Article

The TRIZ Resource Analysis Tool for Solving Management Tasks: Previous Classifications and their Modification

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

This paper illustrates different approaches of classifying resources inside the field of TRIZ and in the strategic management with focus on the Resource-based View. The Resource-based View is introduced in order to discuss resources under management aspects. The goal is to integrate the most promising approaches for increasing the effectiveness of the TRIZ-based resource analysis. The TRIZ-based comprehension of resources will be broadened such that the specifications of management problems are sufficiently considered. Based on the proposed classification, a three-step process to analyse resources in well-structured form based on TRIZ is recommended. In that way, the problem-solver can identify resources that might not normally be viewed as such. Furthermore, the proposed classification includes different categories of resources, with examples in the field of management that can be used as a database.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... For supporting this stage, analysts can rely on already existing classification as TRIZ classification resources. [31][32][33] In relation to the definition of constraints for the acceptability of a solution concept, the authors suggest the identification of company barriers (as above) and resources consumption already determined by external factors. On the contrary, in relation to opportunities for further development of solution concepts, the focus should be on the already existing resources that still allow a residual amount of exploitation. ...
... TRIZ provides a set of heuristics to overcome contradictions by leveraging available resources classified into five categories: time, space, energy, information, and materials; some authors have proposed more structured resource classifications as in Becattini et al., 31 also considering managerial-based resources. 32 The TRIZbased classification of resources represents the basis for resolving the contradictions that will appear in the next stages: ...
Article
Full-text available
The article describes a method to stimulate users’ creativity within constraint-based scenarios and OTSM-TRIZ, which allows to define the problems and partial solutions to be solved during the design process in an appropriate manner. The proposed method aims to overcome constraints and problems defined within product development and related organization resources. Indeed, if these constraints are not properly taken into account, the risk of generating unsuccessful and even ineffective solutions can be high. In this work, a method has been defined, based on the OTSM-TRIZ theory: it guides the users toward the problem solution through a mapping of both the problem to solve and the relationships existing among the problems and constraints. A step-by-step approach is used to describe and propose a systematic structure, allowing to link the conceptual solution with specific solution criteria in the automation field. The validation of the proposed method corresponds to a real case study, that is, the necessity of increasing the productivity of an operational plant for the palletizing process has been selected to discuss the method implementation. Finally, the results of the case study were considered successful, because it was not necessary to introduce high investments for solution development and implementation.
... Our case study indicates the practical benefits of this instrument, showing that a company can use it for analysing competitors and technology regions. The presented instrument proves that TRIZ does not only cover technical aspects but can also be used as a powerful tool in strategic technology management (see also Mueller 2005). Further research should be concentrated both on the improvement of the process of inventive principle identification and on the analysis of the impact that the results of the analysis may have for strategic decisions. ...
... Our case study indicates the practical benefits of this instrument, showing that a company can use it for analysing competitors and technology regions. The presented instrument proves that TRIZ does not only cover technical aspects but can also be used as a powerful tool in strategic technology management (see also Mueller 2005). Further research should be concentrated both on the improvement of the process of inventive principle identification and on the analysis of the impact that the results of the analysis may have for strategic decisions. ...
Article
Patentanalyse – TRIZ basierte L Walter Gabler Lexikon Technologiemanagement, 211-212 "Patentanalyse, TRIZ basierte. Der Großteil des weltweit vorhandenen technischen  Wissens ist in  Patenten niedergeschrie-ben; sie stellen eine einzigartige Informations-quelle dar (vgl. Cohausz 1993, Barske 2001). Die Aufgabe einer erfolgreichen  Patentana-lyse besteht in der gezielten Nutzung dieser hochwertigen technischen Literatur zur Unterstützung des  Technologiemanage-ments. Gezielte  Patentanalysen erlauben dabei eine Untersuchung interessierender Technologiegebiete einschließlich der darauf tätigen  Unternehmen. Die klassische Wettbewerberanalyse kann somit um die Dimension der technologischen  Kompe-tenzen erweitert werden. Eine spezielle Form der  Patentanalyse ist die TRIZ-basierte Patentanalyse (vgl. Möhrle 2000). Sie stellt eine auf der Basis der Theorie des erfinderi-schen Problemlösens ( TRIZ) entwickelte Methode der Wettbewerberanalyse dar. I. Herkunft: Die Theorie des erfinderischen Problemlösens ( TRIZ) entwickelte der usbekische Wissenschaftler Genrich S. Altschuller zwischen 1946 und 1985, basie-rend auf der Analyse von mehreren tausend  Patenten (vgl. Altschuller 1998). Er betrachtete die Lösungen der in den  Paten-ten beschriebenen Problemstellungen und arbeitete hierzu die technischen und physikali-schen  Widersprüche der in den Patent-schriften dargelegten  Erfindungen heraus. Von einem physikalischen  Widerspruch wird gesprochen, wenn ein technischer Parameter bzw. eine Eigenschaft eines Produktes ( Leistung) sich in zwei wider-sprechenden Zuständen (z.B. kalt und warm) befinden soll. Ein technischer  Widerspruch liegt vor, wenn sich bei der Verbesserung eines technischen Parameters ein anderer Parameter verschlechtert. Altschuller fand, dass erst dann eine starke Lösung einer Erfindungsaufgabe vorliegt, wenn zu ihrer Lösung ein  Widerspruch überwunden werden muss, und er gelangte zu der  Er-kenntnis, dass einer  Vielzahl hochwertiger  Erfindungen eine relativ kleine Zahl von immer wiederkehrenden Lösungsprinzipien zugrunde liegt. Altschuller konnte vierzig Lösungsprinzipien ( Erfindungsverfahren) zur Überwindung von technischen  Wider-sprüchen identifizieren (vgl. Tabelle: Zusam-menstellung der 40 Erfindungsverfahren zur Überwindung technischer Widersprüche). Innerhalb der Methodik des Erfindens stellen diese 40  Erfindungsverfahren das wich-tigste Mittel dar, Erfindungsaufgaben schnell und gezielt zu lösen. II. Grundideen: Die 40  Erfin-dungsverfahren wurden von Altschuller ursprünglich durch die Analyse von  Paten-ten identifiziert. Zusammenstellung der 40 Erfindungsverfahren zur Überwindung technischer Widersprüche 1. Verfahren der Zerlegung 21. Verfahren des Durcheilens 2. Verfahren der Abtrennung 22. Verfahren der Umwandlung von Schädlichem in Nützliches 3. Verfahren der örtlichen Qualität 23. Verfahren der Rückkopplung 4. Verfahren der Asymmetrie 24. Verfahren des „Vermittlers“ 5. Verfahren der Kopplung 25. Verfahren der Selbstbedienung 6. Verfahren der Universalität 26. Verfahren des Kopierens 7. Verfahren der „Steckpuppe“ (Matrjoschka) 27. Verfahren der billigen Kurzlebigkeit anstelle teurer Langlebigkeit 8. Verfahren der Gegenmasse 28. Verfahren des Ersatzes mechanischer Schaltbil-der 9. Verfahren der vorherigen Gegenwirkung 29. Verfahren der Anwendung von Pneumo- und Hydrokonstruktionen 10. Verfahren der vorherigen Wirkung 30. Verfahren der Anwendung biegsamer Hüllen und dünner Folien 11. Verfahren des „vorher untergelegten Kissens“ 31. Verfahren der Verwendung poröser Werkstoffe 12. Verfahren des Äquipotenzials 32. Verfahren der Farbänderung 13. Verfahren der Funktionsumkehr 33. Verfahren der Gleichartigkeit bzw. Homogenität 14. Verfahren der Kugelähnlichkeit 34. Verfahren der Beseitigung und Regenerierung von Teilen 15. Verfahren des Dynamischen 35. Verfahren der Veränderung des Aggregatzustan-des eines Objektes 16. Verfahren der partiellen oder überschüssigen Wirkung 36. Verfahren der Anwendung von Phasenübergän-gen 17. Verfahren des Übergangs zu höheren Dimensio-nen 37. Verfahren der Anwendung von Wär-me(aus)dehnung 18. Verfahren der Ausnutzung mechanischer Schwingungen 38. Verfahren der Anwendung starker Oxidationsmit-tel 19. Verfahren der periodischen Wirkung 39. Verfahren der Anwendung eines trägen Mediums 20. Verfahren der Kontinuität (Permanenz) der Wirkprozesse 40. Verfahren der Anwendung zusammengesetzter Stoffe Quelle. vgl. Möhrle / Pannenbäcker 1996 Dies ist der Schlüssel für die TRIZ-basierte Wettbewerberanalyse. Sie beruht auf drei Ideen (vgl. Möhrle 2000, S. 3): (1) Wenn Altschuller früher diese  Erfindungs-verfahren aus den  Patenten extrahierte, so sollte dies auch heute noch möglich sein. (2) Jedes  Erfindungsverfahren repräsentiert eine große Anzahl von  Erfindungen, welche auf dem gleichen Prinzip beruhen. Daher drückt das Anwenden eines solchen  Erfindungsverfahrens eine bestimmte technologische  Kompetenz eines  Un-ternehmens aus. (3) Derjenige Satz von  Erfindungsverfahren, der von einem  Unternehmen angewendet wird, steht für dessen technologische  Kompetenz. Er zeigt das individuelle Profil der technischen Problemlösungskompetenz dieses  Unter-nehmens. III. Prozess: Die TRIZ-basierte Wettbewer-beranalyse kann durch einen fünfstufigen  Prozess umgesetzt werden. (1) In der ersten Stufe wird das interessierende techno-logische Umfeld definiert oder alternativ werden die interessierenden Wettbewerbsun-ternehmen bestimmt. (2) Danach werden die  Patente und ggf. die  Gebrauchsmuster im interessierenden Technologiefeld oder die der ausgewählten Wettbewerbsunternehmen in  Patentdatenbanken recherchiert und selektiert (zweite Stufe). (3) Die dritte Stufe besteht in der Grobbewertung der selektierten Patentschriften. Hier sind nur die Schriften von Interesse, die eine herausragende  Er-findung beinhalten. (4) Die vierte Stufe stellt das Formulieren und Herausarbeiten der technischen und physikalischen  Wider-sprüche aus den in den ausgewählten  Pa-tenten niedergeschriebenen  Erfindungen eines  Unternehmens und der der Wettbe-werbsunternehmen dar, und es erfolgt die Identifizierung der angewandten  Erfin-dungsverfahren. (5) In der fünften und letzten Stufe werden die Präsentation der Ergebnisse und die Erstellung der Problemlösungsprofile der interessierenden  Unternehmen durch-geführt. IV. Zwecke: Die TRIZ-basierte Wettbewer-beranalyse ist ein neues Instrument für das  Technologiemanagement. Auf der Grund-lage von  Patentanalysen, gefolgt von der Identifikation angewendeter  Erfindungs-verfahren, gibt sie tiefe Einblicke in die technologische Problemlösungskompetenz eines  Unternehmens und seiner Wettbe-werber. Literatur: Altschuller, G. S.: Erfinden: Wege zur Lösung technischer Probleme, 2. Auflage, Cottbus 1998; Barske, H.: Auswertung der Patentliteratur – Ein Instrument strategischer Unternehmensführung, in: Barske, H.: Innova-tionsvorsprung – Strategische Erneuerung – Produktinnovation – Patentwesen, Düsseldorf 2001; Cohausz, H. B.: Patente und Muster – Patente, Gebrauchsmuster, Geschmacksmus-ter, 2. aktualisierte Auflage, München 1993; Möhrle, M. G. / Pannenbäcker, T.: Erfinden per Methodik: Ein neuer Weg zur Stärkung der Innovationsfähigkeit, in: technologie & management 45, 3 (1996), S.112-118; Möhrle, M. G.: TRIZ-based Competitor Analysis, in: Khalil, T. / Lefebvre, L. (Hrsg.): The key to prosperity in the 3 rd millennium, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Ma-nagement of Technology, Miami, Florida, USA, 21. bis 25. Februar 2000, Coral Gables / Florida, IAMOT 2000 – CD-ROM."
... Beyond such basic techniques, software can also generate a rich idea environment. Mostly, existing software aimed to facilitate the production process of creative ideas rather than their implementation or evaluation (Mueller 2005). Some of them generate ideas, without major user input (e.g., Creative Whack Pack™, Idea-Fisher™, Brainstormer©, CreatorStudio™, Idea Generator Plus©). ...
Article
Full-text available
The focus of this paper is on two levels of creativity. The first level is that inherent to natural language; the second is organizational creativity. The purpose of the content analysis software we are developing (Evoq©) is to highlight the natural creativity of language in use (first level of creativity). By focusing on the links (associations and disjunctions) between terms in discourses, Evoq© uses “plurivocity” of contextual meaning as a source of creativity (first level). This cannot be done by classical language analysis methods that center on linear causality. The software is, therefore, an interesting tool for researchers who conduct organizational analysis. It enables them to enhance the second level of creativity—organizational creativity—thanks to the concepts and visualization offered by the tool. As illustrated by two empirical examples, Evoq© enables the researcher or consultant who focuses on discourses in one or many organizations to detect the terms of references and presuppositions in speech, the semantic universe in which speakers are embedded. And this is the first step in a process of creativity in organizations. By highlighting assumptions, contradictions, or paradoxes in organizations, it is then feasible to create alternatives in these settings.
... The basic constituents of TRIZ are the contradictions, 40 inventive principles, matrix, and laws of evolution, substance-field analysis modeling, ideal final result, substance field resources, scientific effects and ARIZ (the Russian acronym for 'inventive problem solving algorithm'). TRIZ is a scientific principle for solving problems and achieving technical innovations, but recent studies have shown that TRIZ principles can also be applied to product innovation and management [19][20][21][22][23][24]. ...
Article
TRIZ was developed in the former Soviet Union by G. Altshuller. TRIZ is a powerful and well used tool for generating new ideas for solving technical problems in quality improvement (QI). This study attempts to modify the TRIZ methodology and extend it to a broader application, namely resolving problems concerning the management of quality im- provement. This study comprises three stages: 1. investigating and analyzing the requirements of QI; 2. using TRIZ tools to analyze and resolve QI problems; 3. building an action plan for achieving resolution.
... Our case study indicates the practical benefits of this instrument, showing that a company can use it for analysing competitors and technology regions. The presented instrument proves that TRIZ does not only cover technical aspects but can also be used as a powerful tool in strategic technology management (see also Mueller 2005). Further research should be concentrated both on the improvement of the process of inventive principle identification and on the analysis of the impact that the results of the analysis may have for strategic decisions. ...
Article
In patents a great number of technical inventions are documented. Aided by the theory of inventive problem solving, such inventions can be analysed in a specific manner, which gives insight into inventors' thoughts. In particular, so-called inventive principles facilitate an investigation of thinking. To-date, there are 40 acknowledged inventive principles. In a case study, the field of solar cell modules was selected for an analysis. This paper will present: i) methodical aspects of the study; ii) results concerning the similarities and differences in thinking of Japanese and European engineers, measured by means of the types and frequency of inventive principles they used. A portfolio will show three different clusters. The presented method offers extensive knowledge analysis and also creation opportunities opens up also a strong link to strategic technology management, e.g., illustrating similar and different competencies of institutions in an early merger or acquisition phase.
... From these principles, designers can select the most appropriate one(s) to generate solution ideas for solving the problem in the last step. While initially developed for designing physical products, recently there also have been some adaption and applications of TRIZ for service innovations and solving management issues (El-Haik and Roy 2005;Mueller 2005;Mendikoa et al. 2008). This innovative design process can be applied to describe the service innovation logic for the development of Ductair's servitization solutions. ...
Chapter
By its very nature, servitization is an innovative process that mixes service content in a system to complement the functions and add value to a product (Lee and Abuali in Int J Adv Manuf Technol 52: 161–1173, 2011). For the customer, servitization introduces extra features to make a seemingly commoditized product differentiated from those of competitors, giving them a sense of getting something more.
... TRIZ proporciona un conjunto de heurísticas para superar contradicciones mediante el aprovechamiento de los recursos disponibles clasificándolas en cinco categorías: tiempo, espacio, energía, información y materiales; algunos autores han propuesto otras clasificaciones de recursos más estructurados como en Becattini [12] [13]. Para la generación de soluciones TRIZ posee distintas herramientas cuando éste es descrito en forma de contradicciones [11]. ...
Article
Con el objetivo de apoyar el proceso de toma de decisiones basado en contradicciones, se presenta una integración entre OTSM-TRIZ, que es la reciente evolución de TRIZ y el Análisis de Proceso Jerárquico. Por una parte, OTSM-TRIZ ayuda a generar un análisis completo de la situación bajo problema, simultáneamente, se identifican problemas y soluciones parciales para acometer el problema en estudio.
... TRIZ contains a set of tools for product design innovation, which include evolution prediction, inventive principles, separation principles, contradiction matrix, substance-field analysis (SFA) and 76 inventive standards (El-Haik and Roy, 2005). In recent years, there also have been some attempts to employ TRIZ for innovations in service design, PSS development, and even solving management issues (see El-Haik and Roy, 2005;Moehrle, 2005;Mueller, 2005;Mendikoa et al., 2008). For PSS innovations, the use of TRIZ in extant research can be categorised into two main types: 1) using the contradiction matrix in PSS design based on the original inventive principles (e.g., Kim and Yoon, 2012;Akay et al., 2008), and 2) transforming the inventive principles to suit PSS development and applying them directly for concept innovation (e.g., Li, 2008;Gazem and Rahman, 2014). ...
... TRIZ contains a set of tools for product design innovation, which include evolution prediction, inventive principles, separation principles, contradiction matrix, substance-field analysis (SFA) and 76 inventive standards (El-Haik and Roy, 2005). In recent years, there also have been some attempts to employ TRIZ for innovations in service design, PSS development, and even solving management issues (see El-Haik and Roy, 2005;Moehrle, 2005;Mueller, 2005;Mendikoa et al., 2008). For PSS innovations, the use of TRIZ in extant research can be categorised into two main types: 1) using the contradiction matrix in PSS design based on the original inventive principles (e.g., Kim and Yoon, 2012;Akay et al., 2008), and 2) transforming the inventive principles to suit PSS development and applying them directly for concept innovation (e.g., Li, 2008;Gazem and Rahman, 2014). ...
Article
This paper proposes an integrated method for innovative product-service system (PSS) design based on the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) methodology. Extant TRIZ-based approaches for PSS innovation are largely based on a single mode of solution development. They are limited to deal with only technical-contradiction problems either through direct use of the adapted inventive principles or by applying the contradiction matrix to solve conflicts with some simplified rules. By integrating multiple TRIZ tools, the proposed new method is capable of providing three different search routes and their combinations for generating innovative product-service solution concepts. In comparison with other similar TRIZ-based approaches, this method is more flexible and effective in solving problems of different natures, i.e., technical contradictions, physical contradictions, and non-contradictions, as well as their mixes. A real-life case study on a datacentre PSS design is presented at the end of this paper to...
... Alexandr Gasanov gives a classification of resources and suggests an algorithm for revealing resources [6]. Sandra Mueller surveys different approaches for classifying resources both inside the field of TRIZ and in strategic management [7]. All the approaches she surveyed are used for revealing the maximum number of resources to subsequently solve a problem, either technical or in management. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Resource Analysis is a well-known TRIZ tool that was originally developed as a part of the Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving (ARIZ). It is widely used as an independent TRIZ tool or in combination with some other tools (e.g., Function Analysis, Function-Oriented Search, etc.) for problem identification and idea generation. Nowadays, many publications are available concerning resources in TRIZ. However, most of these publications describe how to reveal and classify resources, but not how to select the most suitable ones. Generally speaking, everything around us can be used as a resource for problem solving, but is there a way to select the “right” resources? What approach should we use to avoid having to test each resource one-by-one? In this paper, we have tried to develop an approach for choosing the necessary resources directly. We propose applying the Advanced Function Approach (AFA) to develop search patterns for identifying and modifying available resources. Another aspect of the current research is the modification and utilization of different types of voidness, which is a freely available resource. Keywords: Resources, Advanced Function Approach, Voidness.
... The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) is based on the idea that there is a set of universal principles behind all inventions, and that these principles can be identified and codified to make the inventive process more predictable as shown in [27], [34][35][36][37][38][39]. Cascini and Rissone [40] presented a research in which the use of the ...
... The theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) is based on the idea that there is a set of universal principles behind all inventions and that these principles can be identified and codified to make the inventive process more predictable as shown in [26], [33][34][35][36][37][38]. Cascini and Rissone [39] presented a research in which the use of the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) is proposed to approach the redesign of structural parts from metals to polymers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Innovative products are almost a necessity nowadays; however, educational institutions do not have reliable data about which methods should be instructed, nor how. For this reason, the objective of this research is to quantify the relevance of the selected design method when generating concepts in the early stages of design. To compare the performance of structured and intuitive methods to generate ideas, a two-stage experiment was applied in two contexts in which were evaluated novelty, variety, quality and quantity. First, participants were asked to solve a problem using a recently taught method. The aim was to obtain insights about the influence of each method. Second, all participants were asked to solve a new problem after being taught four chosen methods, the goal being to obtain insights about the team’s circumstances. In general, the best results were obtained with structured methods, which simultaneously were also the least preferred by students, probably due to the ease of implementation associated with the alternative type of methods; namely, intuitive. Additionally, the study investigated other significant effects, such as the length of time of the experiments and the timing of each stage, as well as the effects of the particular context in which the experiment occurred. Considering the two types of methods, for example, an organization focused on structured methods could benefit from using those methods periodically, increasing its “tool dexterity” ability, while an organization focused on intuitive methods could emphasize the background of the users, namely the “user capacities”. Since those trends—and others—were similar for both problems in both contexts, it is natural to ask which changes could modify these tendencies. Changing the problem’s complexity and reaching to a more diverse universe of participants could be a good step towards having more confidence in the deduction of general design principles to generate ideas for solving real world challenges.
... Currently, there is no standard resource classification method. Sandra Mueller (Müller, 2005) did research on the resource classification method. The following list resource classification methods by various researchers with different perspectives. ...
Article
The concept of resources in TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) is to make the most use of existing resources to solve problems with zero or minimum cost. Even though resources are one of the most powerful concepts in the TRIZ tools, there have been few systematic methods to identify resources for problem solving. This research established a systematic process to analyze harmful resources and identify opportunities for converting the harmful resources to useful applications or using the useful part of the harmful resource while avoiding or being insensitive to its harmful aspects. The systematic process integrates inverse function oriented search, function attribute analysis, and effect/resource data base to identify and utilize the otherwise harmful resources. The contributions of this research include: 1) Establishing a systematic process to identify, analyze and use harmful resources converting the harmful situations into useful situations in new application scenarios. 2) Establishing a set of systematic process and structured forms with examples and usage instructions to facilitate practical applications of the tools.
Article
Full-text available
Der ständige Druck, neue und erfolgreiche Produkte sowie Dienstleistungen zu entwickeln, lässt bei vielen Unternehmen den Wunsch nach einem zuverlässigen Instrument zur Generierung innovativer Ideen aufkommen. Eine Methode, die genau dieses zu leisten verspricht, ist TRIZ. In diesem Beitrag wird die Methode TRIZ anhand von zwei Beispielen aus dem Bereich physischer Produkte vorgestellt, um anschließend ihre Eignung für die Generierung neuer Dienstleistungsideen zu untersuchen.
Preprint
Full-text available
This research work has designed and developed a methodological proposal which aims to organize/systematize a logical sequence of analysis allowing to eliminate, or otherwise diminish the deviations in the activities, which imply a high risk in the results of the activities program to be executed. Among the macro activity "Assets Management", this methodological proposal integrates itself with the basic processes of planning, programming, monitoring and control, and evaluation throughout the definition of prescriptive and systematic stages utilizing the proposed concepts of SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die) and TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving). This proposal is presented through 7 core stages. Gathering information about the specific situation (1), Creation of working groups (2). Base line establishment (3). Definition of internal and external tasks (4). Transform internal into external activities (5). Improvement opportunities (6). Measurements and evaluation of results (7). In addition, a practical application for the mining industry is developed, activity which allowed to validate and considerably improve the methodological proposal mentioned.
Chapter
The most prominent tool for analyzing the competitive advantage of organizations or larger ecosystems is the Porter’s diamond. This paper investigates a systematic way to build up the Porter’s diamond model, including the relationships between the building blocks—which was not yet treated in the current published papers. The framework is based on SWOT analysis, as well as on relationship and correlation matrices to show the connections between Porter’s diamond blocks. With the methodology proposed in this paper new dimensions of the diamond are explicitly revealed. This creates a new space to identify conflicts and quantify critical issues within the strategy. TRIZ tackles the conflicts revealed by the links in the diamond and proposes generic directions to operationalize the strategy. The major finding of this research is that without a structured depiction and deployment of each diamond’s block with the other blocks, many areas that require innovations and innovative projects can be easily omitted, making the strategy weaker. Findings in the paper are sustained by qualitative conclusions extracted from methodology application on an IT economic cluster. Results show that the proposed methodology brings advantages in defining a comprehensive analysis of the competitive environment, as well as in linking analysis with innovation. With the methodology proposed in this paper, information from the Porter’s diamond can be used in a more effective way for building up a strategy for economic competitiveness.
Article
This paper considers the development of a TRIZ Technical System ontology with the aim of facilitating the indexing of knowledge contained within available resources in a way that will make it accessible and useful to a user undertaking a design engineering task. The function of the developed ontology is evaluated using a case study, in which a patent is classified using the defined scheme. The quantitative nature of the classification structure developed to support this procedure offers a mechanism that may be further developed and integrated into research aiming to support the computerisation of the knowledge elicitation and representation process. The ontology developed to enable the classification methodology will support the integration of design by analogy procedures and enable effective information retrieval via the TRIZ based approach.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the paper an operative algorithm is described that guides decision makers in selecting the best supply chain integration strategy to follow when problems occur. The aim of the algorithm, inspired by the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, and specifically by the body of knowledge of its recent evolution (OTSM-TRIZ) is to address managerial problems following a structured reasoning approach: a five steps procedure has been formulated to systematically structure the problem context, generate solutions and assess the potential effects of each solution. A case study has been developed, to test the algorithm effectiveness and usability, in collaboration with the Chilean company ARAUCO S.A., one of the major forestry companies in the world. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm to support decision makers in correctly implementing the identified problem solutions within the company development process and organizational structure. 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of 2 nd International Conference on Leadership, Technology and Innovation Management (ICLTIM-2012)
Data
Full-text available
An ideal system should have all advantages and no harms. If the resources consumed are expensive than the output produced then the invented system becomes ridiculous. The objective should be to use least amount of resources, cheapest resources, easily available resources and resources available within the system. Every system intends to achieve a main useful function. The use of resources should target to improve its main useful function. If certain parts of a system or certain resources lead to unwanted functions or harmful effects then that part of the system needs to be modified and those resources need to be substituted. Some revolutionary systems can utilize unwanted functions and harmful effects to produce useful functions.
Article
An ideal system should have all advantages and no harms. If the resources consumed are expensive than the output produced then the invented system becomes ridiculous. The objective should be to use least amount of resources, cheapest resources, easily available resources and resources available within the system. Every system intends to achieve a main useful function. The use of resources should target to improve its main useful function. If certain parts of a system or certain resources lead to unwanted functions or harmful effects then that part of the system needs to be modified and those resources need to be substituted. Some revolutionary systems can utilize unwanted functions and harmful effects to produce useful functions.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nowadays, engineering tools such as Six Sigma, Brainstorming, Pareto Analysis, Morphological Analysis and Synectics are used to follow up changes, to anticipate possible innovations and to design and produce innovative products in a short time. The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), that is one of the engineering tools, is a systematic idea generation technique developed by Genrich Altshuller by categorizing 40 000 innovative patents. TRIZ aims to find creative ideas and to obtain more ideal systems by helping to break the psychological inertia that prevents problem solving. TRIZ incorporates many tools such as 40 Inventive Principles, 39x39 Contradiction Matrix, Functional Analysis and Ideality to solve numerous problems quickly and predict technology trends. In this study, an engineering problem that occurs in a surface coating process has been solved by using Root Conflict Analysis (RCA+), which helps to manage the contradictions and the relationships between these contradictions, and Functional Analysis, which provides the modeling of the functions between the objects in the system.
Article
Full-text available
Strategy has been defined as “the match an ovganization makes between its internal resources and skills … and the opportunities and risks created by its external environment.” 1 During the 1980s, the principal developments in strategy analysis focussed upon the link between strategy and the external environment. Prominent examples of this focus are Michael Porter's analysis of industry structure and competitive positioning and the empirical studies undertaken by the PIMS project. 2 By contrast, the link between strategy and the firm's resources and skills has suffered comparative neglect. Most research into the strategic implications of the firm's internal environment has been concerned with issues of strategy implementation and analysis of the organizational processes through which strategies emerge. 3
Article
Full-text available
Constructs an analytical framework for a resource-based approach to strategy formulation. There are five stages in this framework: analyze resources, appraise capabilities, analyze competitive advantage, select strategy, and identify resource gaps. The concepts of this framework are illustrated by reference to existing U.S. firms such as IBM, Xerox, Harley-Davidson, and 3M. This framework uses resources and capabilities as the foundation for a firm's long-term strategy because they provide direction for firm strategy and serve as the primary source of firm profit. Resources are defined as the inputs into the production process and include items of capital equipment and skills of individual employees. Capabilities are defined as the capacity for a team of resources to perform some task or activity. When analyzing the competitive advantage of a firm, durability, transparency, transferability, and replicability are considered important factors. To be successful, firms must develop strategies which utilize their unique characteristics. (SRD)
Article
Full-text available
Suppose a new high growth segment opens up in your industry. Should you enter that segment? lviany other firms are likely to enter as well. Will the returns justify the costs? If too many firms enter, and commit high levels of funding, your return on investment will be mediocre at best. This would be a disappointing experience, but it is one many companies have had in races for market share and technological advantage. Of course, this does not mean that you should not chase such opportunities. If you fail to do so, you might do even worse. It does, however, inrply the following: on an even playing field, against well managed compe titors, you cannot expect superior performance. You need to look for tilted playing fields, areas where you have a competitive advantage. Where do you have an advantage? You have the advantage in markets where your resources are superior to those of the competition. In such a game you can achieve a strong market position at a lower cost than your competitors. The first step is to identify your resources. The second step involves deciding where to compete, Only then do you worry about how to compete. This shifts the focus of strategic analysis from the industry to the company itself Il]. Stratesv formulation consists in the identification, deployment and development of resources. What principles govern this process in well--managed companies? Critical Resources A list of your company's resources u,ould quickly get very long: this plant. that patent, such-and-such a brand name. a good manager here, a good R & D team there. etc. Onlv verv feu'resources are critical in the sense that JJ Il] Stt this argunrcnt lunrs irttcntitln awrr-1, {'11v6l thc industrl'lilcLrs suggcstcd l'rv Prtrtcr. thev can differentiate vou from competition. The rcsource has to be unique. If competitors can buv or develop identical resources. they will do so until the field is overcrowded. But what unique resources can a company own? Not very many, apart from patents, brand namcs. mining rights and pieces of land. But there is hope. You can profit from a resource even if you do not own it! This may happen bv trading rvith ou'ners of a unique resource if these owners have a difficult time switchinq to alternative trading partners. To see how this works, it is helpful to look at an example. Let us sav that one of your managers, Smith, is particularly good. Normally, you have to pay him a salary fully reflecting this, since competitors otherwise will hire him arva,'-. This process could conceivably continue until Smith's salary is commensurate with his skills, leaving no extra profits for the employer [2]. There arc, horuvever, two exceptions to this: Team Effects. Suppose that Smith is good in part because he works well with Jones. Now if these two can agree to market themselves as a package, they may well be able to reahze their joint value. However, if they cannot, vour company can pay them their individual values and reap their (larger) joint value. Specific Assets. Alternatively, it may be the case that Smith is more valuable to you than to other companies. Also in this case you will be able to pay him less than what he delivers.
Article
Full-text available
Dieses Buch bietet eine umfassende und wissenschaftlich fundierte Gesamtschau über alle Belange des strategischen Managements. Das von den Autoren entwickelte Schema des „General Management Navigators“ zieht sich als Orientierungshilfe durch den Text und stellt einen übersichtlichen Bezugsrahmen für das recht weit verzweigte Thema dar. Der universitäre Ursprung ist unverkennbar, was sich in der hohen Komplexität bemerkbar macht. Das Buch ist als Lehrbuch konzipiert und bemüht sich um eine umfassende Tiefe der unterschiedlichen Strukturen und Theorien. Sehr gelungen sind die Grafiken und zahlreichen Fallstudien, Diagramme und Tabellen: So wird der Transfer in die Praxis bedeutend erleichtert. Ebenfalls positiv: Wissenslandkarten helfen, die Struktur des jeweiligen Kapitels schon im Vorfeld zu erkunden und sich leichter zu orientieren.
Book
Jeder Mensch ist ein Erfinder! Der Autor stellt in diesem Buch Entwicklung und Ergebnisse der TRIZ-Methode zur Lösung erfinderischer Aufgaben vor. TRIZ akkumuliert die Erfahrungen bei der Entwicklung vieler tausend Erfindungen aus dem Patentbestand der ganzen Welt. Dem Leser werden in anschaulicher Form die Schlüsselideen, -methoden und -beispiele der TRIZ-Methode vorgestellt. So erhält er die Möglichkeit, sich die Hauptinstrumente der TRIZ selbst anzueignen. Die dritte Auflage wurde durch Industriebeispiele erweitert.
Article
Welche Innovationen sind in zwei, fünf oder auch in zehn Jahren erfolgreich? Das Methodische Erfinden auf Basis der Theorie des erfinderischen Problemlösens (TRIZ) kann Unternehmen auf vielfältige Weise bei Innovationsprozessen unterstützen. Tilo Pannenbäcker präsentiert einen umfassenden Überblick zum Methodischen Erfinden. Er hinterfragt den Bedarf in der Unternehmenspraxis, gibt Anwendungsempfehlungen und zeigt vielfältige Perspektiven auf, wie maßgeschneiderte Konzepte zum Einsatz kommen. In Beispielen und mit der Darstellung von Softwareanwendungen und neuen Betätigungsfeldern wird deutlich, wie TRIZ den Innovationsprozess gestaltet und zu neuartigen Lösungen technischer und technisch-wirtschaftlicher Art kommt. ‚Methodisches Erfinden in Unternehmen' wendet sich an Fach- und Führungskräfte technischer Geschäftsbereiche und Unternehmensberater. Wissenschaftler auf dem Gebiet des Innovations- und Technologiemanagements sowie Dozenten und Studierende der Betriebswirtschaftslehre, des Wirtschaftsingenieurwesens und der Ingenieurwissenschaften erhalten interessante Anregungen. Dr. Tilo Pannenbäcker ist als Project Manager im Bereich Corporate Strategy bei der Infineon Technologies AG in München tätig.
Article
Understanding sources of sustained competitive advantage has become a major area of research in strategic management. Building on the assumptions that strategic resources are heterogeneously distributed across firms and that these differences are stable over time, this article examines the link between firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Four empirical indicators of the potential of firm resources to generate sustained competitive advantage-value, rareness, imitability, and substitutability are discussed. The model is applied by analyzing the potential of several firm resources for generating sustained competitive advantages. The article concludes by examining implications of this firm resource model of sustained competitive advantage for other business disciplines.
Book
Der Resource-based View und der damit eng verbundene Kompetenzansatz gewinnen im Strategischen Management zunehmend an Bedeutung. In der Literatur fehlt jedoch bislang eine grundsätzliche Aufarbeitung der theoretischen Grundlagen des Ansatzes. Entwickelt wird eine Ausgangsbasis für die wissenschaftliche Auseinandersetzung mit dem Ressourcenansatz. Besonderer Wert wird auf die terminologischen Grundlagen,die Standortbestimmung in der ökonomischen Theorie und die zentralen Ursache- und Wirkungszusammenhänge gelegt.
Article
This book discusses the development of a theory on the growth of the firm. It is shown that the resources with which a particular firm is accustomed to working will shape the productive services its management is capable of rendering. The experience of management will affect the productive services that all its other resources are capable of rendering. As management tries to make the best use of the resources available, a ‘dynamic’ interacting process occurs which encourages growth but limits the rate of growth.
Article
The organizational problem firms face is the utilization of knowledge which is not, and cannot be, known by a single agent. Even more importantly, no single agent can fully specify in advance what kind of practical knowledge is going to be relevant, when and where. Firms, therefore, are distributed knowledge systems in a strong sense: they are decentered systems, lacking an overseeing ‘mind’. The knowledge they need to draw upon is inherently indeterminate and continually emerging; it is not self-contained. Individuals' stock of knowledge consists of (a) role-related normative expectations; (b) dispositions, which have been formed in the course of past socializations; and (c) local knowledge of particular circumstances of time and place. A firm has greater-or-lesser control over normative expectations, but very limited control over the other two. At any point in time, a firm's knowledge is the indeterminate outcome of individuals attempting to manage the inevitable tensions between normative expectations, dispositions, and local contexts.
Article
The German philosopher Hegel told us that one can understand oneself better by understanding others. By seeing what one is not, one sees better what one is. In the stream of discussions at the Copenhagen conference, I gained a new perspective on the challenge of blending evolutionary and strategic theories of the firm: the biggest hurdles are not analytical but philosophical. Evolutionary theorists and business strategists have fundamentally different world views. Although our preconference paper (see Chapter 1) duly noted the different legacies of each tradition, we missed the enormity of the ideology, the deep-seated convictions and ways of seeing that underlie the respective streams of work.
Article
Part I: Elements of a Theory of Competence-Based Competition. A systems view of competence-based competition (R. Sanchez, A. Heene). Strategic goals (R. Sanchez, H. Thomas). Industry dynamics in competence-based competition (P. Gorman, H. Thomas, R. Sanchez). Part II: The Market Test for Competence . From skills to competences: the play-out of resource bundles across firms (W. Bogner, H. Thomas). Competitive-analysis and competence-based strategies in the hotel industry (M. Rispoli). Part III: Identifying and Building Competences. Developing and applying a process approach to competence analysis (M.A. Lewis, M.J. Gregory). Competence development by small firms in a vertically-constrained industry structure (O. Jensen). Characterizing organizational competences: an industrial networks approaches (G. Easton, L. Araujo). Spinning-off capabilities: competence development in knowledge-intensive services (T. Elfring, G. Baven). Part IV: Leveraging Existing Competences. Flexible configuration strategies within Philips semiconductors: a strategic process of entrepreneurial revitalization (H.W. Volberda). From national to global product development competence in the telecommunications industry: structure and process in leveraging core capabilities (B.C. Winterscheid, S. McNabb). "Quick-Connect" technologies for product creation: implications for competence-based competition (R. Sanchez). Part V: Competence-Building as the Driver of Industry Dynamics. The role of imitable vs. inimitable competences in the evolution of the semiconductor industry (R.W. Wright). Competence-based competition and the evolution of strategic configurations (S. Tallman, D.L. Atchison). The role of international R&D in the competence-building strategies of Japanese pharmaceutical firms (T. Roehl).
Book
http://store.systematic-innovation.com/hands-on-systematic-innovation-technical/
Article
The paper explores the usefulness of analysing firms from the resource side rather than from the product side. In analogy to entry barriers and growth-share matrices, the concepts of resource position barrier and resource-product matrices are suggested. These tools are then used to highlight the new strategic options which naturally emerge from the resource perspective.
Article
Sustainable competitive advantage results from the possession of relevant capability differentials. The feedstock of these capability differentials is intangible resources which range from patents and licenses, to reputation and know-how. A framework of intangible resources has been produced which formed the basis for a national survey of chief executives in the U.K. Some of the more significant findings of the survey were that: employee know-how and reputation are perceived as the resources which make the most important contribution to business success; and that for most companies operations is the most important area of employee know how. This article argues, by means of both theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence, that the analysis of intangible resources should play a major role in the strategic management process.
Article
The article reflects on the diffusion of the ‘resource-based view of the firm’ into academic and practitioner thought. The contributions of many people are noted. In closing, I offer some speculations about the future use of these ideas.
Chapter
Development of a firm's core competencies is identified as the key for global leadership and competitiveness in the 1990s. NEC, Honda, and Canon are used as exemplars of firms that conceive of themselves in terms of core competencies. Core competencies are the organization's collective learning and ability to coordinate and integrate multiple production skills and technology streams; they are also about the organization of work and delivery of value in services and manufacturing. A firm must conceive of itself as a portfolios of competencies, instead of a portfolio of strategic business units (SBUs). The latter limit the ability of firms to exploit their technological capabilities; they are often dependent on external resources. The real source of advantage lies in management's ability to consolidate corporate-wide technologies and production skills into competencies, which will allow individual businesses to adapt to emerging opportunities. Cultivating core competencies does not mean outspending rivals on RD (2) they significantly contribute to the customer benefits of the end-product; and (3) they should be difficult for competitors to imitate. Cultivating core competencies also means benefiting from alliances and establishing competencies that are evolving in existing businesses. The tangible links between core competencies and end products are core products, which embody one or more core competencies. Companies must maximize their world manufacturing share in core products. Global leadership is won by core competence, core products, and end products; global brands are built by proliferating products out of core competencies. Firms must avoid the tyranny of the SBU, the costs of which are (1) under investment in developing core competencies and core products, (2) imprisoned resources, and (3) bounded innovation. Top management must add value to a firm by developing strategic architecture, which will avoid fragmenting core competencies, establish objectives for competence building, make resource allocation priorities transparent and consistent, ensure competencies are corporate resources, reward competence carriers (personnel who embody core competencies), and focus strategy at the corporate level. A firm must be conceived of as a hierarchy of core competences, core products, and market-focused business units. Obsession with competence building will mark the global winners of the 1990s. (TNM)
Chapter
Three years ago, I read Michael Polanyi's contribution—as a philosopher—to a symposium entitled Scientific Outlook: Its Sickness and Cure. In a brilliant, penetrating, and delightfully humorous criticism of R. W. Gerard's1 biological contribution, he unerringly diagnosed the sickness of medicine: The fact that a so learned, ingenious and imaginative survey of living beings should deal so perfunctorily with some of the most important questions concerning them shows a fundamental deficiency of human thinking.... If a rat laps up a solution of saccharine, the rational explanation of this lies in the act that the solution tastes sweet and that the rat likes that. The tasting and liking are facts that physics and chemistry as known today cannot explain. Nothing is relevant to biology, even at the lowest level of life, unless it bears on the achievements of living beings... and distinctions unknown to physics and chemistry... The current idea of
Book
Japanese companies have become successful because of their skill and expertise at creating organizational knowledge. Organizational knowledge is not only the creation of new knowledge, but also disseminating it throughout the organization, and embodying it in products, services, and systems. Knowledge is the new competitive resource, and its creation and utilization is a dynamic, interactive process. Knowledge is used as the basic unit of analysis to explain firm behavior; a business creates and processes knowledge. Knowledge may be explicit or tacit; this study treats them as complements that form a dynamic relationship. The individual interacts with the organization through knowledge; knowledge creation occurs at the individual, group, and organizational levels. The forms of knowledge interaction (between tacit and explicit, and between individual and firm) produce four major processes of knowledge conversion: from tacit to explicit, explicit to explicit, explicit to tacit, and tacit to tacit. Japanese companies create new knowledge by converting tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. The book has three goals: to formalize a generic model of organizational knowledge creation, explain why certain Japanese companies have been continuously successful in innovation, and develop a universal model of company management based on convergence of knowledge practices in Japan and the world. First presents a philosophical exposition of knowledge and its application to managemen, then the core concepts of knowledge creation, with four modes of knowledge conversion. The Matsushita company is used to illustrate the process model of organization knowledge creation. The two traditional styles of management (top-down and bottom-up) are shown not to be effective in fostering the dynamic necessary to create organizational knowledge, and a new organization structure considered most conducive to knowledge creation is proposed. (TNM)
Article
Understanding sources of sustained competitive advantage has become a major area of research in strategic management. Building on the assumptions that strategic resources are heterogeneously distributed across firms and that these differences are stable overtime this article examines the link between firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Four empirical indicators of the potential of firm resources to generate sustained competitive advantage—value, rareness, imitability, and substitutability—are discussed. The model is applied by analyzing the potential of several firm resources for generating sustained competitive advantages. The article concludes by examining implications of this firm resource model of sustained competitive advantage for other business disciplines.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
Article
Sumario: Fundamentals of strategic management -- The analysis of industry and competition -- The analysis of competitive advantage -- Corporate strategy
Article
"Denke als Handelnder, Handle als Denkender." (H. Bergson) - das zweibändige Buch will einen Beitrag zur Überbrückung der Spaltung zwischen der verhaltenswissenschaftlichen Organisationsforschung und der betriebswirtschaftlichen Organisationslehre leisten. Dazu gehören eine verhaltenswissenschaftliche Fundierung (Annahmen über menschliches Verhalten in sozialen Systemen mit ausreichender empirischer Stützung), eine Gestaltungsorientierung (statt deskriptiver Aufzählung konkretisierbare Methodik des Organisierens) und eine situative Relativierung (Bereitstellung alternativer Organisationsmöglichkeiten). Der Klassiker unter den verhaltenswissenschaftlich fundierten Organisationslehrbüchern im deutschsprachigen Raum.
Grundlagen der klassischen TRIZ: Ein praktisches Lehrbuch des erfinderischen Denkens für Ingenieure Methodisches Erfinden in Unternehmen: Bedarf, Konzept, Perspektiven für TRIZ-basierte Erfolge The Theory of the Growth of the Firm
  • M A Orloff
  • Springer
  • Berlin
  • T Pannenbaecker
Orloff, M.A. (2002) Grundlagen der klassischen TRIZ: Ein praktisches Lehrbuch des erfinderischen Denkens für Ingenieure. Springer, Berlin. Pannenbaecker, T. (2001) Methodisches Erfinden in Unternehmen: Bedarf, Konzept, Perspektiven für TRIZ-basierte Erfolge. Gabler, Wiesbaden. Penrose, E.T. (1959) The Theory of the Growth of the Firm. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.
Implizites Wissen. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt-am-Main
  • M Polanyi
Polanyi, M. (1985) Implizites Wissen. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt-am-Main.
Strate-gisches Management: Wie Strategische Initiativen zum Wandel fuehren. Der St. Galler General Man-agement Navigator. Schaeffer-Poeschel The Knowledge Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create Dynamics of Innovation
  • G Mueller-Stewens
  • C Lechner
Mueller-Stewens, G. and Lechner, C. (2003) Strate-gisches Management: Wie Strategische Initiativen zum Wandel fuehren. Der St. Galler General Man-agement Navigator. Schaeffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart. Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (1995) The Knowledge Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create Dynamics of Innovation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Implementation of TRIZ tools in companies: Results of a cluster analysis Of Diamonds and Rust: A New Look at Resources Resource-based and Evolutionary Theories of the Firm towards a Synthesis
  • M G Moehrle
  • Manchester
  • C A Montgomery
Moehrle, M.G. (2003) Implementation of TRIZ tools in companies: Results of a cluster analysis. The R&D Management Conference, Manchester. Montgomery, C.A. (1995) Of Diamonds and Rust: A New Look at Resources. In Montgomery, C.A. (ed.), Resource-based and Evolutionary Theories of the Firm towards a Synthesis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 251–68.
Organisation: Grundlagen moderner Organisationsberatung mit Fallstudien
  • G Schreyoegg
Schreyoegg, G. (1999) Organisation: Grundlagen moderner Organisationsberatung mit Fallstudien.
Competing on Resources Strategy in the 1990s: How do you create and sustain a profitable strategy
  • D J Collis
  • C A Montgomery
Collis, D.J. and Montgomery, C.A. (1995) Competing on Resources Strategy in the 1990s: How do you create and sustain a profitable strategy? Harvard Business Review, 73(4), 118–28.
Implementation of TRIZ tools in companies: Results of a cluster analysis. The R&D Management Conference
  • M G Moehrle
Moehrle, M.G. (2003) Implementation of TRIZ tools in companies: Results of a cluster analysis. The R&D Management Conference, Manchester.
Methodisches Erfinden in Unternehmen: Bedarf, Konzept, Perspektiven für TRIZ-basierte Erfolge
  • T Pannenbaecker
Pannenbaecker, T. (2001) Methodisches Erfinden in Unternehmen: Bedarf, Konzept, Perspektiven für TRIZ-basierte Erfolge. Gabler, Wiesbaden.
Was erklaert die Resource-based view of the Firm? Anforderungen an einen ressourcentheoretischen Ansatz aus Sicht des Strategischen Managements
  • A Fried
Fried, A. (2003) Was erklaert die Resource-based view of the Firm? Anforderungen an einen ressourcentheoretischen Ansatz aus Sicht des Strategischen Managements. Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, 1–38.
Der Ressourcenansatz im Rahmen des Strategischen Managements
  • I Bamberger
  • T Wrona
Bamberger, I. and Wrona, T. (1996b) Der Ressourcenansatz im Rahmen des Strategischen Managements. Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Studium (WiSt), 25(8), 386–91.
Strategisches Management: Wie Strategische Initiativen zum Wandel fuehren. Der St. Galler General Management Navigator The Knowledge Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create Dynamics of Innovation
  • G Mueller-Stewens
  • C Lechner
  • H Takeuchi
Mueller-Stewens, G. and Lechner, C. (2003) Strategisches Management: Wie Strategische Initiativen zum Wandel fuehren. Der St. Galler General Management Navigator. Schaeffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart. Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (1995) The Knowledge Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create Dynamics of Innovation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Steinmann H.
  • Altshuller G.S.