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The role of perspective in locating position in a real‐world, unfamiliar environment

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Abstract

This paper reports an exploration of how perspective information contributes to localizing and orienting oneself in a real-world, unfamiliar environment. Participants were asked to recognize their positions on a three-dimensional map by observing real buildings from different perspectives set at viewpoints between 0° and 180° from a starting position. Results showed that participants were able to use remembered perspective information to locate their subsequent, different position in the correct area of space. They also showed a linear increase in rotation times as the angular distance increased between initially perceived perspective and test position. This finding suggests that the representation of the spatial information acquired from a real world large-scale environment is orientation dependent. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... The body alignment effect states that navigators should perform best (i.e., point most accurately or quickly) when their body orientation is aligned with the orientation of a reference frame representing this space (Iachini & Logie 2003; Levine, Marchon, & Hanley, 1984; McNamara et al., 2008 ). When being misaligned, costs for realignment (e.g., by mental rotation or perspective shift) may occur. ...
... Mental rotation or perspective shifts have been proposed as compensation for (body) misalignment (Iachini & Logie, 2003; Kozhevnikov, Motes, Rasch, & Blajenkova, 2006; Shepard & Metzler, 1971). When navigators can turn their head they might at least partially compensate for body misalignment by aligning their head and looking into the direction of a reference frame. ...
... As predicted by local reference frame theories, participants performed better when they were aligned with the local reference frame and looked more often into the orientation of a local reference frame (seeTable 1 for a summary of the results). So far local reference frames (e.g., views) have mainly been supported in the context of self-localization , route following, or recombining familiar routes (Christou & Bülthoff, 1999; Gillner et al., 2008; Iachini & Logie, 2003; Mallot & Gillner, 2000; Meilinger et al., 2012; Waller et al., 2009). For survey tasks, however, the predominant focus has been on global reference frame theories. ...
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Two experiments examined how locations in environmental spaces, which cannot be overseen from one location, are represented in memory: by global reference frames, multiple local reference frames, or orientation-free representations. After learning an immersive virtual environment by repeatedly walking a closed multisegment route, participants pointed to seven previously learned targets from different locations. Contrary to many conceptions of survey knowledge, local reference frames played an important role: Participants performed better when their body or pointing targets were aligned with the local reference frame (corridor). Moreover, most participants turned their head to align it with local reference frames. However, indications for global reference frames were also found: Participants performed better when their body or current corridor was parallel/orthogonal to a global reference frame instead of oblique. Participants showing this pattern performed comparatively better. We conclude that survey tasks can be solved based on interconnected local reference frames. Participants who pointed more accurately or quickly additionally used global reference frames.
... This would enable us to examine to what extent information acquired by navigating (from a primarily egocentric experience) can incorporate world-based information, such as cardinal points. The few studies available on environment representations of newly acquired spatial information seem to support a central role for initial heading orientation [26,27], in which the influence of the allocentric reference frame is detectable [28]. In a study by Iachini and Logie [26], participants unfamiliar with a campus were first shown a target building, and then led to see another view of the same building (at a 0-180 • angle from their starting position). ...
... The few studies available on environment representations of newly acquired spatial information seem to support a central role for initial heading orientation [26,27], in which the influence of the allocentric reference frame is detectable [28]. In a study by Iachini and Logie [26], participants unfamiliar with a campus were first shown a target building, and then led to see another view of the same building (at a 0-180 • angle from their starting position). Then they had to locate their own actual position on a three-dimensional map. ...
... (b) the organization of the mental representation may integrate both the initial view (egocentric experience) and allocentric (world-based) information (as suggested by studies using virtual navigation [28], and verbally-presented paths [29][30][31], with a preference for a cardinal northward orientation [25,26]). If this is the case, the representation may be organized according to a specific northward orientation when the initial heading is oriented towards compass north, as in the group taking the path from south to north (SN group), who would perform better in SN pointing than NS pointing. ...
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Background: Spatial cognition research strives to maximize conditions favoring environment representation. This study examined how initial (egocentric) navigation headings interact with allocentric references in terms of world-based information (such as cardinal points) in forming environment representations. The role of individual visuo-spatial factors was also examined. Method: Ninety-one undergraduates took an unfamiliar path in two learning conditions, 46 walked from cardinal south to north (SN learning), and 45 walked from cardinal north to south (NS learning). Path recall was tested with SN and NS pointing tasks. Perspective-taking ability and self-reported sense of direction were also assessed. Results: Linear models showed a better performance for SN learning and SN pointing than for NS learning and NS pointing. The learning condition x pointing interaction proved SN pointing more accurate than NS pointing after SN learning, while SN and NS pointing accuracy was similar after NS learning. Perspective-taking ability supported pointing accuracy. Conclusions: These results indicate that initial heading aligned with cardinal north prompt a north-oriented representation. No clear orientation of the representation emerges when the initial heading is aligned with cardinal south. Environment representations are supported by individual perspective-taking ability. These findings offer new insight on the environmental and individual factors facilitating environment representations acquired from navigation.
... Therefore, performance in survey tasks (tasks that focus on the metric relations between mutually nonvisible locations; e.g., pointing, distance-estimation, or shortcutting tasks) might rely on this oriented GRF. A global alignment effect, whereby performance is best when body orientation (i.e., viewing direction) is parallel to the orientation of the GRF representing the navigated space (Iachini & Logie, 2003; Levine, Marchon, & Hanley, 1982; McNamara et al., 2008), is evidence for the use of an oriented GRF in survey tasks. When body orientation and GRF orientation are not parallel, strategies for realignment (e.g., mental rotation) may lead to reduced performance. ...
... When body orientation and GRF orientation are not parallel, strategies for realignment (e.g., mental rotation) may lead to reduced performance. Although performance generally decreases with increasing misalignment (Iachini & Logie, 2003), orthogonal and contra-aligned (i.e., rotated by 180°) body orientations often yield better performance than do oblique misalignments (McNamara et al., 2008). If participants rely on an oriented navigation-based GRF in survey tasks, the alignment effect should be identical for all target locations represented within one GRF. ...
... The fact that a north-facing orientation benefitted performance and the fact that we found no distance effects suggest that participants used representations based on city maps, which are north-oriented, single-frame representations. Error magnitude increased as participants' misalignment from a north-facing orientation increased; this finding suggests that participants used mental rotation to compensate for misalignment (Iachini & Logie, 2003). However, participants' performance in contra-aligned (i.e., south-facing) body orientations was better than would be expected if participants were using mental rotation . ...
Article
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We examined how a highly familiar environmental space--one's city of residence--is represented in memory. Twenty-six participants faced a photo-realistic virtual model of their hometown and completed a task in which they pointed to familiar target locations from various orientations. Each participant's performance was most accurate when he or she was facing north, and errors increased as participants' deviation from a north-facing orientation increased. Pointing errors and latencies were not related to the distance between participants' initial locations and the target locations. Our results are inconsistent with accounts of orientation-free memory and with theories assuming that the storage of spatial knowledge depends on local reference frames. Although participants recognized familiar local views in their initial locations, their strategy for pointing relied on a single, north-oriented reference frame that was likely acquired from maps rather than experience from daily exploration. Even though participants had spent significantly more time navigating the city than looking at maps, their pointing behavior seemed to rely on a north-oriented mental map.
... ned condition, accuracy decreased with angular disparity but increased when the imagined heading was oriented towards the lake. The authors interpreted the results as evidence that the spatial structure of the environment was represented according to frames of reference anchored on the environment but selected on the basis of egocentric experience. Iachini and Logie (2003) studied how an unfamiliar environment, the University campus of Aberdeen (Scotland), was represented in memory. Participants had to observe real buildings from a starting position, then were led to a testing position that differed from the initial orientation by various degrees (from 0° to 180°, with 45° in step) and finally had to mark ...
... Results suggested that locations of unfamiliar buildings were mentally represented in terms of egocentric frames of reference; instead, allocentric frames of reference defined by salient and regular environmental axes were used when the environment was familiar. Overall, these environment-based studies show that spatial information acquired from unfamiliar environments is represented in an egocentric way (Kirasic et al., 1984; Foley & Cohen, 1984; Sholl, 1987; Iachini & Logie, 2003; see also Evans & Pezdek, 1980; Thorndyke & Hayes-Roth, 1982), although geometrical salience and regularity may facilitate an allocentric processing (McNamara et al., 2003). Less conclusive are the results about familiar environments as data in support of an allocentric representation (Evans & Pezdek, 1980; Thorndyke & Hayes-Roth, 1982; Kirasic et al., 1984; Foley & Cohen, 1984;), or of an egocentric representation (Easton & Sholl, 1995) or of both kinds of representations (Werner & Schmidt, 1999) have been reported. ...
... This suggests that the real world setting and the realistic procedure have provided participants with information that facilitated the task. Two factors might have played a crucial role: presence of a fully three-dimensional real environment versus reproduction of the environment by means of maps or simple linear paths, actual movement around buildings versus static observation of spatial layouts (for a similar analysis see Iachini & Logie, 2003). Two-dimensional visual stimuli can provide only simplified information about the environment. ...
Chapter
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Spatial memory is a necessary prerequisite of most everyday activities. We usually define “spatial” that information useful to locate objects and to interact with them. Therefore, it is “spatial” information about relational and metric properties, such as relative positions (e.g., left/right), distance, size, orientation, as well as dynamic properties, such as velocity and strength. Clearly, the ability to navigate in the environment requires an understanding of all these properties and a representation in memory of structured information. To organize spatial memory, egocentric (i.e. based on body’s position) or allocentric (i.e. based on external positions) frames of reference are used. Although research on spatial memory has a long history, in the majority of the cases experimental settings and procedures are restricted to laboratory situations, and the results are typically generalized to real world contexts. Consequently, little is known on the characteristics of spatial memory based on bodily interactions with large-scale everyday environments. In this paper we review evidence about laboratory-based and environment-based research on spatial memory. Further, a research is presented that investigated whether familiarity with a large-scale regular environment affects the spatial frames of reference necessary to represent it in memory. It was tested the hypothesis that familiarity facilitates an allocentric representation of the environment. Familiar and unfamiliar participants had to study 5 triads of buildings by walking along a path surrounding each triad. Afterwards, they had to provide relative distance judgments in relation either to their body (egocentric) or external buildings (allocentric). Results showed that familiar participants were more accurate than unfamiliar participants in the allocentric judgments and faster on the whole. Unfamiliar participants performed similarly in both judgments and were better than familiar participants in the egocentric judgments. These findings suggest that when the environment is familiar and regular it is represented on the basis of allocentric frames of reference. The results are discussed in relation to models of spatial memory that emphasize the importance of experience and of the geometric structure.
... When an egocentric representation is formed, it is easier to retrieve spatial information from experienced perspectives than from new perspectives, and processes of mental rotation are presumably needed to compare these perspectives (Boer, 1991;Easton & Sholl, 1995;Hintzman, O'Dell, & Arndt, 1981;Huttenlocher & Presson, 1973;Iachini & Logie, 2003;Rieser, 1989;Roskos-Ewoldsen et al., 1998). Instead, if stored spatial information is organized allocentrically, then later access is less sensitive to the discrepancy between the old and the new perspectives (e.g. ...
... In Iachini and Logie (2003) participants had to learn the locations of several buildings in an unfamiliar environment, the University campus of Aberdeen (Scotland), by walking on paths around these buildings. Then, they had to recognize their positions on a three-dimensional map by observing each building from different perspectives set at viewpoints between 0 and 180 from a starting position. ...
... The finding that in unfamiliar participants the spatial performance decreased with the angular discrepancy between the original and the new orientations, together with the facilitation in judging front orientations (0 -45 ), is a clear index of an egocentric, body-centered retrieval of spatial information. This result is in line with previous studies about unfamiliar environments (Evans & Pezdek, 1980;Iachini & Logie, 2003;Sholl, 1987;Thorndyke & Hayes-Roth, 1982). Easton and Sholl (1995) also reported a facilitation in indicating front than back positions of the Boston college campus and this was interpreted as evidence of reliance on an egocentric representation. ...
Article
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This paper reports a study of how familiarity and gender may influence the frames of reference used in memory to represent a real-world regularly shaped environment. Familiar and unfamiliar participants learned the locations of three triads of buildings by walking on a path which encircled each triad. Then they were shown with maps reproducing these triads at five different orientations (from 0° to 180°) and had to judge whether each triad represented correctly the relative positions between the buildings. Results showed that unfamiliar participants performed better when the orientation of triads was closer to the learning perspective (0° and 45°) and corresponded to front rather than to back positions. Instead, familiar participants showed a facilitation for triads oriented along orthogonal axes (0°–180°, 90°) and no difference between front and back positions. These findings suggested that locations of unfamiliar buildings were mentally represented in terms of egocentric frames of reference; instead, allocentric frames of reference defined by the environment were used when the environment was familiar. Finally, males were more accurate and faster than females, and this difference was particularly evident in participants unfamiliar with the environment.
... The majority of evidence relates to recall and/or imageability of these features in familiar real world (e.g. Lynch, 1960) or laboratory (review: Iachini & Logie, 2003) environments. However, features used to navigate familiar and unfamiliar environments may differ qualitatively. ...
... Recent evidence is informative of the FORs in which objects' spatial relations are encoded with respect to each other and the viewer. In physical, rather than laboratory, environments a FOR embodies spatial information which is orientation-dependent and derived egocentrically not allocentrically (Iachini & Logie, 2003). In the study presented here the low frequency in immediately detecting the same landmark in consecutive images might arise from alignment effecting object recognition. ...
... In the study presented here the low frequency in immediately detecting the same landmark in consecutive images might arise from alignment effecting object recognition. For example, while orienteers may spatially update their model of the environment by tracking their position relative to objects as they move (Iachini & Logie, 2003) they do not necessarily relate this to their memory of objects in a preceding 2D-image. ...
Article
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A study of human navigation situated in unfamiliar physical environments is described. This considers the efficacy of images of landmarks and other visual features to communicate routes. Themes are derived from self-reported visual and textual data on the intersubjective transfer and use of egocentric perspectives. These relate to designing a mobile device which uses community authored information to support navigation in physical environments. It is proposed that some themes are significant for theory on spatial knowledge and mobile collaboration. Design principles should distinguish features that are "ready-to-hand" for navigation situated in unfamiliar environments from those that are highly memorable.
... Until today maps have proven to be a very efficient presentation form when communicating route information to people (Reichl 2003, Thorndyke & Hayes-Roth 1982, Radoczky 2003, Kray et al 2003. Even though maps can differ dramatically from the perceived structure of a spatial environment, people instinctively consult maps when they have to find their way through an unfamiliar environment (Iachini and Logie 2003). So far new techniques like virtual and augmented reality, animation and many other multimedia tools could not replace cartographic representations. ...
... This result implies that even though maps can differ dramatically from the perceived structure of a spatial environment, they can help the user to get a good overview of the area, whereas textual instructions purely concentrate on the communication of the route (Kray et.al., 2003). Instinctively people typically consult maps when they have to find their way through an unfamiliar environment (Iachini & Logie, 2003). This assumption is reinforced by Kray et. ...
Article
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This submission describes current efforts at the Technical University of Vienna to prove the effectiveness of certain levels of map abstraction for route communication in pedestrian navigation systems. The project NAVIO (Pedestrian Navigation in Indoor-and Outdoor environments) aims on the user friendliness of Location Based Services (LBS) in order to increase the acceptance of such systems. Therefore possibilities on how to communicate guiding instructions in appropriate forms are investigated. Even though various multimedia presentation forms are being used today, maps are still the most prominent way of representing route information, but no guidelines on how to design them are available today. For that reason, the map abstraction problem is adopted in the NAVIO project and field tests, which investigate the efficiency of topographic and schematic maps in route guidance, have been carried out.
... For a pure orientation experiment, in contrast, a view of 60° (Peebles et al. 2007) might be sufficient. Only few orientation and self-localization experiments were performed in real environments, indoors (Meilinger et al. 2007) or outdoors (Iachini and Logie 2003), but had different foci and did not use eye tracking. ...
... We approached this issue by selecting as participants only newly arrived tourists who had never been to the study region. We considered blindfolding while approaching the starting position (Iachini and Logie 2003), but refused the idea due to potential eye tracker decalibration. Recruiting participants unfamiliar with the location was a difficult endeavor, as some of the people we approached at the hostel were already familiar with the city of Zurich. ...
Article
Self-localization is the process of identifying one’s current position on a map, and it is a crucial part of any wayfinding process. During self-localization the wayfinder matches visually perceptible features of the environment, such as landmarks, with map symbols to constrain potential locations on the map. The success of this visual matching process constitutes an important factor for the success of self-localization. In this research we aim at observing the visual matching process between environment and map during self-localization with real-world mobile eye tracking. We report on one orientation and one self-localization experiment, both in an outdoor urban environment. The gaze data collected during the experiments show that successful participants put significantly more visual attention to those symbols on the map that were helpful in the given situation than unsuccessful participants. A sequence analysis revealed that they also had significantly more switches of visual attention between map symbols and their corresponding landmarks in the environment, which suggests they were following a more effective self-localization strategy.
... Cumulative effects of past on current interactions is evidenced even for the most primary level of abstraction when people use landmarks to localise themselves. Recognising landmarks depends on orientation as people first encode objects using egocentric FORs and these depend on their orientation during exposure [20]. This may explain tourists' better recognition of a destination when viewing its landmarks from the direction of their first encounter [21] and anecdotes that they do not realize they have reached a landmark if they are familiar with an iconic image of it from another angle. ...
... Over time people encode allocentric (object centred) FORs which originate from egocentric FORs and enable recognizing landmarks from any orientation. For example, "at the front of" is relative to a landmarks' known spatial relations and depends on the extent of a person's orientations during their prior exposure [20]. In TiM, egocentric POVs induced from allocentric FORs of landmarks affected recognition. ...
Article
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A trajectory perspective can assist designing a mobile guide for visitors "in the wild" by enabling description of the multi-faceted mosaic of information situated in momentary and cumulative wayfinding experiences. Temporal patterns in people's acquisition and use of information in the terrain emerged in wayfinding field experiments and enabled composing two metaphors referring to linear and non-linear relations. We describe use of the metaphors to interpret diverse data about informational and affective aspects of wayfinding in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area.
... In the physical world people first encode landmarks using egocentric frames-of-reference which depend on their orientation during encounters and enable recognizing landmarks from the POV of their earlier exposure [15] . A frame-of-reference (FOR) is any coordinate system which spatially relates objects and their components and is specified by its origin, orientation and relations between its axes. ...
... However, encoding of allocentric FORs originates from egocentric FORs. Thus allocentric FORs depend on a person's orientation during encounters [15] or require rotating and/or translating FOR to induce a POV to recognize a landmark from an unfamiliar orientation [3] . With substantial experience of larger spaces people form secondary spatial, or " survey " , knowledge [1] using extrinsic FOR to describe relations canonically (e.g. ...
Conference Paper
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The ludic experience of exploring wilderness in gameworlds may be compromised by either the negative affects of disorientation or the conspicuous application of architectural principles known to support wayfinding. We use a novel device, inspired by insect navigation, to examine players' situated acquisition of spatial knowledge to enable them return to the origin of their route while they explore an unfamiliar, synthetic natural world. We describe qualitative and quantitative data on player behaviour and distill themes to inform subsequent designs to assist players fulfillment when exploring settings and interpreting them spatially.
... This may not map well to a user's internal representation and immanent experience of landmarks along unfamiliar routes. Evidence identifying the effect of perspective on internally representing objects [19] suggests mappings are prone to conflicts between the perspectives of users in situ and those of external representations. In unfamiliar terrain, users have difficulties or make errors when matching their perspective with immanent 2-D views [13,20], and dynamically transposing [1] or self-reporting their position [21] with extrinsic depictions (e.g. ...
... However, recognising landmarks in situ depends on experience and orientation. People first form egocentric (viewercentred) FORs for an object and these depend on their orientation relative to it during exposure [19]. Tourists are better at recognizing a destination when they view its landmarks from the direction of their first encounter [34] and anecdotes imply that they may not realize they have reached a destination if they are familiar with a single iconic image of it from another angle. ...
Conference Paper
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People have difficulties interacting with external representations designed to guide navigating physical environments. We derive theory to inform design by probing users’ experience and use of their “internal” representations in a temporally evolving wayfinding activity in situ. Interactions with environmental landmarks are explored by analyzing spatial concepts in SMSs used by a group collaborating to wayfind to an unfamiliar rendezvous. Results show differences between landmarks provoking actions and contributing to abstract concepts; and, effects of direct or induced perspective in situ. Design recommendations account for orientation dependence and use of ambiguity in user-world-representation mappings. These include tactics to enable users’ to induce perspectives appropriately: with accuracy for recognising landmarks along routes and agility to situate landmark use in naturally evolving wayfinding goals.
... Although there is compelling evidence that environmental alignment effects exist for both familiar (Frankenstein, Mohler, Bülthoff, & Meilinger, 2012;Werner & Schmidt, 1999) and recently learned (Iachini & Logie, 2003;McNamara, Rump, & Werner, 2003) large-scale spaces, these studies typically have not investigated alignment effects early in learning, in other words, after initial, brief exposure to an environment (e.g., walking around several blocks of an unfamiliar city only once). Specifically, these studies focused on assaying environmental alignment effects after participants had attained some criterion of familiarity within an environment, even if the criterion was low. ...
... However, it is also difficult to rule out that these participants may have had some exposure to the environment via maps or other sources that could have influenced their memory for the environmental boundaries. For example, Iachini and Logie (2003) showed alignment effects in college students who reported being totally or partially unfamiliar with the environment, although even the totally unfamiliar respondents had spent at least 1 and as many as 6 days in the environment. Indeed, even in the absence of any direct exposure, it is not uncommon to explore a map prior to visiting an unfamiliar university, city, park, etc. ...
Article
An important question regards how we use environmental boundaries to anchor spatial representations during navigation. Behavioral and neurophysiological models appear to provide conflicting predictions, and this question has been difficult to answer because of technical challenges with testing navigation in novel, large-scale, realistic spatial environments. We conducted an experiment in which participants freely ambulated on an omnidirectional treadmill while viewing novel, town-sized environments in virtual reality on a head-mounted display. Participants performed interspersed judgments of relative direction (JRD) to assay their spatial knowledge and to determine when during learning they employed environmental boundaries to anchor their spatial representations. We designed JRD questions that assayed directions aligned and misaligned with the axes of the surrounding rectangular boundaries and employed structural equation modeling to better understand the learning-dependent dynamics for aligned versus misaligned pointing. Pointing accuracy showed no initial directional bias to boundaries, although such “alignment effects” did emerge after the fourth block of learning. Preexposure to a map in Experiment 2 led to similar overall findings. A control experiment in which participants studied a map but did not navigate the environment, however, demonstrated alignment effects after a brief, initial learning experience. Our results help to bridge the gap between neurophysiological models of location-specific firing in rodents and human behavioral models of spatial navigation by emphasizing the experience-dependent accumulation of route-specific knowledge. In particular, our results suggest that the use of spatial boundaries as an organizing schema during navigation of large-scale space occurs in an experience-dependent fashion.
... External representations of landmarks to guide navigation should match both people's internal representation and situated experience of the landmark. Recent evidence identifies the effect of perspective on internal representations of objects [11]. It is proposed that this affects a landmark's affordance in situ [12]. ...
... When people first encounter a feature in the environment they form Frames of Reference (FOR) which depend on their orientation relative to it during exposure [11]. A FOR is any co-ordinate system which spatially relates objects and components of objects. ...
Conference Paper
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It has been shown that people encounter difficulties in using representations and devices designed to assist navigating unfamiliar terrain. Literature review and self-reported visual and textual data from field experiments are presented. This suggests usability may be limited by assumptions about landmarks implicit in designing representations. Firstly, memorable landmarks are emphasized but route following in situ requires recognizable landmarks. Secondly, little emphasis is placed on differences between landmarks contributing to higher-level concepts related to wayfinding and those directly provoking actions in the environment. Studies analyse landmarks in SMS during collaborative wayfinding to an unfamiliar rendezvous and in images to communicate routes in unfamiliar terrain. Findings illustrate usability benefits for navigation aids. This includes helping users to align a landmark's illustration to their individual perspective in the environment. It also includes identifying landmark salience for shared use by people navigating in dispersed groups to dynamically-negotiated rendezvous.
... V-shaped patterns typically show the best performance when tested from an experienced perspective; errors and latencies increase monotonically with the angular deviation from this perspective—not necessarily linearly (Figure 1 ). Vshapes have been observed in recognizing objects or scenes234 or in indicating one's current perspective in maps relative to buildings seen before [5]. Matching two objects displayed in different perspectives [6] or pointing and configuration judgments based on map-acquired knowledge also result in V- patterns789. ...
... W-patterns thus seem to relate to allocentric memory. Contrary, V-patterns are typically centered on experienced egocentric orientations [2,4,5,789. Egocentric views may thus underlie V-patterns in the present experiment as well. ...
Article
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Spatial memory is thought to be organized along experienced views and allocentric reference axes. Memory access from different perspectives typically yields V-patterns for egocentric encoding (monotonic decline in performance along with the angular deviation from the experienced perspectives) and W-patterns for axes encoding (better performance along parallel and orthogonal perspectives than along oblique perspectives). We showed that learning an object array with a verbal secondary task reduced W-patterns compared with learning without verbal shadowing. This suggests that axes encoding happened in a verbal format; for example, by rows and columns. Alternatively, general cognitive load from the secondary task prevented memorizing relative to a spatial axis. Independent of encoding, pointing with a surrounding room visible yielded stronger W-patterns compared with pointing with no room visible. This suggests that the visible room geometry interfered with the memorized room geometry. With verbal shadowing and without visual interference only V-patterns remained; otherwise, V- and W-patterns were combined. Verbal encoding and visual interference explain when W-patterns can be expected alongside V-patterns and thus can help in resolving different performance patterns in a wide range of experiments.
... However, in these studies the factor ''familiarity'' was confused with the way of exploring the environment (real exploration for familiar participants, maps for unfamiliar participants), and consequently it was difficult to interpret the results unambiguously. Further, there are few studies based on locomotor exploration of real environments and they have shown that unfamiliar environments are represented egocentrically, although salient environmental axes may acquire a certain relevance (Iachini and Logie 2003;McNamara et al. 2003). Overall, in all these studies the patterns of results were interpreted as verifying the ''allocentric'' or ''egocentric'' view according to a specific theoretical definition and there was no direct measure of allocentric vs egocentric coding. ...
Article
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Background Spatial representations of the environment may change as a result of increased familiarity; yet there are few studies about this topic (Evans and Pezdek 1980; Thorndyke and Hayes-Roth 1982). These studies have suggested that familiar environments are represented in an allocentric way, whereas unfamiliar environments in an egocentric way. A representation is egocentric if maintains the perspective under which spatial information has been experienced. This means that access to spatial locations is not equally easy but depends on the relation between the required location and the organism. An allocentric representation is based on frames of reference independent of the organism’s position and centred on objects or environmental features. However, in these studies the factor “familiarity” was confused with the way of exploring the environment (real exploration for familiar participants, maps for unfamiliar participants), and consequently it was difficult to interpret the results unambiguously. Further, there are few studies based on locomotor exploration of real environments and they have shown that unfamiliar environments are represented egocentrically, although salient environmental axes may acquire a certain relevance (Iachini and Logie 2003; McNamara et al. 2003). Overall, in all these studies the patterns of results were interpreted as verifying the “allocentric” or “egocentric” view according to a specific theoretical definition and there was no direct measure of allocentric vs egocentric coding. Aims In this research we investigated the influence of familiarity on egocentric and allocentric frames of reference used to represent in memory a large-scale outdoor environment explored by locomotion. Familiar and unfamiliar participants were compared on a new task based on relative distance judgments that allowed to manipulate directly the spatial frames of reference required. Both groups explored a real-world large-scale environment by locomotion. Based on previous literature (e.g. Evans and Pezdek 1980), we hypothesized that the allocentric performance should be more accurate within familiar than unfamiliar participants. This should be verified by a familiar/unfamiliar × egocentric/allocentric interaction. Method Participants had to study five triads of buildings by walking along a path linking three buildings each time. Afterwards, they were led to a prescribed position and had to provide egocentric distance judgments: “Which building is closer to you?”, and allocentric distance judgments: “Which building is closer to the building X?”. Accuracy and latency measured the performance. Results As regards the accuracy, a two-way Anova (familiar/unfamiliar as between variable, egocentric/allocentric as within variable) revealed a significant interaction between familiarity and spatial judgments [F(1, 38) = 6.537; P
... This result implies that even though maps can differ dramatically from the perceived structure of a spatial environment, they can help the user to get a good overview of the area, whereas textual instructions purely concentrate on the communication of the route (Kray et al. 2003). Instinctively people typically consult maps when they have to find their way through an unfamiliar environment (Iachini & Logie 2003). This assumption is reinforced by Kray et. ...
Conference Paper
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Until today maps have proven to be a very efficient presentation form when communicating route information to people. Yet many different types of maps, with different styles and different extent, are used without any evidence about their auxiliary qualities in wayfinding. Traditional city maps contain a lot of detail and could therefore overload the user with information. Possibly the user gets distracted and is hindered in his wayfinding task. Schematic maps, on the other hand, usually lack information that could help a pedestrian to find his way. Presumingly the most helpful information source for pure navigation purposes is a cross of a topographic and a schematic map. This submission describes current efforts at the Technical University of Vienna to prove the effectiveness of certain levels of map abstraction for route communication in pedestrian navigation systems.
... One example of recruitment, to be discussed later in more detail, concerns egocentric perspective transformation (computing what the world looks like from another viewpoint). This activity is normally carried out in the parietaltemporal-occipital junction [55] and used for a wide variety of non-linguistic tasks, such as prediction of the behavior of others or navigation [22]. All human languages have ways to change and mark perspective (as in your left versus my left), which is only possible if speaker and hearer can conceptualize the scene from the others perspective, i.e. if they have recruited egocentric perspective transformation as part of their language system. ...
Chapter
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Tremendous progress has been made recently on the fascinating question of the origins and evolution of language (see e.g. (55), (7), (9), (31)). There is no widely accepted complete theory yet, but several proposals are on the table and observations and experiments are proceeding. This chapter focuses on the recruitment theory of language origins which we have been exploring for almost ten years now. This theory argues that language users recruit and try out different strategies for solving the task of communication and retain those that maximise communicative success and cognitive economy. Each strategy requires specific cognitive neural mechanisms, which in themselves serve a wide range of purposes and therefore may have evolved or could be learned independently of language.
... scribes at least three Frames of Reference (defined as a co-ordinate system which spatially relates objects and their components) – cognitive maps demand that the individual employ mainly Egocentric (viewer-centric origins and axes) and Allocentric (origins and axes are anchored to prominent reference objects such as buildings) Frames of Reference. Iachini and Logie (2003) go one step further and postulate that in physical, rather than laboratory, environments, Egocentric Frames of Reference are employed more than their Allocentric counterparts. In contrast, navigating using Euclidean properties (such as distance walked) is referred to as using Extrinsic Frames of Reference (for example, North). While the ...
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This paper describes part of the results of a pilot study investigating how adolescents make, share and negotiate meaning with their peers about their local environments. Specifically, the results presented in this paper focus on how adolescents perceive and interpret spatial and three-dimensional data presented in various formats, such as in terms of virtually-rendered objects, photo-realistic panoramas, and traditional maps. Participants were required to undertake both a pre-and a post-test, which were identical in task. These tests involved having the participants match a series of computer-rendered three-dimensional objects with similar objects rendered from the same perspective, as well as to deduce the axis of rotation and viewing perspective of a QuickTime VR cylindrical panorama when presented with a map of the same area (the pre-and post-tests were separated by an intervention activity which will be described but not analysed in depth in this paper, as the activity itself has been documented in other publications by the author). Performance data obtained from the pre-and post-test results will be presented and analysed, to establish the extent to which classroom practice in geography lessons might be improved to enhance students' performance in map reading and interpretation.
... Neurological evidence has shown that it is carried out in the parietal-temporal-occipital junction which is active whenever its function is needed [51] . Egocentric perspective transformation is used in a variety of non-linguistic tasks, such as the prediction of the behaviour of others in navigation [19]. These studies typically identify that humans are capable of a certain cognitive task and where in the brain the processing necessary for this task might be performed, however they do not give a precise detailed operational model of exactly what kind of processing is needed, neither of the information structures that are required, how the information might be obtained by the cognitive agent, nor of the information transformations or the order in which they are executed. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper is part of an ongoing research program to under- stand the cognitive and functional bases for the origins and evolution of spatial language. Following a cognitive-functional approach, we first investigate the cross-linguistic variety in spatial language, with special at- tention for spatial perspective. Based on this language-typological data, we hypothesize which cognitive mechanisms are needed to explain this variety and argue for an interdisciplinary approach to test these hypothe- ses. We then explain how experiments in artificial language evolution can contribute to that and give a concrete example.
... Wayfinding can be categorized in planning a route and following a route. The two main research areas are: 1) research that aims at shedding light on the question of how humans actually find their way (Arthur & Passini, 1992; Hollands, Patla, & Vickers, 2002; Iachini &Logie,2003; Werner, Krieg-Brückner, Mallot, Schweizer, & Freksa, 1997), and 2) research that aims at supporting humans in the activity of finding the way (Haklay, O'Sullivan, Thurstain-Goodwin, & Schelhorn, 2001; Kray, Laakso, Elting, & Coors, 2003; Tversky & Lee, 1999). The research topics in the second category include analysis of the characteristics of good route instructions in general (Lovelace, Hegarty, & Montello, 1999), specific aspects of car navigation systems (Burnett, 1998), and investigations on how to provide route instructions to pedestrians (Altai, 2001; May, Ross, Bayer, & Tarkiainen, 2003). ...
Conference Paper
In pedestrian navigation, navigators are free to choose any passable way. Because of this characteristic, accurate route instructions are important when navigating from waypoint to waypoint. In this paper, a theoretical frame- work is described for dealing with position uncertainty in pedestrian guiding systems. Stages of closeness are defined based on the topological relation be- tween the navigator and a waypoint. These stages of closeness allow for refin- ing route instructions and, therefore, leading to more accurate navigation and increased efficiency of the system.
... This transformation allows the agent to compute what the scene looks like from the viewpoint of the other, in other words to develop a situation model from the other partner's perspective. The Egocentric Perspective Transform is normally carried out in the parietal-temporaloccipital junction [Zacks et al., 1999] and used for a wide variety of nonlinguistic tasks, such as prediction of the behavior of others or navigation [Iachini and Logie, 2003]. We have implemented these capabilities and performed an experiment in which agents test systematically from which perspective an utterance makes sense. ...
Article
It is well known that perspective alignment plays a major role in the planning and interpretation of spatial language. In order to un- derstand the role of perspective alignment and the cognitive processes involved, we have made precise complete cognitive models of situated embodied agents that self-organise a communication system for di- aloging about the position and movement of real world objects in their immediate surroundings. We show in a series of robotic experiments which cognitive mechanisms are necessary and sufficient to achieve successful spatial language and why and how perspective alignment can take place, either implicitly or based on explicit marking.
... Of most relevance to the present discussion is the orientation factor, tests of which have been designed by Guay and McDaniel (1978). Iachini and Logie (2003) go one step further and postulate that in physical, rather than laboratory, environments, Egocentric Frames of Reference are employed more than their Allocentric counterparts. In contrast, navigating using Euclidean properties (such as distance walked) is referred to as using Extrinsic Frames of Reference (for example, North). ...
Article
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This paper describes part of the results of a study investigating how adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, construct and share meaning about their local environments. Specifically, the results presented focus on how adolescents perceive and interpret spatial and three-dimensional data presented in various formats, such as in terms of virtually-rendered objects, photo-realistic panoramas, and traditional maps. The research was undertaken with a view to informing more effective teaching of map-skills through the improvement of aspects of spatial intelligence. Participants were required to undertake both a pre- and a post-test, which were identical in task. These tests involved having the participants match a series of computer-rendered three dimensional objects with similar objects rendered from the same perspective, as well as to deduce the axis of rotation and viewing perspective of a QuickTime VR cylindrical panorama when presented with a map of the same area. The pre- and post-tests were separated by an intervention activity in the field, designed around the format of a Structured Academic Controversy. Data obtained from the pre- and post-test results indicates that with regard to the rotation of objects and orientation of perspectives, some performance gains were significant amongst both males and females.
... In such misaligned situations, additional mental processes must compensate for the discrepancy between one's current orientation in the environment and the orientation or reference frame in which it was encoded. This compensation could be accomplished, for example, by a shift in perspective or a mental rotation (e.g., Iachini & Logie, 2003;Shepard & Metzler, 1971). Such an explanation is consistent with results from a second experiment that used a very similar setup and procedure as the one reported here. ...
Article
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Recently, there has been an increasing interest in theories about human spatial memory and orientation (see, e.g., Burgess, 2006 for a recent review). There is, however, an apparent conflict between many of those theories that yet needs to be re-solved. Here, we outline a theoretical framework that aims at integrating two current theories of spatial orientation: May (2004) pro-posed that the difficulty of imagined perspective switches is caused, at least in part, by an interference between the sensori-motor and the to-be-imagined perspectives. Riecke & von der Heyde (2002) developed a theoretical framework that is based on a network of logical propositions (i.e., necessary and sufficient conditions). They proposed that automatic spatial updating can only occur if there is a consistency between the observer's concurrent egocentric reference frames (e.g., mediated by real world perception, virtual reality [VR], or imagined perspectives). We propose that the underlying processes are the same, in the sense that a consistency between egocentric representations (Riecke & von der Heyde, 2002) is equivalent to an absence of interference (May, 2004). Whenever the current egocentric representations of the immediate surroundings are consistent, there should be no interference. According to Riecke & von der Heyde (2002), this state enables automatic spatial updating. We propose that this lack of interference might also be able to explain other important phenomena, such as the relative ease of adopting a new perspective after being disoriented. Con-versely, interference (inconsistency) between the primary, embodied egocentric representation and a to-be-imagined (e.g., experimentally instructed) egocentric representation implies the difficulty of adopting a new perspective. We posit that such interference or inconsistency also explains the difficulty people have in ignoring bodily rotations. To avoid the vagueness that purely verbally defined theories sometimes suffer from, we offer a well-defined graphical and structural representation of our framework. Integrating logical and information flow representations in one coherent frame-work not only provides a unified representation of previously seemingly isolated findings and theories, but also fosters a deeper understanding of the underlying processes and enables clear, testable predictions. [1] Burgess, N. (2006): Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10(12), 551-557 [2] May, M. (2004): Cognitive Psychology 48(2), 163-206 [3] Riecke, B. E. and von der Heyde, M. (2002): TR 100, MPI for Biological Cybernetics. Avaliable: www.kyb.mpg.de/publication.html?publ=2021 NIMH Grant 2-R01-MH57868. TWK 2007
... Therefore, one's positive inclinations related to wayfinding in the environment somewhat support experiencing successful experiences in it. In addition, the use of an aid, the map, proved to be functional for navigation [72,73]. On the other hand, having negative wayfinding inclinations, such as a higher level of spatial anxiety, was found to be related to a lower tendency to go out, fewer experiences of reaching unfamiliar destinations, more experiences of getting lost, and greater map use. ...
Article
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Spatial orientation is essential for daily life, but it deteriorates with aging. The present study was aimed at investigating age changes across the adult lifespan in the self-reported use of navigation aids and everyday orientation experiences, as well as investigating to what extent these are related to visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and self-reported wayfinding inclinations. A sample of 456 people aged 25–84 years rated how much they use navigation aids (maps, GPS, verbal directions), how much they went out, and how much they reached or lost their way to unfamiliar destinations (in 2016). Then, they performed the jigsaw puzzle test (VSWM) and questionnaires on sense of direction, pleasure in exploring, and spatial anxiety. The results showed that increasing age is related to a lower tendency to go out, fewer experiences of finding one’s way and getting lost, a lower level of GPS use, and increased verbal directions use. After age changes were accounted for, VSWM was related to aid use and orientation experiences (except for losing one’s way), wayfinding inclinations (especially spatial anxiety) to using a map, and orientation experiences. Overall, other than age, VSWM and one’s wayfinding attitudes can play a role–albeit it a modest one–in spatial behaviors.
... In such misaligned situations, additional mental processes must compensate for the discrepancy between one's current orientation in the environment and the orientation or reference frame in which it was encoded. This compensation could be accomplished, for example, by a shift in perspective or a mental rotation (e.g., Iachini & Logie, 2003; Shepard & Metzler, 1971). Such an explanation is consistent with results from a second experiment that used a very similar setup and procedure as the one reported here. ...
Article
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This study examined orientation specificity in long-term human memory for environmental spaces. Twenty participants learned an immersive virtual environment by walking a multi-segment route in one direction. The environment consisted of seven corridors within which target objects were located. In the testing phase, participants were teleported to different locations in the environment and were asked to identify their location and heading and then point towards previously learned targets. As predicted by viewdependent theory, participants pointed more accurately when oriented in the direction in which they originally learned each corridor. No support was found for a global reference direction underlying the memory of the whole layout or for an exclusive orientation-independent memory. We propose a “network of reference frames” theory to integrate elements of the different theoretical positions.
... Dieser mentale Vorgang erfordert die Fähigkeit sich selbst und die Objekte in der Umgebung zu verorten sowie den Bezug zur eigenen Position und zum Zielort herzustellen (Montello 2005). Bewegt sich eine Person von einem Ort zu einem anderen, behält sie bei der Orientierung den Überblick über die Umgebung und den eigenen Standort (Ianchini & Logie 2003). Die räumliche Orientierung erfolgt zunächst aus egozentrischer Perspektive (Arnold et al. 2015). ...
Thesis
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In order to identify landmark objects, which are supportive for both wayfinding tasks and the development of the cognitive map, the salience of these geographic objects is defined. Passive and active salience properties are combined within identification models in order to name the most prominent object in contrast to the surrounding area, and thus to classify this object as a landmark. This thesis compares passive and active salience parameter-based landmark identification and their respective suitability for pedestrian navigation in an urban area. The results show that both passive and active salience models identify different objects as local landmarks that complement each other. Passive and active salience values for the environment objects differ significantly from one another. In addition, the results of the thesis show that eye movement on environmental objects is a meaningful indicator for determining the cognitive salience of landmarks.
... This transformation is called mental rotation (Gunzelmann et al., 2006). During mental rotation, distance and relative position of the objects in relation to the users play a major role (Iachini and Logie, 2003;Gunzelmann and Anderson, 2004;Klippel and Winter, 2006). Gunzelmann and Anderson (2004) showed that the error rate and the time required to perform the orientation task increases with the angle between the orientations of egocentric and allocentric representation increases. ...
Article
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Human self-localisation is an important part of everyday life. In order to determine one’s own position and orientation, the allocentric representation, usually in the form of a map, has to be aligned with one’s own egocentric representation of the real world. This requires objects (anchor points) that are present in both representations. We present two novel approaches that aim to simplify the process of alignment and thus the self-localisation. The Viewshed approach is based on visibility analysis and the Image Recognition approach identifies objects and highlights them on the map. On the basis of an empirical experiment with 30 participants in the city of Vienna, Austria, the two approaches were compared with each other as well as with a standard approach using a 2D map representation. The goal is to assess and compare aspects like efficiency, user experience, and cognitive workload. Results show that the Image Recognition method provided the best support and was also most popular among users. The Viewshed method performed well below expectations.
... A substantial quantity of research has demonstrated that the spatial representation based on the external SFR is orientation dependent. The alignment of the external SFR via maps, landmarks, and reference points can facilitate positioning (Marvin, Marchon, & Hanley, 1984;Rossano & Warren, 1989;Iachini & Logie, 2003). After the current location and the desired destination have been confirmed, the next step is to determine the possible pathways which connect the two locations. ...
... Critically, previous research has shown that these alignment effects only occur when the participant is aware of the relationship between their body and the environment (Burte and Hegarty, 2014). These alignment effects are consistent with sensorimotor alignment effects, in which pointing is more accurate from an orientation that matches the individual's physical orientation and degrades around the body (e.g., Kelly et al., 2007), or self-localization reaction times being related to angular discrepancy (Iachini and Logie, 2003). ...
Article
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Individuals differ greatly in their ability to learn and navigate through environments. One potential source of this variation is “directional sense” or the ability to identify, maintain, and compare allocentric headings. Allocentric headings are facing directions that are fixed to the external environment, such as cardinal directions. Measures of the ability to identify and compare allocentric headings, using photographs of familiar environments, have shown significant individual and strategy differences; however, the neural basis of these differences is unclear. Forty-five college students, who were highly familiar with a campus environment and ranged in self-reported sense-of-direction, underwent fMRI scans while they completed the Relative Heading task, in which they had to indicate the direction of a series of photographs of recognizable campus buildings (i.e., “target headings”) with respect to initial “orienting headings”. Large individual differences were found in accuracy and correct decision latencies, with gender, self-reported sense-of-direction, and familiarity with campus buildings all predicting task performance. Using linear mixed models, the directional relationships between headings and the experiment location also impacted performance. Structural scans revealed that lateral orbitofrontal and superior parietal volume were related to task accuracy and decision latency, respectively. Bilateral hippocampus and right presubiculum volume were related to self-reported sense-of-direction. Meanwhile, functional results revealed clusters within the superior parietal lobule, supramarginal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and caudate among others in which the intensity of activation matched the linear magnitude of the difference between the orienting and target headings. While the retrosplenial cortex and hippocampus have previously been implicated in the coding of allocentric headings, this work revealed that comparing those headings additionally involved frontal and parietal regions. These results provide insights into the neural bases of the variation within human orientation abilities, and ultimately, human navigation.
... To find the spatial position of a virtual object, our visual system relies on the distance and on depth indicators available within a virtual scene. Ten depth indicators are usually available: binocular disparity, adjustment, convergence, motion parallax, aerial and linear perspective [9], occlusion, size of the field of view, shadows and textures [7]. For both the real and the virtual environments, distances always influence these depth indicators. ...
Article
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Many studies on distance perception in a virtual environment exist. Most of them were conducted using head-mounted displays (HMD) and less with large screen displays such as CAVE systems. In this paper, we propose to measure the accuracy of perceived distances in a virtual space ranging from 0 to 15 meters in a CAVE system compared to an HMD. Eight subjects with different vision performances took part in an experiment. Results show that the HMD provides the best results for distances above 8 meters while the CAVE provides the best results for close distances.
... To find the spatial position of a virtual object, our visual system relies on the distance and on depth indicators available within a virtual scene. Ten depth indicators are usually available: binocular disparity, adjustment, convergence, motion parallax, aerial and linear perspective [9], occlusion, size of the field of view, shadows and textures [7]. For both the real and the virtual environments, distances always influence these depth indicators. ...
Chapter
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Many studies on distance perception in a virtual environment exist. Most of them were conducted using head-mounted displays (HMD) and less with large screen displays such as CAVE systems. In this paper, we propose to measure the accuracy of perceived distances in a virtual space ranging from 0 to 15 m in a CAVE system compared to an HMD. Eight subjects with different vision performances took part in an experiment. Results show that the HMD provides the best results for distances above 8 m while the CAVE provides the best results for close distances.
... In conclusion, the literature reveals a broad acceptance of the functional distinction between egocentric and allocentric frames of reference. Egocentric frames of reference seem to have the role of primary interface between humans and the environment (Iachini & Logie, 2003); this role is revealed in primacy on learning new environments. Instead, increased familiarity with the environment provides an allocentric representation (Iachini, Ruotolo, & Ruggiero, 2009). ...
Chapter
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After a brief description of how visual information travels from the retina to the cortex, two fundamental distinctions within visuospatial perception are discussed. First, spatial relations between objects can be represented either categorically, "left of" or "above," or coordinately, in which metric distances are taken into account. These two types of representations are dissociated in terms of neural correlates, regardless of stimulus type and precise task at hand. Recent findings indicate that also the scope of attention as used during spatial relation processing affects this dissociation.The second distinction is between egocentric (ie, body-based) and allocentric (ie, scene/object-based) frames of reference. Behavioral and neural evidence supporting the existence of the two frames of reference is reported and their functional role within the perception-action model by Milner and Goodale (1995) is discussed. Final, several experiments exploring the interaction between coordinate and categorical spatial relations and egocentric and allocentric frames of reference are presented.
... Egocentric frames of reference use the organism as the center of the organization of surrounding space. When an egocentric representation is formed, it is easier to retrieve spatial information from experienced than novel perspectives (e.g., Easton & Sholl, 1995;Iachini & Logie, 2003;Rieser, 1989;Roskos-Ewoldsen, McNamara, Shelton, & Carr, 1998;Vallar et al., 1999;Wang & Spelke, 2000). By contrast, allocentric frames of reference are centered on external objects or on the environment itself. ...
... Egocentric frames of reference use the organism as the center of the organization of surrounding space. When an egocentric representation is formed, it is easier to retrieve spatial information from experienced than novel perspectives (e.g., Easton & Sholl, 1995;Iachini & Logie, 2003;Rieser, 1989;Roskos-Ewoldsen, McNamara, Shelton, & Carr, 1998;Vallar et al., 1999;Wang & Spelke, 2000). By contrast, allocentric frames of reference are centered on external objects or on the environment itself. ...
Article
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Spatial reference frames are fundamental to represent the position of objects or places. Although research has reported changes in spatial memory abilities during childhood and elderly age, no study has assessed reference frames processing during the entire lifespan using the same task. Here, we aimed at providing some preliminary data on the capacity to process reference frames in 283 healthy participants from 6 to 89 years of age. A spatial memory task requiring egocentric/allocentric verbal judgments about objects in peri-/extrapersonal space was used. The main goals were: (1) tracing a baseline of the normal process of development of these spatial components; (2) clarifying if reference frames are differently vulnerable to age-related effects. Results showed a symmetry between children of 6–7 years and older people of 80–89 years who were slower and less accurate than all other age groups. As regards processing time, age had a strong effect on the allocentric component, especially in extrapersonal space, with a longer time in 6- to 7-year-old children and 80- to 89-year-old adults. The egocentric component looked less affected by aging. Regarding the level of spatial ability (accuracy), the allocentric ability appeared less sensitive to age-related variations, whereas the egocentric ability progressively improved from 8 years and declined from 60 years. The symmetry in processing time and level of spatial ability is discussed in relation to the development of executive functions and to the structural and functional changes due to incomplete maturation (in youngest children) and deterioration (in oldest adults) of underlying cerebral areas.
... Egocentric frames of reference use the organism as the center of the organization of surrounding space. When an egocentric representation is formed, it is easier to retrieve spatial information from experienced than novel perspectives (e.g., Easton & Sholl, 1995;Iachini & Logie, 2003;Rieser, 1989;Roskos-Ewoldsen, McNamara, Shelton, & Carr, 1998;Vallar et al., 1999;Wang & Spelke, 2000). By contrast, allocentric frames of reference are centered on external objects or on the environment itself. ...
Article
Spatial reference frames are fundamental to represent the position of objects or places. Although research has reported changes in spatial memory abilities during childhood and elderly age, no study has assessed reference frames processing during the entire lifespan using the same task. Here, we aimed at providing some preliminary data on the capacity to process reference frames in 283 healthy participants from 6 to 89 years of age. A spatial memory task requiring egocentric/allocentric verbal judgments about objects in peri-/extrapersonal space was used. The main goals were: (1) tracing a baseline of the normal process of development of these spatial components; (2) clarifying if reference frames are differently vulnerable to age-related effects. Results showed a symmetry between children of 6-7 years and older people of 80-89 years who were slower and less accurate than all other age groups. As regards processing time, age had a strong effect on the allocentric component, especially in extrapersonal space, with a longer time in 6- to 7-year-old children and 80- to 89-year-old adults. The egocentric component looked less affected by aging. Regarding the level of spatial ability (accuracy), the allocentric ability appeared less sensitive to age-related variations, whereas the egocentric ability progressively improved from 8 years and declined from 60 years. The symmetry in processing time and level of spatial ability is discussed in relation to the development of executive functions and to the structural and functional changes due to incomplete maturation (in youngest children) and deterioration (in oldest adults) of underlying cerebral areas.
... One example of recruitment concerns egocentric perspective transformation (computing what the world looks like from another viewpoint). This activity is normally carried out in the parietal-temporal-occipital junction [93] and used for a wide variety of nonlinguistic tasks, such as prediction of the behavior of others or navigation [27]. All human languages have ways to change and mark perspective (as in "your left" versus "my left"), which is only possible if speaker and hearer can conceptualize the scene from the listener's perspective, i.e. if they have recruited egocentric perspective transformation into their language system [73]. ...
Article
Modeling is an essential tool in all sciences and it has also a contribution to make to the study of the origins and evolution of human languages. Modeling can help us understand what kind of mechanisms are necessary and sufficient for the origins and evolution of language. It makes it possible to examine through mathematical investigations and computational simulations whether certain basic assumptions of a theory are viable or not. This paper examines models that explore the role of cognition and social interaction in the formation of grammar. After a brief survey of some ongoing experiments, we look at the kinds of structures and processes that have been shown to be effective. I argue that neither the grammatical structure of human languages nor the conceptual inventories expressed in language need to be strongly innate and hence that the role of biology is primarily to provide the powerful cognitive machinery which constitutes the foundation of human intelligence in general.
... For example, if a wearer turns their head to the right, he or she will be able to view the environment to the right, similar to what we see in a natural environment (Janzen, Schade, Katz, & Herrmann, 2001;Waller et al., 2004;Waller & Haun, 2003;Waller, Loomis, & Steck, 2003;Waller, Montello, Richardson, & Hegarty, 2002 Golledge, 2004;Diwadkar & McNamara, 1997;Hartley, Trinkler, & Burgess, 2004;Kozhevnikov & Hegarty, 2001;Maguire, Burgess, Donnett, Frackowiak, Frith, & O'Keefe, 1998;Mou & McNamara, 2002;Shelton & McNamara, 2001, 2004bTlauka, 2002). Another alternative is to have participants view multiple static views such as a series of photographs of an environment from several different perspectives (Diwadkar & McNamara, 1997;Iachini & Logie, 2003;Tlauka & Nairn, 2004 (Couture, Colle, & Reid, 2005). ...
... The proper advancement of one"s relationship in a changing environment is not always easy to maintain. One reason is that individuals have been shown to retrieve spatial information more effectively from experienced perspectives than from new perspectives (Iachini & Logie, 2003). When users are thrust into a position of a familiar environment from a different perspective, wayfinding can become problematic. ...
... This tends to lead to flexible representations that are not biased to a specific orientation (Thorndyke & Hayes-Roth, 1982). However, there is recent evidence that representations developed via spatial information acquired from a large-scale real world environment are orientation dependent (Iachini & Logie, 2003). The latter may be because of the fact that multiple traversals via diverse starting points were not used (i.e., different perspectives set at viewpoints between 0°and 180°from a single starting position were used). ...
Article
While much has been made of the potential uses for virtual environment (VE) technologies as training aids, there are few guidelines and strategies to inform system development from the user’s perspective. Assumptions are that a human factors-based evaluation will ensure optimal performance, transferring training from virtual to real worlds; however, there are complex, yet unexplored, issues surrounding system optimization and employment. A comprehensive investigation into the foundations of training, traversing levels of performance analysis, from overt behavioral responses to the less explicit neuronal patterns, is proposed from which optimal training strategies can be inferred and system development guidelines deduced. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
... The goal of this study was simply to determine if users could even determine how panoramas corresponded to the real world if they were taken from a different viewpoint. This is a similar question to that asked in Iachini and Logie's previous work [6]. They were determining if a person could find their location on a map when taken to a novel viewing point of a building. ...
Article
Developing augmented reality (AR) applications for mobile devices and outdoor environments has historically required a number of technical trade-offs related to tracking. One approach is to rely on computer vision which provides very accurate tracking, but can be brittle, and limits the generality of the application. Another approach is to rely on sensor-based tracking which enables widespread use, but at the cost of generally poor tracking performance. In this paper we present and evaluate a new approach, which we call Indirect AR, that enables perfect alignment of virtual content in a much greater number of application scenarios. To achieve this improved performance we replace the live camera view used in video see through AR with a previously captured panoramic image. By doing this we improve the perceived quality of the tracking while still maintaining a similar overall experience. There are some limitations of this technique, however, related to the use of panoramas. We evaluate these boundaries conditions on both a performance and experiential basis through two user studies. The result of these studies indicates that users preferred Indirect AR over traditional AR in most conditions, and when conditions do degrade to the point the experience changes, Indirect AR can still be a very useful tool in many outdoor application scenarios.
... A substantial quantity of research has demonstrated that the spatial representation based on the external SFR is orientation dependent. The alignment of the external SFR via maps, landmarks and reference points can facilitate positioning (Iachini & Logie, 2003;Levine, Marchon, & Hanley, 1984;Rossano & Warren, 1989). After the current location and the desired destination have been confirmed, the next step is to determine the possible pathways which connect the two locations. ...
Article
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It has been found that humans not only tend to avoid the middle routes and prefer the peripheral routes among multiple choices, but also rely on the 'initial segment strategy' to select the route. In this paper, we propose a new heuristic which humans apply during route selection: Participants prefer the route whose initial direction lies in the direction of their final destination, while avoiding the route whose initial direction does not. Four maps were designed. The pathways, on different maps, constituted a parallelogram, a rectangle and a square. Pedestrians were instructed to select a route from an origin to a destination on one of the maps. The results confirm the application of the newly proposed heuristic. Other possible factors, such as handedness, route angles and occurrence of turns were excluded. Moreover, the heuristics of deferring decision and relying on initial straightness are not supported.
Conference Paper
In this paper a Structural Equation Model drawing on current theories of salience is empirically tested using a large scale in-situ experiment (no = 366 objects and np = 119 participants). Using estimation methods based on partial least squares strong empirical evidence is found for the ability of the model to predict salience. 72% of the variance present in overall salience can be explained. Formative measurement of visual salience is revealed to be an appropriate way to measure visual salience, as the convergent validity analysis yields a highly significant path coefficient of 0.810. Route related features and visual aspects turn out to be most and equally important to predict overall salience, whereas rather person-related dimensions turn out to be less important. Overall, the model presented provides a reasonable and empirically sound way of measuring salience of objects in a survey-based manner.
Conference Paper
When navigating, we as human beings tend to display systematic or near-systematic errors with distance, direction and other navigation issues. For several centuries, designers, urban planners and architects have developed aids for individuals navigating in real physical environments. However, mobile HCI practitioners and researchers have studied how to support navigation with mobile devices and applications for only a few decades. Thus, for HCI professionals there are many possibilities in exploring existing design guidelines originally developed for urban planners to then support users to navigate better. Whilst there have been a lot of studies of navigation design guidelines based on Kevin Lynch's imageability, in this paper we propose an initial study of navigation design guidelines utilising the theory of designing episodes of motion. The implications of the theory of episodes of motions for mobile human computer interaction are explored in this study with the subjects being mobile workers whose daily routines include navigation tasks. To find new navigation aids is important for taxi drivers, not only in carrying out a navigation task well, but also as a question of safety and productivity in daily work, in addition to usability issues. The main contribution of this paper is in demonstrating the concept of designing episodes of motion and evaluating it in the mobile work context. We conclude that by designing overall views, clues, variations and rhythm into mobile applications, we can improve navigation aids for users.
Article
We address inconsistencies in applying theory on landmarks recalled from familiar physical worlds to progressive wayfinding unfamiliar gameworlds in situ. We propose design tactics from theory derived from two separate "games" in unfamiliar physical terrain. Findings illustrate couplings between the terrain and players' spatial knowlege and global and situated wayfinding goals. Landmark recognisability is influenced by player's directly experienced or induced Point of View (POV) in mapping their spatial knowledge and the terrain. Our preliminary results in gameworlds suggest accommodating player's "natural" strategies in a rhetoric for place and wayfinding. This promotes "trajectory" and a player's appropriate induction of POV (e.g. in mappings between passive and active experiences).
Article
This study describes an approach to history education which leverages Augmented Reality (AR). Currently, most learning interventions with AR are designed from the paradigm of an expert-led model of teaching, where the AR artifact is created by a domain expert; under such a paradigm, the learner has limited ownership of the process of artifact production. The project reported in this paper aimed to broaden the application of AR in education, specifically to history education, by exploring the affordances of such technology in mediating student-led learning activities, using the Learner-Generated Augmentation approach described in Lim et al. (2018). The current Singapore Secondary History syllabus adopts an inquiry-based approach. The need to memorize key facts is still an important part in formulating historical arguments. The study involved the design of a learning activity to help students memorize historical information more effectively by building upon the established memory technique of Memory Palace / Method of Loci. In this activity, students used a free AR mobile application - Just a Line - to sketch out memory palaces of key information from a prose passage. This activity was trialled on student-teachers who are majoring in History at the National Institute of Education, Singapore. After they had sketched their memory palaces in three-dimensions, they were interviewed on their experience. Samples of their learning artefacts (their sketches) and analyses of their comments, are reported.
Book
Old questions on the origins of language and communication are illuminated here in new, state-of-the-art research. This volume brings together studies from diverse disciplines, showing how they can inform and stimulate each other. It includes work in linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, anthropology and computer science. New empirical work is reported on both human and animal communication, using some novel techniques that have only recently become viable. A principal theme is the importance of studies involving artificial agents, their contribution to the body of knowledge on the emergence of communication and language, and the role of simulations in exploring some of the most significant issues. A number of different synthetic systems are described, demonstrating how communication can emerge in natural and artificial organisms. Theories on the origins of language are supported by computational and robotic experiments. Worldwide contributors to this volume include some of the most influential figures in the field, delivering essential reading for researchers and graduates in the area, as well as providing fascinating insights for a wider readership. Caroline Lyon is a Senior Lecturer in Computer Science at the University of Hertfordshire. Her research and publications include work on the evolution of language, speech recognition, applications of neural networks and textual analysis. Chrystopher L. Nehaniv is Research Professor of Mathematical and Evolutionary Computer Science at the University of Hertfordshire and Director of the U.K. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Network on Evolvability in Biological and Software Systems. Angelo Cangelosi is Professor in Artificial Intelligence and Cognition at the University of Plymouth. He is the editor of Simulating the Evolution of Language (Springer, 2002).
Article
Full-text available
The extent to which individuals show evidence of an orientation-specific map image was assessed in three experiments. Experiment 1 used a simple path map as the stimulus. Experiment 2 used a more complex map of a real campus environment and allowed repeated exposure over a 4-week period. Experiment 3 used a scale model of the campus and repeated exposures. In all three experiments evidence was found for a subgroup that exhibited no evidence of an orientation-specific map image. Group averages masked the existence of this subgroup, and instead tended to be more reflective of a smaller subgroup showing strong evidence of orientation specificity. The results caution against overgeneralizing group averages in this area of spatial cognition research.
Article
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Evaluated the hypotheses that (a) spatial learning produces a cognitive map and (b) this map is picturelike. It was also hypothesized that special properties of pictures would be demonstrated by the behavior of the Ss. The special properties were (a) simultaneous representation of sequentially placed points and (b) orientation. 106 blindfolded college students learned simple paths either by moving their fingers over the successive points of a map of the path, walking through the path laid out on the floor, or (with blindfold temporarily removed) viewing a map of the path. They were tested for knowledge of the path by having to locate a target; still blindfolded, they were placed at a point on that path and required to move to another point on the path. This required either moving toward the next point in the sequence or taking a shortcut. It is concluded that Ss had an internal pictorial map since they took shortcuts with the same ease as they took the originally learned path segments. The manifestation of orientation was particularly dramatic, with Ss moving in the wrong direction (angle error greater than 90°) on more than 25% of the specified trials. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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24 undergraduates were blindfolded and walked through paths laid out on a floor to investigate whether the orientation of Ss' cognitive maps (CMs) could be determined after they had learned a path by walking through it. Given the assumption that the CM is picturelike, it was predicted that it has a specific orientation, which implies that tests in which the CM is assumed to be aligned with the path should be less difficult than tests in which the CM is hypothesized to be contraligned. In Exp I (8 Ss), Ss were required to draw a picture of the path they had walked through; in Exp II (14 Ss), Ss were required to locate targets in the path under conditions in which their presumed CMs were either aligned or contraligned with the path. Results show that, in Exp I, all Ss drew the 1st line segment of the path upward, suggesting that this part of the path was fixed in an upward direction in memory. In Exp II, Ss were more accurate and faster in locating points on the path when the CM was hypothesized to be aligned with the path than when it was hypothesized to be contraligned. (3 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Blindfolded adult participants (7 male and 9 female) were asked to point to previously seen targets after a body rotation. In 1 condition, participants had to update their positions relative to the targets during rotation; in another condition, they had to ignore the rotation and to imagine that they were still in their initial orientation. In the updating condition, replicating research of J. J. Rieser (1989), response latencies were only slightly affected by the magnitude of the body rotation. In the ignoring condition, however, response latencies increased with the angular difference between the participants' new position and their original orientation, suggesting that the participants updated their positions and then retrospectively "undid" this updating to mentally reestablish their original orientation. The results are supportive of the idea that heading is updated automatically as a person moves so that she or he is always primarily oriented with respect to her or his actual position. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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How maintenance of orientation during locomotion in unfamiliar environments is accomplished was investigated by having subjects walk behind a moving light line (1.12 m/sec) in a dark room and, from a stopping point, numerically estimate direction and distance to the starting point. Two linear distances (5.0–8.4 m) and the angle of direction change (45, 90, and 135 deg) were orthogonally varied as 12 locomotion patterns. Eight high-school students were assigned to each of three conditions, two in which the starting point was invisible, one in which it was visible. In one of the former conditions the subjects counted backwards rapidly during walking. Lower accuracy and longer latency times were found in the counting condition whilst the other two conditions differed only slightly. The results suggested that accurate maintenance of orientation is achieved by recurrent encoding, coordination and decoding of information about direction change and locomotion distance, processes which demand central processing capacity and therefore are interfered with by a concurrent task.
Article
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Subjects read narratives describing directions of objects around a standing or reclining observer, who was periodically reoriented. RTs were measured to identify which object was currently located beyond the observer’s head, feet, front, back, right, and left. When the observer was standing, head/feet RTs were fastest, followed by front/back and then right/left. For the reclining observer, front/back RTs were fastest, followed by head/feet and then right/left. The data support the spatial framework model, according to which space is conceptualized in terms of three axes whose accessibility depends on body asymmetries and the relation of the body to the world. The data allow rejection of the equiavailability model, according to which RTs to all directions are equal, and the mental transformation model, according to which RTs increase with angular disparity from front.
Article
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Kosslyn (psychology, Harvard U.) presents a 20-year research program on the nature of high-level vision and mental imagery--offering his research as a definitive resolution of the long-standing "imagery debate," which centers on the nature of the internal representation of visual mental imagery. He combines insights and empirical results from computer vision, neurobiology, and cognitive science to develop a general theory of visual mental imagery, its relation to visual perception, and its implementation in the human brain.
Chapter
This chapter presents experiments to study conflicting spatial frames of reference in a locating task. In this experiment, contralignment was defined by the fact that the point of view the subject had to find was facing downwards on the screen. In such a situation, the subjects' difficulty was interpreted as resulting from the non-correspondence between the spatial frames of reference (SFR) of the subject watching the screen and the SFR of the viewpoint representing the subject on the map. An overall significant effect of this contralignment was indeed found. In the first phase, the goal was to find an intermediate solution characterized by a relatively good orientation and a relatively poor position. In the second phase, the task consisted essentially of refining the solution. This could involve some shifts of the viewpoint on the screen to improve the distance cues and possibly remove some incorrect objects and eliminate one inversion still present in the subject scene.
Article
You-are-here maps are standard aids for newcomers to a compelx terrain. A precisely constructed map with a properly affixed you-are-here symbol, however, is not sufficient. Two principles, one of structure matching and one of orientation, must be considered in order to maximize the map's usefulness. Indeed, neglect of these can make the map misleading. These principles lead to a set of recommendations. -from Author
Article
The intention here is to focus on some motor-oriented approaches to the spatial functions of the brain and to see how far they contribute to our understanding of the way in which the internal metric of spatial information is neurally encoded. A motor-oriented approach assumes that the principal metric for coding
Article
Summarizes some of the studies which have examined maps designed for navigation, such as road maps, tourist maps etc. Despite the importance of such maps, there has been little research into how people use them for wayfinding. The results from this research suggest that adults are not always very competent or confident in using maps in the real world. These results have implications both for studies of map design and how people navigate with maps. Future research is discussed and it is also suggested that school curricula should include education about the use of maps. -Authors
Article
Subjects viewed projected slides of a downtown city area and attempted to find on a map the location at which they would be standing to see each view. Plan and oblique maps were used. As expected, performance using the plan map was significantly better when the map was used in alignment with the view than when it was misaligned. This issue is more complex with the oblique map, because S often has to choose between using the map in alignment with the view and using the map in its upright orientation. Performance was significantly better when the map was used in map-view alignment. However, Ss preferred to use the map in an upright-but-misaligned orientation rather than a non-upright-but-aligned orientation, despite the fact that their performance was much worse in the former case.
Article
The Health Sciences Centre is a five-story hospital in which each floor is designed with a unique configuration. There are no main corridors in the hospital, nor any corridors that run the complete length of the hospital. Rooms are not rectangular and fail to follow any set pattern. Consequently it is easy to become disoriented in this building. The series of studies reported in this article examined the cognitive mapping systems of student nurses who had worked in the hospital for various periods of time. After inspecting several different measures, it was concluded that the student nurses had failed to form "survy"- type cognitive maps of the building even after traversing it for two years. A control experiment was tested, using naive subjects who were first asked to memorize floor plans of the building. These naive subjects performed significantly better on objective measures of cognitive mapping than did the nurses with two years' experience working at the hospital. It was concluded that mental representations of survey maps do not develop automatically in the complex spatial environment.
Article
This study seeks to determine how effectively a simulated site visit could provide an older person with a working knowledge of an unknown building. The need for such research is related to the relocation of older people. The simulation technique, based on mental image research, was composed of a model of the building and a series of sequential slides. The model provided information concerning spatial relationships, and the slides provided identification information and the sequential experience of walking through the building. To evaluate the simulation technique, a field experiment was conducted. The sample was divided randomly into three groups: simulation group; site visit group; and control group. A person's working knowledge was defined operationally by assessing the following: confidence in way-finding ability; the mental image of the building; and way-finding ability in the building. The evaluation demonstrated that the working knowledge provided by the simulation technique was actually more useful than that provided by actual visits to the building.
Article
Route learning by kindergarten and grade 2 children was assessed via a slide presentation, videotape, or walking the route with a guide. The children viewed the route only once, and were then asked to retrace it in the same medium from start to finish or in the reverse. They were shown a panoramic view at seven choice points along the route, and when retracing were asked to point to the correct path at these locations. Older children were less likely to err than younger children, reversing the route was more difficult than repeating it in the forward direction. There was very little difference in overall performance in slide and videotape media, but significantly fewer errors occurred while walking, especially when children were asked to indicate their way back to the start. Methodologically, these findings suggest caution should be exercised in generalizing from studies of children's spatial performance using bounded planar materials. Theoretically, these findings support accounts of route learning that ascribe a fundamental role to self-produced exploration and its concurrent spatio-temporal feedback (e.g., Gibson, 1966,1979).
Article
You-are-here maps are standard aids for newcomers to a complex terrain. A precisely constructed map with a properly affixed you-are-here symbol, however, is not sufficient. Two principles, one of structure matching and one of orientation, must be considered in order to maximize the map's usefulness. Indeed, neglect of these can make the map misleading. These principles lead to the following set of recommendations: (1) provide salient, coordinate labels in both the terrain and the map; (2) place the map near an asymmetrical part of the terrain; (3) design the you-are-here symbol to indicate map-terrain correspondence; (4) align the map with the terrain; (5) be redundant, that is, use as many of these supplements as possible.
Article
One potentially significant yet little investigated criterion for postoccupancy evaluation is the "legibility" of a setting—the degree to which a building facilitates the ability of users to find their way within it. The present study evaluated the legibility of a sample of ten university buildings. Self-report data indicated way-finding to be a problem for a substantial minority. The impact upon way-finding of several theoretically derived visual/spatial variables was also assessed. Two aspects of the floor plan configurations of these settings, as judged from highly significant relationships to frequency of disorientation. One of these variables, judged simplicity of floor plan configuration, was able to account for 56% of the variance in these data. One other potentially important variable, respondents' own familiarity with these buildings, was able to account for but 9% of the variance in frequency of disorientation data.
Article
Two experiments investigated the viewpoint dependence of spatial memories In Experiment 1, participants learned the locations of objects on a desktop from a single perspective and then took part in a recognition test, test scenes included familiar and novel views of the layout Recognition latency was a linear function of the angular distance between a test view and the study view In Experiment 2, participants studied a layout from a single view and then learned to recognize the layout from three additional training views A final recognition test showed that the study view and the training views were represented in memory, and that latency was a linear function of the angular distance to the nearest study or training view These results indicate that interobject spatial relations are encoded in a viewpoint-dependent manner, and that recognition of novel views requires normalization to the most similar representation in memory These findings parallel recent results in visual object recognition.
Article
Consistent patterns of errors are found in estimations of distances and angles along urban routes, even among subjects who know the areas well. These patterns can be used to discover the organization of the knowledge we use to find our way around in everyday life. In the first experiment, 80 undergraduates estimated by ratio scaling the walking distances between pairs of locations in St. Andrews. Routes varied independently in their location, number of major bends, and length. Relative overestimation of length was found with routes in the town centre, with routes having several major bends, and (perhaps as an experimental artifact) with short routes. In the second experiment, 30 Cambridge residents estimated the angles between pairs of roads, by drawing the configuration of roads at their junctions. The real angles were either in the range 60–70° or 110–120°. All the estimates differed little from 90°, regardless of the true magnitude of the angle. The implications of these findings for theories of mental representation of largescale space are discussed. A model is supported in which a spatial area is represented as a “network-map”, consisting of strings of locations forming a net of paths known to be traversable, but vector distance is not preserved.
Article
A theory of spatial problem solving led to the prediction that the ease of use of you-are-here maps would depend upon where they were placed in relation to the terrain. Two experiments were performed. One was carried out in symbolic form in the laboratory; the other was performed in the field, as wayfinding in a large building. Both experiments confirmed the prediction.
Chapter
Article
Confirms the generalizability of previous research on urban form and memory for buildings. Additional structural characteristics, including landscaping and unique architectural style, enhance memory for buildings above and beyond the original features developed by Appleyard. It is also shown that elderly residents use some of the same physical features as younger adults to remember buildings but rely more heavily on historical cues and ease of pedestrian access as salient building characteristics. Memory for the location of structures as a function of physical and sociocultural features is examined. Different structural features influence location memory than influence verbal memory for buildings.-Authors
Article
This chapter discusses chronometric studies of the rotation of mental images. It describes experimental paradigms for investigating the nature of mental images, selective reduction of reaction times, and preceding reaction-time studies of mental rotation. In the experiments described in the chapter, mental transformations and the selective reduction of reaction times are used, jointly, to establish that the internal representations and mental operations upon these representations are to some degree analogous or structurally isomorphic to corresponding objects and spatial transformations in the external world. In all of these experiments, each spatial transformation consists simply of single rigid rotation of a visual object about a fixed axis. However, in related work reported elsewhere, reaction times have been measured for much more complex sequences of imagined operations in space.
Article
This book collects some of the most exciting pioneering work in perceptual and cognitive psychology. The authors' quantitative approach to the study of mental images and their representation is clearly depicted in this invaluable volume of research, which presents, interprets, evaluates, and extends their work. The selections are preceded by a thorough review of the history of their experiments, and all of the articles have been updated with reviews of the current literature. The book's first part focuses on mental rotation; the second includes other more complex transformations and sequences of transformations. The third part describes work on rotational transformations in the context of the perceptual illusion of "apparent motion." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Proposes an information-processing model of spatial orientation and way-finding in the designed environment. The model identifies a number of basic cognitive processes such as recognition of parts of an environment (e.g., landmarks); localization of reference points; and recall, selection, and sequencing of destinations (choices, decisions, and planning). A system for classifying environments is suggested as a heuristic in predicting the extent of spatial orientation and wayfinding problems. Specific and general methodological suggestions for postoccupancy evaluation are offered, such as evaluating types of environments rather than particular environments. (52 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Identified self-reported strategies for indoor wayfinding, and examined their correlation with strategies previously identified for outdoor wayfinding. Relationships of indoor strategies with spatial anxiety and gender differences were also examined. Validity of the self-report measures was assessed in relation to accuracy in an actual pointing task. Results from 278 college students (104 men and 174 women) show that indoor reliance on directional cues correlated with the outdoor orientation strategy and indoor reliance on route information correlated with the outdoor route strategy. Consistent with findings for outdoor strategies, men reported higher use of the indoor orientation strategy and women reported higher use of the indoor route strategy. Indoor and outdoor orientation strategies were associated with low levels of spatial anxiety; gender, orientation strategies, and spatial anxiety predicted pointing accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two experiments employed dual task techniques to explore the role of working memory in route learning and subsequent route retrieval. Experiment 1 involved contrasting performance of two groups of volunteers respectively learning a route from a series of map segments or a series of visually presented nonsense words. Both groups performed learning and recognition under articulatory suppression or concurrent spatial tapping. Both concurrent tasks had an overall disruptive effect on each learning task. However, spatial tapping disrupted route recognition rather more than did articulatory suppression, while the nonsense word recognition was impaired more by articulatory suppression than by concurrent spatial tapping. Experiment 2 again used dual task methodology, but explored route learning by asking volunteers to follow the experimenter through the winding streets of a medieval European town centre. Retrieval involved following the same route while the experimenter followed and noted errors in navigation. Overall the results partially replicated those of Experiment 1 in that both concurrent tasks interfered with route learning. However, volunteers with high spatial ability appeared more affected by the concurrent spatial tapping task, whereas low spatial subjects appeared more affected by the concurrent articulatory suppression task. Results are interpreted to suggest that different aspects of working memory are involved in learning a route from a map with a greater emphasis on visuo-spatial resources, but in tasks set in real environments where many cues of a varied nature are available, only high spatial ability subjects appear to rely heavily upon the visuospatial component of working memory. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This paper describes five experiments with two main aims; first, to assess the effects of variations in photographic facial pose on recognizability. A second, more fundamental aim was to examine the reliability of laboratory findings relevant to face recognition, in more ecologically valid settings, and to develop a methodology to further this aim. In Experiment 1 best performance was achieved with provision of three facial poses, namely full-face, three-quarter and profile views. With a single pose a three-quarter view was the most helpful. Experiments 2 and 3 attempted to evaluate these findings in a real-life setting using the general public or paid volunteers who attempted to identify a live target in a town centre from a previously presented photograph. The general public produced a very poor response, and the volunteers produced a low detection and high false recognition rate. Experiment 4 increased constraints on the experimental environment and produced a reasonable hit rate, but no effects of pose. Experiment 5 was a laboratory study where the presentation of a live target preceded photographic recognition. Effects of pose reappeared in line with results of Experiment 1. These results underline the danger involved in making practical recommendations arising from purely laboratory based research.
Article
Recent evidence indicates that mental representations of large (i.e., navigable) spaces are viewpoint dependent when observers are restricted to a single view. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether two views of a space would produce a single viewpoint-independent representation or two viewpoint-dependent representations. Participants learned the locations of objects in a room from two viewpoints and then made judgments of relative direction from imagined headings either aligned or misaligned with the studied views. The results indicated that mental representations of large spaces were viewpoint dependent, and that two views of a spatial layout appeared to produce two viewpoint-dependent representations in memory. Imagined headings aligned with the study views were more accessible than were novel headings in terms of both speed and accuracy of pointing judgments.
Article
Wayfinding, conceptualized in terms of spatial problem solving, subsumes decision making, decision executing and information processing. Spatial representations are a product of the latter. In this paper, rather than relying on the practice of inferring wayfinding characteristics from studies done on spatial representations, I shall inverse the argument and explore characteristics of spatial representations, in particular the notion of accuracy, from a wayfinding perspective.Wayfinding decisions are hierarchically structured into plans which not only helps to memorize routes in behavioral terms, but helps to organize and record environmental information in the form of sequential, route-type representations. Survey-type representations also rely on memory supportive structures but these are directly inferred from the spatial configuration of a setting.Both types of representations induce metric and topological distortions, but these are not necessarily detrimental to wayfinding. Travelling on routes, experienced on previous occasions, requires an act of recognizing but not recalling environmental features. Spatial representations based on recall are only required when planning new routes, and even then, they do not need to be recalled in great detail. It is argued that the question of accuracy in spatial representations ought to be posed in respect to practical use rather than cartographic parameters.
Article
Experiment I contrasts the difficulty of problems in which a child must anticipate the appearance of an array of objects that is rotated (rotation problems) to the difficulty of problems in which a child must anticipate the appearance of a fixed array to an observer who has been rotated with respect to it (perspective problems). Perspective problems are much more difficult and show a different error pattern. Experiment II contrasts standard perspective problems, in which a child must anticipate the appearance of the array to an observer whose position differs from his own, to “perspective-move” problems, in which a child must anticipate the appearance of the array from his own new position; i.e., he himself moves. The latter problems are much easier, and the error pattern is much like that for rotation problems. The mental operations involved in solving these various types of problems are discussed.
Article
The non-visual updating of body-centred spatial relationships was investigated in an experiment in which blindfolded patients had to point to previously seen targets after a body rotation in the absence of vision. Patients with lesions to the right dorsal (RD) area were impaired at updating their positions relative to non-RD patients and normal subjects: they tended to underestimate systematically the angle through which they had turned. The results are interpreted in terms of impoverished locomotor input and/or systematically biased processing or locomotor proprioception in the RD patients, which prevented accurate tracking of changes in egocentric spatial relationships.
Article
Six experiments investigated the limiting conditions on and the causes of asymmetries in estimates of euclidean distance. Participants estimated distances between locations on recently learned maps or between buildings on their college campus. Estimates between landmarks and neighboring nonlandmarks were often asymmetric, but estimates between other pairs of locations were typically symmetric. These and other results were inconsistent with the predictions of models that attribute asymmetries to stimulus or to retrieval bias. A contextual scaling model of asymmetry is proposed. According to this model, asymmetries in proximity judgments are caused by general principles of human memory and judgment: (a) Stimuli differ in the contexts they establish in working memory, and (b) magnitude estimates are scaled by the context in which they are made.
Article
Relationships among spatial abilities, as assessed by a battery of psychometric tests and experimental tasks, and environmental learning, as assessed by a series of macrospatial tasks, were examined in two studies using confirmatory factor analysis with directional paths. The initial study indicated the utility of a five-factor model, one (general spatial ability) derived from psychometric tests, two (spatial-sequential memory and spatial perspective-taking latency) from experimental tasks, and two (topological knowledge and Euclidean direction knowledge) from measures of environmental learning. The best fitting path model further indicated that the spatial-sequential memory factor mediated the relationship between general spatial ability and topological knowledge, and that perspective-taking latency mediated the relationship between general spatial ability and Euclidean direction knowledge. The second study confirmed the five-factor path model using a different participant sample and environmental setting. The only failure to replicate involved the path between perspective-taking latency in the lab and Euclidean direction knowledge in the environment. Results indicate that the relationship between basic spatial abilities and environmental learning is significantly mediated by cognitive processes that can be assessed using laboratory tasks.
Article
Perspective views of the same three-dimensional object in two orientations, when presented in alternation, produced an illusion of rigid rotation. The minimum cycle duration required for the illusion increased linearly with the angular difference between the orientations and at the same slope for rotations in depth and in the picture plane.
Article
When an observer (O) uses a map (M) whose orientation does not correspond to the orientation of the environment (E) in which performance occurs, substantial errors occur: these are called map alignment effects. Much of the prior research on map/environment (M/E) alignment has involved maps of simple paths, although alignment effects have also been demonstrated for you-are-here (YAH) maps. A study is reported in which simple YAH maps were used to test the hypothesis that errors with misaligned maps would fall into categories predictable from the application of inappropriate cognitive operations to the misaligned maps, as demonstrated earlier by Rossano and Warren. Further, performance under conditions of M/E misalignment was compared with performance under map/observer (M/O) misalignment, the situation in which the map is sideways or upside-down with respect to the observer. The major hypothesis was supported: predictable errors occurred under conditions of M/E misalignment. Errors under conditions of M/O misalignment were significantly smaller. Furthermore, when given the choice of using M/E or M/O alignment, each at the expense of the other, the overwhelming choice was to retain M/E rather than M/O alignment. This pattern of results occurred even when environmental features were represented by words rather than by lines and shapes on the map. The results underscore the robustness of map alignment effects.
Article
The present paper demonstrates that mental rotation as used in the processing of disoriented objects (Cooper and Shepard 1973) can also be used as an explanatory concept for the processing of perspective problems in which the task is to imagine how an environment will appear from another vantage point. In a cognitive map, subjects imagined an initial line of vision and subsequently processed a reorientation stimulus, requesting them to imagine a turn over 0, 45, 90, 135, or 180 degrees. Time for a reorientation increased linearly with the size of the imaginary turn up to 135 degrees and decreased for turns of 180 degrees; apparently, about-faces were relatively easy to imagine. The increment of reorientation time between 0 and 135 degrees was larger for maps presented in unfamiliar orientations such as South-West up. Both the increment and the interaction with familiarity are consistent with an explanation in terms of mental rotation.
Article
Three studies investigated the factors that lead spatial information to be stored in an orientation-specific versus orientation-free manner. In Experiment 1, we replicated the findings of Presson and Hazelrigg (1984) that learning paths from a small map versus learning the paths directly from viewing a world leads to different functional characteristics of spatial memory. Whether the route display was presented as the path itself or as a large map of the path did not affect how the information was stored. In Experiment 2, we examined the effects of size of stimulus display, size of world, and scale transformations on how spatial information in maps is stored and available for use in later judgments. In Experiment 3, we examined the effect of size on the orientation specificity of the spatial coding of paths that are viewed directly. The major determinant of whether spatial information was stored and used in an orientation-specific or an orientation-free manner was the size of the display. Small displays were coded in an orientation-specific way, whereas very large displays were coded in a more orientation-free manner. These data support the view that there are distinct spatial representations, one more perceptual and episodic and one more integrated and model-like, that have developed to meet different demands faced by mobile organisms.
Article
Adults were asked to judge the self-to-object directions in a room from novel points of observation that differed from their actual point at times only by a rotation and at other times only by a translation. The results show for the rotation trials that the errors and latencies when a novel point was imagined were worse than the baseline responses from their actual points of observation, and the latencies varied as a function of the magnitude of the to-be-imagined rotation. For the translation trials, on the other hand, the errors and latencies when a novel point was imagined were comparable to the baseline responses from their actual point and did not vary significantly across the different imagined station points. The evidence indicates that subjects know the object-to-object relations directly, without going through the origin of a coordinate system. In addition, similarities in processing during imagination on the one hand, and perception and action on the other are discussed.