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Emotional Intelligence: Implications for Personal, Social, Academic, and Workplace Success

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Abstract

This article presents an overview of the ability model of emotional intelligence and includes a discussion about how and why the concept became useful in both educational and workplace settings. We review the four underlying emotional abilities comprising emotional intelligence and the assessment tools that that have been developed to measure the construct. A primary goal is to provide a review of the research describing the correlates of emotional intelligence. We describe what is known about how emotionally intelligent people function both intra- and interpersonally and in both academic and workplace settings.

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... Schools that integrate a systematic process for developing students' social and emotional competencies experience an increase in academic success and improved student-teacher relationships and student behaviour (Belfield et al., 2015;Brackett et al., 2011;Durlak et al., 2011;Heckman & Kautz, 2012;Levin, 2012). It makes sense. ...
... Teachers regularly cite their departures due to a lack of support from the school community or a perceived lack of care for their wellbeing and safety. Research continues to show that an emotionally intelligent learning community has a positive impact on academic success and teacher wellbeing (Belfield et al., 2015;Brackett et al., 2011;Heckman & Kautz, 2012;Levin, 2012). ...
Article
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The goal of every school ought to be to create a culture where teaching and learning thrive for all learners. Yet with the individual learner in mind, we frequently default to measuring the success of our schools using the same individual lens. It is timely to remember that tests of individual achievement are only one facet of the success of a school.
... These are family, friends, intimate partners and colleagues who have been studied as potential sources of social support. Supportive communication within a social support network will highly improve moral well-being of the PNP personnel (Salovey, Brackett, & Rivers, 2011). ...
... Family, friends, intimate partners and colleagues have been studied as potential sources of social support. Supportive communication within a social support network as (Salovey, Brackett, & Rivers, 2011) affirmed will lessen uncertainty and thereby establish reassurance of highly improved moral well-being of PNP personnel. Better social support influences factors for work performance, individual well-being and life satisfaction. ...
Article
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The main purpose of this study was to determine the best fit model of well-being of PNP personnel. Specifically, it recognized the interrelationship among the exogenous variables such as work environment, organizational social capital, social support and the endogenous variable well-being of PNP personnel in Davao Region. Structural Equation Modeling and quantitative research design were employed in this study. The data were gathered from 440 PNP active personnel in Davao Region. There were four adapted questionnaires used in the gathering of data. Findings revealed that the level of work environment and organizational social capital, and well-being are very high while social support is high. Anent to this, the three exogenous variables have a strong relationship to well-being and these greatly influence well-being of PNP personnel. Apparently, the best fit model is model number five on the organizational social capital in which cognitive and structural dimension are the best drivers towards well-being grounded on resilience, flourishing, depression anxiety and stress and job resource.
... Engagement is not only highly motivated state, but also strongly affected by emotions, which are an inherent part of the human existence in any context (Brackett et al., 2021). Thus, while examining intrinsic factors, researchers also have found emotional intelligence (EI) to be an important predictor of academic engagement (e.g., Sinclair et al., 2003;Mavroveli et al., 2009;Durlak et al., 2011;Huang et al., 2022). ...
Article
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Introduction Basic psychological needs satisfaction (BPNS) and Emotional intelligence (EI) have been underscored as helpful psychological constructs in explaining academic engagement. However, the joint interaction of BPNS with EI abilities to explain academic engagement has not been tested. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the interactive role of BPNS with EI abilities in the prediction of academic engagement in a sample of Chinese university students. Methods A questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of 466 university students. The data were analyzed using the SPSS (version 21.0) software. The first analysis consisted of descriptive statistics (including mean and standard deviation) and Pearson’s correlations among BPNS, EI, and academic engagement. Through structural equation modeling (SEM), direct and indirect effects were calculated. Results The results showed that BPNS was positively associated with academic engagement and that only the Use of emotion dimension of EI mediated these associations. Discussion These results suggest that important interventions incorporated with BPNS and EI abilities, especially the use of emotion ability, may be performed to promote university students’ academic engagement.
... A large body of research has documented the key role of emotional intelligence for overall psychological, social, and physical functioning (Brackett et al., 2011). Emotional intelligence comprises the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions, to understand emotions, and to reflectively regulate emotions (Mayer et al., 2016). ...
Article
This research examined the relationships among emotional intelligence, positive and negative affect, and suicide ideation between Spanish adolescents in a 4-month follow-up study. Adolescents (N = 1,174) from Southern Spain completed an emotional intelligence scale and, 4 months later, 818 of them completed scales measuring affect and suicide ideation. Mediation analyses revealed that both positive and negative affect were significant partial mediators of the prospective relationship between emotional intelligence and suicide ideation. Overall, our findings support the role of emotional intelligence in suicidal thoughts, suggesting that emotional intelligence may reduce suicide ideation in part through its effects on affectivity.
... (Furnham, 2012). Barchard & Haksian, 2004;Perry, Ball & Stacey, 2004, Schaie, 2001Van Rooy, Viswesvaran & Pluta, 2005;Brackett, Rivers & Salovey, 2011). Vzhledem k cílům naší práce se podrobněji budeme zabývat vybranými proměnnými, kterými jsou pohlaví, věk a délka pracovní zkušenosti. ...
Conference Paper
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The expanding technological possibilities have opened up space for the detection of psychophysiological changes and behavioral manifestations by non-contact methods that do not interfere with normal interaction. This paper aims to present the experimental design and data of the first pilot case study applying functional infrared thermal imaging and emotional expression analysis for deception detection. In the pilot psychophysiological experiment, we focused on monitoring changes in facial temperature, heart rate variability, and overall facial emotional expression during prepared and spontaneous lie scenarios spoken towards different interviewers.
... Er and Mohd Rameli (2019) highlighted the important role of emotional intelligence and personality on career adaptability in the context of special education teachers in Malaysia. As has been extensively reported in the literature, the construct of EI is a key factor for teaching success; to become effective teachers it is necessary to be emotionally more intelligent (Ciarrochi, Chan, & Caputi, 2000;Sutton & Wheatley, 2003;Kauts & Saroj, 2010;Brackett, Rivers, & Salovey, 2011;Kauts & Chechi, 2014;Lestari & Sawitri, 2017;Wijayati, Kautsar, & Karwanto, 2020;Bechter, Whipp, Dimmock, & Jackson, 2021). From the results of these studies, it appears that teachers with a high level of EI, together with a good number of years of teaching experience, are much more effective than teachers with low EI and less experience (Kane, Rockoff, & Staiger, 2008). ...
Article
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In the educational field, studies on emotional intelligence are fundamental because of the importance that this construct has for disability support teachers, who are called on to deal with affective and relational dynamics for which emotional intelligence, empathy and the ability to regulate their emotions play a crucial role. Based on previous research, the aim of this study was to examine whether certain variables such as age and origin-that is, having spent most of one's life in large cities or small towns-play a role in increasing emotional intelligence, considering the mediating role of previous teaching experiences and self-efficacy in the regulation of positive, negative and empathetic emotions. Data was collected from 301 future disability support teachers. The tools used were the following: I) the self-report emotional intelligence test; II) the scale of perceived self-efficacy in the management of negative, positive, and empathic emotions. In addition, socio-demographic data, such as age, origin, educational qualifications and previous teaching experience, were also taken into consideration. The results show that age Life Span and Disability Pirrone C. et al. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 152 and origin were related to emotional intelligence; however, this relationship was mediated by a perception of self-efficacy in regulating emotions and, also, by past teaching experiences at school. The results discussed are in relation to the need to implement training courses that improve teachers, not only in terms of teaching and teaching skills in general, but also in terms of affective/relational skills.
... In the last years, the concept of emotional intelligence or EI has garnered increasing attention from the scholarly community for its implication and involvement in various aspects of daily life, from mental and physical health to social, academic and workplace functioning (1)(2)(3). ...
Article
Background: Emotional intelligence (EI) and emotional competence (EC) are considered as multidimensional strategies for dealing with various complex situations. There are conflicting results regarding the effect of age, gender and sports status on EI and EC dimensions. Objectives: In the present study, we compared the EI between young athletes and non-athletes, as well as in terms of both genders and different age groups Methods: Four hundred seventy-nine young individuals (239 athletes, 240 non-athletes) aged 12 - 18 years old participated in this study. They were classified according to their age (12 - 15 years and 16 - 18 years) and gender (239 male, 240 female). All participants completed the Profile of Emotional Competence (PEC); for assessing the intra- and interpersonal EC and global EI. Results: Athletes had significantly higher values of global EI and altogether the intra- and interpersonal EC dimensions (all, P < 0.001). The comparison between genre and age groups highlighted those males and younger participants showed significantly higher components for both inter- and intrapersonal EC and global EI than females and older participants respectively (0.05 < P < 0.001). Conclusions: Based on the result of the current study, we conclude that engagement and involvement in sports can be considered as a key factor for developing adequate EI. Psychologists and sport-scientists need to be aware about the specific-related psychological skills for both age and gender requirements, particularly EI.
... Saklofske et al. (2012), points out that greater emotional regulation and a better adaptability process are helpful in coping with academic stress and achieving academic success. Similarly, Brackett et al. (2011), state that students with high levels of emotional competencies are better prepared for stressful situations typical of school evaluations, which is reflected in better academic performance. ...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to make an approach from the advances of neuroscience and neuroeducation to the importance of the implementation of emotional education in the Colombian educational system. First, some constructs related to emotional intelligence, emotional education and socioemotional competencies are examined, and the theories and concepts that support these terms are approached from the perspectives of different authors. Secondly, a general analysis of the Colombian educational system is made, describing the predominant role played by educators in emotional education, and the current regulations related to this type of education. Finally, a reflection is made on the reality of the Colombian educational system and how important it would be for the country to include emotional education in the educational plan of students.
... [6] There are different validity, reliability, and measurable tools to EI assessment. [7] Meanwhile, an important issue in developing valid EI measurements [8] is to understand the main theoretical models of EI; [9] these models are the ability model, [10] the competency model, [11] the adjective model, [12] and the hybrid model. [13] Determining the ideal procedure for EI measurement may stand as complicated and challenging. ...
Article
Background: Increasing the level of emotional intelligence (EI) is seen as a strategy for improving both relational quality and efficiency at work. As of today, there was no validated Persian brief instrument for evaluating EI. To fill this gap, this article was aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Brief Emotional Intelligence Scale (BEIS-10). Materials and methods: A methodological cross-sectional study was conducted among 201 Persian-speaking individuals. These individuals were selected from different parts of Iran using the convenience sampling method. Translation of the BEIS-10 was conducted by employed forward-backward method. Internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's α, and for test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was employed. The construct validity was investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results: The Persian version of BEIS-10 indicates a good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.612, 95% confidence interval: 0.384 and 0.769) as well as internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.748, ranging from 0.359 to 0.868 for different domains). The construct validity was evaluated by CFA and five factors from ten items were confirmed and all goodness-of-fit-indices were in acceptable levels. Conclusion: The article concludes that the Persian version of BEIS-10 in five factors from ten items was a reliable and valid instrument for measuring EI in the general population. As well, the article was suggesting that the Persian version of BEIS-10 may stand as a suitable alternative to time-consuming tools for EI measurement since this scale appears to be time-saving and applicable to Iranian society.
... EQ is a set of qualities or competencies that captures a broad collection of individual skills and dispositions that are outside the traditional thought of knowledge, like professional skills, technical knowledge, or academic intelligence. Brackett, Rivers, and Salovey (2011) illustrate that emotions are an intrinsic part of our biological makeup. They help to regulate ourselves during various stressful situations and influence our behaviour to cope with them. ...
Chapter
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To smoothly transition to the educational platforms and integrate into the new country, especially after the heinous impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, international students need adequate support from the leaders of educational institutions. Leaders not only refer to the administrative leaders but also include the teachers who lead these students in their regular classes. Leaders may also refer to their peers and even the students themselves, who make decisions about their own lives and lead themselves. The toolkit of emotional intelligence (EQ) is valuable for all leaders because it is a multifaceted ability that helps individuals apply the power of emotions as a source of trust, communication, and influence. This chapter focuses on an account of the learning experience of one international doctoral student's transition within a new cultural context. Self-reflection on the hurdles experienced and the importance of respectful communication during the evolution to becoming an international doctoral student in Ontario informs the analysis.
... Various works of literature hypothesized that Emotional Intelligence affects the success with which worker behave with their teammate, the process they utilize to manage and resolve conflict, stress, overload and overall job performance (Brackett, Rivers, & Salovey, 2011). According to (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017) staff with higher Emotional Intelligence (EI) are capable of understanding and controlling their emotions to reach the best workplace results. ...
Article
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Introduction: Emotional intelligence and job satisfaction are of particular importance in the workplace environment, The aim of this research is to investigate, the impact of emotional intelligence training on job satisfaction in an education firm located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results can help organizations realize human capabilities and the way to improve them by providing more attention to the human aspect. Purpose: The purpose of the research is to investigate the relationship between Emotional Intelligence Training and job satisfaction. Design/Methodology/Approach: Mixed methods case study was done on fifty employees from one single company, who were selected based on their low Job satisfaction rate according to the yearly satisfaction questionnaire done by their company. All fifty employees attended Emotional Intelligence training for five days with a total of forty training hours. After three months of completing the training, the employees undergo a satisfaction survey to assess the impact of the training. Analyses were done using SPSS to examine the correlation and the impact of Emotional Intelligence (EI) Training and Job Satisfaction (JS). Finding: Emotional Intelligence Training Positively Impacts the Job Satisfaction (JS). Practical Implications: Emotional Intelligence training will be beneficial to be utilized by the company and human resource management team to foster employees’ EI which will increase job satisfaction. Keywords Job Satisfaction, Emotional Intelligence, Training
... Perceived appropriateness informs satisfaction in social interactions (Cheshin et al., 2018). It indicates social competencies (Onyekwere et al., 1991) and emotional intelligence (Ashkanasy and Daus, 2002;Brackett et al., 2011). Such social competencies, including appropriate emotional expression, are important predictors of entrepreneurs' effectiveness in securing positive relationships with stakeholders and resource providers (Ingram et al., 2019). ...
Article
Drawing on emotion regulation theory, this study investigates if and how emotion suppression informs relationship viability within new venture teams (NVTs) when such teams face obstacles. In particular, we use a dyadic approach to examine the suppressor’s authenticity and team members’ perceptions of appropriateness as mediators in the link between emotion suppression and relationship viability. A round-robin study with 93 respondents nested in 37 NVTs, which generated 167 observations, provides empirical support for the theoretically derived model by showing that both authenticity and appropriateness fully mediate the relationship between emotion suppression and relationship viability. In particular, the findings show that the negative indirect effect of emotion suppression on relationship viability via authenticity is larger than the positive indirect effect via appropriateness. A follow-up study after two years indicates that relationship viability and emotion suppression significantly predict venture survival. Together, these findings make ample contributions to the literature and provide interesting opportunities for further research.
... Saklofske y Zeidner (2012), señala que una mayor regulación emocional y un mejor proceso de adaptabilidad son útiles para afrontar el estrés académico y alcanzar el éxito del mismo. De la misma manera, Brackett et al. (2011), plantean que estudiantes con niveles altos de competencias emocionales están mejor preparados ante situaciones de estrés, propias de las evaluaciones escolares, lo cual se refleja en un mejor rendimiento académico. ...
Article
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El propósito de este artículo radica en hacer una aproximación, desde los avances de la neurociencia y la neuroeducación, a la importancia de la implementación de la educación emocional en el sistema educativo colombiano. Para ello en primer lugar, se examinan algunos términos relacionados con la inteligencia emocional, la educación emocional y las competencias socioemocionales, y se abordan las teorías y conceptos que sustentan estos conceptos desde perspectivas de diferentes autores. En segundo lugar, se hace un análisis general del sistema educativo colombiano, describiendo el papel preponderante que juegan los educadores en la educación emocional, y de la normatividad vigente relacionada con este tipo de educación. Finalmente, se hace una reflexión sobre la realidad del sistema educativo colombiano y lo preponderante que sería para el país la inclusión de la educación emocional en el plan formativo de los educandos.
... No significant amount of study has been carried out on the function that emotional intelligence plays in the education of undergraduates in the health professions, and most of the research that has been carried out is in nursing and medical education [10][11][12]. Despite evidence of the relevance of clinical faculty members having high emotional intelligence abilities [13,14], there is a scarcity of research into the function that emotional intelligence has in the dental education context. ...
Article
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Background: Numerous studies have been conducted to explicate the scope of emotional intelligence in educational success and coping with stress in different academic sectors, but very few have been conducted with dental students. This scoping review aimed to ascertain the role of emotional intelligence in academic performance and stress factors among dental students. Methods: All publications in the English language between 2001 and 2020 were retrieved employing MeSh keywords. Academic resources such as Pubmed, Pubmed Central, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO-Host, Cochrane, PROSPERO, and ARU E-library were comprehensively searched for empirical research. One thousand, three hundred and fifty-nine papers were screened according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards for inclusion and exclusion criteria. These publications were then evaluated further by deleting duplicates, examining full-text articles, and conducting an abstract assessment. This review included a critical appraisal of 24 articles. Results: The narrative analysis method was applied to evaluate the data retrieved from publications regarding EI, academic performance, and stress factors. The review found that EI had a greater impact on the educational success of dental students throughout their clinical years. Moreover, EI may be a key tool in coping with stress and negative emotions. Higher EI scores were shown to be associated with better performance in organizational and leadership abilities, which are important for career advancement. Conclusion: The review suggested including EI training in the dental curriculum. Furthermore, EI should be used as a selection criterion for admission to dental education.
... Furthermore, the EI-AP link in academic settings is somewhat mixed and unclear on the directionality of this relationship, with studies showing both significant and non-significant results. This confirmed the observations of Bracket et al. (2011). Even so, none of these studies were conducted in Africa, Nigeria, in particular, making the probable link to be an open issue for research in this context. ...
Article
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Academic resilience and emotional intelligence are considered important personal resources for furthering students' academic performance. However, many educational organizations seem to trivialize the performance implications of these constructs in teachings and curriculum. Consequently, it can decrease not just their academic performance but also their employability, as they lack the generic competencies to adapt and survive in a stressful context. Even so, empirical evidence on integrating academic resilience, emotional intelligence, and academic performance remains unexplored in the Nigerian university context. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the linkages between academic resilience, emotional intelligence, and academic performance in Nigeria. The partial least square (PLS) modeling method was utilized for testing the stated hypotheses with data collected from 179 final year undergraduate students in the regular B.Sc. Business Administration and B.Sc. Marketing program at Delta State University, Nigeria. From the PLS results, the study reported that academic resilience was positively related to emotional intelligence (β = 0.125, p = 0.007), academic resilience (β = 0.231, p = 0.000) and emotional intelligence (β = 0.260, p = 0.000) were positively related to academic performance, and emotional resilience mediated the positive relationship between academic resilience and academic performance (β = 0.057, p = 0.005). While academic resilience predicted academic performance, it also predicted emotional intelligence, which affected academic performance significantly and positively.
... In this model, the solid arrows represent the direct-effect hypothesized paths, while the dashed arrows represent the moderation-effect hypothesized paths. both practitioners and academics; among other reasons, this is because of its potential influence on employee workplace behavior (Brackett et al., 2011;O'Boyle et al., 2011;Schlaerth et al., 2013). Scholars have defined EI in a variety of ways in terms of psychological, organizational behavioral, human resource, and management research (e.g., O'Boyle et al., 2011;Wong & Law, 2002). ...
Article
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This study aims to fill the previous research gap by examining the relationship between job stress, work-family conflict (WFC), and job satisfaction. It also investigates the mediating effect of job burnout, through which job demands influence job satisfaction, and examines the moderating effect of emotional intelligence (EI) on these relationships through the lens of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. The data for this study was collected from 279 respondents who were frontline employees in 14 banks in Palestine. A cross-sectional research approach was performed using a partial least squares path modeling approach. The study finds that job demands (job stress and WFC) increase job burnout. Contrary to expectations, job demands have a negative but not significant direct effect on job satisfaction. Further, job burnout reduces frontline bank employees’ job satisfaction. Regarding the mediating effect, job burnout fully mediates the relationship between job demands and job satisfaction. The findings suggest that the relationship between job stress and job burnout is stronger when EI is comparatively low. The study thus extends prior research by investigating the conditional indirect effect of job stress on job satisfaction when job burnout acts as a mediator and EI is the moderator. It contributes to the JD-R literature by providing support from the Palestinian banking sector.
... The ability to identify one's own and other people's emotions as well as the ability to control and regulate one's emotions defined as emotional intelligence [13,14,18,19]. The various positive outcomes such as one's health and well-being [4,5,29], adaptability to new life situation and better mental health [11,16,22] and higher mental abilities and positive personality attributes [7,38] is a significant finding related to emotional intelligence. ...
Article
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This study is about the investigation of Form One Islamic High School students emotional intelligence at Hulu Terengganu district in Malaysia. 364 Form One students was selected from 4 Islamic high school in the district to answer the questionaires. The data of frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation was run and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 20.0). Research outcome showed that the students’ emotional intelligence level is in the medium range, which interpersonal skill is the most dominant domain among the students. Its shows have a relationship between the emotional intelligence and the students’ academic achievement through the Pearson correlation analysis. But the relationship is not significant.
... Emotion regulation (ER) is any effort by which individuals modulate their emotions in pursuit of their goals (Augustine & Hemenover, 2009;English et al., 2017;Thompson, 2019). It affects children and adolescents' ability to learn and retain information, begin and complete tasks, get along with others, and handle demands and expectations at school (Brackett et al., 2011;Macklem, 2008). Imagine Donna who is disappointed with her score on a recent math test. ...
Article
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Many emotion regulation assessments have been developed for research purposes, but few are frequently used in schools despite the rapid growth of social and emotional learning programs with an explicit focus on emotion regulation in schools. This systematic review provides an overview of emotion regulation assessments that have been utilized with children and adolescents of grades 1–12 or ages 6–18 in school-based research or practice within the USA over the past two decades. Qualitative analyses on the operational definition, administration and feedback, sampling characteristics, and psychometric evidence of the assessments were carried out to illuminate factors that may bridge the gap between researchers in assessment development and educators in assessment use. Emotion regulation assessments were identified via searches in educational research, psychological assessment, and social–emotional learning databases. Measure development and validation studies were then sought using academic search engines. A total of 25 assessments and 55 studies met the inclusion criteria. Results revealed divergent conceptualizations of emotion regulation, trade-offs between methodological rigor and practicality, limited transformation of raw data into actionable information, under-sampling of marginalized or disadvantaged groups, and insufficient psychometric evidence across assessments. More work is needed to enhance the scientific rigor (e.g., evidence-based recommendations and limitations for assessment use), practical relevance (e.g., sustainable use and perceived utility for students and educators), and equitable reach (e.g., accessibility and fairness for diverse student populations) of emotion regulation assessments for educational purposes.
... Several studies have provided evidence of the positive relationship between EI and psychological adjustment [25], well-being [26], social functioning [27], and health [28]. Along these lines, a growing body of research reports that teachers' personal competences, and more specifically, EI, are extremely important for their professional performance [29,30]. ...
Article
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Teaching is one of the most stressful work contexts, psychologically affecting professionals. The objective of this study is to analyse the effect of the frustration of NPB basic psychological needs, resilience, emotional intelligence and inclusion from the perspective of teachers in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is carried out with 542 teachers of therapeutic pedagogy and special educational needs using the Psychological Need Thwarting Scale PNTS questionnaires as a research method, the Resilience Scale (RS-14), the Trait Meta Mood Scale 24 (TMMS-24), the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Index for Inclusion. The results revealed positive correlations, on the one hand, between the factors of frustration among themselves and with burnout and, on the other hand, the positive correlation between emotional intelligence, resilience and the inclusion index. In conclusion, the resilience of teachers plays a protective role in the inclusion of students with SEN in the face of emotional exhaustion and the frustration of psychological needs.
... [9] Ÿ These improved social competence and quality relationships could enhance cognition and intellectual development leading to better academic performance [10][11][12]. In a more direct way, EI facilitates prioritizing of thoughts, behavior regulation and appropriately adapted lifestyle choices which facilitates academic performance [13]. Emotional intelligence, has also been related to clinical performance and higher academic achievement [14]; Ÿ In clinical practice, it has been related to improved empathy in medical consultation, doctor-patient relationships, clinical performance and patient satisfaction [15][16][17][18]. ...
... La importancia del constructo inteligencia emocional ha sido analizada en numerosos estudios que han mostrado su capacidad predictiva con respecto a diferentes criterios de éxito tanto académicos como profesionales (Côté y Miners, 2006;Brackett, Rivers y Salovey, 2011;Dulewicz, Higgs y Slaski, 2003; Van der Zee, Thijs y Schakel, 2002; Van Rooy y Viswesvaran, 2004). ...
Article
En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia relativa de los predictores inteligencia general, factores de personalidad e inteligencia emocional en la determinación del éxito en el inicio de la carrera profesional. Para ello se analizan las relaciones entre la inteligencia emocional percibida, medida mediante el cuestionario Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24), la inteligencia general, evaluada mediante la prueba de factor «g» de Cattell, escala 2, la personalidad, evaluada mediante la prueba NEO-FFI, e indicadores extrínsecos e intrínsecos de éxito profesional, en una muestra de 130 egresados que se encuentran en el inicio de su carrera profesional. Los resultados obtenidos en los análisis de regresión jerárquica efectuados indican que, para las medidas de éxito profesional utilizadas, la inteligencia emocional percibida muestra una relación mayor con el éxito profesional y realiza una mayor contribución a la predicción del mismo que la inteligencia general y la personalidad. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados tanto para la comunidad científica, como para la profesional, especialmente en el área de selección, formación y desarrollo de personas.
... Every decision and most behaviors are driven by the desire to experience or avoid certain emotions. This ability is not innate (such as talent or personality); it is the ability to manage feelings in such a way that they can be expressed appropriately and effectively in making better choices and achieving goals (Brackett et al., 2011;Goleman, 2005). High social and emotional skills positively impact educational attainment and assist in professional development to achieve higher degrees of achievement, career success, leadership, personal social well-being, and happiness in life (Coskun et al., 2017b). ...
Article
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Emotional intelligence measurement is a potentially important construct and has become one of the most exciting issues in psychological research. This study aimed to test the construct validity of the emotional intelligence scale developed for sports students. The research employed a quantitative approach using a survey method. Participants involved in this study were 280 active sports students. Data were collected through an emotional intelligence scale and analyzed using factor analysis, namely exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) methods on Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using AMOS 22 software. The fit index test model was based on three categories: absolute fit indices, incremental fit indices, and parsimony fit indices. It indicates that the scale met the valid and reliable criteria for measuring the emotional intelligence of sports students. There were 27 question items declared valid, meaning that all of these items measured the five components, including 14 indicators constructed according to the Bar-on conceptual model.
... Emotional intelligence could be defined as a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to perceive, monitor, and express one's and others' emotions, discriminate among them, and use such information to guide and manage one's thinking and actions voluntarily [28,29]. While this popular concept has yielded an impressive number of studies in the last decades, it is still an object of controversy [30]. ...
Article
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Breast cancer survivors have to deal with notable challenges even after successful treatment , such as body image issues, depression and anxiety, the stress related to changes in lifestyle, and the continual challenges inherent to health management. The literature suggests that emotional abilities, such as emotional intelligence, emotion management, mood repair, and coping play a fundamental role in such challenges. We performed a systematic review to systematize the evidence available on the role of emotional abilities in quality of life and health management in breast cancer survivors. The search was performed on three scientific databases (Pubmed, Scopus, and PsycINFO) and, after applying exclusion criteria, yielded 33 studies, mainly of a cross-sectional nature. The results clearly support the hypothesis that emotional abilities play multiple important roles in breast cancer survivors' quality of life. Specifically, the review highlighted that coping/emotional management plays multiple roles in breast cancer survivors' well-being and health management, affecting vitality and general adjustment to cancer positivity and promoting benefit findings related to the cancer experience; however, rare negative results exist in the literature. This review highlights the relevance of emotional abilities to promoting quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Future review efforts may explore other breast cancer survivors' emotional abilities, aiming at assessing available instruments and proposing tailored psychological interventions.
... Within this context, the construct of emotional intelligence (EI, hereafter), understood as an interrelated range of skills to identify, use, understand and manage the own emotions and those of others [12], takes on particular relevance. As stated by some authors, EI provides a theoretical framework for addressing the role of emotional skills in the process of coping and interpersonal functioning in times of crisis [13]. ...
Article
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The pandemic has had psychological effects on the university population. Factors such as emotional intelligence, coping strategies and levels of anxiety, depression and stress have been affected by the situation generated by COVID-19. This study aims to analyze how EI, coping strategies and levels of anxiety, depression and stress have been affected by the situation generated by the pandemic in a population of 567 students from the University of Jaén (Spain). For this purpose, we administered three instruments: the Wong and Law emotional intelligence scale (WLEIS), the Spanish version of the coping strategies inventory (CSI) and the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS-21). At the same time, we asked students to describe their personal circumstances during confinement and their tendency to follow the measures and recommendations promoted by the Ministry of Health. The results obtained showed a positive relationship between EI and coping strategies and a negative relationship with levels of depression, anxiety and stress. A positive relationship was also found between coping and levels of anxiety, depression and stress. It was also found that the circumstances in which students experienced the period of confinement also modulated their levels of EI, coping strategies and their levels of depression, anxiety and stress.
... Emotional intelligence, according to Brackett et al. (2011), involves the capacity to effectively identify emotions and apply them in cognitive processes, including reasoning, problem solving, and interpersonal communication. According to Prati et al., being emotionally intelligent is associated with improved relationship management as well as greater self-awareness, motivation, and empathy. ...
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This research paper explores the implications of emotional intelligence and the Big Five personality model on virtual team effectiveness. It illustrates how emotional intelligence and Big Five personality traits help team members better understand interpersonal relationships and develop constructive virtual teams. The widespread use of virtual team meetings for collaborative work over in-person interaction with diverse personalities creates discord and trust among team members, limiting overall productivity. A quantitative analysis approach is used, with hypotheses tested and a series of multiple linear regression analyses performed on data collected from relevant industries using convenient sampling. The findings show that the Big Five personality affects the virtual team's trust and collaboration parameters. However, the relationship between personality traits and team effectiveness is mediated by emotional intelligence. Also, it is explored that having control over emotional intelligence or developing emotional intelligence would improve team performance while managing and working with a diverse group of people.
... Guerra-Bustamante et al., 2019). EI also influences the success with which individuals interact with their colleagues in the workplace, the strategies they use to manage conflict and stress, and positively contributes to workplace performance (Brackett et al., 2011). Importantly, EI also represents a core lifelong human skill as its positive outcomes extend well beyond the workplace to benefit the personal lives of individuals. ...
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... For example, it is possible that Arab students' emotional intelligence (EI; the ability to understand and manage one's own and others' emotions, Colman, 2008) leads both to better academic success because people with high EI are skillful in navigating novel environments, and to having more pleasant interactions with Jews, because high EI associates with forming better relationships. Although previous studies on the relations between EI and academic performance have yield mixed results (see Brackett et al., 2011), we recommend future research to test the link between contact and academic performance while controlling for EI, and perhaps other relevant individual difference variables. ...
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This paper presents an experiment in replicated administration of the FEAS (Functional Emotional Assessment Scale) structured observation scale using a sample of Russian-speaking children. This scale was created using the developmental theory of functional and emotional capacities (FEDC) and presents a method used to evaluate children aged from seven months to four years being at risk or having a delay in the development of social skills, attachment, play skills, and overall emotional development. The research involved 23 pairs of parents and children aged 2.2–4 years. In the sample, 12 children showed symptoms of autism spectrum disorders, and 11 children were developing normatively. The results of the FEAS scale study correspond to the results obtained by S. Greenspan on the American sample in a study described in 1992. The study results using the FEAS scale were compared to the RCDI-2000 (CDI) scale data obtained on the same sample. Correlation analysis of the results proves the connection between the social skills of a child, the complexity of his or her speech, and abilities to establish a close and warm relationship while interacting with a caregiver, show initiative, and develop play ideas. The widespread use of this methodology in the Russian-speaking space can help improve the competence of practitioners working with families of special children, because they will have a structured protocol for assessing and setting goals and objectives for working with families. Parents of children with special needs can increase their competence in establishing a developmental relationship with their children, which will positively affect the process of rehabilitation of children with special needs.KeywordsDiagnosticsSocial-emotional developmentEarly lifeDevelopmental disordersAutism spectrum disordersParent–child relationshipsFamily of a child with developmental disordersEarly interventionFEAS
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p>Latar Belakang. Kecerdasan emosional berperan penting dalam pendidikan kedokteran, menyediakan perawatan klinis yang baik, dan mengelola semua relasi sebagai bagian dari proses perawatan medis. Tujuan. Mengetahui hubungan kecerdasan emosional terhadap prestasi akademik mahasiswa Program Studi Kedokteran Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Tanjungpura. Metodologi. Desain penelitian adalah analitik pendekatan potong lintang, dengan jumlah sampel 72 mahasiswa kedokteran tahun 2016, 2017, dan 2018. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Tanjungpura Pontianak pada bulan Oktober 2019 hingga Januari 2020. Pengambilan sampel dengan cara Probability Sampling jenis Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling. Data diperoleh dari pengisian data diri, kuesioner Lie Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (L-MMPI), kuesioner Kecerdasan Emosional, dan nilai Indeks Prestasi Kumulatif (IPK). Uji hipotesis menggunakan uji korelasi Spearman. Hasil. Mahasiswa Program Studi Kedokteran Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Tanjungpura sebagian besar memiliki tingkat kecerdasan emosional tinggi pada semua variabel kecerdasan emosional dan memiliki Indeks Prestasi Kumulatif sangat memuaskan. Hasil uji hipotesis hubungan prestasi akademik dengan variabel pengenalan diri (p=0,001, r= 0,392), pengendalian diri (p= 0,013, r=0,292), motivasi (p= 0,000, r=0,439), empati (p=0,001, r=0,378), keterampilan sosial (p=0,001, r=0,382). Simpulan. Terdapat hubungan positif bermakna antara prestasi akademik dengan variabel kecerdasan emosional di kalangan mahasiswa Program Studi Kedokteran Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Tanjungpura. Background. Emotional intelligence plays an important role in medical education, providing good clinical care, and managing all relationships as part of the treatment process. Aim. To figure out the relationship between emotional intelligence and the academic achievement among Medical Program Students at the Faculty of Medicine, Tanjungpura University, Indonesia Method. A cross-sectional analysis with a total sample of 72 medical students year 2016, 2017, and 2018 was done in Faculty of Medicine, Tanjungpura University in October 2019 to January 2020. Sampling was with Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling. Data was obtained from self-data filling, Lie Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (L-MMPI) questionnaire, Emotional Intelligence questionnaire, and Grade Point Average (GPA) score. Data was analyzed with Spearman correlation test. Results. Most Medical Study Program students at the Faculty of Medicine, Tanjungpura University (70.8%) have high levels of emotional intelligence on all emotional intelligence variables and have a very satisfying Grade Point Average. Hypothesis test results for correlation between academic achievement and self-introduction variables : p = 0.001, r = 0.392, self-control : p = 0.013, r = 0.292, motivation : p = 0.000, r = 0.439, empathy : p = 0.001, r = 0.378, social skills : p = 0.001, r = 0.382. Conclusion. There is a significant positive correlation between variables of emotional intelligence and academic achievement among Medical Study Program students at the Faculty of Medicine, Tanjungpura University.</p
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Se pretende diagnosticar psicopedagógica y socioemocionalmente a adolescentes de 15 a 18 años, provenientes de España, Panamá, Argentina, Chile, EEUU, Brasil, México, Portugal, Italia, Haití, Rumanía, Colombia y Japón, en tiempo de pandemia por COVID-19. Esta investigación es de enfoque cuantitativo, de carácter descriptivo, de campo y transaccional. Se utilizó la encuesta tipo cuestionario, para la recolección de datos. Los resultados muestran que, en el período mencionado, el 54,3% de los encuestados tiene poco o ningún contacto con medio escolar; 76, 3% presenta desmotivación hacia el aprendizaje; 72% asoció su estado salud con emociones de valencia negativa; 61% define un mejoramiento en relaciones familiares. En conclusión, la pandemia ha tenido serias repercusiones en el aprendizaje, rompiendo con una estructura educativa que reafirma la interrelación fecunda de los estudiantes con sus docentes, pares y escuela.
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Emotional Intelligence (EI) was initially proposed as an organized theory by Salovey and Mayer (1990) and later expanded (Mayer & Salovey, 1997) and was pop‑ ularized in the general media by Goleman (1995). EI refers to a set of abilities for using emotional information in adaptive ways. This psychological construct is important and relevant to leadership since emotional factors play a role in personal well‑being, interpersonal relationships, motivation, workplace adjustment and learning processes. EI can be applied to educational leadership since the school leader must continually work with individuals and groups (i. e. school personnel such as teachers, teaching aids, school psychol‑ ogists, counselors, other administrators as well as students and parents). Using emotions adaptively is critical for effective interpersonal relationships as well as for creating an emotional‑toned environment in the school context. Two models of EI are presented. The first model (Mayer & Salovey, 1997) is the ability‑model that considers four major emotion skill sets (perception, facilitation, understanding and managing). The second model (Goleman et al., 2002) organizes EI competencies across two dimensions: capacities (emotion recognition & regulation) and application domains (toward self & others). There is some overlap between these models with regard to emotional perception (recognition) and regulation (managing). The Mayer’s and Salovey’s (1997) model is distinct for its abilities to use emotional concepts and the use of emotions to facilitate decision‑making and emotional planning. Goleman and colleagues’ (2002) model includes organizational and social intelligence features. Research on the relationship between EI and effective leadership will be reviewed. Generally, studies have found predictive correlations between EI and effective, transformational leadership (Mills, 2009; Palmer et al., 2001; Sayeed & Shanker, 2009). A useful model proposed by Guillen & Florent‑Treacy (2011) divides leadership behaviors into two groups: Getting along (with others) and getting ahead (meeting organizational goals). Goleman’s (2011) six styles of EI leadership will be discussed as approaches to educational leadership with an examination of the strengths, limitations and emotional dynamics of each style. The six styles are: Directive (using authoritarian methods); Pacesetting (expecting leader‑determined standards); Visionary (creating inspirational purposes); Affiliative (leading through relationships); Participative (using democratic consensus building) and Coaching (helping individuals develop). These styles are further described in terms of the previously mentioned leadership categories of getting along or getting ahead. In addition, the styles are determined to be either dissonant or resonant with regard to the emotional tone they create in the organization. The necessity of advocating for EI in school contexts will be emphasized. The potential for various professionals (such as school psychologists and school counselors) to take on leadership functions as facilitators of emotional processes in the school settings will also be considered. Educational leaders (whether formally as administrators or functionally as school counselors and psychologists), can have a positive impact on school personnel and students as well as the larger school context through the application of EI capacities and through considering the emotional dynamics in leadership styles.
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The moderating effects of emotional intelligence levels on managers' business innovation competence in ICT companies in Lagos State.
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Emotional intelligence (EI) theory provides a framework to study the role of emotion skills in social, personal, and academic functioning. Reporting data validating the importance of EI among youth have been limited due to a dearth of measurement instruments. In two studies, the authors examined the reliability and validity of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version (MSCEIT-YV), a performance test of EI. Study 1 examined psychometric attributes of the MSCEIT-YV in a large sample of fifth- to eighth-grade students (N = 756). Study 2 examined the relationship of the MSCEIT to student and teacher reports of academic, social, and personal functioning among fifth- and sixth-grade students (N = 273). The authors report that EI can be measured reliably with the MSCEIT-YV and that higher scores on the test are related to healthier psychological functioning and greater social competence based on both teacher and student ratings, as well as to academic performance in English language arts.
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To assess whether emotional intelligence (EI) is related to self-assessed relationship quality, an ability test of EI and measures of relationship quality were administered to 86 heterosexual couples in a university setting. Results indicated that female partners were significantly higher in EI than male partners and that EI scores were uncorrelated within couples. Two 2 × 2 multiple analyses of variance (performed separately for positive and negative outcomes) assessed how relationship quality measures differed across four different types of couples (high-EI female/high-EI male, low-EI female/low-EI male, etc.). As predicted, couples with both partners low on EI tended to have the lowest scores on depth, support, and positive relationship quality and the highest scores on conflict and negative relationship quality. Counter to our hypotheses, couples with both partners high on EI did not consistently have higher scores on positive outcomes and lower scores on negative outcomes than couples with one high-EI partner.
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Correlations between single-item self-reports of intelligence and IQ scores are rather low (.20–.25) in college samples. The literature suggested that self-reports could be improved by three strategies: (1) aggregation, (2)item weighting, and (3) use of indirect, rather than direct, questions. To evaluate these strategies, we compared the validity of aggregated and unaggregated versions of direct measures with four indirect measures (Gough’s Intellectual efficiency scale, Hogan’s Intellect composite scale, Sternberg’s Behavior Check List, and Trapnell’s Smart scale). All measures were administered to two large samples of undergraduates (Ns = 310, 326), who also took an IQ test. Although results showed some success for both direct and indirect measures, the failure of their validities to exceed .30 impugns their utility as IQ proxies in competitive college samples. The content of the most valid items referred to global mental abilities or reading involvement. Aggregation benefited indirect more than direct measures, but prototype-weighting contributed little.
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This study explored links between emotional intelligence, measured as a set of abilities, and personality traits, as well as the contribution of both to the perceived quality of one's interpersonal relationships. In a sample of 103 college students, we found that both emotional intelligence and personality traits were associated with concurrent self-reports of satisfaction with social relationships. Individuals scoring highly on the managing emotions subscale of the Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), were more likely to report positive relations with others, as well as perceived parental support, and less likely to report negative interactions with close friends. These associations remained statistically significant even controlling for significant Big Five personality traits and verbal intelligence. Global satisfaction with one's relationships was associated with extraversion, neuroticism (negatively), and the ability to manage one's emotions, as assessed by the MSCEIT.
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Associations among the MSCEIT, a broad-bandwidth measure of ability emotional intelligence (EI), self-report EI, social perception ability, psychometric intelligence and performance on inspection time (IT) tasks, which assessed the speed of processing of emotional and non-emotional information were investigated in two student samples (N=99, 199). The main findings were that MSCEIT scores were unrelated to fluid ability or speed of non-emotional information processing as assessed by IT, but evidence for associations of MSCEIT scores with crystallised ability was found. Positive associations were found between MSCEIT scores, self-report EI and some emotion/social task scores. The results suggest that EI as assessed by the MSCEIT has some properties of an intelligence and is more closely related to crystallised than to fluid ability. The relatively small MSCEIT/gc correlations suggest that the MSCEIT is not a pure ability measure, although restriction of range in the samples used may also be relevant. More work, and the development of new measures, is required to determine whether performance EI has a fluid component.
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The study tested hypotheses about the relationship between attachment orientations and emotional intelligence , measured as a set of abilities (perception, facilitation, understanding and management of emotion). The sample consisted of 239 adults aged between 19 and 66 years who completed the Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT V2.0) and the relationship questionnaire. Secure attachment was positively related to all sub-scales (except perception of emotion) and total EI score. Contrary to expectations, dismissing attachment was positively associated with the ability to understand emotion. The results also found differences in emotional intelligence abilities between age and gender groups. Older participants scored higher on three out of four branches of EI (facilitation, understanding and management) and females scored higher than males on emotion perception and the experiential area. The study highlights the importance of distinguishing fearful and dismissing avoidance and the associated cognitive and affective processes and provides a validation for the recent emotional intelligence abilities test.
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The emotional connections students foster in their classrooms are likely to impact their success in school. Using a multimethod, multilevel approach, this study examined the link between classroom emotional climate and academic achievement, including the role of student engagement as a mediator. Data were collected from 63 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (N = 1,399 students) and included classroom observations, student reports, and report card grades. As predicted, multilevel mediation analyses showed that the positive relationship between classroom emotional climate and grades was mediated by engagement, while controlling for teacher characteristics and observations of both the organizational and instructional climates of the classrooms. Effects were robust across grade level and student gender. The discussion highlights the role of classroom-based, emotion-related interactions to promote academic achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated the effects of transient moods on a variety of social judgments in an unobtrusive field study. 980 visitors to film performances were interviewed immediately after leaving films classified as predominantly happy, sad, or aggressive in affective tone. Questions covered 4 topic areas: political judgments, expectations about the future, judgments of responsibility and guilt, and quality-of-life judgments. Results show that judgments on all 4 question categories were significantly influenced by the affective quality of the films. Judgments were more positive, lenient, or optimistic after viewing a happy film than after a sad or an aggressive film. These mood biases were universal irrespective of the demographic background of Ss, suggesting the robustness of the phenomenon. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We compared the susceptibility of two emotional intelligence (EI) tests to faking. In a laboratory study using a within-subjects design, participants completed the EQ-i and the MSCEIT in two sessions. In the first session (i.e., the ‘applicant condition’), participants were given a job description and asked to respond to the EI measures as though they were applying for that job. Participants returned 2 weeks later to repeat the tests in a ‘non-applicant’ condition in which they were told to answer as honestly as possible. Mean differences between conditions indicated that the EQ-i was more susceptible to faking than the MSCEIT. Faking indices predicted applicant condition EQ-i scores, after controlling for participants' non-applicant EQ-i scores, whereas the faking indices were unrelated to applicant condition MSCEIT scores, when the non-applicant MSCEIT scores were controlled. Using top-down selection, participants were more likely to be selected based on their applicant condition EQ-i scores than their non-applicant EQ-i scores, but they had an equal likelihood of being selected based on their MSCEIT scores from each condition. Implications for the use of these two EI tests are discussed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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There has been much confusion and controversy concerning the concept of emotional intelligence (EI). Three issues have been particularly bothersome. The first concerns the many conflicting definitions and models of EI. To address this issue, I propose that we distinguish between definitions and models and then adopt a single definition on which the major theorists already seem to agree. I further propose that we more clearly distinguish between EI and the related concept of emotional and social competence (ESC). The second issue that has generated concern is the question of how valid existing measures are. After reviewing the research on the psychometric properties of several popular tests, I conclude that although there is some support for many of them, they all have inherent limitations. We need to rely more on alternative measurement strategies that have been available for some time and also develop new measures that are more sensitive to context. The third area of contention concerns the significance of EI for outcomes such as job performance or leadership effectiveness. Recent research, not available to earlier critics, suggests that EI is positively associated with performance. However, certain ESCs are likely to be stronger predictors of performance than EI in many situations. Also, EI is likely to be more important in certain kinds of situations, such as those involving social interaction or significant levels of stress. Context makes a difference.
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The topic of emotion regulation and its relationship with teacher effectiveness is beginning to garner attention by researchers. This study examined the relationship between emotion-regulation ability (ERA), as assessed by the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and both job satisfaction and burnout among secondary-school teachers (N = 123). It also examined the mediating effects of affect and principal support on these outcomes. ERA was associated positively with positive affect, principal support, job satisfaction, and one component of burnout, personal accomplishment. Two path models demonstrated that both positive affect and principal support mediated independently the associations between ERA and both personal accomplishment and job satisfaction. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Describes experiments in which happy or sad moods were induced in Ss by hypnotic suggestion to investigate the influence of emotions on memory and thinking. Results show that (a) Ss exhibited mood-state-dependent memory in recall of word lists, personal experiences recorded in a daily diary, and childhood experiences; (b) Ss recalled a greater percentage of those experiences that were affectively congruent with the mood they were in during recall; (c) emotion powerfully influenced such cognitive processes as free associations, imaginative fantasies, social perceptions, and snap judgments about others' personalities; (d) when the feeling-tone of a narrative agreed with the reader's emotion, the salience and memorability of events in that narrative were increased. An associative network theory is proposed to account for these results. In this theory, an emotion serves as a memory unit that can enter into associations with coincident events. Activation of this emotion unit aids retrieval of events associated with it; it also primes emotional themata for use in free association, fantasies, and perceptual categorization. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
In recent years, innovative schools have developed courses in what has been termed emotional literacy, emotional intelligence, or emotional competence. This volume evaluates these developments scientifically, pairing the perspectives of psychologists with those of educators who offer valuable commentary on the latest research. It is an authoritative study that describes the scientific basis for our knowledge about emotion as it relates specifically to children, the classroom environment, and emotional literacy. Key topics include: historical perspectives on emotional intelligence neurological bases for emotional development the development of social skills and childhood socialization of emotion. Experts in psychology and education have long viewed thinking and feeling as polar opposites reason on the one hand, and passion on the other. And emotion, often labeled as chaotic, haphazard, and immature, has not traditionally been seen as assisting reason. All that changed in 1990, when Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer coined the term emotional intelligence as a challenge to the belief that intelligence is not based on processing emotion-laden information. Salovey and Mayer defined emotional intelligence as the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use motivated scientists, educators, parents, and many others to consider the ways in which emotions themselves comprise an intelligent system. With this groundbreaking volume, invited contributors present cutting-edge research on emotions and emotional development in a manner useful to educators, psychologists, and anyone interested in the unfolding of emotions during childhood. In recent years, innovative schools have developed courses in “emotional literacy” that making; these classes teach children how to understand and manage their feelings and how to get along with one another. Many such programs have achieved national prominence, and preliminary scientific evaluations have shown promising results. Until recently, however, there has been little contact between educators developing these types of programs and psychologists studying the neurological underpinnings and development of human emotions. This unique book links theory and practice by juxtaposing scientific explanations of emotion with short commentaries from educators who elaborate on how these advances can be put to use in the classroom. Accessible and enlightening, Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence provides ample evidence about emotional intelligence as well as sound information on the potential efficacy of educational programs based on this idea.
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This article presents a framework for emotional intelligence, a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and in others, the effective regulation of emotion in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in one's life. We start by reviewing the debate about the adaptive versus maladaptive qualities of emotion. We then explore the literature on intelligence, and especially social intelligence, to examine the place of emotion in traditional intelligence conceptions. A framework for integrating the research on emotion-related skills is then described. Next, we review the components of emotional intelligence. To conclude the review, the role of emotional intelligence in mental health is discussed and avenues for further investigation are suggested.
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High (emotional intelligence scores (EIQ)=120) and average emotional intelligent individuals (EIQ=89) were solving tasks from an emotional intelligence test while their electroencephalogram was recorded. Significant differences relating to emotional intelligence were observed in induced and event related band power in the theta (4.4–6.4 Hz), lower-2 alpha (8.4–10.4 Hz), and upper alpha band (10.4–12.4 Hz). High emotional intelligent individuals displayed less desynchronization in the upper alpha band, as well as more left hemispheric theta desynchronization. Further a significant positive correlation between the mean frequency and emotional intelligence was observed. The results are similar to those reported for verbal and performance components of general intelligence.
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A study was conducted to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and adolescent tobacco and alcohol use (TAU). Subjects were 205 multi-ethnic adolescents (52% male) from middle schools in southern California (mean age=12.63 years), 153 from a public school and 52 from a parochial school. An abbreviated version of the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale, Student Version [Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (1997). Multifactor emotional intelligence scale, student version. Durham, NH] was used to assess the EI of the students. EI was negatively correlated with a general, overall measure of tobacco and alcohol use, and with individual tobacco and alcohol scales and items. It is plausible that the adolescents with high EI may possess a greater mental ability to read others well and detect unwanted peer pressure. These abilities may have led to an increased resistance to TAU, thus explaining the negative correlations found in this study. Further research is needed to validate these findings.
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Emotional intelligence is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). We discuss (a) whether intelligence is an appropriate metaphor for the construct, and (b) the abilities and mechanisms that may underlie emotional intelligence. © 1993.
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This paper examines how emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence are associated with job performance. We develop and test a compensatory model that posits that the association between emotional intelligence and job performance becomes more positive as cognitive intelligence decreases. We report the results of a study in which employees completed tests of emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence, and their task performance and organizational citizenship behavior were assessed by their supervisors. Hypotheses from the model were supported for task performance and organizational citizenship behavior directed at the organization, but not for organizational citizenship behavior directed at individuals. We discuss the theoretical implications and managerial ramifications of our model and findings.
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This article examines the relation between concepts of emotional giftedness and emotional intelligence, and attempts to relate a person's level of emotional intelligence to the actual ways they cope with challenging social situations. Emotional intelligence and social behavior were explored in a pilot study with adolescents. Emotional intelligence was measured with the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 1997), an ability‐based measure of emotional perception, facilitation, understanding, and management. General intelligence was measured with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Scale (Dunn & Dunn, 1981). Each of the 11 adolescents also answered questions about how he or she had handled a difficult social encounter. Those with higher emotional intelligence were better able to identify their own and others’ emotions in situations, use that information to guide their actions, and resist peer pressure than others.
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An intelligence must meet several standard criteria before it can be considered scientifically legitimate. First, it should be capable of being operationalized as a set of abilities. Second, it should meet certain correlational criteria: the abilities defined by the intelligence should form a related set (i.e., be intercorrelated), and be related to pre-existing intelligences, while also showing some unique variance. Third, the abilities of the intelligence should develop with age and experience. In two studies, adults (N=503) and adolescents (N=229) took a new, 12-subscale ability test of emotional intelligence: the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS). The present studies show that emotional intelligence, as measured by the MEIS, meets the above three classical criteria of a standard intelligence.
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Some authors have claimed that emotional intelligence predicts success at work, at school, and in relationships, as well as or better than IQ. Little research exists to support or refute this claim at present. In this study, the ability of emotional intelligence to predict academic achievement was examined in a sample of undergraduate psychology students, using year-end grades as the criterion. The predictive validity of emotional intelligence was compared with the predictive validity of traditional cognitive abilities and the Big Five dimensions of personality. In addition, the incremental predictive validity of each of these three domains was assessed. In this setting, only some measures of Emotional Intelligence predicted academic success, and none of these measures showed incremental predictive validity for academic success over and above cognitive and personality variables. It may be that the overlap between many emotional intelligence measures and traditional measures of intelligence and personality limits their incremental predictive validity in this context.
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This article presents a meta-analytic review of the Emotional Intellpigence (EI) construct. The first portion of the study examines the relation between EI measures based on two differing models of the construct (i.e., mixed and ability). This study then examines the relation of each of the models separately with cognitive ability and the Big Five personality factors. Results indicate that measures based on the mixed model of EI overlap extensively (i.e., correlate .71 among themselves; k = 12, N = 3,259), whereas mixed measures and ability measures are relatively distinct (.14; k = 13, N = 2,442). Mixed model measures of EI exhibited greater overlap with personality- than ability-based EI measures. Conversely, ability-based EI measures demonstrated a higher correlation with cognitive ability than mixed measures (.34 vs. .13). Implications and suggestions for the measurement of EI are provided.
Article
Purpose – This paper investigates the relationship between managerial emotional intelligence (EI) levels and a rating of leadership effectiveness (subordinate ratings). Design/methodology/approach – The study involved administering the Mayer Salovey Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT) EI test to 38 supervisors within a large manufacturing organisation. Ratings of supervisory leadership effectiveness were assessed via subordinate ratings on an attitude survey detailing questions relating to supervisor performance. Altogether data were collated from a total of 1,258 survey responses. Findings – The overall results of the data analysis suggest that half of the MSCEIT scores may act as a strong predictor of leadership effectiveness, particularly the branches within the experiential EI domain (r=0.50, p<0.001). Interestingly, the relationship between supervisor ratings and the reasoning EI domain (r=-0.12) was not as expected. Practical implications – These findings endorse the validity of incorporating EI interventions alongside the recruitment and selection process and the training and development process of managerial personnel. However, they also question the conceptual validity of a key branch (managing emotions) of the MSCEIT. Originality/value – Although EI is viewed as a key determinant of effective leadership within leadership literature there is a relative dearth of supporting research that has not used student sample populations or a conceptually suspect model of EI within their research methodology.
Article
This article describes the Behavior Assessment System for Children, a multimethod, multidimensional approach to evaluating the behaviors and self-perceptions of children ages 2.6 to 18 years. The BASC contains a Teacher Rating Scale, a Parent Rating Scale, and a Child Self-Report of Personality. Its administration, reliability, and validity are discussed. (Contains references.) (CR)
Addresses criticisms of the authors' previous linking of emotion and intelligence by explaining that many intellectual problems contain emotional information that must be processed. Using P. Salovey and J. D. Mayer's (1990) definition of emotional intelligence as a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking, it is argued that intelligence is an appropriate metaphor for the construct. The abilities and mechanisms that underlie emotional intelligence are described. These mechanisms are (1) emotionality itself, (2) facilitation and inhibition of emotional information flow, and (3) specialized neural mechanisms. Emotionality contributes to specific abilities, and emotional management influences information channels and problem solving. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
There are three primary goals of this chapter: (1) to summarize the background, definitions, and models of EI; (2) to critique the EI literature (including the good, the bad, and the ugly) and highlight some of the popular misconceptions surrounding EI, with an emphasis on the psychometric issues surrounding EI measures; and (3) to propose a research agenda pertaining to the definition, measurement, and use of EI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Compares the concept of practical intelligence with other concepts closely related to emotional intelligence. Through a review of research on social, emotional, and practical intelligence, the authors explore 2 issues: (1) whether the various factors that researchers have classified as social, emotional or practical intelligence are appropriately characterized as cognitive abilities, and (2) whether reliable and valid measures of these "nontraditional" intelligences can be developed. The authors conclude with a proposition for using tacit knowledge as an integrated approach for understanding social, emotional, and practical intelligence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Book on the psychology of emotion. Harvard Book List (edited) 1944 #S35 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated whether self-ratings of ability can be used as substitutes for ability tests in an industrial setting. 114 undergraduates first completed a questionnaire asking them to rate themselves on 10 ability areas. The Ss were then given a battery of tests designed to test these same ability areas. Tests included the Employee Aptitude Survey Test of Visual Pursuit and Manual Speed and Accuracy, the Revised Minnesota Paper Forms Board Test, Personnel Tests for Industry—Verbal and Numerical, the Otis Self-Administering Tests of Mental Ability, and the Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test. In addition, the potential moderator effects of sex, general intelligence, self-esteem, and social desirability were investigated. Correlations between self-rated and tested abilities, although generally significant, were too small to have any practical significance. The self-ratings were also unable to diffentiate between those who would score high and low on the ability tests, even for extreme self-rated groups. No moderator effects were found. It is concluded that self-reports of ability could not substitute for ability tests. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Integrates Darwin's theory that emotional expression is determined by evolution and is universal with recent research on facial expressions among nonhuman primates, human infants and children, and various cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In the first of two articles presenting the case for emotional intelligence in a point/counterpoint exchange, we present a brief summary of research in the field, and rebut arguments against the construct presented in this issue. We identify three streams of research: (1) a four-branch abilities test based on the model of emotional intelligence defined in Mayer and Salovey (1997); (2) self-report instruments based on the Mayer–Salovey model; and (3) commercially available tests that go beyond the Mayer–Salovey definition. In response to the criticisms of the construct, we argue that the protagonists have not distinguished adequately between the streams, and have inappropriately characterized emotional intelligence as a variant of social intelligence. More significantly, two of the critical authors assert incorrectly that emotional intelligence research is driven by a utopian political agenda, rather than scientific interest. We argue, on the contrary, that emotional intelligence research is grounded in recent scientific advances in the study of emotion; specifically regarding the role emotion plays in organizational behavior. We conclude that emotional intelligence is attracting deserved continuing research interest as an individual difference variable in organizational behavior related to the way members perceive, understand, and manage their emotions. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.