Analysis and characterization of aroma‐active compounds of Schizandra chinensis (omija) leaves

Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (Impact Factor: 1.71). 01/2005; 85(1):161 - 166. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.1975


Volatile components from leaves of Schizandra chinensis (omija), a native plant of Korea, were extracted by simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using two types of capillary column with different polarities (DB-5MS and DB-Wax). The GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds obtained by SDE revealed that germacrene D is the most abundant compound (22.6%) in omija leaves, followed by β-elemene (17.4%), (E)-2-hexenal (8.7%), and (E)-β-ocimene (7.2%). Aroma-active compounds were determined by gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC-O) using the aroma-extract-dilution analysis method. (E,Z)-2,6-Nonadienal (cucumber) was the most intense aroma-active compound due to its higher flavor-dilution factor (243–729) than any other compound. (Z)-3-Hexenal (green/apple), (E)-2-hexenal (green/fruity), and (E)-β-ocimene (wither green/grass) were also identified as important aroma-active compounds by GC-O. In addition, the volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and the quantitative analysis of the SPME samples gave slightly different results, depending on the type of SPME fiber, compared with those from SDE, However, the aroma-active compounds identified in SPME were similar to those in SDE. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry

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    • "These results agree well with the findings reported by Kim et al. (2003), who reported that good linear correlations between the log 2 (peak area) and log 2 (split ratio) were exhibited in standard solution and actual food matrix, respectively. In addition to the easy-to-operate feature of monitoring the GC injector split ratio especially for the recent electronic flow control models of GC systems, this dilution approach present advantages in (1) eliminating the potential loss of aroma compounds, especially those highly volatile during dilution , and (2) enabling a wide dilution range regardless of the SPME fibre type, for example, PDMS (Kim et al., 2003; Yu, Kim, Kim, & Lee, 2004; Zheng et al., 2005), CAR/PDMS (Feng et al., 2014; Jo et al., 2011; Yu et al., 2004; Zheng et al., 2005), PDMS/ DVB (Choi & Min, 2008), and DVB/CAR/PDMS (Deibler et al., 2004). However, split ratios lower than 10 and higher than 230 could not be obtained due to the intrinsic mechanical limitations of the GC (Thermo Finnigan), which was related to the unstable carrier gas flow (Kim et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) is widely used for the screening of aroma-active compounds in gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). In this study, three aroma dilution methods, (I) using different test sample volumes, (II) diluting samples, and (III) adjusting the GC injector split ratio, were compared for the analysis of volatiles by using HS-SPME-AEDA. Results showed that adjusting the GC injector split ratio (III) was the most desirable approach, based on the linearity relationships between Ln (normalised peak area) and Ln (normalised flavour dilution factors). Thereafter this dilution method was applied in the analysis of aroma-active compounds in Japanese soy sauce and 36 key odorants were found in this study. The most intense aroma-active components in Japanese soy sauce were: ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, ethyl 4-methylpentanoate, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 2-phenylethanol, and 4-hydroxy-5-ethyl-2-methyl-3(2H)-furanone. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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    • "Low concentrations of Z3HAL and Z3HAC were found to be attractive to ECB larvae. Zheng et al. (2005) found Z3HAL as a key component contributing to the aroma of omija leaves (Schizandra chinensis ). Moreover, Z3HAL has been identified as the most abundant volatile compound in tomato (Buttery et al. 1987) and in orange juice (Buettner and Schieberle 2001). "
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