Two pangolin species, the Chinese pangolin and the Sunda pangolin, occur in mainland China (MC). TheChinese pangolin was once widely distributed throughout provinces south of the Yangtze River, as well as north of the Yangtze River in southern Sichuan, northeast Chongqing, northwest Hubei, and southwest Henan Provinces. However, the range of the Sunda pangolin is limited to border areas of Yunnan Province. Due to overexploitation and habitat loss, the pangolin population has declined dramatically and it is now widely considered extinct in most areas. At present, although the distribution and population size of the pangolin in MC are unclear, residual populations have been confirmed in Yunnan, Hainan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hunan, Chongqing, Fujian, Jiangxi, Zhejiang and Anhui provinces. Illegal hunting, habitat loss and fragmentation, small populations, low population densities, and reduced food supply are among the major threats facing pangolins today. The Chinese government has focused strongly on pangolin protection. They have been listed as Category I state-protected animals, and corresponding laws, policies and measures have been introduced to protect them from many threats. Important measures for pangolin conservation in MC include the reduction of public consumption demand, community economic development, public education about conservation and illegal activities, creation or expansion of nature reserves, optimization of road and water conservation facility construction, changes in afforestation methods, a moratorium on commercial breeding programs, proper treatment of confiscated pangolins and derivative products, further species conservation research, and international cooperative conservation efforts. If these conservation actions are implemented, the pangolin population in MC will have a bright future.