Article

Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care

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Abstract

With increased numbers of women employed in their children’s first year of life and with increased attention being paid by parents and policy makers to the importance of early experiences for children, establishing the links that might exist between early maternal employment and child cognitive outcomes is more important than ever. Negative associations between maternal employment during the first year of life and children’s cognitive outcomes at age 3 (and later ages) have been reported using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth–Child Supplement. However, it was not known whether these findings would be replicated in another study, nor whether these results were due to features of child care (e.g., quality, type), home environment (e.g., provision of learning), and/or parenting (e.g., sensitivity). This study explored these issues using data on 900 European American children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, which provides information on child cognitive scores at 15, 24, and 36 months, as well as data about the home environment (as assessed by the Home Observation of the Measurement of the Environment Scale), parental sensitivity, and child–care quality and type over the first 3 years of life. Maternal employment by the ninth month was found to be linked to lower Bracken School Readiness scores at 36 months, with the effects more pronounced when mothers were working 30 hr or more per week and with effects more pronounced for certain subgroups (i.e., children whose mothers were not sensitive, boys, and children with married parents). Although quality of child care, home environment, and maternal sensitivity also mattered, the negative effects of working 30 hr or more per week in the first 9 months were still found, even when controlling for child–care quality, the quality of the home environment, and maternal sensitivity. Implications for policy are also discussed.

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... Furthermore, it is believed that among these inceptions, they support home economics financially in terms of return on investment and that investment in their actual working hours as teachers. The opponents of this idea, argue that working-mothers deprive their children of early development and training (Almani, Abro & Mugheri, 2012;Brooks-Gunn, Han & Waldfogel, 2002;Gold & Andres, 1978), hence against-this-phenomenon are of the view that it is not immoral for a mother to have a job, but it is probably not the encouraging activity for children. This study attempts to find out the effects of mothers' work on the early growth, training, and performance of children as this area of research has not been discovered extensively (Frone, Quick & Tetrick, 2003), Goodson, 1997), and further investigation is needed. ...
... Moreover, children said they were proud of their working mothers, taken their mothers as role models, and believed that their mother's engagement helped them to surface their problem-solving ability (Lenehan, 2016). On the contrary, Brooks-Gunn, Han and Waldfogel (2002) in their longitudinal study found that children having their mothers taking care of them in their early years of childhood were found better cognitively developed than those whose mothers started working at their child's early years of childhood. ...
... The purpose of the present study was to find that mothers associated with the teaching profession can manage their prime responsibility for the development of their children in a similar way to household mothers. In this connection, the stereotype beliefs are of the view that when mothers get engaged with professional job careers, it results in lesser children's growth in terms of physical, cognitive and social development (Brooks-Gunn, Han & Waldfogel, 2002;Almani, Abro & Mugheri, 2012;Heinrich, 2014). On the contrary, this study has proven otherwise. ...
Article
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After the birth of children, due to health issues, household chores, and lack of time and management, most of the mothers leave their professional jobs. Some of the ladies usually prefer coaching jobs for grossing and continuing professional life because nurturing of children is prime accountability for mothers in Eastern Culture. However, it is still disputable that teaching-mothers can give better attention to by providing quality time to develop their kids' personalities as teaching these days has proven to be a highly demanding profession. This study attempts to find out the after-effects of mothers' professional workload on the early growth of their children, training, and performance. For serving the purpose, the analysis of the variables to test the hypothesis, samples of children of working and non-working mothers was selected from the city of Karachi to make it a comparative one. The Mixed Quantitative approach was used, employing a collection of data through an online survey questionnaire form and structured interviews. It is evident from this research's statistical analysis that previous trends about mothers' employment are changing, and nowadays mothers specially engaged with teaching profession are not only contributing to the country's economy but also playing an important role as a mother by managing children's development as proficiently as household mothers. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION
... A number of studies suggest that employment has no negative effects for the children of lone mothers and may actually be beneficial (Harvey 1999;Han, Waldfogel, and Brooks-Gunn 2001;Brooks-Gunn, Han, and Waldfogel 2002;Ruhm 2004). Indeed, both Lucas-Thompson, Goldberg, and Prause (2010) and Heinrich's (2014) literature reviews recognize family structure as an important moderator of the association between maternal employment and child outcomes and conclude that in lone parent families (as in other low-income families) the positive effect of greater economic resources tends to outweigh the negative effects of more limited parental availability. ...
... Developmental theories suggest that early maternal employment can disrupt the secure attachment between mother and child, with negative implications for child development and emotional well-being (see, for instance, Shonkoff and Phillips 2000;Belsky 2006). Research evidence consistently supports this view and indicates that maternal employment in the child's first year can indeed be harmful for children (Baydar and Brooks-Gunn 1991;Waldfogel, Han, and Brooks-Gunn 2002;Ruhm 2004;Hill et al. 2005), especially if mothers work long hours (Brooks-Gunn, Han, and Waldfogel 2010;Ruhm 2004;Gregg et al. 2005). On the other hand, work in the second, third, or fourth year of life seems beneficial for cognitive and/or behavioural development (Baydar and Brooks-Gunn 1991;Waldfogel, Han, and Brooks-Gunn 2002;Hill et al. 2005). ...
... Research evidence consistently supports this view and indicates that maternal employment in the child's first year can indeed be harmful for children (Baydar and Brooks-Gunn 1991;Waldfogel, Han, and Brooks-Gunn 2002;Ruhm 2004;Hill et al. 2005), especially if mothers work long hours (Brooks-Gunn, Han, and Waldfogel 2010;Ruhm 2004;Gregg et al. 2005). On the other hand, work in the second, third, or fourth year of life seems beneficial for cognitive and/or behavioural development (Baydar and Brooks-Gunn 1991;Waldfogel, Han, and Brooks-Gunn 2002;Hill et al. 2005). Studies on the effects of maternal employment during middle childhood and adolescence are less conclusive. ...
... The ideology of "intensive mothering", understood as a maternal ideal that is "child-centered, expertly guided, emotionally absorbing, labor-intensive and economically costly" (Hays 1996;Sullivan 1997) may well underlie the reasons to choose self-employment, given the priority mothers have for raising their children. Since Leibowitz's seminal work on parental child care time and increased children's outcomes (Leibowitz 1972(Leibowitz , 1974(Leibowitz , 1977, researchers have analyzed the relationship between parental time investment and children's outcomes (Datcher-Loury 1988;Blau and Grossberg 1990;Cooksey and Fondell 1996;Han et al. 2001;Brooks-Gunn et al. 2002), with most of the existing research finding positive relationships. This may be especially the case of highly-educated mothers, given the positive education gradient in time spent on child care time in several Latin American countries (Campaña et al. 2017), and that more highlyeducated mothers subscribe to more time-intensive modes of mothering in the form of conversation, reasoning, and intellectual stimulation activities (Lareau 2011). ...
... Thus, we next classified child care into two categories, educational and non-educational child care. Our main interest was motivated by prior research showing that the time devoted by parents (mainly mothers) to educational child care contributes to the formation of the human capital of the children (Leibowitz 1972(Leibowitz , 1974(Leibowitz , 1977Datcher-Loury 1988;Blau and Grossberg 1990;Marsiglio 1991;Cooksey and Fondell 1996;Brooks-Gunn et al. 2002;Sayer et al. 2004;Kalenkoski and Foster 2008;Hsin and Felfe 2014). Educational child care includes activities such as playing with children, reading stories, taking them to the park, attending meetings and events at the school, helping with homework, and bringing to and picking up children from school. ...
Article
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We analyzed the time self-employed and employed mothers from Mexico, Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia devoted to paid work, unpaid work, and child care, finding that self-employed mothers devoted less time to paid work, and more time to unpaid work and child care, compared to employed mothers in those countries, and that self-employed mothers in Mexico, Ecuador, and Colombia devoted comparatively more time to educational child care, compared to employed mothers. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that working mothers may choose self-employment as a way to improve their work-life balance.
... They proposed that government should subsidize the material products necessary for the child care and thus load from mothers will be reduced. Likewise, Brooks-Gunn (2002) explored that maternal employment is negatively associated with the development of children's cognitive level in the earlier stage of life (Brooks-Gunn, 2002:1052. It is also to mention here that mothers are very commonly seen to play multiple roles in the family. ...
... They proposed that government should subsidize the material products necessary for the child care and thus load from mothers will be reduced. Likewise, Brooks-Gunn (2002) explored that maternal employment is negatively associated with the development of children's cognitive level in the earlier stage of life (Brooks-Gunn, 2002:1052. It is also to mention here that mothers are very commonly seen to play multiple roles in the family. ...
Article
This empirical study was conducted to show how mother's educational level and personal hygienic practices influence their children's health status. For this, 135 mothers who have admitted their children in the Comilla Medical College Hospital (one of the government medical college hospitals in Bangladesh) for treatment purpose were selected purposively for face to face interview. The study reveals that there are significant correlations among maternal education level, hygienic practices and children's health status. Quantitative data were analyzed through using SPSS (version 17). Bivariate analysis showed that
... Previous research has partially confirmed that the employment of mothers can affect the development of their children. Children whose mothers worked soon after childbirth were shown to achieve worse results in tests measuring cognitive skills (Bernal, 2008;Brooks-Gunn, Han, & Waldfogel, 2002). However, numerous other studies have indicated that mothers working during the first years of a child's life does not increase the likelihood of risky behavior-such as drinking, drug use, or a tendency toward vandalism-in adolescence. ...
... However, numerous other studies have indicated that mothers working during the first years of a child's life does not increase the likelihood of risky behavior-such as drinking, drug use, or a tendency toward vandalism-in adolescence. Moreover, this negative impact is predominantly observed in cases where mothers returned to work during the very early period of childhood-that is, before the child is a year old (Baum II, 2003)-and when she works fulltime (over 30 hours a week) (Brooks-Gunn et al., 2002;Hill, Waldfogel, Brooks-Gunn, & Han, 2005). At the same time, this negative effect was observed in cases of mothers with a higher education and thus those with the greatest development potential (Gregg, Washbrook, Propper, & Burgess, 2005). ...
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“This book is not addressed to the learned, or to those who regard a practical problem merely as something to be talked about,” with this sentence English philosopher Bertrand Russell began The Conquest of Happiness and it has become an inspiration for me and a starting point for my analysis. Staying true to Russell's ideas, I have written a book which—I believe—can be addressed to all (scholars as well) who are interested in happiness and how it can be achieved. I have placed my considerations on happiness in the areas we all know: family, marriage, children and gender. When writing the book I surfed through Internet forums and analysed the results of scientific studies in order to scrutinise Russell's seven causes of unhappiness: competition (when investing in children), boredom (of doing housework), fatigue (of double shift), envy and comparisons of mothers, males’ sense of sin, persecution mania and new fathers’ fears of public opinion. Let's be honest: my findings are not always nice. Not infrequently, the results of scientists' work contradict what we believe. Read it only if you are ready to face new and unexpected.
... Previous literature (e.g., Brooks-Gunn et al., 2002;Gennetian et al., 2010) finds that boys suffer more than girls from the changing condition of mothers' work status. Waldfogel (2002) further notices that the effect of maternal employment on children's nutritional status largely depends on the stages of children's development. ...
... In the eighth sets of rows in Table 3, both the OLS and IV results show that the negative effects of maternal employment on child health are larger and statistically significant for the mothers of rich families. This result is consistent with recent studies (Brooks-Gunn et al., 2002;Ruhm, 2008) documenting severe negative consequences of maternal employment for children of mothers with higher socioeconomic status. This potentially indicates that the positive income effect of maternal employment on the poor-and middle-income groups is strong enough to cancel the negative substitution effect. ...
Article
This paper explores the effect of maternal employment on the nutritional status of children below age 5 years in Bangladesh using data from the 2014 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Since mothers’ choice to participate in the labor market is endogenous, the estimation of the causal effect of maternal employment on child health is statistically challenging. To correct for the endogeneity of maternal employment, we employ instrumental variable (IV) estimation. While our ordinary least squares results show that mothers’ employment has no significant effect on children's nutritional outcome, the IV estimates suggest that maternal employment significantly decreases children's height-for-age Z-score. This result is contrary to conventional wisdom advocating for maternal employment to positively affect child health and well-being. We, therefore, argue for effective policy interventions—such as childcare centers at workplaces, flexibility in working hours including part-time options for mothers, restraining child marriages, and strengthening maternal and child health-care services through community health centers—to foster children's health as well as maternal employment in the country.
... La literatura revisada sugiere que el empleo maternal no conlleva efectos adversos para el desarrollo cognitivo de los hijos/as en este periodo, siempre y cuando los servicios sustitutivos de cuidado sean de calidad suficiente. El recurso a estos servicios puede generar efectos adversos en el comportamiento infantil en caso de que la calidad resulte deficiente (Brooks-Gunn, Han y Waldfogel, 2002 infantil. La recepción de cuidados infantiles en estas edades se relaciona positivamente con unos mejores resultados, sobre todo entre los niños de entornos socioeconómicos menos favorecidos (Esping-Andersen, 2009) y siempre y cuando los servicios ofrecidos sean de calidad. ...
... • En tercer y último lugar, cuando los niños/as tienen entre tres y cinco años, las conclusiones respecto al empleo maternal se mantienen. A saber: el uso de servicios de atención infantil de calidad no causa efectos perniciosos para el desarrollo cognitivo, sino todo lo contrario, pero sí efectos adversos en el comportamiento y en el rendimiento académico en caso de hacer uso de servicios de cuidado de calidad deficiente (Brooks-Gunn, Han y Waldfogel, 2002). Adicionalmente, el uso de servicios de cuidado como sustituto del cuidado familiar reduciría los episodios de disciplina física y violencia doméstica (Waldfogel, 2004). ...
Article
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Las políticas de apoyo a las familias con hijos/asresultan fundamentales para la adecuación del sistema de protección social al paradigma de la inversión social. En el marco de estas políticas, las prestaciones de apoyo a la conciliación se constituyen como uno de los pilares fundamentales. Orientadas a impulsar una participación equilibrada entre mujeres y hombres en la vida familiar y en el mercado de trabajo, estas prestaciones se posicionan como herramienta para avanzar en la igualdad de oportunidades en el empleo, romper conlos roles y estereotipos tradicionales de género, y cubrir las necesidades de atención y cuidado de los niños/as. Este trabajo realiza una aproximación exploratoria a estas prestaciones. Primero, se realiza una revisión de la literatura académica, presentando las principales evidencias acerca de los impactos de estas prestaciones sobre distintas dimensiones. Seguidamente, se describen las principales formas de estructuración de estas prestaciones en el ámbito internacional.
... Moreover, in the context of poverty and other adverse environmental conditions, positive caregiver-infant interactions are shown to act as a buffer against the negative impact of these conditions, and contribute to increased resilience (Barnard and Eyres, 1979;Richter, 2004;Shonkoff and Phillips, 2000). Thus, positive and stimulating caregiver-child interactions in early life have the potential to alter the course of development of children, especially in high risk populations (Brooks-Gunn et al., 2002;McCain et al., 2011). ...
... These findings suggest that stimulation and growth-fostering behaviors, such as encouraging and praising children's efforts, may be important areas to target when developing interventions with this population. Both verbal and nonverbal stimulation are strongly related to the development of cognitive and language abilities in children growing up in poverty (Allhusen et al., 2001;Brooks-Gunn et al., 2002) and help to develop the attachment security and self-esteem of children facing environmental stressors (e.g., Bakeman and Brown, 1980;van Ijzendoorn, 2005). ...
Article
Early caregiving is one of the strongest influences on children's development, and among the most significant modifiable environmental factor. The aim of this study was to explore the association between quality of caregiver-infant interactions and neurodevelopment of infants living in banana-growing communities in rural Costa Rica characterized as having environmental toxic exposures. Home visits were conducted with 94 caregiver-infant dyads from the Infants' Environmental Health Study (ISA), living within Matina county, Limón province. One-year infant neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development®, Third Edition (Bayley-III). Quality of caregiver-infant interaction was assessed with a standardized observational task: Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Teaching scale (NCATS) at around two years of age. Multiple regression analyses examined associations between components of caregiver-infant interactions and neurodevelopmental outcomes, adjusting for mancozeb and manganese exposure and other potential confounders. Compared to NCATS normative data for U.S. Hispanic mothers, 35% of the sample had overall caregiving interaction scores ≤10th percentile cut-off, indicating less than optimal interactions. Higher quality of caregiver-infant interaction was associated with higher expressive communication ability in infants [ß = 0.03 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.06)], controlling for pesticide exposure and confounders. Aspects of caregiving such as stimulation and growth-fostering of infants were most strongly associated with language outcomes. Results suggest an association between positive caregiving on language development for infants living in a rural agricultural area in Costa Rica, and highlight aspects of caregiving that could be targeted to improve resilience of these children who live in vulnerable conditions.
... The adduced evidence in favour of this view is that a long maternity leave, when available, is intensely used by all working mothers. Another consideration is related to child well-being, with evidence suggesting that maternal employment seems to have adverse effects on early cognitive and behavioural child outcomes, especially if employment is resumed full time in the first year of the child's life (Brooks-Gunn, Han, and Waldfogel, 2002;Berger, Hill, and Waldfogel, 2005), but also in pre-school years (Ermisch and Francesconi, 2013). On the positive side, instead, Dustmann and Schönberg (2012) find no effect of long leave on child outcomes, while Ruhm (2000) and Tanaka (2005) provide evidence that infant mortality rates decrease, and child health improves. ...
Research
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Generous government-mandated parental leave is generally viewed as an effective policy to support women's careers around childbirth. But does it help women to reach top positions in the upper pay echelon of their firms? Using longitudinal employer-employee matched data for the entire Norwegian population, we address this question exploiting a series of reforms that expanded paid leave from 30 weeks in 1989 to 52 weeks in 1993. The representation of women in top positions has only moderately increased over time, and career profiles of female top earners within firms are significantly different from those of their male counterparts. The reforms did not affect, and possibly decreased, the probability for women to be at the top over their life cycle. We discuss some implications of this result to put into perspective the design of new family-friendly policy interventions. JEL Classification: J18, J21, J22, J24, M14
... In addition, researchers have increasingly explored how the macro environment interacts with micro-level factors to shape child development at the individual level. At the micro-level, family SES has often been found to be a significant determinant of child cognitive function [25,26], motor skills [27], and social-emotional development [21]. It is argued that children from low-SES families are always at a disadvantage, primary because of poverty, nutritional deficiencies, inadequate cognitive stimulation, and poor environmental conditions [28]. ...
Article
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Family socioeconomic status (SES) differences in early childhood development (ECD) are well documented, as are the neighborhood effects in early development outcomes. However, little is known about whether the SES gradient in ECD outcomes varies across geographic contexts by county-level variables in contemporary China. This study examines the effects of county-level socioeconomic background on inequalities in the developmental outcomes of young Chinese children. Individual-level child development data based on four early development milestones—taking a first step, first sentences, counting 10 objects, fully independent toileting—were combined with family- and county-level socioeconomic data from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Using a hierarchical linear model (HLM) to examine how the broader socioeconomic context plays a role in the attainment of developmental milestones at expected times as young children grow and develop, we have found significant cross-level interaction effects between family SES and county-level variables in relation to developmental milestone attainment. The family SES gradient in the achievement of children’s developmental milestones is steeper for those in the under-developed regions than their counterparts in the more developed regions. Our findings suggest that low-SES children who are living in socioeconomically deprived regions suffer from a double disadvantage in terms of early development outcomes. Further research would be needed to contextualize the observed interactions and better explain the underlying mechanisms.
... In addition, literature data have shown that other factors may also affect the child's development, such as the maternal age, employment, and the number of children the mother has (Brooks-Gunn et al., 2002;Bernal, 2008;Chittleborough et al., 2011;Tearne, 2015;Duncan et al., 2018;Falster et al., 2018). With this in mind, we decided to examine the influence of these factors depending on the levels of trait anxiety, COVID-19 related fear, and perceived social support. ...
Article
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Background: Maternal prenatal anxiety is among important public health issues as it may affect child development. However, there are not enough studies to examine the impact of a mother's anxiety on the child's early development, especially up to 1 year. Objective: The present prospective cohort study aimed to examine whether maternal trait anxiety, perceived social support, and COVID-19 related fear impacted speech-language, sensory-motor, and socio-emotional development in 12 months old Serbian infants during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This follow-up study included 142 pregnant women (Time 1) and their children at 12 months (Time 2). Antenatal maternal anxiety and children's development were examined. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Child speech-language, sensory-motor, and socio-emotional development were assessed using the developmental scale in the form of an online questionnaire that examined the early psychophysiological child development. Information on socioeconomic factors, child and maternal demographics, clinical factors, and perceived fear of COVID-19 viral infection were collected. Multivariable General Linear Model analysis was conducted, adjusted for demographic, clinical, and coronavirus prenatal experiences, maternal prenatal anxiety levels, perceived social support, speech-language, motor skills, and cognitive and socio-emotional development at the infants' age of 12 months. Results: The study revealed the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal trait anxiety. The association between selected independent factors and infants' development was found in a demographically unified sample except for employment and the number of children. There was a correlation between all observed developmental functions. Univariate General Linear model statistical analysis indicated that linear models with selected independent factors and covariates could account for 30.9% (Cognition) up to 40.6% (Speech-language) of variability in developmental functions. It turned out that two-way and three-way interactions had a dominant role on models, and STAI-T Level and COVID-19 related fear were present in all interaction terms. Conclusion: Our findings reveal important determinants of child developmental outcomes and underline the impact of maternal anxiety on early child development. These findings lay the groundwork for the following interdisciplinary research on pregnancy and child development to facilitate and achieve positive developmental outcomes and maternal mental health.
... One component of SES in particular, maternal education, has been closely linked with children's language development (e.g., reviewed by Hoff, 2013). Prior research has established that English monolingual (Brooks-Gunn, Han, & Waldfogel, 2002;Hart & Risley, 1995) and Spanish-English bilingual (Bohman et al., 2010;Hammer et al., 2012) children whose mothers have a higher level of education outperform children whose mothers have a lower level of education on standardized language measures such as vocabulary size and rate of language growth. For example, Hammer et al. (2012) examined the language abilities of a large sample of Spanish-English bilingual children with an average age of approximately 5 years. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare masked English speech recognition thresholds between Spanish–English bilingual and English monolingual children and to evaluate effects of age, maternal education, and English receptive language abilities on individual differences in masked speech recognition. Method Forty-three Spanish–English bilingual children and 42 English monolingual children completed an English sentence recognition task in 2 masker conditions: (a) speech-shaped noise and (b) 2-talker English speech. Two age groups of children, younger (5–6 years) and older (9–10 years), were tested. The predictors of masked speech recognition performance were evaluated using 2 mixed-effects regression models. In the 1st model, fixed effects were age group (younger children vs. older children), language group (bilingual vs. monolingual), and masker type (speech-shaped noise vs. 2-talker speech). In the 2nd model, the fixed effects of receptive English vocabulary scores and maternal education level were also included. Results Younger children performed more poorly than older children, but no significant difference in masked speech recognition was observed between bilingual and monolingual children for either age group when English proficiency and maternal education were also included in the model. English language abilities fell within age-appropriate norms for both groups, but individual children with larger receptive vocabularies in English tended to show better recognition; this effect was stronger for younger children than for older children. Speech reception thresholds for all children were lower in the speech-shaped noise masker than in the 2-talker speech masker. Conclusions Regardless of age, similar masked speech recognition was observed for Spanish–English bilingual and English monolingual children tested in this study when receptive English language abilities were accounted for. Receptive English vocabulary scores were associated with better masked speech recognition performance for both bilinguals and monolinguals, with a stronger relationship observed for younger children than older children. Further investigation involving a Spanish-dominant bilingual sample is warranted given the high English language proficiency of children included in this study.
... Dollaghan et al. found that children whose mothers had a higher education level had higher mean length of utterance in morphemes and number of different words. These results provide evidence that parents and caregivers who have more education tend to have larger vocabularies and more advanced language abilities impacting the linguistic skills of their children (Beitchman, Hood, & Inglis, 1992;Brooks-Gunn, Han, & Waldfogel, 2002;Hart & Risley, 1995). ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this project was to explore characteristics impacting the transmission of a heritage language from a parent to a child from the parent's perspective to better understand challenges that families may face when trying to pass on a heritage language to their children. Method In this pilot study, 14 interviews were conducted with individuals who reported they were currently raising or had raised at least 1 child to be able to speak about language transfer practices and beliefs. Participants were interviewed regarding their own language use and proficiency. Participants were asked questions pertaining to their attitudes and their children's attitudes toward their home language. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for emergent themes related to language transmission and challenges to passing down the heritage language to their child. Results Common themes that emerged related to parents passing down their heritage language included the community the families resided in and the parent's proficiency level. Conclusion It is important for educators and clinicians to understand how a parent's decision to pass down their language may be impacted by how much community support they experience and how proficient parents are in their heritage language. Implications of these results for educators and caretakers are discussed.
... Several studies have found a negative impact on children's outcomes when mothers returned to work within the rst year of life. [17][18][19] For example, Sherlock and colleagues 18 found that infants (10 months, SD = .38) of mothers who returned to work within the rst year of their child's life had an increased risk of motor and social impairment in comparison to infants' whose mothers did not return to work. However, other studies found that maternal employment did not impact infants' motor development. ...
Preprint
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Background: Parents play a key role in infants’ development through their interactions and the type of environment they provide for their child to promote active play. The amount of time parents are able to spend with their infant is dependent on their working status, yet few studies have explored parents’ perceptions of their infants’ active play by parental working status. The purpose of this study was to explore parents’ perceptions of active play and compare responses between working and stay at home parents. Methods: Twenty-nine parents participated in this qualitative study by completing a one-time, in-person semi-structured interview based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Themes were developed and the proportion of working and stay at home parents who responded within each theme were used to compare for differences between working status using a directed content analysis approach. Results: All parents believed active play could have a positive effect on their child’s development through physical, social and emotional, cognitive, and/or language and communication development. However, stay at home parents reported a broader impact of active play across these domains; whereas working parents most often referenced active play as impacting infant’s physical development. Social and emotional interactions were the highest reported form of active play among all parents. Additionally, all parents described similar barriers to increasing the time for active play. The most commonly reported barrier for all parents was time or schedule followed by care needs of the infant, environmental concerns, and need for restrictive devices (e.g., car seats). More stay at home parents than working parents reported the care needs of the infant as being a barrier. Recommendations for active play were not widely known amongst all parents, with a higher percentage of working parents reporting they would listen to a healthcare provider. Conclusions: Working status of parents seems to have implications on certain aspects and perceptions of active play which in turn may influence infants’ physical development. Future studies should objectively assess the impact of parents’ working status on infant development and explore how gender of the parent may serve as a confounding variable.
... Interrelations between maternal employment biographies and early child development are characterized by complex mutual influences that might reinforce each other and, therefore, are not easy to disentangle (Brooks-Gunn, Han, & Waldfogel, 2002). Most previous research devoted to these interrelations has examined whether and how mothers' employment participation affects early child development (Huerta et al., 2011;Lucas-Thompson, Goldberg, & Prause, 2010). ...
Article
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This study investigates whether early child development influences mothers’ decisions regarding when to return to the labor market in Germany. Previous research has examined how institutional, individual and household factors affect maternal work interruption durations after childbirth. This study extends the literature by focusing on the impact of children on mothers’ return-to-work behavior after childbirth and by examining mechanisms that might explain this impact. The study builds on data from NEPS Starting Cohort 1, the first large-scale newborn panel study in Germany, which provides measures on four different aspects of early child development, sensorimotor skills, habituation, regulatory capacity and negative affectivity, as well as information on mothers’ labor market behavior and household settings. The analytical sample consists of 2,548 mothers with valid child information and contains data from the first four panel waves of the study until the child is 3 years old. The results from discrete-time event history models indicate a differentiated pattern of effects of child development indicators: higher sensorimotor skills and lower regulatory capacity are weakly associated with earlier maternal employment, while habituation and negative affectivity are unrelated to mothers’ work behavior. Effects are the strongest among mothers returning to part-time work and among those with a medium level of education.
... Such results are in line with previous studies. Brooks-Gunn, Han, and Waldfogel (2002) found that maternal absence was more detrimental than paternal absence because mothers used to be the primary caregiver. In addition, father-away is associated with higher level of selfperspective compared to children with no migrant parents, while mother-away is associated with lower level of self-perspective. ...
Article
There were about 41 million left-behind children in China by 2015. The objective of the current study is to investigate the developmental outcomes of children in rural China and the potential protective/risk factors. Using data from a nationally representative household survey (Chinese Family Panel Study 2014) in China, the developmental outcomes of rural children aged 10 to 15 with and without migrant parents were compared using multivariate regression analyses (n = 1,712). The results show that parental migration is not an independent predictor of the developmental outcomes among rural children. Protective and risk factors are reported. The findings indicate the disadvantages of rural children in relation to parental migration, which calls for further intervention and programs to promote their development.
... Caregivers influence the early development through the environment, and they create materials and activities which determine whether the child is provided with participation or not to prevent young children from feeling the negative feeling as loneliness [19,20]. ...
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Background: Children during their early developmental years face several cognitive and behavioral effects that are the result of their mother work. Objectives: To assess the relationship between mothers'job and psychological state of their preschool-age children at Sakaka City in Saudi Arabia, and to compare mothers job type with the degree of loneliness feeling of their children. Design: A descriptive survey design was used. Sample: A convenient purposeful sample of 120 working mothers of different careers and their preschool-age children aged from (2-6 years). Tools included 1. A structured questionnaire developed by the researcher 2. Likert scale for preschool-age children's loneliness feeling. Results: indicated that the mothers age ranged between 31-40 years are more than a quarter (35.8%), and rest are between (20-30 years), 89.5% of them have a university education. The degree of mothers' work effect on their young children feeling of loneliness was 43.40± 1.095 very affects. On the other hand, 43.25± 3.56 was does not affect at all. Conclusions: It was concluded that there was a relationship between mothers' job and loneliness feelings of their preschool age children. The loneliness feeling for children increases related to the type of mother work where school teachers were the most mothers' career associated with a high sense of loneliness among their children.
... Caregivers influence the early development through the environment, and they create materials and activities which determine whether the child is provided with participation or not to prevent young children from feeling the negative feeling as loneliness [19,20]. ...
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Background: Children during their early developmental years face several cognitive and behavioral effects that are the result of their mother work. Objectives: To assess the relationship between mothers'job and psychological state of their preschool-age children at Sakaka City in Saudi Arabia, and to compare mothers job type with the degree of loneliness feeling of their children. Design: A descriptive survey design was used. Sample: A convenient purposeful sample of 120 working mothers of different careers and their preschool-age children aged from (2-6 years). Tools included 1. A structured questionnaire developed by the researcher 2. Likert scale for preschool-age children's loneliness feeling. Results: indicated that the mothers age ranged between 31-40 years are more than a quarter (35.8%), and rest are between (20-30 years), 89.5% of them have a university education. The degree of mothers' work effect on their young children feeling of loneliness was 43.40± 1.095 very affects. On the other hand, 43.25± 3.56 was does not affect at all. Conclusions: It was concluded that there was a relationship between mothers' job and loneliness feelings of their preschool age children. The loneliness feeling for children increases related to the type of mother work where school teachers were the most mothers' career associated with a high sense of loneliness among their children.
... Accordingly, the likelihood of substantial (be it positive or negative) effects is reduced. The time spent in center care as reported in this study is quite a bit shorter than the time given by Brooks-Gunn, Han, and Waldfogel (2002), who reported a negative association of daycare with cognitive skills of children of mothers who work more than 30 hours per week. More generally, recent research regarding time spent in center care suggests that children in families with low SES benefit most from more time spent in center care, whereas children in families with high SES benefit most from part-time center care (Loeb, Bridges, Bassok, Fuller, & Rumberger, 2007). ...
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... 19 A review of relevant studies examined how mothers' employment in children's first year of life affected the children's cognitive and social-emotional development. 20 The reviewers found mixed results-for all children, there were no associations with children's later socialemotional outcomes, negative associations with behavior problems, and negative associations with cognitive development for non-Hispanic white children later in childhood. The authors concluded that, on balance, the associations between mothers' employment in a child's first year and later child development were neutral, because negative effects were offset by positive ones. ...
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... Female labour force participation has been increasing globally and is also central to policy discussions around achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, as a vehicle for gender equality, female empowerment and economic growth (Verick, 2014). However, research, predominately from the US, has shown that maternal labour force participation in the first year of life can be a risk factor for subsequent development amongst infants (Baum, 2003;Baydar & Brooks-Gunn, 1991;Blau & Grossberg, 1992;Brooks-Gunn et al., 2002;Han et al., 2001;Waldfogel et al., 2002). Experiences of work, family and care are entwined in socio-cultural and economic context and thus it is unclear how such findings translate to resource-constrained contexts. ...
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... Bjorkland and Salvanes review the economic literature in this area and estimate that only 20% of the variation in children's years of schooling comes from parent's education (2011). Decades of research from psychology and cognitive science provide a promising insight; this literature shows that specific qualities of a parent's interaction with their child, particularly parenting skills such as engagement and sensitivity, have a direct impact on children's development (Brooks-Gunn et al. 2002;Blair et al. 2008;Hackman et al. 2010), and can buffer the effects of poverty on development (Gershoff et al. 2007;Burchinal et al. 1997). ...
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We provide evidence on the importance of specific inputs for child cog-nitive skills by estimating alternative specifications of the early childhood production function, between birth and kindergarten. We identify a new input measure, parent-child interaction, which is both important for development and amenable to policy intervention because parenting skills can be taught. We find that the application of reading books and singing songs and sensitive and engaging parent-child interactions as early as 9 months of age have an important effect on reading among kindergarten children.
... Previously, it has been demonstrated that full-time participation in non-parental care may mitigate several positive effects of early childhood care on child development (Nomaguchi et al., 2006). For example, full-day participation in child care is showed to be linked with lower school readiness at 3 years of age (Brooks-Gunn et al., 2002), attachment problems with the mother (NICHD, 1997), and higher risk for deficits in immune system and externalizing behavior (Gregg et al., 2003). Consequently, there is a need for future studies investigating whether full-day vs. ...
... Among others, Lutz (2014) therefore has argued that policymakers should focus on strengthening the human capital base, beginning in early childhood. Many critics of expanding ECEC programs, however, worry that attending public (or other forms of external) childcare may negatively impact children's development and deteriorate the human resource base of the future (see discussions in Brooks-Gunn et al. 2002;Hsin and Felfe 2014). In contrast, proponents argue that attending public childcare improves children's development and strengthens the human resource base of the future (e.g., Nores and Barnett 2010). ...
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Conference Paper
Maternal education, as a proxy of socioeconomic status, and maternal work status impact young children’s language development. However, it is unclear how maternal educational and work status jointly affect children’s language learning beyond vocabulary size. The current study examines how the two maternal factors impact young children’s productive vocabulary size and novel word learning ability. One hundred 24-month-old monolingual English-learning infants were categorized into three groups based on maternal educational level: low (no college degree), middle (college degree), high (graduate-level degree). Maternal work status was coded as working versus stay-at-home. Caregivers reported the infant's productive vocabulary size using the MCDIs; infants’ novel word learning ability was assessed by their accuracy at distinguishing two novel objects via a mutual exclusivity task adopted from Bion et al. (2013). Results showed that across three maternal education groups, 24-month-olds with working mothers do not differ in either their concurrent productive vocabulary size or their ability to learn new words. However, in the groups of mothers with low educational attainment, infants with working mothers (who were, therefore, more likely to attend daycare) were associated with higher novel word learning ability compared to those with at-home mothers. These findings suggest that providing accessible daycare may be particularly important for infants’ word learning ability. Researchers should consider more language learning indices in addition to vocabulary size to capture potential variations in language development.
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Makalede sanayi devrimiyle birlikte önce erkeğin daha sonra da -belirli ölçüde- kadının hayatının nasıl çift kutuplu hale geldiği ortaya konduktan sonra çift gelirli ailelerde iş-yaşam dengesi çeşitli açılardan incelenmektedir. Yirminci yüzyılın ikinci yarısında kadınların işgücüne katılımında ciddi bir artış yaşanmasının temel nedenleri arasında; kimlik ve statü algısında yaşanan değişim, tüketim kültürü, boş vakit problemi ve sosyalleşme, geçim kaygısı, eğitim düzeyinde yaşanan artış ve kendini gerçekleştirme arzusu/olanağı bulunmaktadır. Günümüzde çoğu ülkede kadınların işgücüne katılım oranlarının erkeklerden önemli oranda daha düşük olduğu görülmektedir. Ayrıca, kadınlar işyerinde erkeklerden daha az çalışmak istemektedir ve daha az çalışmaktadır. Dahası, kadınların çalışmak istediği ve çalıştığı süre evlilik ve çocuk(lar) ile birlikte giderek azalma eğilimindedir. Erkeklerde ise genel manada tam tersi bir resim ortaya çıkmaktadır. Ayrıca, ortalamada erkeklerin daha kariyer odaklı oldukları görülmektedir. Ev işlerinde ise kadınlar erkeklerden ciddi oranda daha fazla çalışmaktadır. Genel olarak iş-yaşam dengesinin sağlanabildiği bir zemine ulaşılabilmesi noktasında; a) hem erkekler hem de kadınlar için çalışma sürelerinin ve iş yoğunluğunun “normal” düzeylerde olması, b) kadınların tam zamanlı işlerde kendilerine özgü bir şekilde varlık gösterebilmeleri, c) kısmi süreli işlerin -özellikle kadınlar için- iyi ve güçlü bir alternatif olabilmesi ve d) doğum/annelik izin sürelerinin (hem ücretli hem ücretsiz bazda) yeterli düzeyde olması gerekmektedir.
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The belief that breastfeeding promotes maternal bonding is widely held by both the public and professional health organizations. Yet to our knowledge, all research examining the link between breastfeeding and maternal behavior in humans has been correlational, limiting our ability to draw causal conclusions. In many mammals, the hormone prolactin, which is central to milk production, rises in response to each breastfeeding session and promotes maternal sensitivity, yet there is a dearth of research in human mothers. To fill these research gaps, we randomly assigned 28 breastfeeding mothers to either breastfeed in the lab or feed their infants previously expressed breastmilk in a bottle before participating in a video-recorded free play session with their infant. Plasma prolactin was measured 40 min after the start of the feeding session and video observations were coded for maternal sensitivity. We found that women randomly assigned to breastfeed were more sensitive to infant cues than women randomly assigned to bottle-feed. Prolactin levels did not differ between feeding groups, although prolactin was positively correlated with maternal sensitivity. Our results suggest that feeding milk directly from the breast (compared to bottle-feeding) increases maternal sensitivity towards infants, at least in the short term.
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The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of the length of maternity leave on maternal health in a sample of working mothers. Two measures of depression and a measure of outpatient health visits are used to represent maternal health. Ordinary least squares models provide baseline estimates, and instrumental variables models account for the potential endogeneity of the return‐to‐work decision. The findings suggest that returning to work later is associated with a reduction in the number or frequency of depressive symptoms. There is suggestive but inconclusive evidence that longer maternity leave is associated with a lower probability of being a likely case of clinical depression and a lower likelihood of having frequent outpatient visits during the first six months after childbirth. These findings contribute to the literature on maternal leave policy, which focuses primarily on the benefits of leave for child health and development, by evaluating the influence of longer maternal leave on the health of mothers.
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This article argues that shared problematizations—shared political and public ways of thinking—legitimize policies and their outcomes. To support this argument, it examines the legitimation of gendered welfare reform in the recent U.K. context. Drawing on focus groups with the public, it provides evidence that the public’s problematization of welfare, specifically that reform was necessary to “make work pay” and “restore fairness”, aligned with that of politicians. It argues that the assumptions and silences underpinning this shared problematization, especially silences relating to the value and necessity of care, have allowed for welfare policies that have disadvantaged women.
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This study aims to validate a Korean version of the Brief Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (BCAP-K) for use with childcare providers in South Korea. By employing a stratified sampling method, 808 childcare providers in charge of infants’ classes were selected for participation. Participants completed a questionnaire that included socio-demographic characteristics, the BCAP-K, frequency of child abuse behaviors, and the Caregiver Interaction Scale. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to identify what the structure of the BCAP-K should be. Construct validity and internal reliability were also examined. Research Findings: The study’s results revealed that the five-factor model (Distress and loneliness, Family conflict, Happiness, Rigidity, and Feelings of Persecution) was the best model for child abuse potential. All BCAP-K subscales were positively related to the frequency of neglect behaviors and negatively associated with childcare providers’ interaction quality. When controlling for the demographic variables, Rigidity was the strongest factor in predicting both child abuse behaviors and child–caregiver interaction. The internal reliability of the BCAP-K was good. Practice or Policy: The BCAP-K may therefore be an effective and time-efficient tool to screen for child abuse risk among South Korean childcare providers.
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As the number of dual language learners (DLLs) increases globally, it is critical that well-developed questionnaires are available to researchers and educators that capture the characteristics and language experiences of preschool DLLs and their families. To fill this need, the Center for Early Care and Education Research-Dual Language Learners (CECER-DLL) Child and Family Questionnaire was developed. This article describes the four-step iterative process that was used to create the questionnaire, with a particular focus on the cognitive interviews that were conducted to establish the validity of the items. Findings from the cognitive interviewing process are presented which demonstrate the importance of this step when creating questionnaires that are valid for diverse populations. The development process of the CECER-DLL Child and Family Questionnaire, which is now available to the field, serves as an example of how to create well-designed questionnaires for other populations of DLLs in the United States and beyond.
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The paper is an empirical study on the challenges of paid employment and family life on mothers with particular reference to two occupational groups in Enugu Urban area of Enugu State. The emphasis of the study was on the incidence of role conflict as it affects mothers in paid employment in their various families. The two occupational groups (teaching and nursing) as it affects mothers in their work place and family life was investigated. The study adopted systematic random sampling technique and used other administered questionnaires. The study found that 96.25% of the older mothers in paid employment have more satisfactory family life than 3.75% of the younger mothers in paid employment. Equally, the study indicated that 22.5% of mothers with younger children are less likely to engage in paid employment than 77.6% of mothers with older children. The study also found that 86.56% of mothers in paid employment who possess higher education have satisfactory family life than mothers in paid employment with lower educational attainment. To this end, they make more money to take care of their family life needs. The study therefore, recommends that government should make policy that will reduce the length of working hours for mothers in paid employment, Social Workers and other professional counsellors should exhibit their professional expertise by enlightening various families on the issues of marriage/family life and finally, there should be employment pattern within each family in which couples should work different job shifts, so that the father can provide child care when the mother is at work and vice versa.
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Objective To investigate the prevalence of, and associations between, prenatal and perinatal risk factors and developmental vulnerability in twins at age 5. Design Retrospective cohort study using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression. Setting Western Australia (WA), 2002–2015. Participants 828 twin pairs born in WA with an Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) record from 2009, 2012 or 2015. Main outcome measures The AEDC is a national measure of child development across five domains. Children with scores <10th percentile were classified as developmentally vulnerable on, one or more domains (DV1), or two or more domains (DV2). Results In this population, 26.0% twins were classified as DV1 and 13.5% as DV2. In the multivariable model, risk factors for DV1 were maternal age <25 years (adjusted OR (aOR): 7.06, 95% CI: 2.29 to 21.76), child speaking a language other than English at home (aOR: 6.45, 95% CI: 2.17 to 19.17), male child (aOR: 5.08, 95% CI: 2.89 to 8.92), age younger than the reference category for the study sample (≥5 years 1 month to <5 years 10 months) at time of AEDC completion (aOR: 3.34, 95% CI: 1.55 to 7.22) and having a proportion of optimal birth weight (POBW) <15th percentile of the study sample (aOR: 2.06, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.98). Risk factors for DV2 were male child (aOR: 7.87, 95% CI: 3.45 to 17.97), maternal age <25 (aOR: 5.60, 95% CI: 1.30 to 24.10), age younger than the reference category (aOR: 5.36, 95% CI: 1.94 to 14.82), child speaking a language other than English at home (aOR: 4.65, 95% CI: 1.14 to 19.03), mother’s marital status as not married at the time of twins’ birth (aOR: 4.59, 95% CI: 1.13 to 18.55), maternal occupation status in the lowest quintile (aOR: 3.30, 95% CI: 1.11 to 9.81) and a POBW <15th percentile (aOR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.26 to 7.64). Conclusion Both biological and sociodemographic risk factors are associated with developmental vulnerability in twins at 5 years of age.
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In the UK, as in many other countries, welfare reform in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis has had a detrimental effect on gender equality. Between 2010 and 2015 the UK Coalition government initiated far-reaching cuts to public spending, as well as an increase in welfare conditionality. These reforms have hit women harder than men as women are more likely to rely on welfare benefits and services due to unpaid care responsibilities. Many have suggested that the way in which issues are represented by policymakers can limit what can be conceived as appropriate policy solutions. In line with this, Bacchi’s What’s the problem represented to be? (WPR) approach is used in this article to interrogate the way in which welfare was problematized by the UK Coalition government. Findings suggest that the Coalition represented reform as necessary to make work pay, with “work” promoted as paid work and unpaid care work (predominantly undertaken by women) ignored. It also highlights the ways in which the Coalition’s promotion of paid work silenced the necessity and value of care, allowing for the implementation of welfare reforms which have disproportionately disadvantaged women and exacerbated gender inequality.
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A variety of civic actors—government, associations, and local agencies—work to help parents advance the vitality of our youngest children. Empirical findings accumulating over the past half‐century identify benefits for infants and toddlers stemming from three policy models: paid leave for parents after a newborn arrives; regular pediatric assessments, including home visiting; and quality caregivers situated in homes or centers. We review what is known about the effects of these policies, along with constituent elements of quality (mediators) that operate proximal to children's health, cognitive, and emotional growth. Much has been learned about how such collective action, carried out by local organizations, advance infant–toddler development. Methodological advances foster new knowledge: moving closer to causal inferences and pinpointing social mechanisms that enrich infant–toddler settings. Less well understood is how policy levers can move the malleable elements of program quality to raise the magnitude or sustainability of program effects. We note the benefits of income‐support efforts for fragile families, while urging new work on how economic dynamics touch the capacity of parents and caregivers to better nurture infants and toddlers.
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Resumo Atualmente, o número de crianças que crescem em famílias cujas mães são ativas no mercado de trabalho é significativamente superior ao de gerações anteriores. Essa mudança demográfica envolve alterações quanto ao tempo e cuidado materno dedicado aos filhos, podendo afetar suas vidas atuais e prospecções futuras. Por isso, o objetivo desta pesquisa é contribuir para o debate acerca dos efeitos relacionados à participação da mãe no mercado de trabalho e a escolaridade dos filhos, medida pelas horas de trabalho. As estimações são obtidas por meio de variável instrumental como estratégica de identificação para isolar os efeitos causais entre a decisão pelo mercado de trabalho das mães e a escolaridade dos filhos, nas quais as condições do mercado de trabalho local são utilizadas como instrumentos. Entre os resultados, destaca-se que o aumento das horas trabalhadas da mãe reduz o nível educacional deles. Em relação ao diferencial educacional entre os sexos, observa-se que o efeito da mãe trabalhar não é responsável por introduzir diferenciais educacionais entre os sexos.
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The extent to which early childhood programs produce long-term benefits in chil- dren's cognitive development, socialization, and school success is a matter of some controversy. This article reviews 36 studies of both model demonstration projects and large-scale public programs to examine the long-term effects of these programs on children from low-income families. The review carefully considers issues related to research design. It includes studies of preschool education, Head Start, child care, and home visiting programs, and focuses primarily on the effects of program participation on children's cognitive development. Results indicate that early childhood programs can produce large short-term benefits for children on intelligence quotient (IQ) and sizable long-term effects on school achievement, grade retention, placement in special education, and social adjustment. Not all programs produce these benefits, perhaps because of differences in quality and funding across programs. The article concludes with recommendations for future action.
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The aims of this investigation were to determine whether Strange Situation attachment classifications were equally valid for infants with and without extensive child-care experience in the first year of life and whether early child-care experience, alone or in combination with mother/child factors, was associated with attachment security, and specifically with insecure-avoidant attachment. Participants were 1,153 infants and their mothers at the 10 sites of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Mothers were interviewed, given questionnaires, and observed in play and in the home when their infants were from 1 to 15 months of age; infants were observed in child care at 6 and 15 months and in the Strange Situation at 15 months. Infants with extensive child-care experience did not differ from infants without child care in the distress they exhibited during separations from mother in the Strange Situation or in the confidence with which trained coders assisted them attachment classifications. There were no significant main effects of child-care experience (quality, amount, age of entry, stability, or type of care) on attachment security or avoidance. There were, however, significant main effects of maternal sensitivity and responsiveness. Significant interaction effects revealed that infants were less likely to be secure when low maternal sensitivity/responsiveness was combined with poor quality child care, more than minimal amounts of child care, or more than one care arrangement. In addition, boys experiencing many hours in care and girls in minimal amounts of care were somewhat less likely to he securely attached.
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The intersection of maternal employment and child care in the 1st 3 yrs of life was considered. The cognitive and behavioral effects of continuity, intensity, and timing of maternal employment in the 1st yr and of the different types of child-care arrangements were investigated. Employment in the 1st yr had detrimental effects on the cognitive and behavioral development of all children regardless of gender or poverty status. Infancy-care arrangements affected cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Grandmother care was the most beneficial arrangement for cognitive development of children in poverty. Regarding behavioral development, mother care was most beneficial for boys, and baby-sitter care was most beneficial for girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Compared the mother–son and father–son interaction of 6 toddlers who were completely homereared with the parent–child interactions of 6 male toddlers who were participants in a daily 3-hr playgroup. Interactions were videotaped in a semistructured laboratory setting. The first observation was made immediately before the beginning of the playgroup experience, with subsequent observations being made after half of the toddlers had been in a playgroup for 3 and 6 mo. Although there were no differences in the playgroup and homecare toddlers before the playgroup experience, significant differences were found after the playgroup experience. The playgroup toddlers became proportionally more active in their parent–child interactions. They also became more responsive to the interaction initiations of their parents. Significant differences were also found in parental behavior as a function of the playgroup experience. The parents of the playgroup children became significantly less dominant. In addition, some differences were found in mother–child and father–child interaction independent of the playgroup experience. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this chapter we focus on theory and research regarding maternal and dual-earner employment and parenting, including an overview of historical and central issues; major theories, themes, and perspectives; early and contemporary research defining 3 distinct phases; practical implications of the research; and future directions. Consideration is given to parental involvement, parenting processes by which maternal and dual-earner employment impinge on children's development; longitudinal research; employed parents' attitudes toward parenting and employment; child developmental and cultural concerns; family adaptations; and changes in conceptions of adults' gender-based roles and responsibilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The "Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention" has been designed to serve as a key resource for those who are interested in young children with disabilities or developmental vulnerabilities, and their families. Its intent is to integrate the theory, research, and practical knowledge that guide current practice in this field, and to frame the agenda for its continued growth and maturation. The overall goal of the "Handbook" is to present sophisticated, state-of-the art material in a format that is accessible to a broad audience that cuts across such diverse disciplines as education, psychology, social service, pediatrics, nursing, speech and language pathology, occupational and physical therapy, public health, and child care. Within and across each of these professional domains, the "Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention" will serve as a definitive source for those involved in academic training programs, research and scholarly endeavors, policy development, and service provision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Attempted to examine the generalizability of environment/development relationships among 3 ethnic groups across the first 3 years of life. Social status did not show a consistent relationship to either quality of home environment or children's developmental status across the various groups. Results indicated a fairly consistent relationship between HOME scores and children's developmental status, although there were some ethnic and social status differences in the relationship. Measures of specific aspects of the child's home environment, such as parental responsivity and availability of stimulating play materials, were more strongly related to child developmental status than global measures of environmental quality such as SES. When the child's developmental status and early home environment were both very low, the likelihood of poor developmental outcomes was markedly increased compared with cases when only one was low. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We begin by placing contemporary patterns of child care in their broader Socio-cultural and historical context before sketching changing patterns of child care and explaining the importance of quality when assessing effects of child care on child development. Intensive research has established that high-quality nonparental care promotes and does not derail developmental processes. Because diverse experiences (often involving multiple types of nonparental care) differentially affect the development of children who have distinctive individual characteristics, we examine the effects of nonparental care on many developmental domains (such as relationships and compliance with adults, peer relationships, adaptation and behavior problems, personality maturation and cognitive/intellectual development) closely, emphasizing the crucial intersection between home and out-of-home care settings. Experiences both inside and outside the home continue to affect children's development and we illustrate how practitioners and parents can share children's care in ways that are most likely to enhance children's developmental outcomes. Keywords: care providers; child care; day care; developmental outcomes; quality of child care
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Extant reviews of early childhood intervention programs for the disadvantaged focus on the benefits that accrue to the children. Programs also may influence the parents (typically the mother), as most programs provide services to the mother as well as the child. In this article, the efficacy of a particular set of programs is reviewed. Early interventions that are educationally oriented, that are at least six months in duration, that begin prior to age 3, and that serve disadvantaged families were reviewed. Of the 27 programs, 11 offered regular, substantive, center-based programming (mode = 40 hr/week; M = 25.7 hr/week), and 16 offered home visits and/or center-based programs on a less frequent basis. Maternal benefits are reviewed for maternal employment and education, fertility, mother-infant interaction, home environment, maternal mental health and self-esteem, and maternal attitudes and knowledge about childrearing. The programs had the most impact on maternal employment and education, on subsequent fertility, and on mother-infant interaction. Implications of these findings for programs for poor families are considered.
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This paper analyzes the relationship between maternal labor supply and children's cognitive development using a sample of three- and four-year-old children of female respondents from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort. Maternal employment is found to have a negative impact when it occurs during the first year of the child's life and a potentially offsetting positive effect when it occurs during the second and subsequent years. The authors' findings suggest that maternal employment throughout a child's first three or four years would have no net effect on the child's cognitive ability. Copyright 1992 by MIT Press.
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One of the major preoccupations of our discipline is the study of mental development. Our thinking has been focused on several broad issues, namely, (1) the relative contributions of heredity and environment, (2) individual differences and the species-general developmental stages of mental development, and (3) consistency and change.
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Family patterns are undergoing rapid change in our society, in part a consequence of maternal employment. The proportion of employed mothers with children under 18 has shown a steady increase from 1940 to the present (Hoffman, 1984b), and projections are for this trend to continue (Hayghe, 1982). Two-earner families are now prevalent due to the increase of mothers’ employment (Hayghe, 1982). As a result of employment of both husbands and wives, family roles of men and women are changing as well (Hoffman, 1984b; Lamb & Sagi, 1983; Pleck, 1985). It is therefore reasonable to expect that home environments in dual- and single-earner families differ. The goal of this research is to determine how maternal employment relates to home environment and children’s development in a longitudinal study from infancy through the early school years.
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Maternal employment during the first three years of the child's life has a small deleterious effect on estimated verbal ability of three- and four-year-olds and a larger negative impact on reading and mathematics achievement of five- and six-year-olds. This study provides a more pessimistic assessment than most prior research for two reasons. First, previous analyses often control crudely for differences in child and household characteristics. Second, the negative relationships are more pronounced for the reading and mathematics performance of five- and six-year-old children than for the verbal scores of three- and four-year-olds. © 2004 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.
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With the use of information pertaining to maternal employment, child care, and the socioemotional development of children from four to six years old whose mothers were studied as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the effects of early and extensive maternal employment were assessed. Families and children were compared as a function of mother's employment across the child's first three years of life. After differences that existed between families at the time of children's births were controlled, it was found that children whose mothers were employed full-time beginning in their first or second year of life scored more poorly on a composite measure of adjustment than did children whose mothers were not employed during their first three years. Follow-up analyses revealed that this effect was restricted to the compliance component of the composite adjustment measure, and that children with early and extensive maternal employment experience were significantly more noncompliant than agemates without such early experience.
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Long-term correlates of early child care and maternal employment were examined in a representative sample of 333 6- to 12-year-old middle-class children. Intellectual, social, and behavioral development and parent-child relationships were related to nonparental infant care, center or preschool experiences, and maternal employment. Contextual analyses included child, parent, and family covariates related to choice of child care and children's development. Preschool and center day care was associated with slightly higher Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) Vocabulary scores and externalizing t scores on the Child Behavior Checklist. In addition, for African American children, center preschool experience was associated with 10-point-higher verbal intelligence scores and better ratings of positive behavioral attributes by parent and observers. Nonparental care during infancy and maternal employment patterns during the preschool years were not consistently related to the outcomes. The results of this study further support the growing consensus that the effects of early child care experiences must be considered in the context of parent, family, and child characteristics.
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The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.
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Concerned with social settings and correlates of parenting, this volume, the second of four volumes on parenting deals specifically with the biology and the ecology of parenting. The volume consists of 12 chapters as follows: (1) "Hormonal Basis of Parenting in Mammals" (Jay S. Rosenblatt); (2) "Parenting in Primates" (Kim A. Bard); (3) "Psychobiology of Maternal Behavior in Nonhuman Mammals" (Alison S. Fleming and Carl M. Corter); (4) "Psychobiology of Maternal Behavior in Human Beings" (Carl M. Corter and Alison S. Fleming); (5) "Intuitive Parenting" (Hanus Papousek and Mechthild Papousek); (6) "Maternal and Dual-Earner Employment Status and Parenting" (Adele Eskeles Gottfried and others); (7) Socioeconomic Status and Parenting" (Erika Hoff-Ginsberg and Twila Tardif); (8)"Ethnic and Minority Parenting" (Cynthia T. Garcia Coll and others); (9) "Culture and Parenting' (Sara Harkness and Charles Super); (10) "Environment and Parenting" (Robert H. Bradley); (11) "History of Parenting" (Valerie French); and (12) "Developmental Contextual Perspective on Parenting" (Richard M. Lerner and others). Articles are accompanied by references. (JW)
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The Bracken Basic Concept Scale, for use with preschool and primary-aged children, determines a child's school readiness and knowledge of English-language verbal concepts. The instrument measures 258 basic concepts in such categories as comparisons, time, quantity, and letter identification. This paper describes test administration, scoring and interpretation, standardization, reliability, and validity. (JDD)
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This study quantified the benefits to children and parents participating in nine early intervention programs and conducted a cost-benefit analysis of the Perry Preschool and the Elmira Prenatal/Early Infancy Project (PEIP). The findings indicated that early intervention programs led to the following advantages for program participants relative to those in the control groups: (1) gains in child emotional or cognitive development or improved parent-child relationships; (2) improvements in educational process and child outcomes; (3) increased economic self-sufficiency, initially for parents and later for children; (4) reduced criminal activity; and (5) improvements in health-related indicators. Savings to government programs were much higher than the costs for the Perry Preschool; this was also true for the higher-risk families of the PEIP. For lower-risk participants of the PEIP, however, government savings were not enough to offset program costs. (Two appendices detail the benefit cost analysis. Contains 159 references.) (KB)
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This chapter discusses programs for children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, and then reviews research regarding programs for children with disabilities. The chapter concludes with a review of themes that are common to both groups of children. The author focused on studies that were published in journals, books, and monographs from 1987 through 1997. The studies covered early intervention projects with children who were either disadvantaged by virtue of poverty or who had disabilities, with a focus at least partly on cognitive outcome data. Children's ages ranged from birth through age 6, and the interventions occurred before they formally entered 1st grade, most often before kindergarten. Findings are compared to those reported by the author (1990) in the 1st edition of this book concerning research studies conducted from 1977 to 1986. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
As part of the Cost, Quality, and Outcomes Study, child and family characteristics were tested to see whether they moderated the relation between center-based child care quality and preschool children's concurrent cognitive and socioemotional development. Analyses included a multisite sample of 170 child-care centers of varying quality and 757 children (mean age 4.3 yrs). Results provide further evidence that there is a positive relation between child-care quality (both observed classroom practices and teacher ratings of teacher-child closeness) and children's cognitive and socioemotional outcomes. Moderating influences of family characteristics were observed for some outcomes, indicating stronger positive effects of child-care quality for children from more at-risk backgrounds. Further, there was no evidence that children from more advantaged families were buffered from the effects of poor-quality care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested the hypothesis that the amount of verbal interaction with caregivers would be a salient index of daycare center quality, in that it would be a particularly important determinant of children's language skill. 166 36–68 mo old children and their parents from 9 daycare centers participated in this study. Quality of the daycare environment, as assessed by observation and items from the Day Care Environment Inventory, was predictive of all 4 measures of intellectual and language development, which included the PPVT and Preschool Language Assessment Instrument, after controlling for family background and current center care experience. The importance of verbal interaction with caregivers was also demonstrated. Ss from centers with high levels of caregiver speech performed better on tests of language development than Ss from centers with a high level of peer speech. The predictive power of other environmental variables was also investigated. (42 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recent research is reviewed to consider the effects of the mother's employment on the child in the two-parent family. This work deals mainly with maternal employment during the child's preschool years. Because of the difficulties in measuring enduring traits in young children, and because neither previous nor current research has revealed clear differences between children in dual-wage and single-wage families, attention is also given to the effects on the family processes that mediate child outcomes: the psychological well-being of the parents, their marital relationship, the father's role, and parent–child interaction. The influence of maternal employment on these variables, as well as on child outcomes, is found to be dependent on the attitudes of the parents, the number of hours the mother is employed, social support, and the child's gender. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Because parents and families are integral to any early childhood education, child care, or other child-focused investment strategy, this chapter highlights both the ways in which families are critical to program access and the ways in which programs influence parent well-being. The chapter is divided into 4 sections. In the 1st, effects of 4 general types of programs are reviewed, with respect to parental and family outcomes. The programs are (1) parent-focused home-based, (2) parent-focused combination center- and home-based, (3) intergenerational family literacy, and (4) parent-focused literacy programs. The 2nd section examines more deeply the premise that parents are engines of change in early intervention programs. Three issues are considered. The 1st concerns family outcomes that may be the most likely candidates to be mediators of change. The 2nd focuses on actual empirical tests of these outcomes as mediators of the intervention-to-child-outcome link. The 3rd examines parental involvement or engagement as a prerequisite for program efficacy. The next section focuses on policy and practice implications of early intervention program effects on parents, and the concluding section provides recommendations for the next wave of programs and their evaluations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
describe how the opportunities and constraints within the environment provide a context in which parents pursue goals in their role as caregivers / discuss how caregiving helps regulate the course of development / identify key components of the process of parenting / describe the primary tasks of caregiving / delineate how aspects of the surrounding environment affect the process of parenting / describe how parents use structural features of the residence and resources within the community to accomplish the goals of caregiving / discuss complexities and limitations in research on parenting and the environment (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
determine how maternal employment relates to home environment and children's development in a longitudinal study from infancy through the early school years is maternal employment status independently related to proximal home environment and children's development contemporaneously from infancy through the early school years is there a long-term effect of maternal employment on children's development and home environment from infancy through the early school years is consistency versus inconsistency of maternal employment status related to home environment and children's development do mothers' occupations, hours of employment, or employment attitudes relate to children's development and home environment (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The relations between quality of center-based child care and infant cognitive and language development were examined in a sample of 79 African-American 12-month-old infants. Both structural and process measures of quality of child care were collected through interviews with the center director and observation of the infant classroom. Results indicated that quality of infant care positively correlated with scores on standardized assessments of cognitive development (Bayley Scales of Infant Development), language development (Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development), and communication skills (Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales). In addition, quality of care in child care centers and at home was positively related. Analyses that adjusted for this association between quality of care at home and in child care suggested that the process measure of quality of child care independently related to the infant's cognitive development, and one structural measure, the infant-adult ratio, independently related to the infant's overall communication skills. Neither child nor family factors was found to moderate the association between child care quality and infant development. These findings, in conjunction with the growing child care literature, suggest that researchers and policymakers should focus on how quality of child care can be improved to enhance, not impair, infant development.
Article
This is a follow-up study of an earlier one in which positive effects of early day-care experience were found on children's cognitive and socioemotional competence at age 8. 128 children were followed from their first year of life. At 8 and 13 years of age, 92% and 89% of the children, respectively, remained in the study. Most children could be classified according to age at first entry into day-care. Cognitive and socioemotional competence was rated by the children's classroom teachers. Hierarchical regression and path analyses were used in the statistical treatment of the data. It was possible to trace independent positive effects of age of entry into day-care as far as age 13. Children entering center care or family day-care before age 1 generally performed better in school when 8 and 13 years old and received more positive ratings from their teachers on several socioemotional variables. The path analyses indicated the following causal model: family characteristics, such as type of family, family's socioemotional status, and mother's educational level, influence the time of first entry into day-care. This variable, in turn, has consequences for children's competence at 8 and/or 13 years of age even after controlling for home background, child gender, and intelligence, which, of course, have their own effects. The effect of socioeconomic status was often mediated through age of entry into day-care.
Article
This study focuses on the pattern of relationships between mother-infant interaction as a predictor variable and cognitive outcome measures within employed mother and non-employed mother groups. Fifty-four mothers and their one-year-old infants participated in the study. While the employed mother and non-employed mother groups were not found to differ in terms of either interaction or outcome scores, the pattern of influence within the groups was markedly different. Additionally, for the employed mother group a positive correlation was found between prestige level of employment and the quality of mother-infant interaction. This research suggests that questions regarding infant day care be framed within the larger context of family processes, which include a wide variety of factors that may influence infant development.
Article
In a state with minimal child care standards, we found pervasive differences in third graders associated with earlier child care histories. More extensive child are predicted children receiving more negative ratings from parents and teachers, poorer academic and conduct grades, lower standardized test scores, and more negative sociometric nominations. In addition, for some variables (IQ, work habits negative peer nominations, and compliance ratings) there was evidence of interactive effects in which both extensive infant care and exclusive maternal care were associated with more problematical functioning, depending on parental marital status, social class, and child gender. We found no evidence of negative effects associated with part-time care. This study has several important limitations that should be acknowledged. The first is the danger of generalizing these results to states and communities with higher-quality child care standards than those imposed in Texas. They may, unfortunately, be generalizable to the twenty states with child care regulations similar to those in Texas. This study has another important limitation. It did not examine the underlying processes that might contribute to the effects of child care history. For example, we do not know if the differences in children who were in part-time versus extensive child care are owing to (1) differences in the children's experiences while they are in the child care settings, or (2) differences in the quality of interactions that occur when the two groups of children are at home, or (3) some combination of children's experiences in child care and the family.
Article
This article uses the 1986 Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set to investigate the impact of maternal employment on children's intellectual ability, as measured at the age of 4 by using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Results from multivariate regression analysis show a statistically significant adverse effect of mother's employment on children's intellectual ability, but only for boys in higher income families. Furthermore, the negative impact was related to the timing of maternal employment: employment during the boys' infancy had a statistically significant negative effect on PPVT scores at the age of 4. This pattern was not found for girls, for children in low-income families, or for families in which mothers resumed their employment after the child's first year of life. The impact of other demographic trends in recent years--declining fertility and rising marital instability--are also investigated. The results show an adverse effect of the presence of other siblings on children's PPVT scores; but holding family income constant, the effect of the parents' marital status on children's intellectual ability is not statistically significant. In addition, several family background factors are highly correlated with children's test scores.
Article
119 Swedish children were followed from their first year of life up to the age of 8. Most could be classified according to (a) type of day-care they had experienced during their first 7 years of life and (b) time of first entrance into day-care. At 8 years, the children were tested with aptitude tests and rated by their teachers on school performance and social and personal development. Hierarchical regression analyses and MANCOVAs were used in the statistical treatment. Time of entrance into day-care predicted children's cognitive and socioemotional development, controlling for sex and home background. Children with early day-care (entrance before the age of 1) were generally rated more favorably and performed better than children with late entrance or home care. There was a tendency for early center care to predict a more favorable outcome than other care.
Article
Reviews the empirical literature concerning prediction of childhood and adult IQ scores from infant test scores, emphasizing size of the correlations, age of assessment, reliability of the tests, sex differences, socioeconomic status, and specific items and abilities. Since most of these studies were conducted under the assumption of an immutable, pervasive, general coception of intelligence, an alternative orientation is offered which emphasizes short-term correlational transitions between specific item clusters and behaviors during infancy. 1 type of analysis illustrating this approach indicates a major developmental trend characterized by manipulative exploration and the investigation of sensorimotor contingencies at 6 mo., motor and verbal imitation at 12 and 18 mo., and vocabulary and grammatical fluency at 18 and 24 mo. The similarity of these results to Piagetian theory is noted. (71 ref.)
Article
The relations between quality of center-based child care and infant cognitive and language development were examined in a sample of 79 African-American 12-month-old infants. Both structural and process measures of quality of child care were collected through interviews with the center director and observation of the infant classroom. Results indicated that quality of infant care positively correlated with scores on standardized assessments of cognitive development (Bayley Scales of Infant Development), language development (Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development), and communication skills (Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales). In addition, quality of care in child care centers and at home was positively related. Analyses that adjusted for this association between quality of care at home and in child care suggested that the process measure of quality of child care independently related to the infant's cognitive development, and one structural measure, the infant-adult ratio, independently related to the infant's overall communication skills. Neither child nor family factors was found to moderate the association between child care quality and infant development. These findings, in conjunction with the growing child care literature, suggest that researchers and policymakers should focus on how quality of child care can be improved to enhance, not impair, infant development.