample of 28 children and adolescents with SM (M = 12.66 years, SD = 3.98; 18 females) to 33 controls without SM (M = 12.45 years, SD = 3.18; 21 females). Both groups were investigated for the assessment of SM, social anxiety and emotion regulation using self and parent report questionnaires. We assumed that the disorder is associated with less adaptive and more maladaptive strategies, especially maladaptive cognitive strategies. Instead of significant differences in these overall values, only significant differences in individual emotion regulation strategies were found. In terms of adaptive strategies, children and adolescents with SM reported less problem-oriented behaviour and less cognitive problem-solving. Instead, they reported the maladaptive strategy of abandonment more often than the control group. In contrast to other anxiety disorders, children and adolescents with SM did not report maladaptive cognitive strategies and more frequently seek support than the control group. Their emotion regulation strategies are qualitatively closely related to the symptoms of SM, which makes it difficult to determine their independent significance. Trial registration: This study is registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT04233905.
... Previous studies showed that teachers who participated in the begin to ECSEL™ training use CTEE as a general technique to increase emotional expressiveness and regulation in their students (Housman, Denham, & Cabral, 2018). A similar study found that the key to promoting children's emotional competence is to use the current emotional situation as an opportunity for learning more appropriate regulation strategies (Cole, Dennis, Smith-Simon, & Cohen, 2009). ...
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Research has shown that the first few years of a child’s life are critical for developing executive functioning and emotional regulatory skills. This study aimed to evaluate how begin to ECSEL (Emotional, Cognitive and Social Early Learning), an intervention designed to promote young children’s emotional competence, influenced children’s self-regulation and executive functions. The study collected data from 94 children, aged 2–6 years old, through behavioral testing and compared them to a matched group of children who had not been exposed to the begin to ECSEL programme. Children’s self-regulation and executive functioning skills were assessed using four specific tasks from the Preschool Self-Regulation Assessment: balance beam, pencil tap, snack delay and toy wrap. Results demonstrated that children who were enrolled in the begin to ECSEL programme performed significantly better than the comparison group, suggesting significantly better self-regulation and executive function skills as a result of the begin to ECSEL intervention.
... Tra i cambiamenti più importanti nello sviluppo emotivo della seconda infanzia vi è l'aumento della comprensione delle emozioni. In questo periodo aumenta, in particolare, la comprensione del fatto che certe situazioni è probabile che determinino particolari emozioni, che le espressioni facciali indicano specifiche emozioni e che le emozioni influenzano il comportamento (Cole, Dennis, Smith-Simon, & Cohen, 2009). ...
... We propose that variations in dyadic unpredictability could be captured by combining contingency and dyadic variability measures under a DST framework using SSGs Lunkenheimer, Skoranski, et al., 2020). Contingency is the consistent pairing of caregiver and child states (affect and behavior codes) via temporally dependent sequences (Cole et al., 2009;Harrist & Waugh, 2002;. ...
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There has been significant interest and progress in understanding the role of caregiver-child unpredictability on brain maturation, cognitive and socioemotional development, and psychopathology. Theoretical consensus has emerged about its unique influence in shaping children’s experience, distinct from other adverse exposures or features of stress exposure. Nonetheless, the field still lacks theoretical and empirical common ground due to difficulties in accurately operationalizing and measuring unpredictability. In this paper, we first provide a historical overview of unpredictability and present four issues that are currently under-discussed but are crucial to the field. Focusing on how moment-to-moment and day-to-day dynamics are at the heart of caregiver unpredictability, we review three approaches aiming to address some of these nuances: dynamic systems, environmental statistics, and entropy. Lastly, we conclude with a broad summary and suggest future research directions. Systematic progress in this field can inform interventions and policies aiming to increase stability in the lives of children.
... The emergence of language during early childhood is a remarkable developmental accomplishment. Strong language skills are positively associated with self-regulation, social competence, and academic performance in children [1][2][3][4][5]. For example, language skills at the onset of formal education (i.e., around five years of age) strongly predict achievement and psychiatric health into late adolescence [6,7]. ...
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Language ability is strongly related to important child developmental outcomes. Family-level socioeconomic status influences child language ability; it is unclear if, and through which mechanisms, neighborhood-level factors impact child language. The current study investigated the association between neighborhood factors (deprivation and disorder) assessed before birth and child language outcomes at age 5, with sleep duration as a potential underlying pathway. Secondary analysis was conducted on data collected between 2008 and 2018 on a subsample of 2444 participants from the All Our Families cohort study (Calgary, Canada) for whom neighborhood information from pregnancy could be geocoded. Neighborhood deprivation was determined using the Vancouver Area Neighborhood Deprivation Index (VANDIX), and disorder was assessed using crime reports. Mothers reported on their children’s sleep duration and language ability. Multilevel modeling indicated that greater neighborhood deprivation and disorder during pregnancy were predictive of lower scores on the Child Communication Checklist–2 (CCC–2) at 5 years. Path analyses revealed an indirect effect of neighborhood disorder on language through child sleep duration at 12 months. These results add to growing evidence that child development should be considered within the context of multiple systems. Sleep duration as an underlying link between environmental factors and child language ability warrants further study as a potential target for intervention.
... Throughout early childhood, children's selfregulation improves progressively (Colombo & Cheatham, 2006) and they become less reliant on adults' support or supervision in regulating themselves (Cole, 1986;Deák et al., 2008;Kochanska et al., 1995). They also become more mature, intentional, flexible, and effective in their understanding and use of regulatory behaviors (Cole et al., 2009;Dennis & Kelemen, 2009;Supplee et al., 2011). Preschoolers with good self-regulation were rated as socially competent and well-adjusted by parents, teachers, and peers . ...
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... Most of the research on emotion regulation carried out at the individual level has relied on self-reported, retrospective or manipulated strategy use, where it is relatively easy to isolate different strategies from each other (e.g. Bebko et al., 2014;Cole et al., 2009;Davis & Levine, 2013). These studies have provided information, for example, about children's subjective understanding of emotion regulation strategies or the effectiveness of instructed strategy use when learning. ...
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Research indicates that to adjust a group’s emotional atmosphere for successful collaborative learning, group members need to engage in group-level emotion regulation. However, less is known about the whys and ways regulation is activated at a group level. This research explores what triggers 12-year-old primary school students’ (N = 37) negative socio-emotional interactions during a collaborative science task and whether the nature of the trigger makes a difference to group-level emotion regulation strategies and their sequential composition in these interactions. Groups’ collaborative working was videotaped, and triggers and strategies were analysed. The results reveal that the triggers of negative interactions are linked to the groups’ activated regulation strategies. Motivation control strategies were more represented in situations where negative interactions were triggered by task-related issues, whereas socially related triggers were associated with behavioural regulation strategies. Furthermore, the results illustrate that strategies are concatenated to a series of strategic actions, which mostly begin with sharing an awareness of the trigger. The results indicate a need to focus on the series of strategic actions activated in group interactions. This will help reveal how socially shared regulatory processes build a group’s emotional atmosphere.
... Primary caregiver plays the most important role in shaping emotion regulation system of the infant at this period where emotion regulation skills begin to develop (Cole et al 2009;Morris et al 2007;Thompson 1994). Emotion regulation capacity of babies is quite limited in the first several months. ...
... It is generally accepted that language abilities have a positive influence on emotional competence (Beck et al., 2012). Notably, vocabulary abilities play a crucial role in children's emotional abilities because it gives the possibility to label emotions, making them explicit and communicable (Barrett et al., 2007;Cole and Cohen, 2009) and facilitates the capacity to represent feelings states and to enhance perspective-taking (e.g., Pons et al., 2003;Downs et al., 2007;Cole et al., 2010;Köckeritz et al., 2010). In this regard, different studies have shown a strong relation between children's vocabulary abilities and different aspects of emotional competence. ...
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A comprehensive approach, including social and emotional affectations, has been recently proposed as an important framework to understand Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). There is an increasing considerable interest in knowing how language and emotion are related, and as far as we know, the role of the emotional regulation (ER) of parents of children with and without DLD, and their impact on their children’s ER is still unknown. The main aims of this study are to advance our knowledge of ER in school-age children and adolescents with and without DLD, to analyze the predictive value of expressive and receptive vocabulary on ER in school-age children and adolescents, and to explore parental ER and their effect on their children’s and adolescents’ ER. To cover all objectives, we carried out three studies. In the first and second study, expressive and receptive vocabulary were assessed in wave 1, and ER (Emotional Regulation Checklist -ERC- for children and Emotion Regulation Scale -DERS- for adolescents) was assessed in wave 2, 4 years later. Participants in the first study consisted of two groups of school-aged children (13 had DLD and 20 were typically developing children -TD). Participants in the second study consisted of two groups of adolescents (16 had DLD and 16 were TD adolescents). In the third study, the ER of 65 of the parents of the children and adolescents from study 1 were assessed during wave 2 via self-reporting the DERS questionnaire. Results showed no significant differences in ER between DLD and TD groups neither in middle childhood nor in adolescence. Concerning vocabulary and ER, expressive language predicted ER in school-age children but not in adolescents. Finally, parental ER explained their school-age children’s ER, but this was not the case in adolescents. In conclusion, the present data indicated that expressive vocabulary has a fundamental role in ER, at least during primary school years, and adds new evidence of the impact of parents’ ER upon their children’s ER, encouraging educators and speech language pathologists to include parents’ assessments in holistic evaluations and interventions for children with language and ER difficulties.
... Specifically, self-regulation, which is understood as a child's capacity to regulate attention and behavior [42], is of particular importance because has been shown that children who show higher levels of flexibility or self-regulation display significantly fewer behavior problems than children who are temperamentally rigid or unadaptable [43], and that it is linked to socialization processes and environmental factors [44,45]. Emotion socialization has been shown to be a precursor to self-regulation in children, especially when maternal support in response to child distress through mentalization strategies is presented [46]. ...
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Studies have shown that Chilean and US infants differ in their levels of self-regulation. One of the mechanisms of early socializing is the use of language, particularly mental state language. The current study seeks to deepen our knowledge of the ways in which mental state language is related to socialization processes in early childhood, including the ways both culture and children’s gender influence a mothers’ use of mental state talk. We used a quantitative and descriptive approach with 109 mothers and their children (64 Chilean and 45 US dyads), measured twice, at 12 and 30 months old. Mental state references related to regulation were coded during a story-sharing task, including positive (calm and patient) and negative (messy and impatient) references to regulating behavior. Chilean mothers generally showed more regulatory references than US mothers, especially if the children were at a younger age (12 month). Frequencies of regulatory references increased in US mothers at 30 months but were still less than in Chilean mothers. At the 12-month measuring point, Chilean mothers showed more negative regulatory attributes than positive regulatory attributes. Finally, US mothers mainly used references to secondary emotions (e.g., pride) and positive regulatory attributes (being obedient, mature and patient) at both ages.
... Youth's emotion regulation is guided by emotion-focused parenting practices (referred to as emotion socialization), which begins in early childhood and continues throughout adolescence (Cole et al., 2009;Brand & Klimes-Dougan, 2010). In particular, parents' emotional reactions and regulatory strategies may serve a fundamental role in teaching adolescents effective emotion regulation skills (Brand & Klimes-Dougan, 2010;Morris et al., 2007). ...
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Regulating Emotions Like An eXpert (RELAX) is a group-based intervention that targets emotion dysregulation (ED) and interpersonal conflict among adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study is a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of RELAX across in-person and telehealth groups, examining differences in treatment outcomes and feedback based on format. Participants included 32 families (18 in-person, 14 telehealth) with adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, ages 11-16. Caregiver-, clinician- and adolescent-report of adolescent ED, adolescent communication, and caregiver-adolescent/family conflict, as well as caregiver self-report of ED and emotion socialization were collected pre- and post-RELAX; caregivers and adolescents completed a feedback survey post-RELAX. Attendance was higher for telehealth (95% vs. 87%), but homework completion was higher for in-person (85% vs. 70%). Caregiver and adolescent feedback indicated very high rates of satisfaction with RELAX, with no significant differences in caregiver satisfaction and minimal differences in adolescent satisfaction between the in-person and telehealth groups. Large improvements were found for caregiver and clinician ratings of adolescent ED (η2=.18-.48) and family conflict (η2=.26 and .43), moderate decreases in non-supportive emotion socialization were found (η2=.11), and small improvements were found for caregiver ED (η2=.03). Treatment outcomes were similar for in-person and telehealth groups, with some evidence for larger improvement of adolescent ED for telehealth, whereas larger improvement in family conflict emerged for in-person. RELAX was successfully adapted to be administered via telehealth with similar feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy to the in-person intervention. Efforts to continue disseminating and evaluating ED-focused interventions are warranted and imperative.
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Children living in under-resourced communities are at higher risk for developing poor emotion regulation skills. Opportunities to practice managing physiological arousal may help alleviate poor ER. The preventive Blinded-for-Review Music Intervention (BRMI) is designed to promote preschooler ER development through alternating music experiences that offer practice managing high and low physiological arousal. We implemented it with 43 preschoolers in Head Start to examine intervention intensity. A board certified music therapist facilitated the BRMI with preschoolers either three times a week (n = 21, M = 3.4 yrs) or once a week (n = 22, M = 3.4 yrs) across 11 weeks. Parents and teachers reported observed ER behaviors pre- and post-implementation, and regulatory levels were assessed pre- and post-session. We found no significant differences in ER between intensity conditions and a general trend towards improved regulatory state across implementation, although variations existed. Overall, study findings will help us further operationalize the BRMI intervention for future clinical application.
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The ability to regulate one's emotions and behaviors is essential for adaptive functioning in society. We investigated whether parental mind-mindedness-parents' tendency to treat their children as mental agents-in infancy and toddlerhood predicts school-age children's self-regulation. The sample consisted of 125 mostly Dutch and White families. We assessed mothers' and fathers' appropriate and nonattuned mind-related comments during free play with their 12- and 30-month-old child (70 girls and 55 boys). We measured children's physiological, temperamental, and behavioral self-regulation when children were 4 1/2 years old. Fathers' appropriate mind-related comments predicted children's higher temperamental and behavioral self-regulation and mothers' and fathers' nonattuned mind-related comments predicted children's lower physiological and temperamental self-regulation. Our findings emphasize the importance of both parents' mind-mindedness in children's socioemotional development. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
Thesis
Die Gestaltung einer tragfähigen Schüler*innen-Lehrer*innen-Beziehung ist eine wesentliche Voraussetzung für wirkungsvolles pädagogisches Handeln im Förderschwerpunkt emotionale und soziale Entwicklung (KMK, 2000). Die Grundannahmen der Bindungstheorie sowie die Erkenntnisse aus der empirischen Bindungsforschung ermöglichen es, unterschiedliche Ausprägungen von Verhaltensweisen zu analysieren sowie bindungsrelevante Aspekte bei der Beziehungsgestaltung und zielgerichteten Förderung zu berücksichtigen. International deuten empirische Studien auf Zusammenhänge zwischen unsicheren Bindungsrepräsentationen sowie externalisierenden und internalisierenden Verhaltensproblemen hin (z. B. Fearon, et al., 2010; Groh et al., 2012; Madigan et al., 2016). Des Weiteren liegen internationale Befunde zum Zusammenhang zwischen der Qualität der Schüler*innen-Lehrer*innen-Beziehung und sozialer sowie emotionaler Beeinträchtigungen vor (z. B. Hamre & Pianta, 2001; Roorda et al., 2011; Curby, Brock & Hamre, 2013; Obsuth et al., 2017). Im deutschen Sprachraum und insbesondere im sonderpädagogischen Handlungsfeld des Förderschwerpunktes der emotionalen und sozialen Entwicklung bleibt eine empirische Analyse dieser Zusammenhänge bislang weitestgehend aus. Übergeordnetes Ziel dieser Forschungsarbeit ist es, auf Basis bindungstheoretisch fundierter und empirischer Erkenntnisse einen wissenschaftlichen Beitrag zum Wissensstand des Konstrukts der Schüler*innen-Lehrer*innen-Beziehung im Förderschwerpunkt der emotionalen und soziale Entwicklung zu leisten. Datenbasis für die eigene empirische Analyse sind Fragebogenerhebungen mit N = 141 Schüler*innen mit diagnostiziertem Förderbedarf in der emotionalen und sozialen Entwicklung (im Alter von 7 bis 15 Jahren) sowie deren Eltern bzw. Sorgeberechtigten und Lehrkräften. Es werden Zusammenhänge zwischen unsicheren Bindungsrepräsentationen, Emotionsregulationsstrategien und externalisierenden sowie internalisierenden Verhaltensproblemen untersucht. Neben der Analyse einzelner Zusammenhänge werden ebenfalls Unterschiede zwischen unsicheren Bindungsrepräsentationen und Verhaltensproblemen bei Schüler*innen an Regelschulen und Schüler*innen von Förderschulen mit dem Schwerpunkt in der emotionalen und sozialen Entwicklung untersucht. Darüber hinaus werden mittels Pfadanalyse direkte und indirekte Effekte von emotionaler Unterstützung auf Emotionsregulationsstrategien sowie Verhaltensprobleme überprüft. Dazu wurden in N = 26 Klassen an Förderschulen mit dem Förderschwerpunkt der emotionalen und sozialen Entwicklung standardisierte Beobachtungen im Unterricht zur Erfassung emotionaler Unterstützung von Lehrkräften durchgeführt. Da für den deutschen Sprachraum wenig standardisierte Verfahren vorliegen, die Bindungsrepräsentationen und Beziehungsdimensionen im schulischen Handlungsfeld systematisch erfassen, werden das Verfahren ECR-RC und das CLASS-S adaptiert und psychometrisch überprüft. Die Ergebnisse der Studie legen Zusammenhänge zwischen bindungsbezogener Angst und einzelnen Komponenten aggressiven Verhaltens nahe. Mediationsanalysen verdeutlichen, dass der Zusammenhang zwischen bindungsbezogener Angst und aggressivem Verhalten über internal-dysfunktionale Emotionsregulationsstrategien vermittelt wird. Schüler*innen der Förderschulstichprobe zeigen höhere Ausprägungen bei den unsicheren Bindungsrepräsentationen als Schüler*innen der Regelschulstichprobe. Darüber hinaus bestehen mehr und stärkere Zusammenhänge zwischen den unsicheren Bindungsrepräsentationen und externalisierenden und internalisierenden Verhaltensproblemen bei Schüler*innen der Förderschule mit dem Schwerpunkt der emotionalen und sozialen Entwicklung. Die Befunde der Pfadanalysen zeigen einen direkten negativen Zusammenhang zwischen emotionaler Unterstützung und externalisierenden Verhaltensproblemen auf. Des Weiteren lassen sich indirekte Effekte von emotionaler Unterrichtsunterstützung über external-funktionale Emotionsregulationsstrategien auf externalisierende Verhaltensprobleme feststellen. Die Ergebnisse deuten auf die Relevanz der Dimensionen von Bindungsrepräsentationen sowie emotionaler Unterrichtsunterstützung im schulischen Kontext für den Umgang mit emotionalen und sozialen Beeinträchtigungen hin. Die Ergebnisse liefern darüber hinaus erstmals für den deutschen Sprachraum und insbesondere für den sonderpädagogischen Bildungsbereich empirische Aussagen zur psychometrischen Güte des ECR-RC sowie des CLASS-S. Sie unterstreichen die Nutzbarkeit der Verfahren für die Forschung und Diagnostik im deutschen Schulkontext. Die empirischen Befunde indizieren darüber hinaus, dass Emotionsregulation in Präventions- und Interventionsansätzen wesentlich berücksichtigt werden sollte. Zukünftige Untersuchungen sollten sowohl auf längsschnittliche Untersuchungen über den Entwicklungsverlauf der Kinder und Jugendlichen als auch auf eine verstärkte Grundlagenforschung zu bindungs- und beziehungsrelevanten Dimensionen in sonderpädagogischen Handlungsfeldern sowie auf eine gezielte Überprüfung von Erhebungsinstrumenten abzielen.
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There is a lack of knowledge regarding the connection between parental emotional responsiveness and children’s executive functioning (EF). This study aimed to explore the relations between caregivers’ reactions to their children’s distress and children’s EF. Mothers of 136 preschoolers reported their reactions to their children’s negative emotions using the Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Scale. Children’s EF was assessed through the mothers and teachers’ reports using the Behavioral Inventory of Executive Functioning for Preschool Children. Results showed that the mothers’ perceived use of negative emotional regulation responses (i.e., punitive and minimizing reactions) was associated with lower levels of EF in children, as reported by both mothers and teachers. The association between the mothers’ use of positive emotional regulation responses (i.e., problem-focused, emotion-focused, and expressive encouragement reactions) and children’s EF was not significant. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the mothers’ use of negative emotional regulation responses accounted for significant proportions of variance in EF indexes. These findings suggest that parental socialization of emotion could be important for children’s EF. Specifically, caregivers’ negative emotional regulation responses to children’s distress may serve as a risk factor for poorer EF in children. Efforts to improve children’s EF may be more effective when parental emotional responsiveness to their distress is considered.
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Emotion regulation in childhood and adolescence is related to their social development. Better emotion regulation is associated with great individual academic performance and mental health. However, compared with the research on emotion regulation strategies, children’s automatic emotion regulation has been less investigated. Using event-related potential (ERP) technology, this study adopts the cued-emotion Go/Nogo paradigm to investigate the processing characteristics of automatic emotion regulation in children aged 8–12 years. The current study selected 34 younger group [16 boys, 18 girls, mean (M) ± SD = 8.91 ± 0.75], and 31 older group [18 boys, 13 girls, M ± SD = 11.26 ± 0.45]. The results showed that, for Nogo trials, the amplitude of N2 and P3 evoked by emotional faces were significantly larger than those evoked by neutral faces, reflecting the cognitive conflict experienced and the process of children’s automatic response inhibition to emotional stimuli, respectively. However, no significant difference in N2 and P3 amplitude were found in Go trials, which may indicate that children aged 8–12 showed similar top-down control and similar motivated attention in this experiment, respectively. Further analysis found that the negative affect of temperament was significantly positively correlated with Nogo-P3 induced by neutral pictures (r = 0.37, p < 0.001), and preadolescents’ social anxiety was significantly positively correlated with Nogo-P3 followed by neutral pictures (r = 0.31, p < 0.01). These findings can provide inspiration and empirical support for the promotion and intervention of emotion regulation in children and adolescents.
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Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of coparenting, infants’ emotional self-control, and infants’ externalized problem behaviors.Methods: A total of 281 mothers of infants aged 3-5 years responded to questionnaires on three research variables. The scale used in this study was first measured using a co-parenting questionnaire, the emotional regulation checklist (ECR), and the child behavior checklist (CBCL). Data were analyzed with structural equation modeling using SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 20.0.Results: The correlations between co-parenting, infants’ emotional self-control, and externalized problem behaviors were all statistically significant. With regard to the direct impact of co-parenting on infant problem behavior, co-parenting had a significant impact on infant externalized problem behavior. Co-parenting also indirectly influenced the externalized problem behaviors in infants through the infants’ emotional self-control.Conclusion: This study demonstrated the importance of co-parenting and infant’s emotional selfcontrol. The results suggest the need for a parent education program to improve infants’ emotional selfcontrol and could be used as basic data for counseling and parent education sites to develop parenting programs to prevent infant problem behavior and ultimately create an enviroment that positively affects infant development.
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Theoretical perspectives propose that parents' dispositional emotion regulation (ER) tendencies are likely associated with youth mental health concerns. The aim of the current study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between parental dispositional ER tendencies – both maladaptive and adaptive – and youth mental health symptoms. Regarding maladaptive parental ER, 32 unique studies (N = 6399) with 126 effects were included. A significant, small-to-moderate, effect was observed (r = 0.25) such that higher maladaptive parental ER was linked to heightened youth mental health symptoms. No differences were observed based on youth age or psychiatric risk status, yet effects were stronger when drawn from the same informant in contrast to different informants. Further, 12 studies (N = 4241) including 28 effects were identified and a significant, albeit small, relation (r = −0.16). between adaptive parental ER and youth mental health symptoms occurred. A narrative review of these studies evaluating adaptive parental ER and youth mental health symptoms was performed due to the limited number of effects found beyond parental dispositional mindfulness. These findings generally support the notion that parental dispositional ER tendencies are modestly associated with youth mental health concerns. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed.
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In the current study, we investigated the relations among maternal emotion socialization practices and children’s inhibitory control (IC) performance in Chinese and European American families. Fifty-three Chinese (Mage = 60 months) and 52 European American (Mage = 50 months) children and their mothers participated in this study. Maternal emotion socialization was assessed using mothers’ reported reactions to children’s negative emotions by completing the Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Scale (CCNES). Child IC was assessed through two observational measures. Results revealed significant group differences. Specifically, Chinese mothers adopted more harsh responses and less distress responses as compared to European American mothers. Chinese children scored higher on IC than did European American children. Moderation analyses also suggest that maternal harsh responses and distress responses were negatively related to children’s IC performance for European American group but not for Chinese group.
Chapter
This chapter assesses prisoner emotion at the individual level. It introduces an original theoretical framework based on ‘fluid-container’ metaphors to describe how prisoners managed their emotions. More specifically, emotion management is placed into different thematic categories such as ‘bottling up’, ‘diluting’, ‘distilling’ and ‘discharging’ feeling. These strategies were often used in combination by prisoners and had a range of important protective functions. The context and motivation for exactly why prisoners adopted different strategies is discussed.
Chapter
This chapter contextualises the lives of the men and women in this study before coming to prison, which were marked by a wide range of traumatic experiences. On the whole, participants in this study had had extremely unstable lives before coming to prison. These early experiences shaped many emotional dimensions of life before participants entered prison, especially: levels of emotional literacy, emotion regulation strategies, ability to express feelings. This background provides an important framing for all the subsequent chapters and is a reminder that we should be careful not to hastily attribute emotional responses to ‘the prison’ in a linear manner.
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The aim of this article is to introduce a research-based work-integrated collaborative learning program that focuses on early childhood education and care (ECEC) professionals’ skills in co-regulation of emotions. The collaborative learning program draws on the theoretical framework that acknowledges the situated and socially shared nature of regulated learning and emotion regulation as well as years of research highlighting the importance of versatile and sensitive adults in supporting children’s learning of regulation skills during their early years. The program aims to improve professionals’ shared awareness of children’s emotion regulation development and abilities to identify and develop practices that support children in learning these skills, so that professionals can provide conscious and consistent co-regulation of emotions for children in everyday interactions. The design of the program has been developed by considering the aspects of effective collaborative and professional learning. This paper focuses on describing the theoretical grounding and implementation of a 32-week long collaborative learning program for ECEC professionals in Northern Finland (N = 450). Also, the development of a video-stimulated questionnaire (VSQ) for assessment of professionals’ learning during the program will be described. VSQ measures professionals’ abilities to identify and interpret everyday ECEC interactions from the point of view of (co-)regulation of emotions. Developing research-based collaborative programs that increase systematic support for children to learn regulation skills is essential, as these skills affect children’s lives well into adulthood. They set a basis for children’s learning and social skills and general wellbeing.
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An educational classification of developmental delay is distinct from a psychiatric diagnosis of developmental delay, although the criteria overlap. When assessing for a developmental delay, a comprehensive evaluation is recommended to determine the child’s pattern of abilities and weaknesses and identify appropriate intervention to address learning and behavioral problems. The chapter also presents a list of commonly used tests designed to assess neuropsychological processes and abilities for three‐ to five‐year‐old children. Visuospatial processing is a broad cognitive process comprising many components related to processing visual stimuli, including attending to visual input, planning motor movements, integrating motor movements and visual stimuli, and eye‐tracking and scanning. Executive functioning describes the overarching skills necessary to regulate cognitive processes by focusing and shifting attention, processing sensory input, and performing intentional motor output. Sensorimotor functions are the building blocks for higher‐order cognitive processing and influence the ability to acquire knowledge.
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Objective A growing body of evidence supports the effectiveness of body-oriented interventions (BOI) in educational contexts, showing positive influences on social-emotional competence. Nevertheless, there is a lack of systematization of the evidence regarding preschool years. This is a two-part systematic review. In this first part, we aim to examine the effects of BOI on preschoolers' social-emotional competence outcomes. Data Sources Searches were conducted in Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, ERIC, Web of Science, Portal Regional da BVS and CINAHL. Eligibility Criteria English, French and Portuguese language articles published between January 2000 and October 2020, that evaluated the effects of BOI implemented in educational contexts on social-emotional competence of preschool children. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) or quasi-RCT were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis Two reviewers independently completed data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment. The level of scientific evidence was measured through the Best Evidence Synthesis. Results Nineteen studies were included. There was strong evidence that BOI do not improve anger/aggression, delay of gratification and altruism. Nevertheless, there was moderate evidence that BOI effectively improve other social-emotional outcomes, such as empathy, social interaction, social independence, general internalizing behaviors, and general externalizing behaviors. The lack of scientific evidence was compromised by the methodological quality of the studies. Conclusion BOI effectively improve specific social-emotional competences of preschool children. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO, identifier CRD42020172248.
Chapter
Decision-making capacity (DMC) for pediatric patients can be difficult to determine and is influenced by a myriad of developmental considerations. This chapter begins with a discussion concerning the nature of decision-making and what constitutes competency. The “rule of sevens” framework is then used to explicate pertinent developmental milestones for children, dividing pediatric development into 0–7, 7–14, and 14+ years of age. In particular, the authors highlight the most important cognitive, social, and emotional considerations in each of these periods and how they pertain to a child’s ability to make important medical decisions.
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Background The influence of parent's emotion-related socialization behaviors (ERSBs) on children, and predictors of such ERSBs has been studied extensively. However, to our knowledge, no study used a person-centered approach for subtyping the parental ERSB patterns and identifying parental characteristics that could discriminate the patterns. Objectives The present study explored establishing heterogeneous maternal ERSBs and confirmed whether mothers' depression and maltreatment experienced in childhood are predictive of the subtypes. Participants and setting In Korean, 695 mothers of 7–12-year-old children participated in the study. We conducted a latent profile analysis (LPA) using the six reaction categories of the Korean version of the Coping with Children's Negative Emotions Scale (K-CCNES). We compared the characteristics of children and mothers among the derived classes and conducted a multinomial regression analysis to evaluate the predictors for each class. Results Five classes emerged based on the LPA: “restrained” (25.0%), “ineffective” (19.0%), “harsh” (7.3%), “dismissive” (28.9%), and “supportive” (19.7%). Demographics, children's behavioral problems, maternal depression, and maltreatment history showed differences between the subgroups. Maternal depression and experiences of emotional neglect contributed to differentiating the negative ERSBs subgroups from positive styles. Conclusions We were able to categorize mothers into subgroups displaying heterogeneous patterns of ERSBs. While maternal depression was the strongest predictor of negative patterns, mothers' emotional neglect experiences were an additional characteristic that uniquely predicted the lack of supportive responses to children's negative emotions. Therefore, exploring maternal emotional states and maltreatment experiences could be helpful for clinicians seeking to establish intervention strategies to improve parental ERSBs.
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Parents experience differentiated emotions after learning of their child’s abuse; however, little is known about the effect of trauma therapy on these differentiated reactions and the factors associated with these reactions. This study examined the impact of child trauma therapy on parents’ distress, guilt, and shame over the course of treatment and following treatment, the correlates of theseemotional reactions before treatment, and the correlates of changes in these reactions. The sample at pre-therapy included 92 trauma-exposed children (68.90% female, Mage = 9.58years, 38.10% Caucasian) and their parents receiving Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT). Parents rated their distress, guilt, and shame, their functioning (stress-levels, parent support), and their child’s functioning (emotion regulation and internalizing/externalizing symptoms) at pre-therapy, post-therapy, and 6-month follow-up. Significant modest-to-large improvements in parent distress, guilt, and shame were found immediately following TF-CBT and from pre-therapy to 6-month follow up. Parent and child functioning, as well as characteristics of the child’s abuse, accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in parents’ distress, guilt, and shame prior to treatment, with child internalizing symptoms being a consistent correlate. Changes in parent support and child internalizing symptoms were associated with changes in parent distress and shame over the course of TF-CBT, and changes in child externalizing symptoms were associated with changes in parents’ shame from pre-therapy to follow-up. Improvements in parents’ discrete emotional reactions were observed throughout TF-CBT and months after therapy has ended. The implications of results, as related to the key factors associated with these reactions, are discussed.
Chapter
This chapter presents basic aspects of child development, focusing on typical development and addressing cognitive, social, and emotional development as manifested in the areas of intelligence, social communication, and emotion regulation. Pediatric patients encompass a wide range of ages and development stages from infants, toddlers, and children to pre-adolescents and adolescents, challenging clinicians in their attempt to communicate with children at different ages and adapt their practice, respectively. Normal development is the developmental course that the majority of children in a population group will follow. Higher incidence of dental trauma was found in children with intellectual disabilities, and bruxism was found in children with cerebral palsy. Several recommendations have been suggested for dental practitioners regarding children with intellectual disabilities. Caregivers are great resources for techniques that have been successful in helping their child's behaviors in the past.
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Kutatásunk alapját következő kérdések képezik: 1. A gyermekek és szülők észlelt stressz-szintje, jólléte és félelemkifejezése milyen összefüggéseket mutat? 2. Hogyan verbalizálják a szülők és gyermekeik a félelmüket? 4. Milyen összefüggések vannak a szülők félelmei, a gyermekeik félelmei, illetve verbalizációja között?
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Early parent–child conversations about past emotional experiences provide a rich environment for the socialization of emotions. This study explored the role of parent and child gender in this process. Participants were 21 White, middle-class, 40- to 45-month-old children and their mothers and fathers. At separate home visits, each parent discussed with their child four specific past events during which the child experienced happiness, anger, sadness, and fear, respectively. Mothers conversed more overall, talked more about emotional aspects of the experience, and used more emotion words than did fathers. Similarly, girls talked more about emotional aspects of their experiences than did boys. Further, girls used more emotion words when discussing scary events than did boys. Most intriguingly, both mothers and fathers used more emotional utterances when discussing sad events with daughters than with sons. Parent–daughter dyads also placed emotional experiences in a more interpersonal context than did parent–son dyads. Implications for the development of gender, emotional understanding, and clinical repercussions are discussed.
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Although the recent focus on functionalist theories of emotions has led to an upsurge of interest in many aspects of emotional development, not enough attention has been paid to young children's developing ability to talk about emotions. In this paper we attempt to place what is presently known about this topic into a framework that emphasizes the intrapsychic and interpersonal functions of emotion. We also consider suggestive evidence concerning the importance of the ability to talk about emotions in the conduct of interpersonal interaction. The paper concludes with some ideas on future directions for research, placing particular emphasis on a functionalist approach to the analysis of emotion-denoting terms.
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Using a theory of emotional understanding, the basis for distinguishing among happiness, anger, and sadness was investigated. Three and six-year-old children and adults predicted and explained people's emotional responses to different types of events. The events varied as to whether a person's goal was to attain or to avoid a state, whether the goal was achieved or not, who or what was responsible for success or failure, and whether the outcome was intentional or accidental. For all groups, the attainment and maintenance of goals was the primary focus of explanations for emotions and for the plans that followed emotions. A distinct set of features was used to infer and explain happiness as opposed to anger and sadness. Happiness was elicited by goal success and was followed by plans to maintain or enjoy current goal states. Anger and sadness were elicited by goal failure and were followed by plans to reinstate, replace, or forfeit goals. Anger occurred more frequently than sadness when an aversive rather than a loss state occurred, when an animate agent rather than a natural event caused a negative outcome, and when attention was focused on the cause rather than the consequence of goal failure. Two dimensions associated with anger changed as a function of age. First grade children, and adults were more likely than preschool children to predict anger in response to intentional harm, and their explanations for anger were more likely to refer to the agent or cause of goal failure. For all age groups, however, the majority of subjects responded to aversive situations with anger responses, independent of the causal conditions that produced the aversive state. The results therefore indicate that anger can be produced without intentional harm, but that intentional harm becomes an important dimension in attributing anger, especially as a function of development.
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Described preschoolers' conceptions of the consequences of their own emotions within the family demonstrated the linkage between this aspect of social cognition and emotional competence with peers, and examined contributions of parental emotion to both child variables. A total of 77 4- and 5-year-olds enacted dollhouse vignettes depicting consequences of their emotions. Parents completed questionnaires on negative emotion and sharing of positive affect, and teachers rated children's emotional competence with peers. Children attributed plausible parental reactions to their own emotions; affective sharing/distress relief conceptions of parents' reactions were most strongly associated with emotional competence in the preschool classroom. Socialisation of emotion indices exerted both direct and indirect influences on emotional competence, and conceptions of parents' positive reactions also exerted a direct effect, as expected.
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Examined preschoolers' use of situational information in forming attributions about others' naturally occurring, spontaneous emotions. Ss were observed and interviewed about the reasons for other children's naturally occurring emotional reactions as well as about their own strategies for ameliorating others' negative affect. Ss were accurate in identifying the situational determinants of others' real emotions, and their strategies for remediating negative affect in others were consistent with the type and attributional basis of the emotion to be altered. Ss used contextual information in significantly different and meaningful ways across and within emotions. For example, causal explanations for others' emotional reactions were significantly less likely to be focused on the emitter's behavior for anger reactions, whereas they were significantly less likely to be focused on the eliciter's behavior for sad reactions. Results are consistent with the conclusion that preschoolers are responsive to contextual information in formulating judgments about others' spontaneous emotions and are discussed in terms of current research concerning children's emotional behavior and reasoning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Explores the relationship between temperament and social behavior patterns of empathy, guilt–shame, aggression, help-seeking, and negativity in 80 children (aged 6–7 yrs). For a subset of the sample, predictions of these social behavior patterns from infant observations were also reported. Individual differences were found to be predictive of aggression, and relationships between effortful control and both empathy and guilt–shame. Results show that while internalizing components of negative affectivity (fear and sadness) are related to prosocial traits, irritable components of negative affectivity (anger and discomfort) are related to antisocial traits. Observations of infant temperament to later social behavior patterns corroborated data from parent questionnaire ratings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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98 children aged 4–15 yrs described how they would feel at 5 time points subsequent to an event that elicited either happiness, sadness, or anger. Ss also were asked to describe how they could control their feelings and asked to judge the efficacy of various situational and cognitive emotion control strategies. The 4–6 yr olds were less likely to describe unilinear waning of emotion, and more likely to describe change from one emotion to another over time. Across ages, children were more likely to suggest situational rather than cognitive strategies, and older children were more likely to suggest cognitive strategies spontaneously. 4–6 yr olds were significantly better at recognizing than generating cognitive emotion control strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Four studies investigated whether 4- and 5-yr-olds recognize the potential for diversity in the intentions that motivate a given action. Children heard stories in which 2 characters performed the same action (e.g., running) yet had different desires (e.g., to be home for dinner vs. to be healthy and strong). Children were asked to determine what each character was trying to do (e.g., get somewhere fast vs. get some exercise). 24 5-yr-olds successfully assigned different intentions to the characters, despite the fact that their actions were identical. 24 4-yr-olds, in contrast, tended to attribute the same intention to characters performing the same action, even though their desires clearly differed. Children of this age were, nevertheless, capable of attributing different intentions to characters performing different actions (Study 2 with 18 4-yr-olds). 4-yr-olds' difficulty differentiating 2 intentions for a given action persisted despite several task simplifications (Studies 3 and 4, with 24 Ss each), suggesting that children's early concept of intention may be intimately tied to action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This chapter defines and gives a brief history of temperament research, describing recent advances in our understanding of temperament structure, developmental stability and change, and the degree to which later developing self-regulative processes (fear and effortful control) moderate earlier developing emotional and behavioral reactivity. Measurement issues are discussed and neural models of temperament described. The genetics of temperament and the relation of temperament to the development of personality, adjustment, and psychopathology are reviewed. Finally, directions for future study are proposed.
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Despite its prevalence in low-income populations, there has been little attention paid to how maternal depression influences mother–child conversations about emotions and low-income preschool children's developing emotion understanding. The importance of a secure attachment as a positive influence on emotion understanding has also been infrequently studied in lower-income families. This longitudinal study examined attachment security and maternal depression when children were age 2 as predictors of mother–child references to emotion in conversations, and children's emotion understanding when children were three. Maternal depression at age 2, but not at age 3, showed a direct, negative relation to children's emotion understanding at age 3, independent of mother–child references to emotion and attachment security. More securely attached dyads made more references to emotion in conversation, which, in turn, promoted children's emotion understanding. It was concluded that secure attachment relationships support children's emotion understanding by promoting mother–child discussion of emotions, while emotion understanding in preschoolers is directly impaired by maternal depression.
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Aspects of 47 preschoolers' emotional competence—their patterns of emotional expressiveness and reactions to others' emotion displays—were ob-served in two settings, with mother and with peers, and their general social competence was rated by their preschool teachers. Intrapersonal and interpersonal (I.e., socialization correlates of children's emotional competence were identified, and a causal model incorporating direct and indirect influences on social competence was evaluated. Maternal patterns of expressiveness, reactions to children's emotion displays, and self-reported affective environment were associated with children's emotional competence in the preschool. Children's emotional competence with mother predicted their emotional competence in the preschool somewhat less strongly, suggesting that emotional competence may differ according to the inter-personal relationship studied. Taken as a whole, findings reassert the importance of the domain of emotional expression to the development of social competence.
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The present study examines the contributions of (1) parental socialization of emotion and preschoolers' emotional interaction with parents to their emotional competence, and (2) parental socialization and child emotional competence to their general social competence. Both observational and self-report techniques were used to measure emotion socialization, emotional competence, and social competence of preschoolers (average age = 49.8 months) from 60 middle-socioeconomic-status families. Data were collected in both classroom and home settings. In general, the results suggest that parental modeling of expressive styles and emotional responsiveness to child emotions are important predictors of preschoolers' emotional competence and their overall social competence. Children whose parents were more affectively positive tended to display more positive emotion with peers, whereas children whose parents were more negative appeared less socially competent in the preschool. Parents who were better coaches of their children's emotions had children who understood emotions better. Age and sex moderated several of the study's key findings. The results are consistent with earlier research indicating that parental socialization of emotion impacts the child's emotional and social functioning both at home and in the preschool.
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. We hypothesized that parents who express positive emotions and are supportive of their preschoolers' emotional expressions and experiences are likely to engage in talking and teaching about emotions, thereby enhancing children's emotion knowledge. Observational and self-report indices of parents' socialization of emotion were obtained for 134 families when children were 3 and 4 years old, along with children's emotion knowledge from ages 3 to 5. Mothers' valuing teaching about emotions mediated the positive effects of their positive expressions and reactions on the emotion knowledge of 3-year-olds. More limited paternal contributions were found for 4-year-olds' emotion knowledge only. Departures from predicted relations suggested that fathers might see their role in emotion socialization as different from that of mothers.
Chapter
This volume provides a developmental perspective of the regulation and dysregulation of emotion, in particular, how children learn about feelings and how they learn to deal with both positive and negative feelings. Emotion regulation involves the interaction of physical, behavioural and cognitive processes in response to changes in one's emotional state. The changes can be brought on by factors internal to the individual (e.g. biological) or external (e.g. other people). Featuring contributions from leading researchers in developmental psychopathology, the volume concentrates on theories and data concerning the development of emotion regulation with an emphasis on both intrapersonal and interpersonal processes. Original conceptualizations of the reciprocal influences among the various response systems - neurophysiological-biochemical, behavioral-expressive, and subjective-experiential - are provided, and the individual chapters address both normal and psychopathological forms of emotion regulation, particularly depression and aggression, from infancy through adolescence. This book will appeal to specialists in developmental, clinical and social psychology, psychiatry, education, and others interested in understanding the developmental processes involved in the regulation of emotion over the course of childhood.
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When confronted with stress, adults tend to respond with primary control coping (trying to change the stressful circumstances), secondary control coping (trying to adjust to circumstances as they are), or relinquished control (trying neither to change circumstances nor to adjust to them). Applying this notion to children, we asked 6-, 9-, and 12-year-olds to recall stressful episodes involving six different situations (e.g., separation, medical stress, school failure) and to describe how they responded in each instance. Responses were coded as primary or secondary coping or as relinquished control. The responses indicated reports of active coping; only 3.5% of all descriptions involved relinquished control. Styles of coping, however, differed across situations, with school failure evoking high levels of primary coping and medical stress, high levels of secondary coping. Styles also differed with age: As age increased, self-reports of primary coping declined and of secondary coping increased, particularly in stressful medical circumstances. Overall, the results suggest that elementary-school children report that they cope with everyday stress and that their coping approaches are influenced by situational constraints and cognitive development.
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This study examines preschoolers' knowledge of the distinction between real and apparent emotion and of emotion display rules. Additionally, the study focuses on the ways in which gender and specific emotion type may impact the preschooler's understanding. Previous work has found young children to have a limited understanding of these two concepts. Nevertheless, preschoolers have been shown to comprehend the appearance-reality distinction as it pertains to objects, to possess a mentalistic understanding of emotion, and to actually use display rules. This study's findings show that in contrast to earlier work, and perhaps in relation to the competence-performance distinction, preschoolers do clearly distinguish between real and apparent emotions and do understand many of the social display rules governing emotional expression. Gender and emotion type were also shown to play a role in this understanding. The findings support the view that children have initial knowledge about mentalistic aspects of emotion as well as an understanding of the social rules guiding emotional expression, and that their understanding of emotion is embedded in a oroader understanding of the mind.
Article
Spontaneous expressive control of negative emotion was examined in 2 studies of children aged 3-9 using an experimental "disappointing" situation. In Study 1, facial expressions, verbalizations, and spontaneous references to emotional expression control were examined in terms of the child's age and sex and the experimental manipulation (neutral, positive, and "disappointing" mood segments). Results suggested that children attempted to control the display of negative emotion with positive displays and that females did so more than males. No effect of age on expressive behavior was found. Age differences were found for children's spontaneous reference to expressive control, with such references increasing with age. To further examine the possibility that preschoolers engaged in expressive control, Study 2 examined the expressive behavior of 20 preschool girls in the disappointing situation in 2 conditions, alone or with the examiner present. These data indicated that females, aged 3-4, inhibited negative displays when in the presence of the examiner.
Article
address the development of a single domain: everyday understanding of the mind [in children] / suggest that this development is best understood as the formulation of a succession of naive theories / [conclude] this "theory theory" [changes in early conceptions of the mind] can help to characterize cognitive domains more generally and to explain domain-specific development / joins company with a number of recent discussions drawing parallels between theory change in science and cognitive development (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Research on the relation between social information processing and social adjustment in childhood is reviewed and interpreted within the framework of a reformulated model of human performance and social exchange. This reformulation proves to assimilate almost all previous studies and is a useful heuristic device for organizing the field. The review suggests that overwhelming evidence supports the empirical relation between characteristic processing styles and children's social adjustment, with some aspects of processing (e.g., hostile attributional biases, intention cue detection accuracy, response access patterns, and evaluation of response outcomes) likely to be causal of behaviors that lead to social status and other aspects (e.g., perceived self-competence) likely to be responsive to peer status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
review a great deal of literature dealing with individual differences in experiencing emotion and with individual differences in self-regulation of emotion / present their [the authors'] own new view of how social behavior is likely to be influenced by the interaction of emotional arousability (including reactivity and intensity) and regulatory/coping skills (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Individual differences in expressive control during a disappointment were examined in relation to preschool boys' and girls' concurrent behavior and to their risk for developing disruptive behavior disorders. A disappointment paradigm was used to examine expressive control in 79 4- and 5-yr-old children with low, moderate, or high risk. Boys at risk showed more negative emotion in the experimenter's (E's) presence than low-risk boys. In E's absence, low-risk boys' negative emotion was equivalent to at-risk boys'. Boys' negative emotion, particularly anger, predicted their disruptiveness during the disappointment and general symptoms of oppositionality. At-risk girls differed from low-risk girls after E left, displaying less negative emotion than low-risk girls. Girls' minimization of negative emotion predicted attention deficit and conduct disorder symptoms. Gender-specific expressive control is discussed in terms of gender differences in emotion regulation and psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
When confronted with stress, adults tend to respond with primary control coping (trying to change the stressful circumstances), secondary control coping (trying to adjust to circumstances as they are), or relinquished control (trying neither to change circumstances nor to adjust to them). Applying this notion to children, we asked 6-, 9-, and 12-year-olds to recall stressful episodes involving six different situations (e.g., separation, medical stress, school failure) and to describe how they responded in each instance. Responses were coded as primary or secondary coping or as relinquished control. The responses indicated reports of active coping; only 3.5% of all descriptions involved relinquished control. Styles of coping, however, differed across situations, with school failure evoking high levels of primary coping and medical stress, high levels of secondary coping. Styles also differed with age: As age increased, self-reports of primary coping declined and of secondary coping increased, particularly in stressful medical circumstances. Overall, the results suggest that elementary-school children report that they cope with everyday stress and that their coping approaches are influenced by situational constraints and cognitive development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Studied the social processes implicated in the early development of children's talk about desires, feelings, and mental states by analyzing the content and context of naturally occurring conversations at home. Six 2nd-born children were observed with their mothers and older siblings at 2-mo intervals from age 24–36 mo. In addition to increases in the frequency with which children referred to internal states, developmental changes were noted in the content and context of their talk. These included (1) more frequent references to others' inner states and (2) more frequent references to the causes and consequences of inner states. Also, maternal references to the thoughts, feelings, and desires of those other than the child increased, and their use of these terms in behavior-controlling contexts decreased. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses the embeddedness of emotion in social interactions, relationships, and contexts. A tripartite view of emotion socialization is offered that stresses interaction, direct teaching, and regulation of opportunities for learning about emotions. Future research needs to be directed to the developmental appropriateness of strategies, to positive rather than negative affect, and to the cultural contexts of emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
consider the question of the way that the new representational theory of mind has its roots in the earlier nonrepresentational theory / consider the kinds of evidence that might lead to changes in the theory / focus on the ways that an understanding of [visual] perception might serve as a model for the later understanding of belief / present evidence that suggests that [3–4 yr olds] show a better understanding of perceptual misrepresentation than of false belief, and that training children on perceptual tasks can accelerate their understanding of false belief the development of an understanding of visual perception [infancy, 18 mo–3 yrs, visual-perspective taking after 3] / perception as a model for belief (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Assessed the influence of social evaluation on children's emotional experience and understanding. 66 younger and older children ( M ages = 7.12 and 12.06 yrs) were videotaped as they played a game, during which they received mild positive or negative feedback from another child of the same age and gender. Children's emotion report and understanding of their emotional responses were obtained in a postgame interview. Feedback valence influenced children's emotion expression, self-report, and their understanding of emotion. Girls displayed more positive and negative emotion than boys in response to social feedback and were also more accurate in reporting their initial facial expression. Although younger and older children did not differ in mean level of understanding of emotion, only older children used the most sophisticated types of explanations for their emotions. Overall, emotion expression, self-report, and understanding were more closely related after positive than negative feedback. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Mothers’ emotion talk, children's emotion talk, and children's understanding of emotion were examined in 50 mother–child dyads at 41 months. Language measures included total emotion words, unique emotion words, labels, explanations, and different types of explanations. Children's emotion understanding was assessed for labeling, situation, and role-taking knowledge, as well as an overall score. There were different patterns of relations between mothers’ emotion talk and boys’ and girls’ emotion talk, with mothers’ emotion talk related more strongly to boys’ emotion talk. Mothers’ emotion talk for boys and girls was differentially related to the subparts of the emotion understanding test. Specifically, mothers’ total emotion talk predicted boys’ performance on the situation knowledge test and their use of causal emotion explanations predicted boys’ overall score, but none of the maternal variables predicted girls’ performance. This finding may result from differences in variability of maternal speech to boys’ and girls’, and it may be due to differences in maternal speech in earlier years.
Article
Children of 6, 11 and 13 years were interviewed regarding their concept of emotion. Questions were posed about the cues and the accuracy with which emotion may be identified, the strategies by which both the display and the experience of emotion may be regulated, and the effects of emotion on other psychological processes The replies indicate a marked shift in the child's concept of emotion between 6 and 11 years, but no marked changes thereafter. The youngest children focus on publicly observable components of emotion–the eliciting situation and overt behavioural reactions—while the two older groups also consider the hidden mental aspect of emotion. This changing conception of emotion manifests itself in the children's replies to questions concerning the identification, the regulation and the effects of emotion.
Article
The present research evaluated a conceptual model that links temperament, emotional knowledge, and family expressiveness to preschoolers' emotion regulation ability. The emotional understanding of 82 preschoolers was assessed with 2 separate tasks. After the second emotional knowledge task, the children were presented a “disappointing” prize, and their facial displays of positive and negative affect were recorded. The children and their mothers also participated in a game designed to elicit maternal expressive behavior. Mothers provided information about the preschoolers' temperament and about the frequency of positive and negative affect expressed within their families Results indicated that children's positive displays when presented the “disappointing” prize were inversely related to the temperamental dimension of emotional intensity and positively associated with children's understanding of emotion. Maternal reports of sadness within the family were inversely related to children's positive affective displays. Children's negative emotional displays in the disappointment situation were inversely related to observed maternal positive emotion. The findings from this study give greater specification to the unique and joint contributions of temperament, emotional knowledge, and family expressiveness in predicting preschoolers' expressive control of emotion.
Article
In a prospective, longitudinal study we examined the psychometric properties of the self-perception scales of the Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI). A total sample of 97 young children were assessed with the BPI at 3 time points: preschool, kindergarten, and first grade. The BPI assesses young children's self-perceptions of their school adjustment in 6 domains: academic competence, achievement motivation, social competence, peer acceptance, depression-anxiety, and aggression-hostility. Results showed that 4½- to 7½-year-olds possess a multidimensional self-concept that can be reliably measured and that the BPI is sensitive to normative changes and individual differences in young boys' and girls' views of themselves. Support for the method's validity was derived from consistent and meaningful patterns of convergence between children's self-perceptions and ratings by adult informants–mothers, fathers, and teachers–as well as standardized test scores. In fact, in this study, the concordance between young children's self-reports and parallel ratings by teachers or mothers were consistently as strong as if not stronger than the concordance between mothers' and teachers' ratings.
Article
A theoretical model for affective social competence is described. Affective social competence (ASC) is comprised of three integrated and dynamic components: sending affective messages, receiving affective messages, and experiencing affect. Central and interconnected abilities within each component include awareness and identification of affect, working within a complex and constantly changing social context, and management and regulation. The dynamic integration of the components is emphasized and potential mediating factors are outlined. The model is placed within the context of previous research and theory related to affective social competence; how the model advances future research is also explicated for each component. Research with special populations of children is described to highlight the importance of affective social competence in social relationships and the promise of the ASC model for future research and practice.
Article
Emotion regulation has been conceptualized as the extrinsic and intrinsic processes responsible for monitoring, facilitating, and inhibiting heightened levels of positive and negative affect. Regulation of distress is related to the use of certain behavioral strategies. Our study examined whether putative regulatory behaviors widely assumed to be conceptually associated with these strategies are actually empirically associated with the changes in fearful and angry distress in 6-, 12-, and 18-month-old infants. Our key finding was that the use of some putative regulatory behaviors (e.g., distraction and approach) reduced the observable intensity of anger but were less effective in reducing the intensity of fear. The results suggest (1) caution in assuming that postulated regulatory behaviors actually have general distress-reducing effects and (2) the likelihood that “distress” is too global a construct for research on emotion regulation.
Article
Abstract This study investigated, via extended naturalistic observation: (a) how mothers and children responded emotionally to each other's emotional displays; and (b) whether ratings of the child's social-emotional competence (made when the mother was absent) could be predicted by specific maternal responses to the child's emotions. Subjects were 28 mother-toddler pairs. Sequential analyses suggested that emotional dialogue does exist between mothers and children: certain emotional responses of mothers and children occurred more often than expected by their base rate during interaction. Maternal responsiveness to child sadness, anger, fear and neutrality predicted dimensions of children's social-emotional competence. Implications regarding the mother-child affective environment, socialization of emotion and social competency, and developmental methodology are discussed.
Article
Research on theory of mind increasingly encompasses apparently contradictory findings. In particular, in initial studies, older preschoolers consistently passed false-belief tasks — a so-called “definitive” test of mental-state understanding — whereas younger children systematically erred. More recent studies, however, have found evidence of false-belief understanding in 3-year-olds or have demonstrated conditions that improve children's performance. A meta-analysis was conducted (N= 178 separate studies) to address the empirical inconsistencies and theoretical controversies. When organized into a systematic set of factors that vary across studies, false-belief results cluster systematically with the exception of only a few outliers. A combined model that included age, country of origin, and four task factors (e.g., whether the task objects were transformed in order to deceive the protagonist or not) yielded a multiple R of .74 and an R2 of .55; thus, the model accounts for 55% of the variance in false-belief performance. Moreover, false-belief performance showed a consistent developmental pattern, even across various countries and various task manipulations: preschoolers went from below-chance performance to above-chance performance. The findings are inconsistent with early competence proposals that claim that developmental changes are due to tasks artifacts, and thus disappear in simpler, revised false-belief tasks; and are, instead, consistent with theoretical accounts that propose that understanding of belief, and, relatedly, understanding of mind, exhibit genuine conceptual change in the preschool years.