Dietary levamisole modulates the immune response and disease resistance of Asian catfish Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus)

Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar, India
Aquaculture Research (Impact Factor: 1.38). 02/2006; 37(5):500 - 509. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2006.01456.x


In order to determine the immunomodulatory effect of dietary levamisole in Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus), fish were fed four different diets for 10 days: a formulated diet as control and the same diet supplemented with 50, 150 or 450 mg levamisole kg−1 feed. The serum bacterial agglutination titre against Aeromonas hydrophila as a measure of specific immunity, serum haemagglutination titre, natural haemolytic complement activity (ACH50), myeloperoxidase and lysozyme activities, total protein level and oxidative radical production by neutrophils as a measure of non-specific immunity as well as disease resistance against A. hydrophila challenge to separate vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups were evaluated at 0, 1, 2 and 3 weeks after last administration of levamisole. Levamisole supplement at the lowest level (50 mg kg−1) significantly enhanced oxidative radical production and serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) content immediately after 10 days of feeding, which reached peak values after 3 and 2 weeks of feeding respectively. Haemolytic complement and haemagglutination titre were significantly enhanced after 3 and 1 weeks respectively. Haemolytic complement activity and MPO activities were significantly raised to 150 mg kg−1 after 3 and 2 weeks, respectively. At the highest level of levamisole feeding (450 mg kg−1) significant decreases in superoxide production and complement activity were measured immediately after levamisole feeding, which returned to the normal level after 1 week post- feeding. Fish were challenged with a virulent strain of A. hydrophila at 0, 1, 2 and 3 weeks after levamisole feeding, and the cumulative per cent survival was recorded over 10 days. Feeding levamisole at 50, 150 or 450 mg kg−1 increased per cent survival in vaccinated fish immediately after levamisole feeding, and survival was significantly higher at 450 mg kg−1. There was no difference in mortality patterns in non-vaccinated fish. The results support the use of levamisole at 50 mg kg−1 feed for 10 days as an immunostimulant in Asian catfish farming.

Download full-text


Available from: Jaya Kumari
  • Source
    • "Drug-resistant strains are developed through medication with antibiotics (Harikrishnan and Balasundaram, 2011).Also, antibiotics results in presence of antibiotic residues in fish consumed by human (FAO, 2002). The wide range of fish pathogens in aquaculture also limits vaccines' effectiveness (Jaya kumari and Sahoo, 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 180 Nile tilapia fish were used in 3 months growth trial to study the effect of turmeric on growing tilapia. Fish were divided into three treatment groups. The first group T1 was given the basal diet without any supplementation of turmeric and served as the control group. The second groupT2 was given diet supplemented by 0.25% turmeric powder. The third groupT3 was given diet supplemented by 0.50% turmeric powder. At the end of the growth trial, fish were challenged with pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescence. Turmeric supplementation non-significantly improved growth performance. There was a trend of higher values with increasing the turmeric supplementation level, and significant improvement in feed consumption in T3 compared toT1 and T2. Fish body composition was affected by turmeric supplementation. Crude protein content was significantly increased in T3 compared to T1. Ether extract content was significantly decreased with increasing the turmeric supplementation level as T1 was the highest in ether extract content and T3 was the lowest, this was significantly reflected on the gross energy (GE) content of the fish. The clinical signs in the challenged fishes were observed at the second day post injection. Fish showed loss of balance, excessive mucus secretions on skin and gills, ascites with slightly protruded reddish vent and hemorrhages all over the body surface, frayed and torn tail and fins, with no mortalities in the 0.50% turmeric supplemented group. We concluded that 0.50% turmeric supplementation may improve growth performance and significantly protect fish against P. fluorescens. Keywords: Turmeric, growth performance, Nile tilapia, Pseudomonas fluorescens challenge
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
  • Source
    • "Antibiotics have several harmful side effects, such as development of antibiotic resistant strains of pathogens and concerns regarding the antibiotic residues in the environment and food safety (Kumari and Sahoo, 2006; "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 15-wk feeding trial was conducted to examine the supplemental effects of Barodon on growth performance, gastrointestinal histology, feed digestibility and innate immunity in olive founder. A basal commercial diet was used as a control and two other diets were prepared by spraying 0.1% or 0.2% of Barodon. Triplicate groups of fish (BW, 145 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily. At the end of the feeding trial, fish growth performance was not significantly affected by dietary treatments; however, feed utilization was significantly improved (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) by Barodon supplementation. Significantly higher (p<0.05) survival rates were obtained in fish fed Barodon containing diets. Hepatosomatic index increased significantly in Barodon treated groups. Also, the use of Barodon resulted in significant increase (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) of intestine length and number of goblet cells. Significantly higher (Quadratic, p<0.05) apparent digestibility coefficient of DM was obtained by supplementation of Barodon. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities increased quadratically and linearly, respectively, in Barodon treated fish. Also, significantly higher (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) superoxide dismutase activity was found in Barodon fed fish. The findings in this study show that inclusion of Barodon in diets for olive flounder improves feed utilization and digestibility, and positively affects digestive tract histology and innate immunity.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
  • Source
    • "2004 ) . This 20 min incubation time is even shorter than that of 30 min used by other authors ( Anderson and Siwicki 1993 ; Kumari and Sahoo 2006 ; Ispir et al . 2008 ) . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species contribute to kill of microorganisms. Their activity is usually measured by their capacity to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium into formazan. The incubation time to allow nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by reactive oxygen species usually ranges from 30 to 60 min. The aim of our study was to determine the kinetics of formazan formation, to determine the shortest incubation time possible, and to find if astaxanthin negatively affects the availability of reactive oxygen species (and defense mechanisms of fish). The blood/nitroblue tetrazolium method is based on nitroblue tetrazolium reduction into formazan by reactive oxygen species present in blood. Formazan can be spectrophotometrically measured, allowing quantification of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species were measured in blood samples from 30 trout intramuscularly injected with astaxanthin (0.3 mg/100 g of fish) (experimental group) and 30 non-injected trout (controls). Results indicated that in trout non-treated with astaxanthin, the plateau of formazan production was reached after 20 min of incubation. Trout intramuscularly injected with astaxanthin showed the following: on Day 1 after astaxanthin injection, the kinetics were slower but finally reached a plateau similar to astaxanthin-free trouts, and by Day 11 the plateau was significantly higher after 60 min incubation. In conclusion, the kinetics curves here reported allow reducing incubation time of the method to only 20 min in antioxidant-free trout and, on the other hand, our results also revealed that astaxanthin can be used to improve flesh colour in salmonids without affecting reactive oxygen species availability and therefore the defense mechanisms of trout.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Acta Veterinaria Brno
Show more