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Abstract

The publication of the third Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) classification (APG III. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society161: 128–131) has resulted in the need for a revised systematic listing of the accepted families. This linear APG III (LAPG III) sequence of families is presented here. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 161, 128–131.

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... The checklist is arranged according to the APG-III classification (Haston et al. 2009), as provided online on 'The Plant List' (www.plantlist.org). In the checklist, the currently valid scientific name of each taxon with its respective family is supplemented with useful information on growth form, provincial distribution (Kashmir, Jammu, and Ladakh), and source(s) of its record in the state. ...
... Semiaquatic 1 1 0 Kak (1990); Sharma and Kachroo (1981) 141. Kak (1990); Sharma and Kachroo (1981); Klimes and Dickore (2009) Kaul and Zutshi (1967), Cook (1996) Family name has been changed in accordance with APG-III classification (Haston et al. 2009) ...
Chapter
This chapter provides an updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes in the Indian Himalayan state of Jammu and Kashmir. In total, 191 species of aquatic macrophytes have been recorded from the state. These species include both aquatic and semiaquatic plants and belong to 80 genera in 37 families (22 belonging to dicotyledons, 12 monocotyledons, and 3 pteridophytes). The aquatic macrophytes belong to different growth forms: submerged, emergent, floating, free-floating, floating/emergent, emergent/submerged, and floating/submerged, which together comprise 92 species; the remaining 99 species are semiaquatic and emergent. Most of the macrophytes (160 species) occur in Kashmir, followed by Jammu with 94 and Ladakh region with 44 species. Keywords Aquatic Plants Macrophytes Checklist Documentation Identification J&K state
... In this update of APG, there are some changes from APG III as a result of placements of some genera that required erection of new families, and we recognize several new orders as a result of studies incorporating many genes/whole plastid genomes Ruhfel et al., 2014;Stull et al., 2015), for example Boraginales, Dilleniales, Icacinales and Metteniusales (see below). We deviate here from previous APG papers in placing the families in the linear order of Haston et al. (2009;LAPG) and provide comments on changes and other issues in the text below, thus keeping the linear sequence of orders and families intact. For a formal, higher-level classification of plants, see Cantino et al. (2007) and Chase & Reveal (2009), which can still be applied to this version of APG. ...
... The endoparasitic Apodanthaceae are now placed in Cucurbitales (Filipowicz & Renner, 2010). The sequence of families in Malpighiales diverts from that of LAPG (Haston et al., 2009), because we now have a much better understanding of interfamilial relationships in that order Xi et al., 2012;Endress, Davis & Matthews, 2013). Also in Malpighiales, there is one newly recognized family, Peraceae, the potential need for which was discussed in APG III (2009), due to the position of Rafflesiaceae as sister to the rest of Euphorbiaceae, minus Pera Mutis and relatives (Davis et al., 2007). ...
... Original data were compared with historical records issuing from the literature in order to obtain a final list. The list of pteridophytes follows the systematic order suggested by Christenhusz et al. (2011), while the list of angiosperms follows Haston et al. (2009); to make it easier to consult the inventory, the genera and species for each family have been reported in alphabetical order. Species and authors names are in accordance with IPNI (International Plant Name Index, www.ipni.org), ...
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A mountainous area in western Sicily, where relic wood vegetation is still preserved notwithstanding past and present human pressure, is here analysed in order to prepare a checklist of its vascular flora. Field investigations allowed to compile a floristic inventory including 601 infrageneric taxa belonging to 304 genera and 80 families. Some remarks on the biological and chorological spectra are presented, and some measures to protect flora and vegetation are suggested, too.
... Names are updated according to Plant List (2021). Families were arranged according to the Linear Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG III) (Haston et al. 2009). Vernacular names were reported from local people and available literature (Andrews 1953(Andrews , 1957. ...
Article
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Documentation of medicinal plants utilization as an important non-timber forest resources are essential for their restoration and preservation. The present research aims to study the abundance of trees and shrubs in Azaza and Mokla forest in the Blue Nile state and to document their traditional use by two communities of Falata tribe living in the same locality. Field surveys were conducted during the period July-November in 2016 and 2017 following timed-meander survey method. Abundant, frequent, occasional, infrequent, and rare species were estimated. Ethnomedicinal data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires. Documentation was taken from a total of 43 informants. 23 informants from Flata Willa in Amara Seraifa village which is located about 30 Km north of Roseires dam and 20 informants from Falata Odda who are displaced by the dam lake and now resettled in City3 which located south east of the dam lake. A total of 28 medicinal trees and shrubs were identified in the studied forests. The most utilized plant families were leguminosae followed by Malvaceae Apocynaceae, and Zygophyllaceae. The highest proportion of the medicinal plants are trees (68%) and the common treated diseases are stomach pain, respiratory inflammation, haemorrhoid, heart pain, uteritis, anemia, kidney disease, and dysentery. The study recommended further pharmacological and phytochemical research to study the efficiency of these plants to cure the diseases as well as sustainable management approach and proper conservation strategy to be integrated into forest management planning and activities for protection of the studied forests. KEYWORDS: Ethnomedicine; plants; forest; Blue Nile; Sudan
... 1. Stamens predominantly (8-)10(-14), biseriate (sometimes obscurely so; most easily observed in the midst of anthesis Hereafter we propose new combinations and tribal names, and give brief descriptions and distributions for all genera. Tribes and genera are given in a phylogenetic sequence following the ladderization method of Haston & al. (2009). Species are listed for newly recognized genera and their source genera for clarity of delimitation (see also suppl. ...
Article
The family Saxifragaceae, the current composition of which is one of the great surprises of molecular systematics, has been subject to massive improvements in the knowledge of phylogenetic relationships. Nevertheless, developments from phylogenomic efforts have yet to be mobilized to inform biogeography and taxonomy. Here, we use a recent order‐level phylogeny for Saxifragaceae and related families covering 72% of species with a set of new analyses to assess habitat evolution and biogeography. Our results suggest a North American origin of the family in cold alpine habitats, followed by rapid recent evolution of diverse habitat tolerances. We also combine these recent phylogenomic results and a synthesis of the literature to improve generic limits and tribal classification of Saxifragaceae. We recognize 40 genera in 10 tribes, with 14 new combinations, and elevate one subtribe as well as describing four new taxa at the tribal level. Finally, we synthesize information about biogeography and morphology for the family.
... However, given the diversity of stomatal shapes and sizes among plants (there are more than 400 angiosperm families only; Haston, Richardson, Stevens, Chase, & Harris, 2009), the variation in techniques for making stomatal impressions (Gitz & Baker, 2009) and the different kinds of imaging techniques available (optical, fluorescence microscopy and SEM), there is a clear need for researchers to be able to understand the entire process "from leaf to label" and to tweak this to their own needs. Here, we describe a step-by-step guide of a pipeline of actions we have developed from leaf preparation to microscope imaging that is easy, inexpensive, and acquires enough image quality to train and use the DL network. ...
Article
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• Plant leaf stomata are the gatekeepers of the atmosphere–plant interface and are essential building blocks of land surface models as they control transpiration and photosynthesis. Although more stomatal trait data are needed to significantly reduce the error in these model predictions, recording these traits is time‐consuming, and no standardized protocol is currently available. Some attempts were made to automate stomatal detection from photomicrographs; however, these approaches have the disadvantage of using classic image processing or targeting a narrow taxonomic entity which makes these technologies less robust and generalizable to other plant species. We propose an easy‐to‐use and adaptable workflow from leaf to label. A methodology for automatic stomata detection was developed using deep neural networks according to the state of the art and its applicability demonstrated across the phylogeny of the angiosperms. • We used a patch‐based approach for training/tuning three different deep learning architectures. For training, we used 431 micrographs taken from leaf prints made according to the nail polish method from herbarium specimens of 19 species. The best‐performing architecture was tested on 595 images of 16 additional species spread across the angiosperm phylogeny. • The nail polish method was successfully applied in 78% of the species sampled here. The VGG19 architecture slightly outperformed the basic shallow and deep architectures, with a confidence threshold equal to 0.7 resulting in an optimal trade‐off between precision and recall. Applying this threshold, the VGG19 architecture obtained an average F‐score of 0.87, 0.89, and 0.67 on the training, validation, and unseen test set, respectively. The average accuracy was very high (94%) for computed stomatal counts on unseen images of species used for training. • The leaf‐to‐label pipeline is an easy‐to‐use workflow for researchers of different areas of expertise interested in detecting stomata more efficiently. The described methodology was based on multiple species and well‐established methods so that it can serve as a reference for future work.
... More than 20 species in seven families of monocots and eudicots were used in space research; families are classified according to the APGIII (Haston et al., 2009) Weightlessness does not change the genetically programmed plant developmental framework; i.e., physiological responses during ontogenesis show a similar plasticity in space as on Earth. The ability of plants to grow and develop in orbital flight allows for studying plant responses to microgravity at different levels of organization and time of development. ...
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A review of past insights of space experiments with plants outlines basic space and gravity effects as well as gene expression. Efforts to grow plants in space gradually incorporated basic question on plant productivity, stress response and cultivation. The prospect of extended space missions as well as colonization of the Moon and Mars require better understanding and therefore research efforts on biomass productivity, substrate and water relations, atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature and substrate and volume (growth space) requirements. The essential combination of using plants not only for food production but also for regeneration of waste, and recycling of carbon and oxygen production requires integration of complex biological and engineering aspects. We combine a historical account of plant space research with considerations for future research on plant cultivation, selection, and productivity based on space-related environmental conditions.
... org). The updated list was arranged according to LAPG III system (Haston et al., 2009), and their voucher specimens were kept in Tanta University Herbarium (TANE) and Kafrelsheikh University Herbarium. ...
... The nomenclature of taxa follows the index of Dobignard andChatelain 2010-2013), and the African Plant Database, an international source, is used as the taxonomic backbone. Names of the families of Angiosperms follow APG III (Chase and Reveal 2009;Haston et al. 2009). The life forms (or biological types) of the alien plant taxa are given according to Raunkiaer (1934), Ellenberg and Müller-Dombois (1967), Blanca et al. (2011) and Tison et al. (2014). ...
Article
Biological invasions are permanent threat to biodiversity hotspots such as the Mediterranean Basin. However, research effort on alien species has been uneven so far and most countries of North Africa such as Algeria has not yet been the subject of a comprehensive inventory of introduced, naturalized and invasive species. Thus, the present study was undertaken in order to improve our knowledge and to propose a first checklist of alien plants present in Algeria, including invasive and potentially invasive plants. This work aims to make an inventory of all available data on the alien flora present in Algeria, and to carry out preliminary quantitative and qualitative analyses (number of taxa, taxonomic composition, life forms, geographical origins, types of habitats colonized, degree of naturalization). The present review provides a global list of 211 vascular species of alien plants, belonging to 151 genera and 51 families. Most of them originated from North America (31.3%) and the Mediterranean Basin (19.4%). Nearly half (43%) of alien species are therophytes and most of them occur in highly disturbed biotopes (62%), such as arable fields (44.5%) or ruderal habitats, including rubble (17.5%). Introduced plants for ornamental purposes account for almost half (43.6%) of the alien flora. A large proportion (51.2%) of alien species is naturalized in Algeria, with about 16% considered as invasive or potentially invasive. However, the actual impact of these alien species on plant communities and ecosystems deserves urgent assessment with specific studies on impact at the community and the ecosystem levels.
... In a building built in 1935 for a maximum of 6,000,000 specimens, major obstacles facing the Paris herbarium were the serious lack of space which, together with the lack of human workforce, led to about 1 million plants waiting to be sorted and mounted. For this reason, a 5-year (2008-2012) massive effort of the MNHN was planned to renovate both the building and the collections, mainly including the installation of compactor units, reconditioning of all specimens and sorting and mounting of the unmounted ones, and reordering them following a phylogenybased linear sequence inspired by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APGIII, 2009, Haston et al., 2009. ...
Conference Paper
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Vietnam is known as a country with an agricultural culture which is a complex product of cultural, natural and human factors. Wide a wide variety of ethnic groups, geography and climate, the culture of Vietnam is extremely diverse and highly differentiated between each ethnic group or specific region. Moreover, Vietnam is l one of the mega-biodiverse regions of the world which has a significant impact on human culture. Biodiversity is always based upon the diversity of the plant kingdom. And, plants are recognized as a moment of the process. In fact, Vietnam was seen as a culture of horticulture and tilling. For example, the terraced fields in the mountainous regions of northern Vietnam like Hoang Su Phi, Sapa ones were recognized as nature heritage at national level of Vietnam. That is a symbol of agriculture culture. All the cultural and social activities of each community are closely linked to the scheme of the cropping season. This means that the evolution and development of humans and their culture is also in line with the evolution of plants and nature. For this reason, plant genebanks are considered to represent an overview of the diversity of culture, ethnicitiy/humanity and nature of Vietnam. The Plant Resources Center (PRC) is the national coordinator of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in Vietnam. PRC is currently conserving 450,000 accessions of 400 crop species and wild species relatives at 35 centers/institutes in the agricultural and rural sector across Vietnam. Our records of the plant resources in these genebanks prove that plant diversity is a factor expressed and reflected in the diversity of languages, knowledge, experience and culture where they developed. They also reflect the conditions of nature and the environment where they are distributed. Finally, plants area separate and distinct part of culture, nature and people of Vietnam. They are integrated into every area of Vietnamese life and spirit. Keywords: Plant, Culture, Human, Nature
... We consulted all available literature regarding the alien flora in Sicily, to prepare a list of the alien aquatic vascular plants reported for the island, with family names and order according to Smith et al. (2006) and Haston et al. (2009). In addition, databases and photographs from popular websites such as Acta Plantarum (www.actaplantarum.org) ...
Article
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Updated and reliable data on the presence and distribution of alien aquatic plant species in Sicily are lacking, and there is a need to fill this gap for a proper and efficient management of freshwater ecosystems and biodiversity. This paper reviews the available knowledge about alien aquatic vascular plants in the inland waters of Sicily (Italy). The aim is to provide an updated checklist, as a first step in the study of the impact of those plants on the native species and ecosystems of this Mediterranean island. The paper focuses on the strictly aquatic species (hydrophytes), excluding emergent macrophytes. Four species were listed, all of them free-floating and with American origin. Most of them occur within protected areas, and their introduction in the island appears to be anthropogenic. A set of functional traits of the alien species, such as relative growth rate, leaf mass per area, nitrogen and carbon content, were screened. These traits are useful for assessing the species invasive potential compared to native ones.
... In order to assess the dominance of species in the vegetation communities, density, frequency and abundance were converted to relative values and summed to obtain importance value index (IVI) [11,12]. The species distribution profile was measured using Bio-Diversity Pro. ...
Article
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Qualitative and quantitative data on floristic composition and species diversity of the woody plants on Jabal El-Dair-Northern Kordofan State were collected from twenty three circular plots 0.1ha., between elevation ranged from 510 to 1200 m above sea level (asl), which later were divided into three vegetation communities (community I, community II and community III). According to the dominant plant species, to determine how woody plants species change with increasing altitude. A total number of 1147 plants from 47 species belonging to 22 families were sampled. Number of ecological parameters has been studied for each plant species and vegetation community. These parameters include number of individuals, also the frequency percentage, abundance, density, relative density and importance value index (IVI), in addition to numbers of ecological indices. Community III was found to be more diverse compared to Communities II and I, using Shannon diversity index (H). It also has the highest species richness and density than the other two Communities.
... Interestingly, the TEV lineage shares several properties with the PVY lineage, which is of at least 27 viruses (18 only found only in the Americas, seven worldwide and only two not yet found in the Americas) (Fribourg et al. 2019). The primary (field) hosts of both lineages are mostly from the asterid clade of angiosperms, and both include members that infect sunflower (Helianthus annuus) (Haston et al. 2009). ...
Article
Forty-seven potato virus A (PVA) isolates from Europe, Australia, and South America’s Andean region were subjected to high-throughput sequencing, and 46 complete genomes from Europe (n = 9), Australia (n = 2), and the Andes (n = 35) obtained. These and 17 other genomes gave alignments of 63 open reading frames 9,180 nucleotides long; 9 were recombinants. The nonrecombinants formed three tightly clustered, almost equidistant phylogroups; A comprised 14 Peruvian potato isolates; W comprised 37 from potato in Peru, Argentina, and elsewhere in the world; and T contained three from tamarillo in New Zealand. When five isolates were inoculated to a potato cultivar differential, three strain groups (= pathotypes) unrelated to phylogenetic groupings were recognized. No temporal signal was detected among the dated nonrecombinant sequences, but PVA and potato virus Y (PVY) are from related lineages and ecologically similar; therefore, “relative dating” was obtained using a single maximum-likelihood phylogeny of PVA and PVY sequences and PVY’s well-supported 157 CE “time to most common recent ancestor”. The PVA datings obtained were supported by several independent historical coincidences. The PVA and PVY populations apparently arose in the Andes approximately 18 centuries ago, and were taken to Europe during the Columbian Exchange, radiating there after the mid-19th century potato late blight pandemic. PVA’s phylogroup A population diverged more recently in the Andean region, probably after new cultivars were bred locally using newly introduced Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum as a parent. Such cultivars became widely grown, and apparently generated the A × W phylogroup recombinants. Phylogroup A, and its interphylogroup recombinants, might pose a biosecurity risk. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .
... Voucher Specimens will be deposited in the Herbarium of the Department of Tea Science, University of North Bengal and finally one set to CAL Herbarium. For the Family delimitation LAPG-III ( Haston et al., 2009 ) system has been followed. ...
Article
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A floristic investigation was made during 2016-2018 to observe the tree diversity and their present status in the Jaldapara National Park (JNP) which is situated in the Duars region of West Bengal, India. A total of 294 species of trees belonging to 189 genera and 63 families, including 4 species of gymnosperms were recorded. Fabaceae (s.l.) with its 36 species has been appeared to be the dominant family. The tree community of JNP was found to be an excellent blend of wild as well as cultivated species of trees. All the four species of gymnosperms recorded are introduced to the park area. The present study highlights on different categories of threatened taxa which contributed about 43.53% of the recorded tree species. Different types of anthropogenic interferences, including NTFP (Non Timber Forest Product) collection and artificial forest-fire causing dangerous threats for the maintenance of its original vegetation and survival of numerous species in all the strata of the vegetation. Strict implementation of forest conservation related rules and the establishment of ex-situ Protected Area near the park may improve the situation.
... We consulted all available literature regarding the alien flora in Sicily, to prepare a list of the alien aquatic vascular plants reported for the island, with family names and order according to Smith et al. (2006) and Haston et al. (2009). In addition, databases and photographs from popular websites such as Acta Plantarum (www.actaplantarum.org) ...
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Two new species of Nepenthes from Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia, N. latiffiana M. N. Faizal, A. Amin & N. Dome and N. domei M. N. Faizal, A. Amin & A. Latiff, are described and illustrated.
... Some genera and taxa have been transferred to different families in the APG III [14] system that we used while creating our list. However, since the use of this system in this study did not cause a difference in the number of taxa belonging to the first 5 families and genera, there were no any problems in comparing the data. ...
Article
In this study, one of the Turkey's Wetlands of International Importance Grounds, declared as Wildlife Protection Area and Grade 1 Natural Protected Area called Acar Longoz (Sakarya) and its surroundings' floristic features were studied. The study area is on the A3 square according to Davis's Grid Frame System. As a result of the studies carried out in the Acarlar floodplain, there were 360 genera, 654 species and subspecies taxa belonging to 97 families. Of the taxa identified in the area, 8 belong to Pteridophyta, 646 to Spermatophyta, 5 of which belong to Gymnospermae and 641 to Angiospermae subdivision. The endemism rate of the area was determined to be 2,137 % with 14 taxa. The number of taxa belonging to the European-Siberian phytogeographical region is in the first place with 21.47%. Additional information was also given about the remarkable plants in the research area.
... have presented a comparison among the APG II (2003) with that of the classfications of Takhtajan (1997) and the Cronquist(1988). But the recent findings of APG III (2009) and the 'Kew led consensus support' for the Mabberley's classification (2008), Haston et al. (2009) and Chase and Reveal's linear sequence for higherlevel classification (2009) and simultaneous strong resentment of Hawthorne and Hughes (2008) as well as the publication of a revised system of Takhtajan's classification (2009) have necessitated this note. A tabular comparison of the classifications of the phyla, classes, subclasses, superorders, orders and familes of angiosperms by the APG III (2009) and of Takhtajan (2009) is presented. ...
Conference Paper
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A tabular comparison of the classifications of the supraordinal and ordinal groups of angiosperms of the APG III (2009) and Takhtajan (2009) is presented. The linear sequence of the Divisions, Classes, Subclasses, Superorders, Orders and Families is that of the APG. The APG III provided a new model of Phylogenetic (= cladistic) classification. The framework of supraordinal informal (rankless) groups such as Magnoliids, and Campanulinids fully resolved. All the accepted names of the families are listed in alphabetical sequence (excluding order of that Santalales). Under the supraordinal groups there are the presence of a number of families (32) without their proper assignment to orders, as their ordinal positions are still unclear to the APG III. For the present purpose two supraordinal groups such as 'Basal families' and 'Proeudicots' and 12 additional ordinal names are optionally adopted with quotation-mark ("_"), /, question mark (?) and parenthesis. Nevertheless, there are four ordinal positions which remain unnamed. Monocots are placed between the Magnoliids and the Eudicots. The APG III has recognized 14 'new' orders and updated 19 orders with new consignment of families. They have emended (re-circumscribed, expanded or restricted) 48 families. There are 70 families in parenthesis below the updated families with which these families may be merged or relegated. The APG III has widely shifted 28 families and deleted about 46 popular families in favour of other broadly circumscribed families. Fourteen (14) obsolete families are reintroduced along with a fresh list of 'taxa incertae sedis' of two (2) families and three (3 genera).
... The members of the magnoliids have different phylogenetic positions in the four different versions of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) system (Baas et al., 2000;Chase et al., 2016;Haston et al., 2007Haston et al., , 2009. For example, magnoliids are sister to monocots in APG II, but sister to both monocots and eudicots in APG I, III, and IV. ...
Article
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Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is one of the most important ornamental plants, whose color is mainly determined by the middle tepals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the intriguing flower color development among different wintersweet groups are still largely unknown. In addition, wintersweet belongs to magnoliids, and the issue remains as to how to determine the phylogenetic position of magnoliids conclusively. Here, the whole genome of red flower wintersweet, a new wintersweet type, was sequenced and assembled with high-quality. The genome comprised 11 super-scaffolds (chromosomes) with a total size of 737.03 Mb. Based on the analyses of the long branch attraction (LBA), incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), sparse taxon sampling and other factors, we suggest that a bifurcating tree may not fully represent the complex early diversification of the angiosperms, and that magnoliids are most likely to be the sister of the eudicots. The wintersweet genome appears to have undergone two rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) events: a younger WGD event representing an independent event specific to the Calycanthaceae species; and an ancient WGD event shared by Laurales. By integrating genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic data, CpANS1 and transcription factor CpMYB1 were considered to play key roles in regulating tepal color development, whereas CpMYB1 needs to form a complex with bHLH and WD40 to fully perform its regulatory function. The present study not only provided novel insights into the evolution of magnoliids and the molecular mechanism for flower color development, but also laid the foundation for subsequent functional genomics study and molecular breeding of wintersweet.
... When the floristic findings were given, they were based on APG III, and the families were arranged in accordance with the evolutionary sequence given in the "Linear Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG III): A Linear Sequence of the Families in APG III" (Haston et al., 2009). Since there is no evolutionary classification made according to the APG System in terms of genus, species and subspecies, the subfamily categories were listed in alphabetical order. ...
Article
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The investigation area covers areas with gypsum and marl soils located within the borders of Eskişehir. According to Davis' squaring system, a large part of the research area is located on the B3 surface. 1750 samples were collected from the research area between 2012 and 2015 for the determination of floran. The APG III system was monitored while preparing the floristic list. As a result of the diagnoses made; 354 genus belonging to 72 families, 673 species and total 738 taxa were identified. Of the plant samples that were diagnosed, 738 taxa belong to the Spermatophyta divisosus. 42% (5,6%) of the total taxa in the area are Mediterranean, 152 (20.6%) Iranian-Turanian, 38 (5.1%) Euro-Siberian element, 27 (3.6%) E. Mediterranean elements and 478 (64,7%) are multi-regional or phytogeographic regions of unknown taxa. 129 (17.5%) endemic taxa were found in the research area.--Eskişehir'deki jipsli ve marnlı toprakların florası Özet Araştırma alanı Eskişehir sınırları içerisinde yer alan jipsli ve marnlı toprakların bulunduğu alanları kapsamaktadır. Davis'in kareleme sistemine göre araştırma alanının büyük bir bölümü B3 karesinde yer almaktadır. Floranın belirlenmesi için 2012-2015 yılları arasında araştırma alanından 1750 örnek toplanmıştır. Floristik liste hazırlanırken APG III sistemi izlenmiştir. Yapılan teşhisler sonucunda; 72 familyaya ait 354 cins, 673 tür ve toplam 738 takson tespit edilmiştir. Teşhisi yapılan bitki örneklerinden 738 takson Spermatophyta divizyosuna aittir. Alandaki toplam taksonların 42'si (% 5.6) Akdeniz elementi, 152'si (% 20.6) İran-Turan elementi, 38'i (% 5.1) Avrupa-Sibirya elementi, 27'si (% 3.6) D. Akdeniz elementi ve 478'i (% 64.7) çok bölgeli veya fitocoğrafik bölgesi bilinmeyen taksonlardır. Araştırma alanında 129 (% 17.5) endemik takson bulunmuştur.
... Leaf-size histograms for GL-01 are shown in Figure 6. Leaf parataxa and cuticle descriptions are presented as Systematic Palaeontology, in family order following LAPG III (Haston et al., 2009). Leaf architecture terms follow Hickey (1973), Dilcher (1974), Pole (1991), and Ellis et al. (2009). ...
... The genus Clerodendrum Linnaeus was placed under Verbenaceae in most of the angiosperm classifications (Bentham & Hooker 1862-1883Cronquist 1981). But, in recent classifications, based mostly on molecular data, has re-classified the genus as a member of Lamiaceae (Chase & Reveal 2009;Haston et al. 2009). The genus was established in 1753 by Linnaeus based on the type species Clerodendrum infortunatum Linnaeus from India (Shrivastava & Patel 2007). ...
Article
Leaf architectural attributes of six species of Clerodendrum Linnaeus (sensu lato) [C. bracteatum Wallich ex Walpers; C. indicum (Linnaeus) Kuntze; C. inerme (Linnaeus) J.Gaertner (i.e. Volkameria inermis Linnaeus); C. laevifolium Blumea; C. serratum Moon (i.e. Rotheca serrata (Linnaeus) Steane & Mabberley); and C. trichotomum Thunberg], occurring naturally in Assam, were studied to ascertain their taxonomic relationships using leaf architectural characters. Different parameters like leaf attachment, petiole length, blade class, laminar shape, margin, apex and base, 2 0 and 3 0 vein categories, spacing and angle were studied. A dichotomous key of these species was constructed and detailed description based on the architectural characters for each species are provided. From the produced data no sufficient difference could be identifies to isolate Rotheca serrata and Volkameria inermis from Clerodendrum Linnaeus.
... Recent literature was consulted for current plant names Friis and Vollesen (12) and The Plant List (13). The list of families covered in this study was arranged according to the Linear Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (LAPG) III (14), while subfamilies, genera, and species are arranged alphabetically within the families. Vernacular names and economic uses given were compiled from local people and available literature. ...
Article
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The present study was aimed to document the present flora of the Al-Galabat Area, AlGadarif State, Sudan, and consequently to contribute to the updating of Sudan's flora. This study was identified 151 species belonging to 121 genera and 43 families, including one new record to the flora of Sudan. The flora is comprised of a variety of different growth forms. Most are herbs 51%, trees 20%, grasses 14%, and shrubs 13%; the remaining are woody climbers and parasitic plants. The majority of the plant species have important economic uses.
... Endemizim durumları, tehlike kategorileri, fitocoğrafik bölge elementleri, Türkçe isimler ve otör isimleri Türkiye bitkileri listesi (damarlı Bitkiler)[52] kitabı ve Türkiye Bitkileri Kırmızı kitabından[53] kontrol edilmiştir. Bitkiler herbaryum materyali haline getirilerek Bingöl Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Biyoloji Bölümü Herbaryumu'nda saklanmaktadır.Verilen yeni kayıt listesi APG III[54] sistemi dikkate alınarak alfabetik olarak verilmiştir. Lokalite bilgileri verilirken bulunduğu kare, il, ilçe, köy, mevkii, habitat, tarih, yükseklik, toplayıcı numarası, endemizim durumu (END kısaltması ile), Tehlike kategorisi ve fitocoğrafik bölge elementi sırası izlenmiştir. ...
... The vascular plants found represent 470 taxa, representing 318 genera of 95 currently recognized families (Table S1) which are arranged as per Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III, 21 in a linear sequence. 22 The species are arranged alphabetically with the accepted scientific names against vernacular name, habit (growth form), life form and the primary use (although other uses known for some, they are not enlisted for want of page space). ...
... APG IV under the clades, orders and families (Table 4). The linear sequence of families as per LAPG (Haston et al., 2009) will be of use to arrange the herbarium in that order as has been done now in European herbaria and elsewhere. ...
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Chapter
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1 RESUME Le but de cette étude est de recenser et documenter les plantes médicinales utilisées traditionnellement contre l’infertilité féminine par les matrones (accoucheuses traditionnelles) dans le département de Dabakala (Côte d’Ivoire). Ainsi une enquête par questionnaire a été menée auprès de 71 matrones du département de Dabakala. Les résultats de cette enquête ont indiqué que 25 espèces reparties entre 23 genres et 18 familles sont utilisées par les matrones pour soigner divers cas d’infertilité. Les familles les plus représentées sont les Annonaceae et les Solanaceae. Parmi les espèces citées, Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae), Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae), Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae), Vitellaria paradoxa (Sapotaceae) et Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae) sont les plus recommandées. Les valeurs de VAUs de ces espèces varient de 0,42 à 0,24. Ces résultats constituent une base de données pour les études ultérieures visant à évaluer les potentialités biologiques et chimiques de ces plantes. ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to identify and document medicinal plants traditionally used by matrons (traditional midwives) against female infertility in the department of Dabakala (Côte d’Ivoire). A questionnaire survey therefore was conducted on 71 matrons in Dabakala department. The results of this survey showed that 25 species distributed among 23 types and 18 families are used by the matrones to treat various cases of infertility. The most represented families (groups of espece) are Annonaceae and Solanaceae. Among the mentioned species, Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae), Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae), Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae), Vitellaria paradoxa (Sapotaceae) and Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae) are the most recommended. The Use Agreement Value (VAU-valeur d'accord d'utilisation) (VAU) of these species vary from 0.42 to 0.24. These results provide a database for subsequent studies to evaluate the biological and chemical potential of these plants.
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Nature gifts medicinal plants with the untapped and boundless treasure of active chemical constituents with significant therapeutic potential that makes these plants a beneficial source in the development of phytomedicines. Genus Cassia, with approximately 500 species, is a large group of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae. Cassia species are widely distributed throughout different regions mainly tropical Asia, North America, and East Africa. In the folk medicinal history, these plants are used as laxative and purgative agents. In the Ayurveda system of medicine, they are used to cure headache and fever. Cassia plants exhibit pharmacological activities at large scales such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hyperglycemic, antimutagenic, and antivirals. The phytochemical investigations of genus Cassia demonstrate the presence of more than 200 chemical compounds, including piperidine alkaloids, anthracene derivatives (anthraquinones), flavonoids, pentacyclic triterpenoids, sterols, phenylpropanoids, and γ‐naphthopyrones. The literature illustrated anthraquinones and flavonoids as major secondary metabolites from this genus. However, some Cassia plants, with rich contents of anthraquinones, still show toxicology properties. As Cassia plants are used extensively in the herbal system of medicine, but only senna dosage forms have achieved the status of the pharmaceutical market as standard laxative agents. In conclusion, further investigations on isolating newer biologically active constituents, unknown underlying mechanisms, toxicology profiles, and clinical studies of Cassia species are needed to be explored. This review article specifies the systematic breach existing between the current scientific knowledge and the fundamentals for the marketization of genus Cassia products.
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This study integrates remote and chemical data to investigate the potential use of potassium (K), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) radioisotopes for mapping Cerrado physiognomies. Because soil and vegetation are interdependent, the vegetation over the substrate reflects this relationship. Moreover, the physiognomic extracts that accompany the distribution of elements associated with the movement of this substrate in soil can be identified. Gamma ray spectrometric data have been used primarily for mineral exploration; however, the present study addresses the potential of these data for identifying vegetation. Using a multivariate analysis, it is possible to compare radioisotope data and their relationship to vegetation. The current study area is located in the northwest of Goiás, an area of conserved phytophysiognomic diversity that enables studies of the Cerrado vegetation. An initial cluster analysis defined five vegetation cover types: cerradão, cerrado rupestre, cerrado sensu stricto and campo limpo. Dendrograms demonstrated a positive relationship in the radioisotopes absorbed by certain plants; furthermore, their availability in the soil confirmed that it is possible to identify vegetation groups using the same absorption behavior. This soil-plant relationship divides groups that have the capacity for the absorption of radioisotopes with remote gamma-spectrometry data. Even considering that each species might react differently because of absorption and the bioavailability of elements in the soil, a relationship between absorption and remote data was identified. Furthermore, this relationship is reflected in the physiognomy, as confirmed by a multivariate discriminant analysis. The result of the analysis showed the potential of Th and K radioisotopes with regard to phytophysiognomic mapping.
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This study was carried out to determine the Flora of Kızıltepe (Niğde: Ulukışla) and its Vicinity, which is located in the square C5 of Grid system, based on the specimens collected in the vegetation period of the years 2015 and 2016. As a result of evaluation of 831 plant specimens, 350 taxa from 192 genera belong to 59 families were determined. Four taxa were included into the division Pteridophyta and 346 taxa were from the division Magnoliophyta. Six taxa of the later belong to the subdivisio Pinophytina (Gymnospermae - Gymnosperms) and 340 taxa of this division were from the subdivisio Magnoliophytina (Angiospermae - Flowering Plants). With respect to the numbers of taxa, Asteraceae was the richest family and Astragalus was the richest genus. 98 of the taxa collected from the study area were endemic. The endemism ratio was determined as 28 %. The ratio of the taxa according to the phytogeographic regions were found as follows: Irano-Turanian elements 22.3%, Mediterranean elements 8%, East Mediterranean elements 14.6%, Euro-Siberian elements 3.4%, Euxin elements 1.7%, and indetermined elements 50.0%. Key words: Alpin, Bolkar, C5 square, Flora, Kızıltepe, Turkey
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This study aimed to update and assess the list of endemic plants in the Egyptian flora, based on information obtained during field trips, literature reviews, and herbaria consultations. Life forms, habitat, national distribution, rarity forms, local threats, and conservation status according to IUCN categories, were estimated for these plants. Twenty field visits were conducted from summer 2015 to spring 2020 to many locations all over Egypt. The recent list includes 42 species (belonging to 37 genera and 20 families inhabiting 10 main habitats). Rocky surfaces and sandy formations have the highest number of endemic species, most of them are therophytes. Sinaitico-Arabian sector is the richest in endemics (19 taxa), followed by the Marioutico-Arishian (17 taxa). Small geographic range-small habitat-non-abundant plants are the most represented rarity form. All endemics are exposed to at least one type of local threat, the most prominent threats being over-collecting and over-cutting. According to the guidelines of IUCN, 31 of the endemic taxa are threatened, thus requiring in situ and ex situ conservation. Out of them, 11 taxa are believed to be Extinct, five are Critically Endangered, and 15 Endangered. In addition, 11 taxa are evaluated as Data Deficient. Further studies are still needed to verify and fill the information gaps about the Egyptian endemics.
Thesis
La polyploïdie ou la duplication des génomes est une force majeure dans l'évolution et l'adaptation des espèces, notamment des angiospermes qui ont tous eu des évènements de polyploïdisation réccurrents au cours de leur évolution. Afin de comprendre la reprogrammation de l'expression des gènes en réponse à la polyploïdie chez les espèces économiquement importantes du blé (genres Triticum et Aegilops), j'ai utilisé un modèle original, qui consiste à caractériser les réponses à la diminution puis la ré-augmentation du niveau de ploïdie. Ainsi, le blé allotétraploïde (T. turgidum, BBAA) est extrait à partir du blé naturel allohexaploïde (T. aestivum, BBAADD). Ce blé allotétraploïde extrait est hybridé à son tour à l'espèce diploïde Ae. tauschii (DD) pour synthétiser un blé allohexaploïde.J'ai utilisé des méthodes d'analyse de l'expression des gènes basées sur les microarrays ainsi que le séquençage massif des ARN (RNA-Seq), basé sur les outils de nouvelles générations de séquençage (NGS) et rendu possible par la récente mise à disposition des séquences de trois copies homéologues (Ah, Bh, Dh) de 8605 gènes. Les méthodes bioinformatiques et statistiques appropriées ont été développées et/ou utilisées.Mes travaux révèlent un partitionnement de l'expression des gènes en celles des homéologues qui les composent dans les différents allopolyploïdes étudiés. La majorité des homéologues contribuent à l'expression globale des gènes de manière équivalente (1/3 chacun), d'autres présentent un biais d'expression spécifique vers un des homéologues, sans montrer de dominance d'un des sous-génomes. Une concertation dans le partitionnement et le niveau d'expression des homéologues est bien établie dans le blé: la majorité des homéologues augmentent leur expression lorsqu'ils sont séparés et la diminuent lorsqu'ils sont rassemblés dans un niveau de ploïdie supérieur. Ainsi, dans le blé allohexaploïde, pour la majorité des gènes, l'expression des homéologues Ah et Bh est égale au 2/3 de leur niveau d'expression dans le blé allotétraploïde extrait, et l'expression de l'homéoallèle Dh est égale au 1/3 du niveau d'expression dans le blé diploïde donneur du génome D. Cette concertation de l'expression des homéologues maintiendrait l'expression globale des gènes à des niveaux similaires dans les différentes espèces de blé de différents niveaux de ploïdie.Les résultats obtenus contribuent à la compréhension de la régulation de l'expression des gènes dans les polyploïdes du blé et la contribution des homéologues qui les composent. Les analyses futures des fonctions des différentes catégories d'expression des gènes permettraient d'identifier des fonctions particulières régulées en réponse à la polyploïdie.
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This study aimed to determine and compare the composition, diversity and density of canopy and regeneration layers; and to examine how the understory species richness differ from the overstory in the forests in AlGalabat area, AlGadarif State The data were collected from 36 systematic circular sample plots of 0.1 ha., with intervals of 200 m between each plot representing six vegetation sites along different topographical feature. A total of 1163 stems of mature woody vegetation and 962 stems of regeneration, representing 37 species, belonging to 16 families were identified. Number of ecological parameters and indices has been studied for each plant species and vegetation community for both canopy and regeneration layers. The results revealed that canopy layer was most dense and diverse in all sites when compared to regeneration layer. Cephalocroton cordofanus was recorded the highest value of importance value index (IVI= 129.48) and relative density (59.94%) in the canopy layer.
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This study identified and document species of the endemic flora of AlRoseiris Locality, Blue Nile State, Sudan. This study identified and updated174 species belonging to133 genera, 45 families and 26 orders, and including two new records to the Flora of the Sudan. The flora consist a variety of different growth-forms. The majority of the plant species have important economic uses.
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This paper provides a linear classification of two subfamilies, 24 tribes, 10 subtribes and 95 genera of the monocot family Cyperaceae (Poales), based on a stable phylogenetic framework resulting from years of morphological, molecular phylogenetic and phylogenomic studies. The family includes c. 5687 species. The most species-rich tribes are the monogeneric tribe Cariceae with c. 2003 species, and tribe Cypereae with c. 1131 species. The highest generic diversity is found in tribe Schoeneae (25 genera), which resulted in the recognition of eight subtribes to facilitate studying this group. The linear classification will help the organisation of Cyperaceae specimens in herbaria according to a systematic order and provides an easy-to-use summary of the current classification of the family.
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Yabancı Ot Bilimi (Herboloji) ile ilgili bilimsel literatür taraması yapmak için güncel kaynaklara ihtiyaç duyulduğu bilinmektedir. Bu eser “istenmeyen bitkiler” olarak adlandırılan yabancı otlar ile ilgili toplumda ve özellikle akademik alanda lisans ve lisansüstü öğrencilerinin ulaşabilecekleri aktüel bilimsel yazılara gereksinim duyulmasından yola çıkılarak harmanlanmıştır. Yayınlanan bu kitap ile Herboloji’nin temel amaçları nelerdir, yabancı otları nasıl kontrol edebiliriz, yabancı ot yönetimi kültür bitkisinin gelişimine nasıl etki eder, gelecekte yabancı ot direnci ile ilgili hangi yeniliklere ihtiyacımız olacak gibi sorulara cevap aramaya ve yabancı ot dünyasına geniş kapsamlı akademik bir bakış açısı kazandırılmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu kitabın yazılması için zaman harcayan, emek veren ve kitap bölüm yazarlığı yapan sayın hocalarımıza ve değerli arkadaşlarımıza sonsuz teşekkürü bir borç biliriz. Ayrıca bu akademik kitabımızın kapak tasarımı için Dr. Oya Gönen’e teşekkür ederiz. Bu kitabın Herboloji’nin akademik dünyamızda yeni bir Anabilim Dalı olma sürecine katkı sağlaması dileği ile hayırlara vesile olmasını dileriz.
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A revised and updated classification for the families of flowering plants is provided. Many recent studies have yielded increasingly detailed evidence for the positions of formerly unplaced families, resulting in a number of newly adopted orders, including Amborellales, Berberidopsidales, Bruniales, Buxales, Chloranthales, Escalloniales, Huerteales, Nymphaeales, Paracryphiales, Petrosaviales, Picramniales, Trochodendrales, Vitales and Zygophyllales. A number of previously unplaced genera and families are included here in orders, greatly reducing the number of unplaced taxa; these include Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales), Haptanthaceae (Buxales), Peridiscaceae (Saxifragales), Huaceae (Oxalidales), Centroplacaceae and Rafflesiaceae (both Malpighiales), Aphloiaceae, Geissolomataceae and Strasburgeriaceae (all Crossosomatales), Picramniaceae (Picramniales), Dipentodontaceae and Gerrardinaceae (both Huerteales), Cytinaceae (Malvales), Balanophoraceae (Santalales), Mitrastemonaceae (Ericales) and Boraginaceae (now at least known to be a member of lamiid clade). Newly segregated families for genera previously understood to be in other APG-recognized families include Petermanniaceae (Liliales), Calophyllaceae (Malpighiales), Capparaceae and Cleomaceae (both Brassicales), Schoepfiaceae (Santalales), Anacampserotaceae, Limeaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae and Talinaceae (all Caryophyllales) and Linderniaceae and Thomandersiaceae (both Lamiales). Use of bracketed families is abandoned because of its unpopularity, and in most cases the broader circumscriptions are retained; these include Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceace and Xanthorrheaceae (all Asparagales), Passifloraceae (Malpighiales), Primulaceae (Ericales) and several other smaller families. Separate papers in this same volume deal with a new linear order for APG, subfamilial names that can be used for more accurate communication in Amaryllidaceae s.l., Asparagaceace s.l. and Xanthorrheaceae s.l. (all Asparagales) and a formal supraordinal classification for the flowering plants.
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Sequence data from the matK gene, the trnK group II intron, the trnL group I intron and the trnL-F spacer were analysed for a broad sampling of the rosids and other eudicots. For the first time all putative genera of Dipentodontaceae and Tapisciaceae (Dipentodon, Huertea, Perrottetia, Tapiscia), as well as the recently described Gerrardinaceae were included in a molecular phylogenetic dataset. All genera were found in a well supported Huerteales clade. Moreover, with the rapidly evolving and non-coding plastid sequence data we were able to resolve the Huerteales clade to branch after Sapindales, and to be sister to a Brassicales-Malvales clade. Increased resolution and support among the malvids underscore the potential of plastid introns and spacers as well as the matK gene as phylogenetic markers in rosids.
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The eudicot order Malpighiales contains ∼16000 species and is the most poorly resolved large rosid clade. To clarify phylogenetic relationships in the order, we used maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and parsimony analyses of DNA sequence data from 13 gene regions, totaling 15604 bp, and representing all three genomic compartments (i.e., plastid: atpB, matK, ndhF, and rbcL; mitochondrial: ccmB, cob, matR, nad1B-C, nad6, and rps3; and nuclear: 18S rDNA, PHYC, and newly developed low-copy EMB2765). Our sampling of 190 taxa includes representatives from all families of Malpighiales. These data provide greatly increased support for the recent additions of Aneulophus, Bhesa, Centroplacus, Ploiarium, and Rafflesiaceae to Malpighiales; sister relations of Phyllanthaceae + Picrodendraceae, monophyly of Hypericaceae, and polyphyly of Clusiaceae. Oxalidales + Huaceae, followed by Celastrales are successive sisters to Malpighiales. Parasitic Rafflesiaceae, which produce the world's largest flowers, are confirmed as embedded within a paraphyletic Euphorbiaceae. Novel findings show a well-supported placement of Ctenolophonaceae with Erythroxylaceae + Rhizophoraceae, sister-group relationships of Bhesa + Centroplacus, and the exclusion of Medusandra from Malpighiales. New taxonomic circumscriptions include the addition of Bhesa to Centroplacaceae, Medusandra to Peridiscaceae (Saxifragales), Calophyllaceae applied to Clusiaceae subfamily Kielmeyeroideae, Peraceae applied to Euphorbiaceae subfamily Peroideae, and Huaceae included in Oxalidales.
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The rosid clade (70,000 species) contains more than one-fourth of all angiosperm species and includes most lineages of extant temperate and tropical forest trees. Despite progress in elucidating relationships within the angiosperms, rosids remain the largest poorly resolved major clade; deep relationships within the rosids are particularly enigmatic. Based on parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of separate and combined 12-gene (10 plastid genes, 2 nuclear; >18,000 bp) and plastid inverted repeat (IR; 24 genes and intervening spacers; >25,000 bp) datasets for >100 rosid species, we provide a greatly improved understanding of rosid phylogeny. Vitaceae are sister to all other rosids, which in turn form 2 large clades, each with a ML bootstrap value of 100%: (i) eurosids I (Fabidae) include the nitrogen-fixing clade, Celastrales, Huaceae, Zygophyllales, Malpighiales, and Oxalidales; and (ii) eurosids II (Malvidae) include Tapisciaceae, Brassicales, Malvales, Sapindales, Geraniales, Myrtales, Crossosomatales, and Picramniaceae. The rosid clade diversified rapidly into these major lineages, possibly over a period of <15 million years, and perhaps in as little as 4 to 5 million years. The timing of the inferred rapid radiation of rosids [108 to 91 million years ago (Mya) and 107-83 Mya for Fabidae and Malvidae, respectively] corresponds with the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests and the concomitant diversification of other clades that inhabit these forests, including amphibians, ants, placental mammals, and ferns.
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Although great progress has been made in clarifying deep-level angiosperm relationships, several early nodes in the angiosperm branch of the Tree of Life have proved difficult to resolve. Perhaps the last great question remaining in basal angiosperm phylogeny involves the branching order among the five major clades of mesangiosperms (Ceratophyllum, Chloranthaceae, eudicots, magnoliids, and monocots). Previous analyses have found no consistent support for relationships among these clades. In an effort to resolve these relationships, we performed phylogenetic analyses of 61 plastid genes (≈42,000 bp) for 45 taxa, including members of all major basal angiosperm lineages. We also report the complete plastid genome sequence of Ceratophyllum demersum. Parsimony analyses of combined and partitioned data sets varied in the placement of several taxa, particularly Ceratophyllum, whereas maximum-likelihood (ML) trees were more topologically stable. Total evidence ML analyses recovered a clade of Chloranthaceae + magnoliids as sister to a well supported clade of monocots + (Ceratophyllum + eudicots). ML bootstrap and Bayesian support values for these relationships were generally high, although approximately unbiased topology tests could not reject several alternative topologies. The extremely short branches separating these five lineages imply a rapid diversification estimated to have occurred between 143.8 ± 4.8 and 140.3 ± 4.8 Mya. • Ceratophyllum • molecular dating • phylogenetics • mesangiosperms
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Angiosperms are the largest and most successful clade of land plants with >250,000 species distributed in nearly every terrestrial habitat. Many phylogenetic studies have been based on DNA sequences of one to several genes, but, despite decades of intensive efforts, relationships among early diverging lineages and several of the major clades remain either incompletely resolved or weakly supported. We performed phylogenetic analyses of 81 plastid genes in 64 sequenced genomes, including 13 new genomes, to estimate relationships among the major angiosperm clades, and the resulting trees are used to examine the evolution of gene and intron content. Phylogenetic trees from multiple methods, including model-based approaches, provide strong support for the position of Amborella as the earliest diverging lineage of flowering plants, followed by Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales. The plastid genome trees also provide strong support for a sister relationship between eudicots and monocots, and this group is sister to a clade that includes Chloranthales and magnoliids. Resolution of relationships among the major clades of angiosperms provides the necessary framework for addressing numerous evolutionary questions regarding the rapid diversification of angiosperms. Gene and intron content are highly conserved among the early diverging angiosperms and basal eudicots, but 62 independent gene and intron losses are limited to the more derived monocot and eudicot clades. Moreover, a lineage-specific correlation was detected between rates of nucleotide substitutions, indels, and genomic rearrangements. • angiosperm evolution • molecular evolution
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Numerous linear taxon sequences can be generated from large phylogenetic trees raising questions about what criteria should be used to select an optimal sequence for collections of specimens and published taxonomic outputs including field guides. Possible criteria and ways to implement them are discussed in relation to the sequence of Angiosperm families proposed by Haston & al. (2007). We define a particular spatial arrangement in one or more dimensions of the terminal nodes of a tree as a projection of that tree; a projection method is the set of rules by which the projection is achieved. We show that the projection of the Angiosperm phylogeny to a linear sequence, proposed by Haston & al. (2007), is not ideal because it is incompletely optimized for incompletely specified criteria. Tree projection methods that promote stability and incorporation of morphological data used in herbaria and other identification guides are proposed.
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This paper discusses the need for an up-to-date linear sequence of angiosperm families based on the APG system. The methods used to generate the sequence are clearly laid out, and the sequence is provided in a simple numbered list of 479 families. The need for a consensus classification of families is also discussed.
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Previous attempts to resolve relationships among the primary lineages of Campanulidae (e.g. Apiales, Asterales, Dipsacales) have mostly been unconvincing, and the placement of a number of smaller groups (e.g. Bruniaceae, Columelliaceae, Escalloniaceae) remains uncertain. Here we build on a recent analysis of an incomplete data set that was assembled from the literature for a set of 50 campanulid taxa. To this data set we first added newly generated DNA sequence data for the same set of genes and taxa. Second, we sequenced three additional cpDNA coding regions (ca. 8,000 bp) for the same set of 50 campanulid taxa. Finally, we assembled the most comprehensive sample of campanulid diversity to date, including ca. 17,000 bp of cpDNA for 122 campanulid taxa and five outgroups. Simply filling in missing data in the 50-taxon data set (rendering it 94% complete) resulted in a topology that was similar to earlier studies, but with little additional resolution or confidence. In contrast, the addition of the ca. 8,000 bp of sequence data provided resolution and support for a number of relationships. With the addition of many more campanulid taxa we recovered a well-resolved phylogeny for Campanulidae where, with the exception of the placement of Escalloniaceae, support was high for all major clades. In addition, we were able to confidently place a number of enigmatic taxa, some whose relationships were previously unresolved and some never before included. In light of these results, we briefly expand the discussion of floral symmetry and provide a phylogenetic classification of Campanulidae with phylogenetic definitions for all well-supported major clades.
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A revised and updated classification for the families of the flowering plants is provided. Newly adopted orders include Austrobaileyales, Canellales, Gunnerales, Crossosomatales and Celastrales. Pertinent literature published since the first APG classification is included, such that many additional families are now placed in the phylogenetic scheme. Among these are Hydnoraceae (Piperales), Nartheciaceae (Dioscoreales), Corsiaceae (Liliales), Triuridaceae (Pandanales), Hanguanaceae (Commelinales), Bromeliacae, Mayacaceae and Rapateaceae (all Poales), Barbeuiaceae and Gisekiaceae (both Caryophyllales), Geissolomataceae, Strasburgeriaceae and Vitaceae (unplaced to order, but included in the rosids), Zygophyllaceae (unplaced to order, but included in eurosids I), Bonnetiaceae, Ctenolophonaceae, Elatinaceae, Ixonanthaceae, Lophopyxidaceae, Podostemaceae (Malpighiales), Paracryphiaceae (unplaced in euasterid II), Sladeniaceae, Pentaphylacaceae (Ericales) and Cardiopteridaceae (Aquifoliales). Several major families are recircumscribed. Salicaceae are expanded to include a large part of Flacourtiaceae, including the type genus of that family; another portion of former Flacourtiaceae is assigned to an expanded circumscription of Achariaceae. Euphorbiaceae are restricted to the uniovulate subfamilies; Phyllanthoideae are recognized as Phyllanthaceae and Oldfieldioideae as Picrodendraceae. Scrophulariaceae are recircumscribed to include Buddlejaceae and Myoporaceae and exclude several former members; these are assigned to Calceolariaceae, Orobanchaceae and Plantaginaceae. We expand the use of bracketing families that could be included optionally in broader circumscriptions with other related families; these include Agapanthaceae and Amaryllidaceae in Alliaceae s.l., Agavaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Ruscaceae (among many other Asparagales) in Asparagaceae s.l., Dichapetalaceae in Chrysobalanaceae, Turneraceae in Passifloraceae, Erythroxylaceae in Rhizophoraceae, and Diervillaceae, Dipsacaceae, Linnaeaceae, Morinaceae and Valerianaceae in Caprifoliaceae s.l. © 2003 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2003, 141, 399–436.
Analysis of an 83-gene, 86-taxon plastid genome data set resolves relation-ships among several deep-level eudicot lineages Using plastid genome-scale data to resolve enigmatic relationships among basal angiosperms
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Moore M, Bell C, Soltis PS, Soltis DE. 2008. Analysis of an 83-gene, 86-taxon plastid genome data set resolves relation-ships among several deep-level eudicot lineages. Botany 2008. Botany without borders, 97. Moore MJ, Bell CD, Soltis PS, Soltis DE. 2007. Using plastid genome-scale data to resolve enigmatic relationships among basal angiosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104: 19363–19368.
Phylogenetic analysis of 83 plastid genes resolves relationships among major clades of eudicot angiosperms and reveals multiple rapid radiations
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Moore MM, Soltis PS, Bell CD, Burleigh JG, Soltis DE. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of 83 plastid genes resolves relationships among major clades of eudicot angiosperms and reveals multiple rapid radiations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. In press.
Analysis of an 83-gene, 86-taxon plastid genome data set resolves relationships among several deep-level eudicot lineages Botany
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Moore M, Bell C, Soltis PS, Soltis DE. 2008. Analysis of an 83-gene, 86-taxon plastid genome data set resolves relationships among several deep-level eudicot lineages. Botany 2008. Botany without borders, 97.
Angiosperm phylogeny website, version 9 [and more or less continuously updated since
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Stevens PF. 2001. Angiosperm phylogeny website, version 9, June 2008 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Available at http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/ Tank DC, Donoghue MJ. In press. Phylogeny and phylogenetic nomenclature of the Campanulidae based on an expanded sample of genes and taxa. Systematic Botany.
Phylogenetic analysis of 83 plastid genes resolves relationships among major clades of eudicot angiosperms and reveals multiple rapid radiations
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An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II
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An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III
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