Article

Oninia senglaubi, another new genus and species of frog (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae) from New Guinea

Article

Oninia senglaubi, another new genus and species of frog (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae) from New Guinea

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Abstract

Based on morphological, anatomical and molecular traits, a new monotypic genus of the Microhylidae is described. One new species of the new genus was discovered in the Fakfak Mountains, northwestern corner of the Bomberai Peninsula, Papua Province, Indonesia. The new taxon, Oninia senglaubi, is a symphignathine member of the subfamily Asterophryinae and differs from all other symphignathine species of the Australopapuan herpetofauna by its extremely small size (snout-urostyle length less than 20 mm). The advertisement call of the new taxon consists of a series of short peeps and these were uttered from small holes in the ground. According to external morphology and osteological characters, it is most closely related to Xenorhina, but according to molecular data (mitochondrial DNA), it is most closely related to the genera Asterophrys, Metamagnusia, and Pseudocallulops. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

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... We amplified mtDNA fragments, covering partial sequences of the 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA mtDNA genes and complete sequence of the tRNA Val mtDNA gene to obtain a 2 591-bp long continuous fragment of mtDNA. These mtDNA markers have been used for comprehensive phylogenetic studies on Microhylidae frogs (De Sá et al., 2012;Matsui et al., 2011;Peloso et al., 2016;Pyron & Wiens, 2011;Van Der Meijden et al., 2007; and references therein), including molecular taxonomic research on the subfamily Asterophryinae (Blackburn et al., 2013;Frost et al., 2006;Günther et al., 2010;Köhler & Günther, 2008;Kurabayashi et al., 2011;Oliver et al., 2013;Rittmeyer et al., 2012;Suwannapoom et al., 2018). PCR was performed in 20 µL reactions using 50 ng of genomic DNA, 10 nmol of each primer, 15 nmol of each dNTP, 50 nmol of additional MgCl 2 , Taq PCR buffer (10 mmol/L of Tris-HCl, pH 8.3, 50 mmol/L of KCl, 1.1 mmol/L of MgCl 2 and 0.01% gelatin), and 1 U of Taq DNA polymerase. ...
... The morphological characters for comparison and data on states in other Microhylidae representatives were taken from: Burton (1986), Chan et al. (2009), , Günther (2009Günther ( , 2017, Günther et al. (2010Günther et al. ( , 2012aGünther et al. ( , 2012bGünther et al. ( , 2014, Köhler & Günther (2008), Kraus & Allison (2003), Kraus (2010Kraus ( , 2011Kraus ( , 2013aKraus ( , 2013bKraus ( , 2014Kraus ( , 2016Kraus ( , 2017, Menzies & Tyler (1977), Parker (1934), Richards & Iskandar (2000), Richards et al. (1992Richards et al. ( , 1994, Rittmeyer et al. (2012), Suwannapoom et al. (2018), Zweifel (1972Zweifel ( , 2000, and Zweifel (2003). ...
... This distribution pattern, joining the north-eastern part of Vietnam (Dong Bac), central Annamites (Tay Nguyen), and northern Thailand, suggests that members of the new genus may be found in other areas of northern and eastern Indochina, and its occurrence in adjacent regions of Laos and central-northern Vietnam is strongly anticipated. Comparisons with other Asterophryinae genera: Information on character states for other Asterophryinae genera is based on Parker (1934), Zweifel (1972Zweifel ( , 2000, Menzies & Tyler (1977), Burton (1986), Zweifel (2003), Günther et al. (2010), Kraus (2010Kraus ( , 2017, Suwannapoom et al. (2018), and references therein. Vietnamophryne Gen. nov. ...
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We report on the discovery of a new genus of microhylid subfamily Asterophryinae from northern and eastern Indochina, containing three new species. Vietnamophryne Gen. nov. are secretive miniaturized frogs (SVL<21 mm) with a mostly semi-fossorial lifestyle. To assess phylogenetic relationships, we studied 12S rRNA-16S rRNA mtDNA fragments with a final alignment of 2?591 bp for 53 microhylid species. External morphology characters and osteological characteristics analyzed using micro-CT scanning were used for describing the new genus. Results of phylogenetic analyses assigned the new genus into the mainly Australasian subfamily Asterophryinae as a sister taxon to the genus Siamophryne from southern Indochina. The three specimens collected from Gia Lai Province in central Vietnam, Cao Bang Province in northern Vietnam, and Chiang Rai Province in northern Thailand proved to be separate species, different both in morphology and genetics (genetic divergence 3.1%≤P≤5.1%). Our work provides further evidence for the "out of Indo-Eurasia" scenario for Asterophryinae, indicating that the initial cladogenesis and differentiation of this group of frogs occurred in the Indochina Peninsula. To date, each of the three new species of Vietnamophryne Gen. nov. is known only from a single specimen; thus, their distribution, life history, and conservation status require further study.
... Species were named to both Phyrnomantis andCallulops until 1988, when Dubois, 1988 synonymized all Papuan Phrynomantis into Callulops, 121 years after its initial description. We confirmed the monophyly of Callulops and its sister relationship to Mantophryne + Hylophorbus along with Günther et al. (2010), Rittmeyer et al. (2012), Peloso et al. (2016), Rivera et al. (2017). ...
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... 16S rRNA is a molecular marker widely applied for biodiversity surveys in amphibians (Vences et al., 2005a(Vences et al., , 2005bVieites et al., 2009). Together with 12S rRNA partial sequences these mtDNA markers were used in the most comprehensive phylogenetic studies on Microhylinae frogs published to date Pyron & Wiens, 2011;de Sá et al., 2012;Peloso et al., 2016, and references therein), including the molecular taxonomic research on the subfamily Asterophryinae (Hoskin, 2004;Frost et al., 2006;Köhler & Günther, 2008;Günther, Stelbrink & von Rintelen, 2010;Kurabayashi et al., 2011;Rittmeyer et al., 2012;Blackburn et al., 2013;Oliver et al., 2013Oliver et al., , 2017b. Amplification was performed in 20 ml reactions using ca. ...
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— We studied sequence variation in 16S rDNA in 204 individuals from 37 populations of the land snail Candidula unifasciata (Poiret 1801) across the core species range in France, Switzerland, and Germany. Phylogeographic, nested clade, and coalescence analyses were used to elucidate the species evolutionary history. The study revealed the presence of two major evolutionary lineages that evolved in separate refuges in southeast France as result of previous fragmentation during the Pleistocene. Applying a recent extension of the nested clade analysis (Templeton 2001), we inferred that range expansions along river valleys in independent corridors to the north led eventually to a secondary contact zone of the major clades around the Geneva Basin. There is evidence supporting the idea that the formation of the secondary contact zone and the colonization of Germany might be postglacial events. The phylogeographic history inferred for C. unifasciata differs from general biogeographic patterns of postglacial colonization previously identified for other taxa, and it might represent a common model for species with restricted dispersal.
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Based on morphological, anatomical, ecological, ethological, and molecular traits, two new genera of microhylid frogs from mainland New Guinea are described. Metamagnusia gen. n. includes two species, M. marani sp. n., the type species found in the Wondiwoi Mountains at the base of the Wandammen Peninsula (Papua Province, Indonesia), and M. slateri (Loveridge, 1955) comb. n., from eastern New Guinea (Papua New Guinea). The second new genus, Pseudocallulops gen. n., also includes two species, P. eurydactylus (Zweifel, 1972) comb. n. from the Fakfak Mountains on the Bomberai Peninsula (Papua Province, Indonesia), and P. pullifer (Günther, 2006) comb. n., which is designated as the type species and which occurs in the Wondiwoi Mountains at the base of the Wandammen Peninsula. Both new genera belong to the group of asterophryine genera with a symphignathine state of the maxillary bones. Metamagnusia gen. n. is most closely related to the genus Asterophrys, while Pseudocallulops gen. n. forms a sister-clade of the taxa Asterophrys + Metamagnusia. The new genera are erected to recognize their differences in fundamental traits from the presently recognized genera. Another goal was to dissolve polyphyletic taxa and to avoid creation of paraphyletic taxa within the symphignathine genera of the Australopapuan microhylids. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
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Preparation of small vertebrates cleared after alcian blue staining of cartilage is facilitated by trypsin digestion. Specimens are fixed in formation, washed, skinned, and eviscerated. After staining in a solution of alcian blue in acetic acid-alcohol for 24-48 hours, they are transferred to water through graded alcohols. Excess alcian blue is removed over a period of up to three weeks by changes every 2-3 days of 1% trypsin in approximately one-third-saturated sodium borate. Bony tissues may be stained after this in a solution of alizarin red S in 0.5% KOH. Specimens are bleached if necessary and dehydrated through graded KOH-glycerine mixtures for storage in glycerine. Since alcohol treatment in addition to formalin fixation does not affect results with this method, it should be useful to researchers who want to study the cartilage or cartilaginous skeletons in museum specimens, which are routinely fixed in formalin and stored in alcohol.
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