Journal of the Science of Food and AgricultureJ Sci Food Agric 85:161–166 (2005)
Analysis and characterization of aroma-active
compounds of Schizandra chinensis (omija)
Cheng Hao Zheng,1Kyoung Heon Kim,2Tae Hwan Kim1and Hyong Joo Lee1∗
1School of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742,
Republic of Korea
2Division of Food Science, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-713, Republic of Korea
Abstract: Volatile components from leaves of Schizandra chinensis (omija), a native plant of Korea,
were extracted by simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass
spectrometry (GC-MS) using two types of capillary column with different polarities (DB-5MS and DB-
Wax). The GC-MS analysis ofvolatile compoundsobtained by SDE revealedthat germacrene D isthe most
abundant compound (22.6%) in omija leaves, followed by β-elemene (17.4%), (E)-2-hexenal (8.7%), and
(E)-β-ocimene (7.2%). Aroma-active compounds were determined by gas chromatography–olfactometry
(GC-O) using the aroma-extract-dilution analysis method. (E,Z)-2,6-Nonadienal (cucumber) was the
most intense aroma-active compound due to its higher flavor-dilution factor (243–729) than any
other compound. (Z)-3-Hexenal (green/apple), (E)-2-hexenal (green/fruity), and (E)-β-ocimene (wither
green/grass) were also identified as important aroma-active compounds by GC-O. In addition, the volatile
compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and the quantitative analysis of the
SPME samples gave slightly different results, depending on the type of SPME fiber, compared with those
from SDE, However, the aroma-active compounds identified in SPME were similar to those in SDE.
2004 Society of Chemical Industry
Keywords: gas chromatography–olfactometry; aroma-extract-dilution analysis; (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal; headspace
solid-phase microextraction; Schizandra chinensis leaves; omija
The family Schizandraceae comprises more than 22
species,1among which Schizandra chinensis (omija)
is native to Korea.2
Because omija fruits have
a characteristic aroma and strong sour taste,2in
Korea they have not only been used traditionally for
medicinal purposes3–6but also recently for various
applications in food products.5–9The commercial
importance of omija fruit in Korea has lead to
several studies into its volatile compounds using
gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS),
which have revealed the presence of terpinen-4-ol,
γ-terpinene, caryophyllene, calarene, β-elemene, α-
ylangene and zingiberene.3,10–12
As the consumption of omija fruits is large, as
much as 223tons per year in Korea, omija leaves
are abundantly generated as a byproduct. Therefore,
to seek possible application of the omija leaf as an
aromatic resource for food and medicinal products,
in this study the volatile compounds of omija leaves
extracted by both simultaneous distillation–extraction
(SDE) and headspace solid-phase microextraction
(HS-SPME) have been analyzed by GC-MS, and
the aroma-active compounds have been characterized
by gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC-O)13with
successive dilution by a solvent and varying GC
injector split ratios14for the extracts of SDE and
Omija leaves were obtained from Bangtae Mt in
Gangwon Province during September 2002. The
leaves were stored in a plastic bag at −70◦C
before analysis. Authentic flavor compounds were
purchased from Aldrich Chemical (Milwaukee, USA),
Seoul Aromatics (Seoul, Korea), and Borak (Seoul,
∗Correspondence to: Hyong Joo Lee, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National
University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea
Contract/grant sponsor: Technology Development Program for Agriculture and Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Republic of
Contract/grant sponsor: Brain Korea 21 Project, Korean Ministry of Education
(Received 15 March 2004; revised version received 12 May 2004; accepted 16 May 2004)
Published online 11 October 2004
2004 Society of Chemical Industry. J Sci Food Agric 0022–5142/2004/$30.00
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J Sci Food Agric 85:161–166 (2005)