Article

Political Contacts: Analyzing the Role of Similarity in Theories of Prejudice

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Over the last 50 years, many theories of prejudice reduction in social psychology have embraced the premise that intergroup contact allows people to recognize similarities between themselves, and that this perceived similarity overwhelms the social distance associated with intergroup antipathy. Given the mixed empirical evidence, however, we suggest that the positive effects of perceived similarity have been overemphasized. Although similarity may be sufficient for improved intergroup relations, the relationship between similarity and intergroup relations is far more complex than the literature usually suggests. Moreover, studying difference in intergroup contexts may yield new ways to resolve intergroup conflict and address group inequalities.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The 1940's and 1950's witnessed social challenges to the prevalence of a Jim Crow racially segregated America. For instance, acts such as military reform advocating racial integration in the U.S. Armed Forces following World War II, the migration of many southern African Americans to northern cities in search of economic mobility, and the 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education case were a few of many social events which fueled ethnic composition shifts in American social structures and increased the likeliness' for cross-racial contact (Brown & Lopez, 2001). According to Key's (1949) "Black Belt hypothesis", as a result of integration White Americans who resided in close proximity to African Americans would be prone to have a more negative disposition towards them. ...
... Gordon Allport 's (1954) publication titled, "The Nature of Prejudice" was instrumental in the development of intergroup contact theory or also known as the contact hypothesis, which proposes intergroup contact as an effective method for improving interethnic relations by decreasing the prevalence of prejudice and stereotyping between ethnic groups (Dixon, 2006;Pettigrew, 1998;Troop & Bianchi, 2006). The initial belief adopted by most social scientists was that increasing cross-racial contact between groups would serve as an appropriate method for facilitating improvements in cross-racial relations through providing those groups assimilated experiences and interactions, which would disconfirm previously held prejudicial biases and stereotypes about each other (Allport, 1954;Brown & Lopez, 2001;Pettigrew & Troop, 2000). In fact, Brown & Lopez (2001) interpersonal closeness between European Americans and people of color often was minimal, given legal segregation and other formal and informal institutional structures. ...
... The initial belief adopted by most social scientists was that increasing cross-racial contact between groups would serve as an appropriate method for facilitating improvements in cross-racial relations through providing those groups assimilated experiences and interactions, which would disconfirm previously held prejudicial biases and stereotypes about each other (Allport, 1954;Brown & Lopez, 2001;Pettigrew & Troop, 2000). In fact, Brown & Lopez (2001) interpersonal closeness between European Americans and people of color often was minimal, given legal segregation and other formal and informal institutional structures. However, many social scientists believed that intergroup contact was a means of improving intergroup relations because it would either reveal interpersonal similarities or create them through the process of assimilation (p. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined differences in color-blind racial attitudes based on reported levels of cross-racial contact in a sample (n=239) of physical education teacher education (PETE) pre-service teachers. test analysis were utilized to assess differences between pre-service teachers whom reported either frequent cross-racial contact or non-frequent cross-racial contact in various settings (previous k-12 schooling, college courses, and home community) during their life experiences. Participants responded to the Color-blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS), and a demographic survey which collected self-reported level of cross-racial contact. T-test results indicated a significant effect across each of the three settings, as collectively pre-service teachers perceiving to have had frequent cross-racial contact in academic and community settings revealed significantly lower color-blind racial attitudes than their counterparts whom collectively perceived non-frequent cross-racial contact across these settings. Overall, the findings in this study appear to support the theoretical utility of contact hypothesis as a method for reducing racial prejudice and biased attitudes.
... However, in contrast to these theories that stress the perception of similarity as the mechanism of prejudice reduction, we believe that flexibility in intergroup thinking is more crucial for improving intergroup relations. For example, intergroup similarity may at times actually exacerbate intergroup tensions when positive distinctiveness is threatened (for a review see Brown & Lopez, 2001). We believe that our perspective emphasizes an ebb and flow between emphasizing similarities and differences, and thus shares some of the themes of work in social psychology reviewing the role of similarity in prejudice reduction (Brown & Lopez, 2001), work emphasizing the role of both the multicultural perspective and the colorblind perspective in intergroup relations (Wolsko, Park, Judd, & Wittenbrink, 2000), work on the mutual intergroup differentiation model of prejudice reduction (Hornsey & Hogg, 2000), and work on the optimal distinctiveness theory (Brewer, 1991). ...
... For example, intergroup similarity may at times actually exacerbate intergroup tensions when positive distinctiveness is threatened (for a review see Brown & Lopez, 2001). We believe that our perspective emphasizes an ebb and flow between emphasizing similarities and differences, and thus shares some of the themes of work in social psychology reviewing the role of similarity in prejudice reduction (Brown & Lopez, 2001), work emphasizing the role of both the multicultural perspective and the colorblind perspective in intergroup relations (Wolsko, Park, Judd, & Wittenbrink, 2000), work on the mutual intergroup differentiation model of prejudice reduction (Hornsey & Hogg, 2000), and work on the optimal distinctiveness theory (Brewer, 1991). It may also remind the reader of social identity complexity (Roccas & Brewer, 2002) ''that refers to the nature of the subjective representation of multiple ingroup identities' ' (pp. ...
... Secondly, the relationship between similarity and positive intergroup relations is complex. While interpersonal similarity often leads to liking, intergroup similarity often threatens positive distinctiveness and fosters intergroup antipathy (for a review see Brown & Lopez, 2001). All similarities are not similar in their ability to improve intergroup relations. ...
Article
We propose that individual differences in intergroup flexibility are associated with differences in the stereotypicality of views of certain groups. Intergroup flexibility refers to the tendency to recognize and respond to concurrent similarities and differences among diverse groups including one's own. Study 1 found significantly more of the characteristics listed about African Americans overlapped with the cultural stereotype for intergroup inflexible participants than for intergroup flexible participants. Study 2 revealed priming of category labels led inflexible participants to rate a target more stereotypically than flexible participants. Study 3 demonstrated that flexible people relative to inflexible people are not ignorant of the stereotype of African Americans.
... " In The Nature of Prejudice (1954), Allport outlines his theory that interaction among disparate groups in the pursuit of common goals " undermines mutual stereotypes " and thereby fosters understanding, integration, and peaceable relations (Byman 1998-1999, 720). According to the theory, interaction reveals inter-group similarities and forges new ones, overcoming the differences and skepticism that engender conflict and violence (Brown and Lopez 2001, 281). ...
... Subsequent development of the contact hypothesis focuses less on Allport's emphasis of groups' " common humanity " and more on their relative status, authority, and goals (Brown and Lopez 2001, 282). According to the most common variants of the contact hypothesis, convergence among group status and objectives reduces conflict and promotes intergroup cooperation. ...
... Throughout the contact theory literature debate continues as to whether the supposed pacifying effect of recognized similarities operates solely at the individual level. According to this more skeptical account, rather than attenuating conflict, contact at the group level actually increases tension (Forbes 1997; Brown and Lopez 2001, 284). For H.D. Forbes, Allport and his followers' optimistic conclusion overlooks the countervailing effects that cultural interaction might precipitate (Forbes 1997, 146). ...
Article
How does the presence of immigrants or minorities in a local community affect racial and xenophobic attitudes? Synthesizing public opinion, economic, and demographic data from the United Kingdom, we explore this question. By taking advantage of cross-sectional variation in minority populations, we develop and test hypotheses concerning the causal relationships among the presence of immigrant populations and xenophobic sentiments. We find that larger immigrant populations dampen xenophobic attitudes, supportive of the contact theory. In clarifying this relationship, we contribute to ongoing debates over contact theory.
... B. Rokeach, 1960;Byrne, 1971). In der Folge wurden auch die Unterschiede zwischen Gruppen und deren Auswirkungen auf die Intergruppenbeziehungen zum Thema (zusammenfassend u. a. Brown & Lopez, 2001). Das Thema Unterschiedlichkeit rückt heute auch in einem größeren Rahmen in den Blickpunkt des Interesses: Es geht um gesellschaftliche Vielfalt, um Pluralismus auf verschiedensten Ebenen, die ihre Wirkungen entfalten. ...
... Unabhängig vom Anwendungsfeld wird in Überblicksarbeiten immer wieder festgestellt, dass es zu keiner Entscheidung zugunsten der einen oder anderen Vorhersage kommt: Denn tatsächlich sind sowohl die zahlreichen empirischen Befunde aus der Organisationswie auch aus der Intergruppenforschung inkonsistent in Bezug auf die Auswirkungen von subjektiv wahrgenommener wie objektiv definierter Diversity (z. B. van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007;Christian, Porter & Moffitt, 2006;Brown, 1984;Brown & Lopez, 2001). Es ist deshalb plausibel anzunehmen, dass es einen oder mehrere wichtige Moderatoren für den Zusammenhang von (wahrgenommener) Diversität und den abhängigen Variablen wie etwa Intergruppenbeziehungen gibt, die diese Inkonsistenz erklären können ( van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007). ...
... B. Fromkin, 1972;Taylor & Metee, 1971). Die wahrscheinlich größte Herausforderung für die Similiarity Attraction Annahme ist die Perspektive der Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986, siehe zur Zusammenfassung einiger Befunde Brown & Lopez, 2001). Tajfel und seine Kollegen betonen das Bedürfnis von Individuen nach positiver Distinktheit (z. ...
Book
Carina Wolf untersucht in einer Reihe empirischer Studien, welche Faktoren das Zustandekommen von Intergruppenkontakten erleichtern. Die bisherige Kontaktforschung wird damit um die Betrachtung der zeitlich und kausal vor dem eigentlichen Kontakt liegenden Bedingungen ergänzt und erweitert. Es werden – basierend auf mehreren Surveystudien sowie einer experimentellen Studie – psychologische Merkmale, aber auch Bedingungen des Kontextes als Bestimmungsfaktoren identifiziert und geprüft. Zentraler Bestandteil der Arbeit sind Analysen der Rolle wahrgenommener Unterschiede zwischen der eigenen und der fremden Gruppe sowie der Wertschätzung von Diversität für die Bereitschaft, Kontakte einzugehen. Darüber hinaus analysiert Carina Wolf, ob und inwiefern die Gelegenheitsstruktur in der Wohnumgebung mit vermehrten Kontakten einhergeht. Der Inhalt • Wahrgenommene Intergruppenunterschiede • Ausländeranteil • Diversitätsüberzeugungen • Diversity Beliefs • Wertschätzung und Anerkennung von Unterschieden Die Zielgruppen • Dozierende und Studierende der Psychologie, Soziologie und Pädagogik • Praktiker aus diesen Bereichen Die Autorin Carina Wolf ist akademische Mitarbeiterin am Institut für Psychologie der Pädagogischen Hochschule Freiburg.
... Theoretically, "contact alone does not determine intergroup attitudes"; however, its effects are mediated through "the state of the economy or sociotropic concerns" (Jolly & DiGiusto, 2014: 466) as well as interactions among groups. But increased contact and interactions with the out-group immigrants has been assumed to have the effect of undermining xenophobic societal attitudes and public perceptions (Brown & Lopez, 2001;Vincent, 2008;Hopkins, 2010). The argument assumes that in the processes of interactions of the in-group and the out-group who are in pursuit of common goals, the cultural, ethnic and xenophobic stereotypes would be undermined whilst fostering "understanding, integration, and peaceable relations", notwithstanding the disparate nature of such groups (Jolly & DiGiusto, 2014: 465). ...
... The argument assumes that in the processes of interactions of the in-group and the out-group who are in pursuit of common goals, the cultural, ethnic and xenophobic stereotypes would be undermined whilst fostering "understanding, integration, and peaceable relations", notwithstanding the disparate nature of such groups (Jolly & DiGiusto, 2014: 465). Contact theory emphasizes the common humanity and similarities of the in-group and the out-group, rather than disparities as well as "relative status and goals" which drive anxiety, suspicion, skepticism, "distorted images" and "negative stereotypes" that precipitate xenophobic conflict and violence (Brown & Lopez, 2001;Jennings, 2009;Ha, 2010;Hopkins, 2010;Jolly & DiGiusto, 2014). However, self-interest theory relates to individuals' personal socio-economic circumstances, which may be superseded by collective threat perceptions. ...
... There are several important moderating variables that need consideration, including the demographics, especially the size of the out-group, geographic scale, political rhetoric and so on (Golder, 2003;Gabel & Scheve, 2007;Hjerm, 2009;Hopkins, 2011). The effect of contact on societal attitudes and public perceptions as well as racially-/ethnically-motivated tensions is a function of a variety of contextual variables (Brown & Lopez, 2001;Brinegar & Jolly, 2005;Jolly & DeGiusto, 2014). That is, the content and magnitude of the effect of contact with the immigrant out-group on the in-group xenophobic societal attitudes and public perceptions should be examined within the contextual variable of demography, geography, politics, culture and so on. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article argues that xenophobia is not a natural state of being for any society; instead, it is a product of socialisation which becomes excessive with violent abuses of the out- group immigrants where such conduct is institutionalised through state apparatus. In this context, post-apartheid South Africanisms cannot be generalised as intrinsically xenophobic because the dreadful societal attitudes and violent abuses are evidently products of institutionalized governance for socialization of public perceptions of hostilities and animosities through the politics and struggles of politico-socio-economic resources. The coinage and officialdom of rainbowism was admission that construction of a new national identity around culture was a virtual impossibility; and, the result was usurpation of exclusionary citizenship that came to define insiders away from outsiders. This notion of citizenship promised access to state and pubic resources, which did not materialise, leading to frustration against government and targeting of out-group African immigrants. Hence, the apparent “felt” collective threat among in-group communities against out-group immigrants over the untenable alibi of job and women stealing as well as acceptance of below minimum wages are inherently functions of irrational jealousy. This article frames this argument through a rigorous examination of the theorisation of xenophobia as “new racism”, models of governance of xenophobic societal attitudes for public hostilities, animosities and violent abuse. Furthermore, it examines constructions of new South Africanism, African Renaissance, exclusionary citizenship, exceptionalism, differentness and the society’s frustration with politico-socio-economic resources exclusionism amidst constitutional inclusivity, tolerance, cultural pluralism, inviolate human rights and the political elitism’s hyperbolic public stunts of a better life for all.
... B. Rokeach, 1960;Byrne, 1971). In der Folge wurden auch die Unterschiede zwischen Gruppen und deren Auswirkungen auf die Intergruppenbeziehungen zum Thema (zusammenfassend u. a. Brown & Lopez, 2001). Das Thema Unterschiedlichkeit rückt heute auch in einem größeren Rahmen in den Blickpunkt des Interesses: Es geht um gesellschaftliche Vielfalt, um Pluralismus auf verschiedensten Ebenen, die ihre Wirkungen entfalten. ...
... Unabhängig vom Anwendungsfeld wird in Überblicksarbeiten immer wieder festgestellt, dass es zu keiner Entscheidung zugunsten der einen oder anderen Vorhersage kommt: Denn tatsächlich sind sowohl die zahlreichen empirischen Befunde aus der Organisationswie auch aus der Intergruppenforschung inkonsistent in Bezug auf die Auswirkungen von subjektiv wahrgenommener wie objektiv definierter Diversity (z. B. van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007;Christian, Porter & Moffitt, 2006;Brown, 1984;Brown & Lopez, 2001). Es ist deshalb plausibel anzunehmen, dass es einen oder mehrere wichtige Moderatoren für den Zusammenhang von (wahrgenommener) Diversität und den abhängigen Variablen wie etwa Intergruppenbeziehungen gibt, die diese Inkonsistenz erklären können ( van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007). ...
... B. Fromkin, 1972;Taylor & Metee, 1971). Die wahrscheinlich größte Herausforderung für die Similiarity Attraction Annahme ist die Perspektive der Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986, siehe zur Zusammenfassung einiger Befunde Brown & Lopez, 2001). Tajfel und seine Kollegen betonen das Bedürfnis von Individuen nach positiver Distinktheit (z. ...
Chapter
Der vorliegende Beitrag unterscheidet sich von vielen der bisherigen empirischen Untersuchungen im Kontaktbereich, da der Fokus darauf liegt, Determinanten für die Bereitschaft zu Intergruppenkontakt zu finden, anstatt darauf, wie sich Kontakterfahrungen auf Intergruppenbeziehungen auswirken. Damit eröffnet sich neben den drei bisherigen ein weiteres fruchtbares Forschungsfeld: 1) (Wann) wirkt Intergruppenkontakt (Effektgrößen, optimale Bedingungen)? 2) Worauf wirkt Intergruppenkontakt (Reichweite und Generalisierung der Kontakteffekte)? 3) Wie wirkt Intergruppenkontakt (Mediatoren, Prozesse und Mechanismen der Veränderung)? 4) Viertens fügt sich hier nun die Frage ein: Was bestimmt das Zustandekommen von Intergruppenkontakt und die Intention, Intergruppenkontakte einzugehen (Rahmenbedingungen, Gelegenheitsstruktur, individuelle Einstellungen)? Diese Arbeit ist der Versuch, einige Antworten zu geben und Ansatzpunkte in diesem vierten Forschungsbereich aufzuzeigen.
... B. Rokeach, 1960;Byrne, 1971). In der Folge wurden auch die Unterschiede zwischen Gruppen und deren Auswirkungen auf die Intergruppenbeziehungen zum Thema (zusammenfassend u. a. Brown & Lopez, 2001). Das Thema Unterschiedlichkeit rückt heute auch in einem größeren Rahmen in den Blickpunkt des Interesses: Es geht um gesellschaftliche Vielfalt, um Pluralismus auf verschiedensten Ebenen, die ihre Wirkungen entfalten. ...
... Unabhängig vom Anwendungsfeld wird in Überblicksarbeiten immer wieder festgestellt, dass es zu keiner Entscheidung zugunsten der einen oder anderen Vorhersage kommt: Denn tatsächlich sind sowohl die zahlreichen empirischen Befunde aus der Organisationswie auch aus der Intergruppenforschung inkonsistent in Bezug auf die Auswirkungen von subjektiv wahrgenommener wie objektiv definierter Diversity (z. B. van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007;Christian, Porter & Moffitt, 2006;Brown, 1984;Brown & Lopez, 2001). Es ist deshalb plausibel anzunehmen, dass es einen oder mehrere wichtige Moderatoren für den Zusammenhang von (wahrgenommener) Diversität und den abhängigen Variablen wie etwa Intergruppenbeziehungen gibt, die diese Inkonsistenz erklären können ( van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007). ...
... B. Fromkin, 1972;Taylor & Metee, 1971). Die wahrscheinlich größte Herausforderung für die Similiarity Attraction Annahme ist die Perspektive der Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986, siehe zur Zusammenfassung einiger Befunde Brown & Lopez, 2001). Tajfel und seine Kollegen betonen das Bedürfnis von Individuen nach positiver Distinktheit (z. ...
Chapter
In drei empirischen Kapiteln werden verschiedene mögliche Prädiktoren für das Zustandekommen von Intergruppenkontakt abgeleitet und empirisch geprüft. Der erste Beitrag hebt sich von den beiden anderen ab, da er als Prädiktor für das Zustandekommen von Kontakt einen objektiven Indikator des Kontextes heranzieht, den Ausländeranteil in der Gegend der befragten Personen. Die beiden folgenden Empiriekapitel dagegen befassen sich mit der subjektiven Sichtweise von Individuen; in beiden Kapiteln geht es um die Wertschätzung von Unterschieden für das Interesse an Intergruppenkontakt.
... B. Rokeach, 1960;Byrne, 1971). In der Folge wurden auch die Unterschiede zwischen Gruppen und deren Auswirkungen auf die Intergruppenbeziehungen zum Thema (zusammenfassend u. a. Brown & Lopez, 2001). Das Thema Unterschiedlichkeit rückt heute auch in einem größeren Rahmen in den Blickpunkt des Interesses: Es geht um gesellschaftliche Vielfalt, um Pluralismus auf verschiedensten Ebenen, die ihre Wirkungen entfalten. ...
... Unabhängig vom Anwendungsfeld wird in Überblicksarbeiten immer wieder festgestellt, dass es zu keiner Entscheidung zugunsten der einen oder anderen Vorhersage kommt: Denn tatsächlich sind sowohl die zahlreichen empirischen Befunde aus der Organisationswie auch aus der Intergruppenforschung inkonsistent in Bezug auf die Auswirkungen von subjektiv wahrgenommener wie objektiv definierter Diversity (z. B. van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007;Christian, Porter & Moffitt, 2006;Brown, 1984;Brown & Lopez, 2001). Es ist deshalb plausibel anzunehmen, dass es einen oder mehrere wichtige Moderatoren für den Zusammenhang von (wahrgenommener) Diversität und den abhängigen Variablen wie etwa Intergruppenbeziehungen gibt, die diese Inkonsistenz erklären können ( van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007). ...
... B. Fromkin, 1972;Taylor & Metee, 1971). Die wahrscheinlich größte Herausforderung für die Similiarity Attraction Annahme ist die Perspektive der Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986, siehe zur Zusammenfassung einiger Befunde Brown & Lopez, 2001). Tajfel und seine Kollegen betonen das Bedürfnis von Individuen nach positiver Distinktheit (z. ...
Chapter
Im Fokus dieses Beitrags steht die Gelegenheitsstruktur für das Zustandekommen von Kontakten zwischen verschiedenen ethnischen Gruppen. Der Ausländeranteil der Region wird als wesentlicher Kontextindikator für eine solche Gelegenheitsstruktur gesehen. Die Überlegungen dieses Beitrags stützen sich auf die grundsätzlichen Annahmen der Kontakthypothese (Allport, 1954).
... Individuals report greater similarity to their friends and romantic partners (Bonney, 1946;Byrne & Blaylock, 1963;Loomis, 1946;Newcomb, 1956;Precker, 1952;Richardson, 1939Richardson, , 1940Schooley, 1936;Winslow, 1937), and also prefer strangers that share their same attitudes relative to strangers with dissimilar attitudes (Byrne, 1961). However, the possibility that creating a sense of similarity between individuals could help to foster more positive attitudes between members of different groups, including groups in conflict, has received mixed support (for a review see Brown & Lopez, 2001). Indeed, although interpersonal similarity may lead to liking, theorizing from a social identity perspective suggests that intergroup similarity may actually lead to increased antipathy due to a threatened social identity. ...
... Past research using attitudinal-and value-based similarity to promote more positive intergroup relations has reported mixed results (Brown & Lopez, 2001). From a social identity theory perspective, emphasizing such similarities between an individual and members of an outgroup may threaten one's distinct social identity, and subsequently lead to greater intergroup bias in an effort to create positive differentiation between groups. ...
Article
Full-text available
Creating a sense of interpersonal similarity of attitudes and values is associated with increased attraction and liking. Applying these findings in an intergroup setting, though, has yielded mixed support. Theorizing from a social identity perspective suggests that highlighting intergroup similarity may lead to increased antipathy to the extent that it is perceived as a threat to one's unique social identity. To circumvent this process, we examine the influence of emotional similarity, rather than attitudinal or value similarity, with the expectation that the short-term nature of emotions may evoke less threat to one's social identity. Moreover, given the importance of emotions in intergroup humanization processes, we expected that emotional similarity would be associated with greater conciliatory attitudes due to an increase in humanization of the outgroup. We report results from two studies supporting these predictions. Following exposure to an anger-eliciting news story, Jewish Israeli participants were given information that their own emotional reaction to the story was similar (or not) to an individual member of the outgroup (Study 1: Palestinian citizen of Israel) or the outgroup as a whole (Study 2: Palestinians of the West Bank). As predicted, emotional similarity was associated with increased humanization of the outgroup, and a subsequent increase in one's willingness to support conciliatory political policies toward the outgroup. We conclude that emotional similarity may be a productive avenue for future intergroup interventions, particularly between groups where differences in attitudes and values are foundational to the intergroup conflict.
... As such, the psychologization of prejudice recommends liberal education and reform rather than radical reconstitution. Thus, the liberal politics of social psychological theory is undermined by the conservatism of the field's metatheory (see also Brown and Lopez, 2001;Cherry, 1995;Leach and Gergen, 2001). ...
... Fortunately, the political implications of the traditional social psychological view on racism and prejudice continue to be discussed, on occasion, in the field (see Billig, 1985;Brown and Lopez, 2001;Fiske, 1989;Hopkins et al., 1997;Leach, 1998;Leach et al., 2000). So too have some since Henriques discussed the metatheoretical implications of prejudice and other related constructs (see Billig, 1985;Leach, 1998;Reicher and Hopkins, 2001;Wetherell and Potter, 1992). ...
... Generally, people may prefer a similar partner because that partner validates their worldview (Brehm, 1992). On the other hand, some contend that when discussing the relationship between similarity and attraction, it is necessary to specify the type of attraction (e.g., seeBrown & Lopez, 2001, for a review).Hogg and Hains (1996)found that interpersonal attraction relates to similarity, while intragroup attraction relates to social identity. That is, similarity between one's own traits and those of another individual will foster attraction towards that specific individual independent of one's membership in and identity with a particular group. ...
... The nature of romantic attraction among groups with a salient group identity may be different than the romantic attraction experienced by majority group members. For example, research on prejudice and prejudice reduction often reveals that intergroup similarity fosters antipathy between groups (seeBrown & Lopez, 2001for a review). Perhaps the salience of ingroup identity among ethnic minority group members often enters and affects their romantic relationships in a way that is rare among ethnic majority group members. ...
Article
We hypothesized that ingroup romantic preferences positively relate to group ties (e.g., ingroup identity and approval from friends and family) among ethnic minority groups particularly compared to ethnic majority groups. In Study 1, Jewish undergraduates completed items regarding ingroup identity and ratings of Jewish and non-Jewish partners. Students rated ingroup members more positively than outgroup members, ratings positively correlated with identity, and identity positively predicted ingroup preferences while similarity did not. Study 2 included both White Jewish and White non-Jewish students. Social network approval and collectivism positively predicted preferences among Jewish students, while social network approval and similarity positively predicted preferences among non-Jewish students. We discuss ingroup identity's differential role in attraction between ethnic minority group members and ethnic majority group members.
... In fact, the primary focus of the social identity literature has emphasized the psychological processes that generally lead to prejudiced attitudes or discriminatory behavior (Tajfel and Turner 1986). While social identity theory has been applied to a broad range of ethnic, racial and national identities in the examination of inter-group prejudice and international conflict (see, for example, Hornsey and Hogg 2000;Brown and Lopez 2001;Huddy and Khatib 2007), the current study thus provides an opportunity to apply many of the recent advancements in social identity theory to partisanship. ...
... Recent research has established that individuals do maintain multiple and hierarchical identities and that the salience of these identities is conditional upon contextual concerns (Kramer and Brewer 1984;Gaertner and Dovidio 2000;Brown and Lopez 2001;Transue 2007). For example, the Common In-group Identity Model suggests that when the salience of one identity increases, the salience of another identity decreases (Gaertner and Dovidio 2000). ...
... Abu-Nimer (1999), Brown and Lopez (2001), and Gaines (this issue) have criticized a predominant focus on between-group similarities in intergroup contact theory and research, because it supports the status quo and does not challenge dynamics that support prejudice and discrimination. This study points to the possibility of how differences can be connective and empowering for taking action under well-structured conditions and processes. ...
Article
Emerging work in intergroup contact has vitalized a focus on processes affecting the impact of interventions on outcomes. We theorized that intergroup learning—learning about other groups, educating others about one's own groups, intention to bridge intergroup differences, and reflecting on one's own group—mediates the effect of a combined enlightenment-encounter curricular intervention on assessments of importance and confidence in taking action to reduce prejudice and promote diversity. Results from a pretest/posttest design with a diverse group of undergraduate social welfare majors (n = 175) show (a) increased motivation for intergroup learning, and importance of taking action, and confidence in doing so, and (b) intergroup learning partially or fully mediates the impact of enlightenment and/or encounter on taking action.
... The distinct dimensions of dialogue and criticality in communication processes help to differentiate the goals of friendships and alliances in intergroup contact. Friendship, related closely to appreciating difference and engaging self, implies a personal intimacy and liking, and is often based on similarities (Brown & Lopez, 2001). However, I contend that it is criticality-in self-reflection and intergroup collaboration toward greater social justice-that distinguishes alliances from friendships. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research in intergroup contact and intergroup education is increasingly focused on the psychological and pedagogical processes to explain the impact of interventions on desired outcomes. This emerging scholarship has enriched our understanding about what types of interventions are effective or not and how these interventions impact outcomes of prejudice reduction and social inclusion. In the present study, a new theoretical dimension of processes operating in intergroup contact and educa- tion is investigated: communication processes. Factor analyses of communication processes within an intergroup encounter, using data from a pretest/posttest design with a diverse group of students (n = 211), revealed four factors: (1) appreciating difference, (2) engaging self, (3) critical self-reflection, and (4) alliance building. Furthermore, path analysis shows that these communication processes fully medi- ate the impact of intergroup dialogue on bridging differences. The communication processes illuminate a deeper understanding of what happens within the context of intergroup encounters and provide a link between pedagogical strategies and psychological processes. Pettigrew's (1998) reformulation of intergroup contact theory proposed friendship potential as an essential fifth condition for optimal contact, in addition to Allport's (1954) original conditions of authority sanction, equal group status, common goals, and intergroup cooperation. Going beyond simple acquaintance potential (described by Cook, 1962), friendship potential involves interactions that
... It is therefore clear that interpersonal similarity (what we refer to as similarity to self) can lead to more liking, and that this can transcend the interpersonal level and have a positive impact on intergroup relations. Research on intergroup contact and intergroup closeness has shown that similarity is indeed an important factor in reducing bias (Stephan, 1999; for a different view see Brown & Lopez, 2001). Gaertner et al. (1990Gaertner et al. ( , 1993 argue that an important part of the process leading from contact to the reduction of intergroup bias is the outgroup moving closer to the self. ...
... These studies find theoretical justification in the so-called 'contact hypothesis': direct interactions between foreigners and the native population may, in fact, weaken natives' fears of immigrants, stimulating more respectful relations (Allport et al. 1954;Husbands 2002), hence lower support for extreme right parties. Some of these studies have applied this theory to the EU context (Brown & Lopez 2001;Weldon 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Does the settling of foreigners cause a rise in anti‐immigrant sentiment due to resource competition? Or do direct interactions lead to more respectful relations? And what if one also considers the settlement of foreigners in neighbouring municipalities? Applying an instrumental variable approach to variables collected at the Italian municipality level and including neighbouring areas, this paper aims to answer these questions by considering the vote for the Lega party in 2019 European parliamentary election as a proxy for the anti‐immigration sentiment. Our results point out that, once controlling for most socio‐economic variables and remoteness, a larger presence of foreigners within the municipality reduces the vote for the Lega. In contrast, the presence of immigrants in the neighbouring municipalities does not show a significant effect.
... Depending on perceived similarity, immigrants could trigger different psychological processes in host members, which in turn may influence their attitude towards them. One might speculate that outgroups who are perceived as more similar to the ingroup might be more appreciated; however, the relationship between similarity and intergroup attitudes is actually quite complex (Brown, 1984a(Brown, , 2010Brown & Lopez, 2001). Similar out-groups, even if sometimes more liked (Brown, 1984b;Brown & Abrams, 1986), can also stimulate needs for differentiation, posing threats to distinctiveness (Brewer, 1991;Jetten, Spears, & Manstead, 1998;Jetten, Spears, & Postmes, 2004). ...
Article
Two experiments (Ns = 220, 135) investigated the role of first and second generation immigrants' desire for Culture Maintenance and Intercultural Contact in affecting majority members' intergroup attitudes (2 × 2 × 2 design). Participants were presented with fictitious interviews through which immigrants' acculturation preferences and generational status were manipulated. Immigrants' desire for contact strongly affected host members' attitudes: those who were perceived to want contact elicited more favourable intergroup attitudes than those who did not. Desire for contact also moderated the relationship between immigrants' desire for culture maintenance and attitudes towards them: culture maintenance only stimulated favourable attitudes if the immigrant also expressed desire for contact. Immigrants' generational status and their desire for Culture Maintenance were found to interact, such that less favourable attitudes were shown towards second generation immigrants refusing their heritage culture. Psychological processes mediating these effects were investigated, finding evidence for symbolic threat, appreciation for multiculturalism and metastereotypes. Overall, the results suggest that both immigrants' generational status and acculturation attitudes should be taken into account when studying intergroup attitudes of dominant groups and in planning interventions for the improvement of intercultural relations.Research Highlights► Immigrants' generational Status and acculturation preferences are manipulated. ► Perceived Contact affects host attitudes via symbolic threat and metastereotypes. ► Perceived multiculturalism mediates the Contact × Maintenance effect on attitudes. ► Metastereotypes mediate the Status × Maintenance effect on attitudes.
... More recent research has pointed out the contact theory's lack in addressing the nature of contact among individuals with different status and its implications [28]. Indeed, rather than attenuating conflict, contact between different groups may actually increase tension [27,29]. In line with this perspective, Pitkanen and Kouki observed that negative attitudes of Finnish authorities toward immigrants are related to the interaction experiences and especially to problems that arise from their contact with this population [26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Health workers' attitudes toward immigrant patients influence behaviour, medical decisions, quality of care and health outcomes. Despite the increasing number of immigrant patients in health services and the potential influence of health workers' attitudes, there is little research in this area. This study aimed to examine attitudes of different health workers' groups toward immigrant patients and to identify the associated factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 400 health workers from primary health care services in the Lisbon region, Portugal. Among those, 320 completed a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used for the evaluation of data. Most participants did not agree that immigrant patients tend to behave like victims, but about half considered that some are aggressive and dangerous. Doctors and nurses showed more positive attitudes than office workers. Among doctors, the older ones reported less positive attitudes compared to the younger ones. Health workers who have less daily contact with immigrants revealed more positive attitudes. Most participants evaluated their knowledge and competencies to work with immigrants as moderate or low. Although health workers reveal positive attitudes, this study reinforces the need to develop strategies that prevent negative attitudes and stereotyping in health services. Efforts should be made to improve workers' competencies to deal with culturally diverse populations, in order to promote quality of health care and obtain positive health outcomes among immigrant populations.
... Contact reduces prejudice when it is implemented between groups in equal status (Allport, 1954) Contact reduces prejudice when it is yielded in the pursuit of common goals (Allport, 1954;Gaertner and Dovidio, 2000) Ingroup bias and prejudice is low when both subordinate (particular) and superordinate identities are salient (Brown and Lopez, 2001) ...
Poster
Full-text available
Despite its recent critical consideration throughout many disciplines, multiculturalism was taken for granted by psychology both as a policy or as a normative framework. However, beside from the problems in the policy level which sometimes result in the deepened negative intergroup attitudes and fragmentation, multiculturalism is seriously questioned in terms of its theoretical premises. This study was aimed to scrutinize a critical outlook to multiculturalism regarding its normative framework and to offer interculturalism as an alternative idea within the scope of intergroup relations perspective.
... This is because those individuals prefer that immigrant groups assimilate and adopt the customs and cultural identity of the host society, whereas the less prejudiced prefer immigrants to uphold the elements of their home culture as well (e.g., Rojas,Navas,2 Emphasizing that an outgroup member is similar on some relevant characteristics to the ingroup could, in some situations, exacerbate outgroup bias. Because people derive self-esteem from positively distinguishing their own ingroup from outgroups (Tajfel, 1982;Turner, 1985), doing so could threaten one's distinct social identity and lead to more negative outgroup attitudes (see Brown & Lopez, 2001). For example, immigrants that are similar in terms of work-related skills can be seen as competition and thus trigger feelings of material threat (e.g., Z arate, Garcia, Garza, & Hitlan, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study assesses the mechanisms whereby first‐person narratives featuring stigmatized immigrants improve outgroup attitudes and encourage intergroup contact among prejudiced individuals. We rely on a 2 (imagined contact vs. control) x 2 (similar vs. dissimilar message protagonist) experiment on a systematic sample of native British adults. Results show that encouraging imagined contact prior to reading a short testimonial featuring an immigrant protagonist who is similar to the recipients in terms of social identity enhances identification with the protagonist, thereby improving outgroup attitudes and encouraging intergroup contact, and especially strongly among those who are prejudiced toward immigrants (i.e., high on modern racism). Theoretical and practical implications of the findings for the work on imagined contact, narrative persuasion, and identification, as well as for public communication campaigns are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Also, emphasizing that an outgroup member is similar to the ingroup could backfire. Because people derive self-esteem from positively distinguishing their group from others, a similar outgroup member could threaten one's distinct identity and exacerbate prejudice (Brown & Lopez, 2001). This effect, however, emerges when the status of the ingroup is low or when people want to reduce identity uncertainty (see Knobloch-Westerwick & Hastall, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
We bridge the theorizing on mediated and imagined contact and integrate these two contact forms in one sequence within a single design. We experimentally examine whether (1) encouraging people to imagine a positive intergroup encounter prior to reading a personal story of an outgroup member as well as (2) mediated contact with an outgroup member similar or dissimilar to the ingroup prototype, improve outgroup attitudes. We also test the affective and cognitive mediators through which these effects emerge. Data from four different countries that test attitudes toward four distinct immigrant groups find that although imagined contact and similarity do not consistently improve outgroup attitudes, enhanced interest in the story of an outgroup member and positive emotions mediate the effects from similarity, and – in two countries – from imagined contact. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
... Psychologické výskumy totiž potvrdzujú vzťah medzi vnímanou podobnosťou a empatiou (Batson, Lishner, Cook, Sawyer, 2005). Hoci vnímaná podobnosť medzi skupinami môže posilňovať pozitívne emócie voči nečlenskej skupine, môže aj zvyšovať medziskupinové skreslenie a uprednostňovanie členskej skupiny (Brown, Lopez, 2001). Z pohľadu teórie sociálnej identity totiž vnímaná podobnosť nemusí nevyhnutne viesť k lepším medziskupinovým vzťahom, keďže, ak sú skupiny vnímané ako príliš podobné, ľudia to môžu prežívať ako ohrozenie kvôli riziku stierania medziskupinových hraníc 7 a straty dištinktívnej sociálnej identity (prehľad v Poslon, Lášticová, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite numerous efforts of Roma inclusion from various State and non-governmental organisations, segregation and socioeconomic marginalisation of the Roma is still widespread in Slovakia. In this paper, we show what social-psychological factors intervene into the process of intergroup relations change and how they can influence the effectiveness of interventions to reduce antigypsyism. We contend that establishing intergroup harmony between majority and minority may, by creating false assumptions about the absence of structural inequalities, weaken the potential for social change and minority collective action. Based on the theoretical analysis as well as the content analysis of anti-discrimination interventions carried out in the year 2018 and the thematic analysis of interviews with selected stakeholders (NGO representatives, intervention participants, sponsors) we identified four challenges that need to be tackled if the interventions are to succeed in reducing antigypsyism. These are: 1) essentializing vs. empowerment of minorities; 2) tension between the colourblind and multiculturalism approaches; 3) problem of intergroup boundaries and their consequences for generalization of positive intergroup attitudes to the whole outgroup; and 4) societal norms defining the nature of intergroup relations. We discuss how these challenges ought to be addressed in succesful anti-discrimination interventions.
... The results of this study reveal that in certain segments, Recent research has pointed to a lack of contact theory in resolving the nature of contact between people with different status and its implications (Escandell X, 2009). Namely, instead of reducing the conflict, contact between different groups can actually increase the tension (Jolly SK, 2009), (Brown LM, 2001). ...
... The distinction between interpersonal (between two individuals) similarity and intergroup (between two groups) similarity, however, is sometimes blurred in this theorizing (Dovidio et al., 2000). Recent research indicates that intergroup similarity has a complex and inconsistent relationship with liking and positive outcomes for the outgroup (Brown & Abrams, 1986;Brown & Lopez, 2001;Danyluck & Page-Gould, 2018Diehl, 1988;Roccas & Schwartz, 1993). Interpersonal similarity, alternatively, as proposed by the original contact theory and as suggested by our results, has the potential to reduce bias between members of distinct social categories. ...
Article
Full-text available
One reason for the persistence of racial discrimination may be anticipated dissimilarity with racial outgroup members that prevent meaningful interactions. In the present research, we investigated whether perceived similarity would impact the processing of same-race and other-race faces. Specifically, in two experiments, we varied the extent to which White participants were ostensibly similar to targets via bogus feedback on a personality test. With an eye tracker, we measured the effect of this manipulation on attention to the eyes, a critical region for person perception and face memory. In Experiment 1, we monitored the impact of perceived interpersonal similarity on White participants’ attention to the eyes of same-race White targets. In Experiment 2, we replicated this procedure, but White participants were presented with either same-race White targets or other-race Black targets in a between-subjects design. The pattern of results in both experiments indicated a positive linear effect of similarity—greater perceived similarity between participants and targets predicted more attention to the eyes of White and Black faces. The implications of these findings related to top-down effects of perceived similarity for our understanding of basic processes in face perception, as well as intergroup relations, are discussed.
... Attitudinal similarity refers to similar values, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes (Byrne, 1969;Brown and Lopez, 2001). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
During initial business-to-business encounters, salespeople try to enhance buyers’ future interaction intentions. A common belief is that increasing buyers’ similarity perceptions increases the chances of future interaction. This study assesses the impact of the similarity-attraction effect on future interaction. By synthesising social psychology and marketing literature, a conceptual framework is proposed, in which perceived similarity influences salesperson trust. This relationship is mediated by task-related and social assessments of buyers. Task-related assessments comprise willingness (benevolence and integrity) and competence (power and expertise). Social attraction is conceptualised as likeability. Salesperson trust drives anticipated future interaction, together with organisational trust and anticipated added value. The conceptual framework was empirically tested through a cross-sectional survey. Dutch professional buyers assessed recent initial sales encounters. A sample of 162 dyads was analysed, using PLS-SEM, including FIMIX segmentation. This study demonstrates support for a third willingness construct: willingness behaviour. This construct implies that buyers are more influenced by expectations regarding behaviour, than assessments of salespeople’s attitudes. A homogeneous analysis supports the influence of perceived similarity on salesperson trust, both directly and through willingness behaviour. However, model-based segmentation uncovers a segment of cost-oriented dyads and a segment of more profit-oriented dyads. In cost-oriented dyads, there is no significant direct effect between perceived similarity and salesperson trust, and willingness behaviour nearly fully mediates this relationship. In more profit-oriented dyads, the similarity-attraction effect is not present. Theoretical and methodological contributions and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.
Chapter
This chapter presents an introduction to social modeling with statistical mechanics. An elementary description of spin systems is given first, then we explain how this description has been applied to binary models of the social sciences that have implications for public policies. Next we suggest other applications to research in the social sciences.
Article
Since Brown v. Board of Education (1954), social scientists have argued that education is important to change in racial attitudes given opportunities for interethnic contact. Students today are presented, also, with opportunities for interethnic learning through curriculum and extracurricular programming. The importance of contact, curriculum, and residence hall programs for the attitudes of first-year college students from three ethnic groups was examined. Students (n = 791) completed surveys at the beginning and end of the year. Regressions tested the relationships of these first-year experiences to intergroup attitudes (awareness of ethnic inequality, support for policies addressing ethnic inequality) at the end of the first year, controlling for initial attitudes and background. Contact and curriculum were related to attitudes for European American students.
Article
Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Leicester, October 2008. Awarded March 2009. The globalization phenomenon is becoming a driving force of era–defining changes in the nature of societies and economics across the world. To a large extent, it has created a borderless world in which different cultures have become closer and interact with each other. In this multicultural world, relations between Muslims and non-Muslims, particularly those in the West, have become a pertinent and contentious issue. Events such as the attacks of September 11th, 2001, the Bali nightclub bombings in 2002, the London bombings on July 7, 2005, and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have questioned the relations between Muslims and Westerners, and renewed interest in Huntington‘s "clash of civilization thesis". This study explores the potential effects of the school-based intervention titled "Our Brothers and Sisters in Humanity" on Omani 10th grade female students, regarding their tolerance toward other religions, Western culture and Westerners. The effectiveness of the intervention programme was determined using a quasi-experimental design using two experimental and two control schools. The questionnaire was administered before and after the intervention to a sample of 241 girls, of whom 116 were in the experimental group and 125 in the control group. A semi-structured interview was conducted before and after the intervention with 16 participants, of whom 8 were from the experimental group and 8 from the control group. Analysis of the quantitative data in post-intervention round reveals that there were statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in tolerance toward other religions, Western culture and Westerners. Analysis of the qualitative data from the pre-intervention interviews conducted with the participants in both the experimental and the control group revealed low tolerance toward extending liberties to those who were different in terms of religious faith. Yet in the post-intervention interviews the experimental groups showed greater tolerance. The findings gave empirical support to the Social Identity theory, one of the most important theories to explain Omani girls‘ intolerance toward other religions, Western culture and Westerners. Future research should be directed towards examining the effectiveness of the interventions for different populations and school levels.
Article
In this article, I evaluate how increased contact with immigrant populations and utilitarian concerns shape public attitudes toward immigrants in the United Kingdom. In particular, I address the following question: how does the presence of immigrants in a local community affect xenophobic attitudes? Beyond the simple number of immigrants, I also test whether contact has a different effect in districts that experience a dramatic increase in immigration between census cycles. In other words, if formerly homogeneous regions suddenly increase to 5 or 10% immigrant population, that shift may be more likely to affect attitudes than a steady and long-time immigrant popula- tion in greater numbers. Synthesizing public opinion, economic, and demographic data from 1990–2001, I explore these questions. By taking advantage of cross-sectional variation in minority populations, I develop and test hypotheses concerning the presence of immigrant populations and xenophobic sentiments. In clarifying this relationship, this article contributes to ongoing debates over contact theory.
Article
A long tradition of social psychological research suggests that perceptions of similarity and common ground can promote more harmonious relations among otherwise diverse social groups. Yet perceived similarity with and empathy for members of an outgroup can also intensify intergroup bias by threatening the positive distinctiveness of one's group. In the present research, cognitive dissonance theory is used as a framework for understanding how people experience and react to similarity with members of a rival outgroup and for clarifying the conditions under which outgroup similarity reduces or intensifies intergroup prejudice. Four studies tested the hypothesis that outgroup similarity elicits subjective feelings of cognitive dissonance, including psychological discomfort and negative self-evaluation. Study 1 was a pilot test in which similarity to an outgroup member was associated with negative self-evaluation but not psychological discomfort. Study 2 strengthened the interpretation of the turncoat effect as cognitive dissonance by demonstrating that the effect varies as a function of a classic dissonance moderator--perceived choice. Participants induced to experience outgroup similarity reported psychological discomfort and negative self-evaluation, but only when they believed their feelings of similarity resulted from a high degree of personal choice. Study 3 identified strength of ingroup identification as another key moderator of the effect: Only participants who were highly identified with their ingroup reported feelings of dissonance after an induction of outgroup similarity. Finally, Study 4 investigated the implications of three dissonance reduction strategies for intergroup prejudice. Dissertation
Article
One reason for the persistence of racial inequality may be anticipated dissimilarity with racial outgroups. In the present research, we explored the impact of perceived similarity with White and Black targets on facial identity recognition accuracy. In two studies, participants first completed an ostensible personality survey. Next, in a Learning Phase, Black and White faces were presented on one of three background colours. Participants were led to believe that these colours indicated similarities between them and the target person in the image. Specifically, they were informed that the background colours were associated with the extent to which responses by the target person on the personality survey and their own responses overlapped. In actual fact, faces were randomly assigned to colour. In both studies, non‐Black participants (Experiment 1) and White participants (Experiment 2) showed better recognition of White than Black faces. More importantly in the present context, a positive linear effect of similarity was found in both studies, with better recognition of increasingly similar Black and White targets. The independent effects for race of target and similarity, with no interaction, indicated that participants responded to Black and White faces according to category membership as well as on an interpersonal level related to similarity with specific targets. Together these findings suggest that while perceived similarity may enhance identity recognition accuracy for Black and White faces, it may not reduce differences in facial memory for these racial categories.
Article
To examine the effect of negotiation training and conflict management styles on the relations between third-party actors involved in international peacekeeping situations, we analyze data from a sample of Dutch military peacekeepers on missions between 1995 and 1999 (N = 850). We predict and find, contrary to the traditional “contact hypothesis” (Allport, 1954), that peacekeepers' contact with Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) workers was positively associated with conflict between them, and this increased if the peacekeeper possessed an avoiding conflict management style. When sufficiently trained in negotiations, peacekeepers who had intensive contact with NGO personnel and possessed a dominating conflict management style were less likely to become personally involved in conflicts with NGO workers. Implications for conflict management and training are discussed.
Article
This article examines the role of the Peace Corps in U.S. foreign policy and specifically explores the role of the Peace Corps in improving the popular image of the United States. I empirically test the hypothesis that the presence of a Peace Corps program enhances a positive of view of the United States held by the people of that country. Using logistic regression analysis, I show that the presence of Peace Corps Volunteers (PCVs) in a country positively influences individuals' views toward the United States. I analyze survey research from the region of Latin America using datasets from the Latinobarometer public opinion survey. Furthermore, I present a theoretical explanation to understand how the presence of PCVs can lead to an improved perception of the United States. This explanation draws from the contact hypothesis originally proposed by Gordon Allport. Related ArticlesGarner, Andrew. 2013. “Ambivalence, the Intergroup Contact Hypothesis, and Attitudes about Gay Rights.” Politics & Policy41 (2): 241‐266. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/polp.12010/abstract Alejandro, San Francisco R., and Ángel, Soto G.2004. “Political and Economic Liberty in Latin America: Can They Coexist?” Politics & Policy32 (1): 139‐156. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1747‐1346.2004.tb00179.x/abstract Sabia, Debra. 2003. “Community Service Learning: Bridging Education and Social Practice.” Politics & Policy31 (2): 347‐370. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1747‐1346.2003.tb00152.x/abstract Related MediaDocumentaries: Peace Corps. 2010. “27 Months.” July 16. Parts 1 and 2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=67X9QQT0ir8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sgco9rR9wic ABC News. 2011. “20/20 Peace Corps Special.” Aired January 14. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/obama‐sign‐kate‐puzey‐peace‐corps‐volunteer‐protection/story?id=14998236#.UZUS8Up4Bbw
Article
This research explores the perceptual grounds for a regional community in Northeast Asia. Using the AsiaBarometer 2003 surveys, this research examines whether and how the national identity of citizens in a region affects their regional identity and whether and how transnational activities promote their regional identification. The test results reveal the exclusive nature of the national identity of Northeast Asians: those who have a strong national identity in the region are less likely to have an Asian identity. More interestingly, this research finds that transnational contact does not automatically promote regional identity. Based on these findings, it is suggested that rather than promoting simple transnational interactions, eradicating exclusive nationalist antagonism is necessary to facilitate regional identity, which is a prerequisite for the creation of a regional community such as the E.U., in Northeast Asia.
Article
Targeting immigrants as a threat to employment, security and cultural cohesion, the radical right has averaged 10 percent of the vote in elections. What drives this vote? Are voters affected by the numbers of foreign-born individuals in a geographical region, by negative perceptions about immigrants, or both? In this article, I entertain the possibility that it is not the number of foreigners but citizens' perceptions about immigrants that explain individuals' tendencies to vote for the radical right. To test this stipulation, I combine European Social Survey (ESS) data on individual perceptions of immigrants for more than 25,000 individuals with macro-level data on the actual percentage of foreign-born citizens across 200 European regions. Using a bivariate and multivariate framework, I highlight that it is only the individual perceptions of immigration indicator, and not the number of foreign-born citizens, that is positively related to higher support for radical right-wing parties.
Article
First, existing analyses of the effects of two contextual features - contact and competition - on native individuals' tolerance of immigrants or xenophobia are presented. The current understanding is that relatively frequent contact with the immigrant population goes along with increased tolerance; conversely, competition has a negative impact on tolerance, with xenophobia likely to increase when natives feel they are in economic competition with the immigrant population. These two effects were empirically tested for France using the French segment of the European Values Survey; specifically, data on the départements in which our respondents live. It was found that contact and competition do affect tolerance of immigrants in France and that these two effects, both robust and stable, coexist while the contact effect is sensitive to educational attainment. Interaction between the two effects is also examined: in a context of high unemployment, the positive effect of contact disappears while the negative effect of competition is sharper among people living in départements with a relatively high proportion of immigrants.
Article
Recent research has shown that the perspectives of both minorities and majorities should be taken into account to reach a deeper understanding of the acculturation process and its consequences for intergroup relations. The authors report two experiments that investigated the impact of discordant acculturation attitudes on perceived threat. In Study 1 (N=183), Germans were asked for their attitudes toward Turks and Italians. Different levels of concordance of acculturation attitudes were induced by presenting participants with newspaper articles describing the acculturation attitude of the respective out-group and perceived threat was measured. In Study 2 (N=100), two fictitious immigrant groups were used as target groups. Results in both studies showed that discordance of acculturation attitudes leads to higher perceptions of intergroup threat than concordance of acculturation attitudes. Furthermore, both studies supported the assumption that a similar out-group is perceived as less threatening than a dissimilar out-group.
Article
Full-text available
Reducing Prejudice and Stereotyping in Schools, by Walter Stephan. New York: Teachers College Press, 1999. 143 pp. $22.95, paper. Reviewed by Lauri Johnson, The State University of New York at Buffalo. I was riding the subway to work recently while reading Reducing Prejudice and Stereotyping in Schools, a title in James A. Banks' Multicultural Education series. Staring at the title of the book, a young White woman in her thirties sitting across from me caught my eye. "I'll bet that's a good book. Are you a teacher?" "A teacher of teachers," I replied. "And it is a good book." Her comment left me pondering the current state of race relations, school integration, and teacher education in urban America. Do educators really want to deal with racial prejudice and stereotyping in schools? As a society, do we have the will (Hilliard, 1991) to educate all children and the knowledge base and pedagogical skills to create equitable classrooms? In this age of "accountability," standards, and high stakes assessments when poor children of color are increasingly racially isolated and "pushed out" of substandard urban schools, we need books that remind us of the critical role that schooling can play in intergroup relations and the creation of a democratic society. Reducing Prejudice and Stereotyping in Schools helps marshal the evidence and chart the path for equitable and integrated educational environments for all students. Because residential segregation continues to be pervasive, schools remain one of the few places that children have an extended opportunity for contact with those from different racial or ethnic backgrounds, although that opportunity is rapidly disappearing as many schools re-segregated in the 1990s (Orfield & Yun, 1999). If there is one thing that social psychological theory and research have taught us about racially and ethnically diverse environments, simply putting children from different backgrounds together is not enough to ensure positive social outcomes (Schofield, 1995). The hearts and minds of students, teachers, and administrators must be transformed to ensure that all children experience equal status in the life of the school. Walter Stephan, a social psychologist who has studied intergroup relations for 30 years, summarizes and synthesizes the current state of psychological theory and research on stereotyping, prejudice, contact theory, and improving intergroup relations. In Chapters One and Two he painstakingly details the complex psychological theories about how stereotypes (beliefs) are formed and prejudice (attitudes) develops in the individual psyche. Stephan encourages readers not to skim over the complicated nuances between various theories. Indeed, it was only after rereading these chapters that I emerged with an understanding of the important differences between seven new theories of prejudice which include symbolic racism theory, social dominance theory, social identity theory, and integrated threat theory. As the author notes, however, these theories were developed to explain the prejudicial attitudes of college students and adults, but we still know little about how these theories might operate in children. In Chapter Three, Stephan provides an updated discussion of contact theory that serves as the basis for the most widely used techniques for improving intergroup relations. In addition to the four factors that were central to the early formation of the contact hypothesis (i. …
Article
Full-text available
The accuracy of in-group and out-group variability judgments was examined by comparing those judgments with the variability of self-ratings provided by random samples of group members. Following B. Park and C. M. Judd (1990), perceptions of both group dispersion and group stereotypicality were examined in 116 college students (58 business majors and 58 engineering majors). Accuracy was examined both by within-S sensitivity correlations and by simple discrepancies between perceived and actual variability estimates. In-group–out-group differences in sensitivity were shown, particularly for judgments of stereotypicality. These differences were related to differences in the degree to which out-group variability is underestimated relative to in-group variability (i.e., the out-group homogeneity effect). Out-group stereotypicality judgments were overestimated, supporting the view that out-group stereotypes are overgeneralizations. Whether dispersion judgments were over- or underestimated depended on their measurement.
Article
Full-text available
This article introduces the Reflective Judgment model of intellectual development (King & Kitchener, 1994), which illustrates how reasoning skills develop in adulthood, and shows how the development of these skills is relevant to multicultural education on college campuses. Many students do not understand the basis for differing points of view on controversial issues and develop their own judgments based on whim or others' opinions rather than on an analysis of the evidence. Instructors may better understand students' justifications for their beliefs in light of the students' different assumptions about knowledge and how it is gained. Suggestions to faculty members for promoting intellectual development are offered in the context of multicultural education.
Article
Full-text available
Argue that attribution patterns reflect implicit theories acquired from induction and socialization and hence differentially distributed across human cultures. In particular, the authors tested the hypothesis that dispositionalism in attribution for behavior reflects a theory of social behavior more widespread in individualist than collectivist cultures. Study 1 demonstrated that causal perceptions of social events but not physical events differed between American and Chinese students. Study 2 found English-language newspapers were more dispositional and Chinese-language newspapers were more situational in explanations of the same crimes. Study 3 found that Chinese survey respondents differed in weightings of personal dispositions and situational factors as causes of recent murders and in counterfactual judgments about how murders might have been averted by changed situations. Implications for issues in cognitive, social, and organizational psychology are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
This article introduces the Reflective Judgment model of intellectual development (King & κitchener, 1994), which illustrates how reasoning skills develop in adulthood, and shows how the development of these skills is relevant to multicultural education on college campuses. Many students do not understand the basis for differing points of view on controversial issues and develop their own judgments based on whim or others' opinions rather than on an analysis of the evidence. Instructors may better understand students' justifications for their beliefs in light of the students' different assumptions about knowledge and how it is gained. Suggestions to faculty members for promoting intellectual development are offered in the context of multicultural education.
Article
Full-text available
Discusses M. Rokeach's (see PA, Vol. 35:734) belief theory of prejudice which states that racial prejudice is the result of the anticipation of belief differences. The unidirectional causal relationship implied is criticized as oversimplified. Research supporting the belief theory is examined, with conceptual and experimental deficiences noted. A new formulation is proposed which emphasizes mutual causality between racial prejudice and anticipated belief differences. 2 studies were conducted with 56 white women's club members and 120 white undergraduates. Belief communications were presented as tape-recorded interviews or speeches, with the race and social class of the communicator 1st having been manipulated. The interrelationships between communicator's race, specific communication topic, and S's prejudice level on the dimensions of felt similarity to the communicator support the mutual causation formulation. (26 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Four studies examined stereotype change using 3 models: the bookkeeping model, in which each instance of stereotype-relevant information is used to modify the stereotype gradually; the conversion model, in which stereotypes change radically in response to dramatic or salient instances; and the subtyping model, in which new stereotypic structures are developed to accommodate instances not easily assimilated by existing stereotypes. The models predict different response patterns as a function of variations in the pattern of stereotype-inconsistent evidence and the number of instances encountered. In Exps I and II, a total of 126 undergraduates were given information about either a small or a large sample of group members in which stereotype-inconsistent evidence was dispersed across many members or concentrated within a few members. Results generally support the subtyping model when evidence was concentrated and the bookkeeping model when evidence was dispersed. Exps III and IV, with 30 and 40 undergraduates, respectively, suggested that development of subtypes occurs because dramatically inconsistent individuals are seen as unrepresentative of the group as a whole. Conditions under which the conversion model may operate are considered. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The accuracy of in-group and out-group variability judgments was examined by comparing those judgments with the variability of self-ratings provided by random samples of group members. Following Park and Judd (1990), perceptions of both group dispersion and group stereotypicality were examined. Accuracy was examined both by within-subject sensitivity correlations and by simple discrepancies between perceived and actual variability estimates. In-group-out-group differences in sensitivity were shown, particularly for judgments of stereotypicality. These differences were related to differences in the degree to which out-group variability is underestimated relative to in-group variability (i.e., the out-group homogeneity effect). Out-group stereotypicality judgments were overestimated, supporting the view that out-group stereotypes are overgeneralizations. Whether dispersion judgments were over- or underestimated depended on their measurement.
Article
Full-text available
In 3 experiments, White American college students received a message advocating either a color-blind or a multicultural ideological approach to improving interethnic relations and then made judgments about various ethnic groups and individuals. Relative to a color-blind perspective, the multicultural perspective led to stronger stereotypes, greater accuracy in these stereotypes, and greater use of category information in judgments of individuals. This increase in between-category differentiation occurred both for attributes that favored the in-group and for attributes that favored the out-group and was also paired in some cases with greater overall positivity toward the out-group. The findings lead us to question the implicit assumption driving the majority of social psychological efforts at prejudice reduction: that the categorization process leads to prejudice, and that the relevance of social categories must therefore be de-emphasized.
Article
Full-text available
Allport specified four conditions for optimal intergroup contact: equal group status within the situation, common goals, intergroup cooperation and authority support. Varied research supports the hypothesis, but four problems remain. 1. A selection bias limits cross-sectional studies, since prejudiced people avoid intergroup contact. Yet research finds that the positive effects of cross-group friendship are larger than those of the bias. 2. Writers overburden the hypothesis with facilitating, but not essential, conditions. 3. The hypothesis fails to address process. The chapter proposes four processes: learning about the outgroup, changed behavior, affective ties, and ingroup reappraisal. 4. The hypothesis does not specify how the effects generalize to other situations, the outgroup or uninvolved outgroups. Acting sequentially, three strategies enhance generalization-decategorization, salient categorization, and recategorization. Finally, both individual differences and societal norms shape intergroup contact effects. The chapter outlines a longitudinal intergroup contact theory. It distinguishes between essential and facilitating factors, and emphasizes different outcomes for different stages of contact.
Article
In this article, Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, and Linda Powell juxtapose three different school communities and the schools' various approaches to dealing with differences among their students. They use notions of equal status contact theory, supplemented by three literatures - those of community, difference, and democracy - to discuss three desegregated spaces on a continuum, from one in which racial differences are unquestioned and racist discourse uninterrupted by faculty or staff to one in which teachers are actively working toward creating a space where differences are acknowledged and respected. Through this contrasting of desegregated spaces, the authors challenge readers to imbalance privilege, incite community, to both value and pluralize difference - to create teaching and learning spaces that nurture multiracial and multiethnic communities.
Article
The inclusion of race-related content in college courses often generates emotional responses in students that range from guilt and shame to anger and despair. The discomfort associated with these emotions can lead students to resist the learning process. Based on her experience teaching a course on the psychology of racism and an application of racial identity development theory, Beverly Daniel Tatum identifies three major sources of student resistance to talking about race and learning about racism, as well as some strategies for overcoming this resistance.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
After the Mandela government took power in 1994 in South Africa, one of its highest priorities was providing power to the impoverished rural areas, and particularly the infrastructure-poor black “townships.” In addition to a scarcity of resources, multiple stake-holders with very different agendas were integrally a part of the decision-making process. To this extent, what happened with the electricity industry is a metaphor for the multiple issues—social, economic, and political—which had to be negotiated by the new society. The multiple stake-holders were brought together in a “Forum,” a non-regulatory advisory body which was designed to specifically include all relevant interested parties in an open (“transparent”) problem-solving process. This forum system was extensively used in the 18–24 months immediately before and after the 1994 elections to deal with a host of issues. The National Electricity Forum (NELF) was one of the earliest and most successful of these forums. This case reviews the build-up to the 1994 elections, describes how the forum process worked, and outlines its structure.
Article
The Center for Individual Rights (CIR) represented three white applicants who brought the two lawsuits, "Gratz, et al., v Bollinger, et al., No. 97-75231 (E.D.Mich.)" and "Grutter, et al. v. Bollinger, et al., No. 97-75928 (E.D. Mich.)," against the University of Michigan. These lawsuits challenge as unlawful the University of Michigan's policy of considering race as one of many factors in the process for admissions to the College of Literature, Science and the Arts, and the Law School. The University of Michigan brought together a team of leading scholars to serve as its experts in these cases to establish the basis for the University's argument that there is a compelling need for diversity in higher education. Thomas Sugrue of the University of Pennsylvania describes the important role that race continues to play in modern American society. Eric Foner of Columbia University (New York) describes the history of race relations through the lens of the African-American experience and Albert Camarillo of Stanford University (California) explains that Hispanic Americans have been largely marginalized and separated from mainstream American society. Patricia Gurin of the University of Michigan presents evidence showing that students educated in diverse classrooms learn to think in more complex ways. William Bowen, president of the Mellon Foundation (Pennsylvania), and Derek Bok, former president of Harvard University (Massachusetts), cite their recent book, "The Shape of the River," in which they find that minorities admitted to the nation's most selective schools have made significant achievements, both in school and afterwards and have contributed in important ways to the education of those around them. Claude Steele at Stanford University notes the limited usefulness of standardized tests in the admissions process, citing research that finds that prevailing stereotypes about minorities' academic capabilities artificially depress minority students' test scores. Specifically addressing the law school admissions process, Kent Syverud of Vanderbilt University Law School (Tennessee) shows how a diverse law school class provides a more vibrant and lively opportunity for learning than could otherwise be achieved; Robert Webster, a former judge and former president of the Michigan State Bar Association, describes the importance of diversity to the practice of law. (JM)
Article
this chapter aims to bring together the sprawling multidisciplinary literature on intergroup contact between Protestants and Catholics / this evidence is assessed in terms of its relevance to understanding intergroup relations in Northern Ireland; its contribution to the interpretation of the nature of intergroup contact; and its potential as an agent of change (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
explore the supposition that ethnicity is a salient component of the self-concept of adolescents from particular ethnic groups, and that concerns regarding ethnic identity have direct implications not only for interethnic relations but also, potentially, for the psychological health and well-being of these individuals / draw heavily from 3 related areas of research—ego identity theory, social identity theory, and acculturation theory / these research paradigms . . . will be used to illustrate potential challenges and choices that many adolescents face today as they attempt to forge an understanding of themselves as "ethnic" individuals / in addition, data from a study of African American students [is] presented to further examine the links among ethnic identity, social relationships, and personal adjustment (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This chapter builds on the authors' concept of aversive racism as being typical of many people. Aversive racists are people who sincerely believe themselves to be unprejudiced, but who still harbor some negative feelings (often unconscious ones) toward ethnic minority groups. The authors report on a series of studies aimed at reducing people's automatic negative stereotypes about outgroups. In individual-level experiments using extensive cognitive retraining, and others creating awareness of discrepancies between one's actions and values, they demonstrated methods by which both explicit and implicit stereotypes could be reduced. They also investigated conditions for optimal intergroup contact in which 2 groups were encouraged to recategorize their boundaries in the direction of sharing a common group identity (e.g., "we're different groups, but all on the same team.") As predicted, they found this intervention led to reduced intergroup bias and prejudice. The authors emphasize that a strong advantage of this kind of dual-identity procedure is that it does not require minority groups to forsake their own unique group identity when they adopt a broader, superordinate identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
the purpose of this chapter is to discuss and evaluate interethnic contact as a means of bringing young people from hostile nationalities in one country to live in mutual understanding and respect / the presentation will focus on Arab and Jewish youth living in Israel, with an emphasis on the unique characteristics of intergroup relationship prevailing in that country (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
we examine the 'contact hypothesis' in some detail we begin by outlining three classic positions on the role of contact this leads us into a preliminary assessment of the hypothesis in the light of three decades of empirical research the important distinction between interpersonal and intergroup contact / methods by which the effects of contact may be augmented / analyse the origins and effects of some cognitive processes which are at work in intergroup encounters / we develop a new conceptual framework for analysing contact situations from which we derive some policy implications (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
For over 20 years, politically influential Israelis and Palestinians have met in private, unofficial, academically based, problem-solving workshops designed to enable the parties to explore each other's perspective, generate joint ideas for mutually satisfactory solutions to their conflict, and transfer insights and ideas derived from their interaction into the policy process. Most of the work takes place in small groups, but the focus is on promoting change in the larger system. This article discusses 5 ways in which the workshop group serves as a vehicle for change at the macrolevel. It does so by functioning as a microcosm of the larger system, as a laboratory for producing inputs into the larger system, as a setting for direct interaction, as a coalition across conflict lines, and as a nucleus for a new relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
To provide evidence of the effects of academic training on causal attributions, undergraduates in social science, commerce, and engineering were compared at different points of their training in terms of their explanations of poverty and unemployment. Analyses showed no field differences in causal attributions at the beginning of the 1st academic year but significant differences at the end of the year, with social science Ss blaming the system more than commerce or engineering Ss. Longitudinal analysis showed that, within a 6-mo interval, causal attributions of the Ss changed significantly as a function of their field of study. Differential employment prospects were related to attributional change. Results confirm the hypothesis that exposure to the culture of the social sciences reinforces a system-blame ideology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The purpose of this chapter is to introduce a stigma management perspective associated with the lives of African Americans that is an outgrowth of Nigrescence theory. The concept of stigma has the tendency to truncate, if not overshadow, the identity integrity for the group under consideration. When this happens, identity and stigma appear to be one and the same. The identity functions that have evolved from Nigrescence theory (buffering, bonding, bridging, code switching, and individualism) help to differentiate between the important dimensions of stigma management found to be operative in the everyday lives of Black people, from those identity functions that show a limited relationship to stigma. A great deal of everyday Black behavior is in reaction to stigma situations that result from having to live in a White-controlled world, but there are other moments in the day when Black people are about living, sleeping, arguing, laughing, and just "being" with each other. While validation of the different functions is needed, the aim is to demonstrate the side-by-side existence of the stigma management and nonstigma driven aspects of everyday Black life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
the purpose of this chapter is to utilize an in-depth study of intergroup relations in a desegregated school to discuss the ways in which context can and does influence the course of intergroup relations examines the development of one specific aspect of context [the existence of a belief system characterized as the colorblind perspective] in an ongoing social situation, a desegregated school, and analyzes both its functions in that situation and its consequences / Wexler Middle School (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes the "jigsaw technique," an alternative to conventional classroom teaching methods. Rather than grouping a whole class around a teacher, the students are taught to work in smaller interdependent groups; each child is given a part of a topic to be studied, and when finished, the students fit their pieces of the subject area together to form a complete "jigsaw" picture. Examples of the use of the method, suggested projects, and research findings are included. (40 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A review of the literature pertaining to Rokeach, Smith, and Evans' (1960) belief congruence theory provided a context for discussion of some methodological and theoretical issues relating to conceptualization of the dependent variables, beliefcontent, belief discrepancy, meaningfulness of the race—belief comparison, attitude—belief feedback loops, attitude structure, and the relation between self and ideal similarity. The literature was judged supportive of a weak version of belief congruence theory which states that in those contexts in which social pressure is nonexistent or ineffective, belief is more important than race as a determinant of racial or ethnic discrimination. Evidence for a strong version of belief congruence theory (which states that in those contexts in which social pressure is nonexistent, or ineffective, belief is the only determinant of racial or ethnic discrimination) and was judged much more problematic.
Article
We examined the impact of intergroup similarity on two aspects of intergroup relations. Drawing on social identity and belief congruence theory, we hypothesized that — at high levels of intergroup similarity — increasing similarity has dual, seemingly opposed effects: It increases ingroup favouritism in evaluations but also increases readiness for social contact with the outgroup. We further hypothesized that both effects are moderated by the strength of individuals' identification with their ingroup. Finally, we hypothesized that there is ingroup favouritism on dimensions relevant for defining the group, but outgroup favouritism on dimensions irrelevant for this purpose. One hundred and forty-nine students from two prestigious high schools, who were assigned to one of three levels of manipulated similarity between their schools, evaluated both schools on dimensions relevant and irrelevant to the school context and expressed their readiness for social contact with the other school. Ingroup favouritism appeared on relevant dimensions and outgroup favouritism on irrelevant dimensions. As predicted, for those highly identified with their ingroup, intergroup similarity led to greater ingroup favouritism in evaluations on relevant dimensions but to increased readiness for outgroup social contact. Implications for interpreting inconsistent results of past research and for specifying conditions for intergroup bias are discussed.
Book
• Ideas, like individuals and nations, have histories, and so do the research enterprises that sometimes stem from ideas. The history of the research that is reported in the following pages is mainly one of indebtedness. The 34 men who, week after week, faithfully provided the bricks of information out of which this monograph is constructed were, of course, my principal benefactors. Not one of them ever lapsed, for even a single week, and my debt to them is most inadequately repaid by sending each of them a standard model of this monograph. The writing of a research report, too, has its own history, and in the writing of this one I came to the conclusion that it would be a bare-boned research report, together with only such theoretical connective tissue as in fact inspired the initial planning of the research. The reader will find that I have sometimes oscillated between the reporting of tests of theoretically derived prediction and the presenting of exploratory findings. Insofar as the latter are interesting or significant, I have no apology to make for them--especially as one who has often criticized students who, in their eagerness to find support for cherished hypotheses, ignore serendipidous findings. The phenomena of getting acquainted, like most others which one studies intimately for a period of years, are full of interesting surprises, and none of us is capable of anticipating all of them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • Ideas, like individuals and nations, have histories, and so do the research enterprises that sometimes stem from ideas. The history of the research that is reported in the following pages is mainly one of indebtedness. The 34 men who, week after week, faithfully provided the bricks of information out of which this monograph is constructed were, of course, my principal benefactors. Not one of them ever lapsed, for even a single week, and my debt to them is most inadequately repaid by sending each of them a standard model of this monograph. The writing of a research report, too, has its own history, and in the writing of this one I came to the conclusion that it would be a bare-boned research report, together with only such theoretical connective tissue as in fact inspired the initial planning of the research. The reader will find that I have sometimes oscillated between the reporting of tests of theoretically derived prediction and the presenting of exploratory findings. Insofar as the latter are interesting or significant, I have no apology to make for them--especially as one who has often criticized students who, in their eagerness to find support for cherished hypotheses, ignore serendipidous findings. The phenomena of getting acquainted, like most others which one studies intimately for a period of years, are full of interesting surprises, and none of us is capable of anticipating all of them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The effects of intergroup contact on stereotypic beliefs, it is argued, depend upon (1) the potential susceptibility of those beliefs to disconfirming information and the degree to which the contact setting “allows” for disconfirming events, and (2) the degree to which disconfirming events are generalized from specific group members to the group as a whole. To account for the generalization of attributes from a sample to a population, we present a cognitive-processing model. The model assumes that impressions of groups are most heavily influenced by the attributes of those members most strongly associated with the group label. In order for group stereotypes to change, then, disconfirming information must be associated with the group labels. However, a number of powerful cognitive processes work against this association. As a consequence, we predict that stereotype change will be relatively rare under “normal” circumstances but may occur when disconfirming information is encountered under circumstances that activate the group label (e.g., when disconfirming attributes are associated with otherwise typical group members).
Article
Group inequalities in the United States are most often attributed to the characteristics of the individuals who belong to these groups; thinking about structural causes of group inequalities is rare. This paper reviews cognitive, cultural, and systemic reasons for this bias. The efficacy of education as a way to increase structural thinking was investigated in two studies of college students' causal thinking about group inequalities. Both studies involved a course on intergroup relations that covered structural sources of racial or ethnic inequalities. Results supported hypotheses that the course would increase structural thinking about racial or ethnic inequality, and that structural thinking would generalize to inequalities not explicitly covered in the course. Both course content and active learning pedagogy were related to structural thinking about inequalities. Active learning was also related to applying structural thinking to targets of change.
Article
The concept of similarity occupies an important place in several theories of social relations. An experiment was designed to examine the effects of both status and attitudinal similarity under intergroup competition or cooperation. Previous research had indicated that the usual attractive effects of similarity would be most evident in cooperative contexts, while similarity might lead to divergence under competition due to threats to group identity. Two hundred eight school children participated in a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial experiment (nature of Task × outgroup Status × outgroup Attitudes). Results indicated that, contrary to hypothesis, simple attitude similarity led to a general increase in liking for and cooperativeness toward the outgroup, unaffected by goal relations. However, on ratings of group performance, status and attitudinal similarity combined did lead to increased intergroup differentiation, again unaffected by goal relations. Finally, subjects' performances on the experimental task (a verbal and arithmetical reasoning test) were reliably affected by goal relations: highest performance being observed under intergroup cooperation, particularly with same or lower status outgroups, or with outgroups which had different attitudes. It is concluded that the need for positive distinctiveness in intergroup relations may compromise or even reverse the usual relationship between similarity and attraction.
Article
A model of sociostructural relations among subgroups within a superordinate category is presented. Contextualized by discussion of political and social psychological models of intergroup contact, we extend principles of social identity theory to address structural differentiation within groups. Subgroup identity threat plays a pivotal role in the nature of subgroup relations, as do the social realities of specific subgroup relations (i.e., inclusiveness, nested vs. crosscutting categories, leadership, instrumental goal relations, power and status differentials, subgroup similarity). Our analysis suggests that subgroup identity threat is the greatest obstacle to social harmony; social arrangements that threaten social identity produce defensive reactions that result in conflict. Social harmony is best achieved by maintaining, not weakening, subgroup identities, and locating them within the context of a binding superordinate identity.
Article
Two studies examined the effects of perceptions of similarity on relations between subgroups (humanities and math-science students) that share an active superordinate category (University of Queensland student). Participants (N = 82) performed ct noninteractive task during which perceptions of intersubgroup similarity (high or low) and level of categorization (at the superordinate level or at the superordinate and subgroup levels simultaneously) were manipulated in a 2 X 2 between-groups design. Consistent with social identity theory, participants who had been categorized exclusively at the superordinate level discriminated more against a similar subgroup than a dissimilar one. However; when the subgroup and superordinate categories were activated simultaneously, a trend emerged that was consistent with the Similarity-attraction hypothesis. A similar interaction emerged in Study 2 (N = 265), in which perceptions of similarity were measured rather than manipulated. The results were interpreted in terms of the motivation to retain ingroup, distinctiveness.
Article
Two studies examined relations between groups (humanities and math-science students) that implicitly or explicitly share a common superordinate category (university student). In Experiment 1, 178 participants performed a noninteractive decision-making task during which category salience was manipulated in a 2 (superordinate category salience) x 2 (subordinate category salience) between-groups design. Consistent with the mutual intergroup differentiation model, participants for whom both categories were salient exhibited the lowest levels of bias, whereas bias was strongest when the superordinate category alone was made salient. This pattern of results was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 135). In addition, Experiment 2 demonstrated that members of subgroups that are nested within a superordinate category are more sensitive to how the superordinate category is represented than are members of subgroups that extend beyond the boundaries of the superordinate category.
Intergroup conflict The handbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice
  • R J Fisher
Fisher, R. J. (2000). Intergroup conflict. In M. Deutsch & P. T. Coleman (Eds.), The handbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice (pp. 166–184). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The role of similarity in intergroup relations The social dimension: European developments in social psychology
  • R Brown
Brown, R. (1984). The role of similarity in intergroup relations. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), The social dimension: European developments in social psychology (pp. 603–623). New York: Cambridge University Press.