Article

The Role of Caring in the Teacher‐Student Relationship for At‐Risk Students

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Abstract

This study uses information from both teachers and students to explore how the perceptions of each other's investment in the relationship affects the productivity of the relationship. Using the National Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS), I analyze the conditions and academic consequences of students’investment in the relationship with teachers and school. I find that teachers’perceptions that the student puts forth academic effort and students’perceptions that teachers are caring are each weakly associated with mathematics achievement for most students. For students who are judged by their teachers as at risk of dropping out of high school, however, the value for math achievement of having teachers who care is substantial and mitigates against the negative effect of having been judged as at risk. The results suggest that social capital, as defined by a relationship that facilitates action, is especially high for at-risk students who feel their teachers are interested, expect them to succeed, listen to them, praise their effort, and care.

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... More recent research shows that students who feel their teacher is caring for them exhibit higher levels of self-esteem and well-being, and this in return influences how meaningful the teacher finds his/her job (Lavy & Naama-Ghanayim, 2020). Teacher care is especially important for at-risk students who benefit from knowing that their teachers are interested, expect them to succeed, listen to them, praise their effort, and care (Muller, 2001). Implementing policies that care for students' psychological and social well-being, not just academic achievement, can improve student behaviour (Doyle & Doyle, 2003). ...
... As stated above, perceived care is one of the main aspects of 'pedagogy of care' and is supported by research in this area indicating that it is important that the students know that their teachers care for their learning and their wellbeing (Lavy & Naama-Ghanayim, 2020;Muller, 2001;Noddings, 1995;Teven & McCroskey, 1997). Steered by this line of research, the qualitative analysis searched for comments that indicated students' awareness of teacher care. ...
... The comment by this student also indicated that they were motivated to continue their study despite all the challenges, which is aligned with Teven and McCroskey (1997) stating that students who believe their teachers care for them are more likely to engage with the class. As mentioned above, Muller (2001) indicated that care is particularly important for at-risk students. In this unit, students were still transitioning from school to university when they were forced to shift to online learning. ...
Conference Paper
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Research shows that students who believe their teachers are caring for them are more likely to engage with the class and exhibit higher levels of self-esteem and well-being. What we learn from the past should guide our present practice to pave the way for a more authentic relationship with our students in the future. This paper reports a case study of how a ‘pedagogy of care’ was implemented in a first-year large teacher-education unit of study at an Australian university during the transition to fully online learning and teaching in response to the pandemic. The paper reports the strategies adopted by the teaching team and the results of an online survey conducted with the students about their experience of the transition. The qualitative survey responses were organised into themes that illustrated how students perceived teacher care. According to the students, teachers cared when they organised consistent synchronous sessions, provided opportunity for interaction between students, recorded lectures, were lenient, modified assessment, marked assessments quickly, exhibited positivity, and acknowledged challenges due to COVID-19. These themes were then classified into two broad categories on a continuum ranging between the delivery of the unit to interpersonal or human aspects.
... So zeigt sich, dass jene Lehrkräfte einen positiven Effekt auf die Entwicklung ihrer Schülerinnen und Schüler haben, die diese gerecht bzw. fair behandeln ( Lee und Burkham (2003), Muller (2001) sowie Klem und Connell (2004) als "sich um Schüler kümmern" bzw. "care about students". ...
... Molinari/ Speltini/ Passini 2013;Hadjar/ Lupatsch 2011), die hohe Erfolgserwartungen an ihre Schülerinnen und Schüler haben und ihnen diesen Erfolg auch zutrauen(Schuchart 2012b;Muller 2001;Bergin/ Bergin 2009;Klem/ Connell 2004;Smyth 2004), die die Anstrengungen der Schülerinnen und Schüler loben(Muller 2001;Yonezawa et al. 2012) und ihnen die Möglichkeit zur Mitbestimmung geben (Bergin/ Bergin 2009; Holzer et al. 2007; Asdonk/ Glässing 2008) sowie insgesamt einen autoritativen Erziehungs-und Unterrichtsstil pflegen anstatt Zwang und Druck zu erzeugen (Bergin/ Bergin 2009; Hadjar/ Lupatsch 2011). Auch haben sich solche Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehung als positiv erwiesen, die geprägt sind von einem Interesse an der Schülerin und dem Schüler und ihrem bzw. ...
... Molinari/ Speltini/ Passini 2013;Hadjar/ Lupatsch 2011), die hohe Erfolgserwartungen an ihre Schülerinnen und Schüler haben und ihnen diesen Erfolg auch zutrauen(Schuchart 2012b;Muller 2001;Bergin/ Bergin 2009;Klem/ Connell 2004;Smyth 2004), die die Anstrengungen der Schülerinnen und Schüler loben(Muller 2001;Yonezawa et al. 2012) und ihnen die Möglichkeit zur Mitbestimmung geben (Bergin/ Bergin 2009; Holzer et al. 2007; Asdonk/ Glässing 2008) sowie insgesamt einen autoritativen Erziehungs-und Unterrichtsstil pflegen anstatt Zwang und Druck zu erzeugen (Bergin/ Bergin 2009; Hadjar/ Lupatsch 2011). Auch haben sich solche Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehung als positiv erwiesen, die geprägt sind von einem Interesse an der Schülerin und dem Schüler und ihrem bzw. ...
... This was evident in their high regards for LSE, and its positive impacts that they have seen on children's academic performances, disciplinary behaviors, adaptation skills, and psychosocial competencies thus corroborating with the findings of Adams (2010) and Muller (2001). ...
... Moreover, as LSE was a non-examinable subject, teachers and schools in Bhutan, as was reported by Zhao (2011), also focused more on examinable subjects as students' academic results determined the schools' annual performance rankings. Another reason could be due to the effects of students' academic results on teachers' performance ratings in their Individual Work Plans (IWPs Powdyel, 2014), not positive behavioral changes (Dorji & Yangzome, 2018) and social connectivity (Adams, 2010;Muller, 2001). ...
Article
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Considering Life Skills Education (LSE) as an important component of youth education, the Ministry of Education adopted it as a national programme in 2008 (Department of Youth and Sports, 2014). However, due to a dearth of studies, there is little evidence of the status of LSE and the challenges of implementing it in schools. To investigate them, the researchers employed a qualitative research design. The qualitative data were collected from four principals and 16 teachers through semi-structured interviews and essay writing. The key findings revealed that though the schools currently teach LSE, however, it was ineffectively implemented due to various challenges such as time constraint, teachers' lack of knowledge of life skills, inadequate teaching-learning materials, absence of fulltime counsellor, and lack of school-parent partnership. The key recommendations include the Ministry of Education to consider providing necessary supports and instruct school administrators and teachers to explore alternatives that may promote LSE teaching across all levels of schools.
... The boys also spoke to the levels of frustration they felt when teachers did not provide sufficient academic support. Muller (2001) found that both teachers and students spoke to the importance of investment in the student-teacher relationship. At-risk students who believed that their teacher was invested in their learning tended to report greater connection with their teachers and demonstrated higher academic growth and lower rates of dropout (Muller, 2001). ...
... Muller (2001) found that both teachers and students spoke to the importance of investment in the student-teacher relationship. At-risk students who believed that their teacher was invested in their learning tended to report greater connection with their teachers and demonstrated higher academic growth and lower rates of dropout (Muller, 2001). Boys in our study also discussed that disengaged teachers fostered learning environments in which students would shut down. ...
Article
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Research has consistently shown that Black boys experience opportunity gaps in the American public education system. Beyond disproportionate outcomes in academics and behavioral outcomes, Black boys have less access to mental health support and may experience heightened symptoms due to systemic inequities. Despite many hypotheses, few explanations account for the lived experiences of Black boys. Research indicates that positive student–teacher relationships may increase academic, mental health, and behavioral outcomes for diverse learners. An exploration of the teacher–student relationship that centers the voices of Black males is needed to understand how to best develop a school culture that promotes the well-being of all students. This paper explores Black middle school male students’ perceptions of the student–teacher relationship. Participants included 12 Black boys in a public middle school in two urban districts in the Midwest. Students identified the need to be recognized as individuals, the need for warm, authentic relationships to feel connected to the school environment and acknowledge that racism is a barrier to student–teacher relationships and the overall sense of connectedness. These findings have potential implications for fostering better student–teacher relationships, thereby impacting students’ well-being, identity development, and addressing the student achievement gaps for Black boys.
... Teachers may be considered weak ties in adolescents' networks. In addition to the academic benefits of close student-teacher relationships (Croninger and Lee 2001;Crosnoe, Johnson, and Elder 2004;Hallinan 2008;Muller 2001), recent studies suggest that teachers help upwardly mobile youth navigate institutions (Gonzales 2011;Lareau 2015;Stanton-Salazar 2011). Further, in mentoring relationships with adults in formal social roles, such as teachers, the instrumental component may be more important than affective components (Beam, Chen, and Greenberger 2002). ...
... Even when Mrs. Brady was transferred to another school for Gabby's senior year, she had lunch with Gabby regularly and contacted Gabby's new teachers with "pointers on how to handle her." Although Gabby posed behavioral challenges, Mrs. Brady persisted with the relationship sustained by their mutual regard for each other and Gabby's gestures of gratitude.We know that students evaluate whether teachers care about them(Muller 2001); I found that teachers also assessed student behavior for care. Mentors valued small acts of reciprocal care that signaled commitment or simply showed affection. ...
Article
How people forge ties and build social connections, particularly social connections which help to advance their life chances, has long-been of sociological interest. Research on social capital, cultural capital, and trust within communities, in different ways, investigates the same fundamental process: how do interpersonal relationships—social ties—and cultural knowledge help young people get ahead? Studies have primarily focused on quantity of ties but not as much on the quality and dynamics. This dissertation, based on in-depth interviews and ethnographic observations, explores the connection between students and institutional agents in three interrelated but distinct ways. First, I investigate undergraduates’ perspectives on forming resourceful ties with institutional agents on campus—faculty, advisors, and administrators. Class differences persist: compared to their middle-class peers, students from working-class backgrounds more often miss out on forging these connections that can assist them beyond providing academic support. However, even among middle-class students, their strategies differ by race. White middle-class students demonstrate an embodied ease where they balance familiarity with deference to authority figures. On the other hand, black middle-class students rely on professional self-presentation when interacting with institutional agents and some express distrust of the institution. Second, I investigate from the perspective of undergraduate academic advisors the quality of their connections with students of different class backgrounds. Some middle-class and upper-class students view advisor-student relationships as more instrumental. More affluent students go over their advisors’ heads, activating hierarches, slipping through cracks, and pursuing accommodations. Students choose to activate cultural capital, not for a relationship, but for an advantage. Students from working-class backgrounds can miss out on personal accommodations because they do not enact the same assertive strategies as middle-class students. Finally, in a study of high school teachers and their mentorships with low-income black students, I show that relationships must be appropriately maintained or students risk losing assistance. Mutual trust and reciprocity are critical to maintaining social capital. In all, this dissertation considers the bridges and barriers that young people of diverse social backgrounds face as they navigate forming and leveraging ties—ties which help students comply with institutional standards.
... Evidence suggests that experiencing a supportive relationship with a teacher is important to positive school engagement and counterbalances the social resources and capital that immigrant youth might be missing (Brewster & Bowen, 2004). A number of studies have shown the importance of teacher support for ethnically diverse underrepresented minority student populations with regards to their achievement for middle school (Reyes, Brackett, Rivers, White, & Salovey, 2012) and high school students (Crosnoe, Johnson, & Elder, 2004;Muller, 2001). Additionally, some evidence also supports the positive associations of a perceived supportive teacher relationship with student engagement and motivation for ethnically diverse underrepresented middle school students (Garcia-Reid et al., 2015;Garcia-Reid, Reid, & Peterson, 2005;Kiefer, Alley, & Ellerbrock, 2015;Riconscente, 2014). ...
... Fewer scholars have investigated this association for underrepresented high school youths (e.g., Rosenfeld, Richman, & Bowen, 2000). Muller (2001) found that a positive perceived student-teacher relationship was particularly important for at-risk students. Other studies have also found a positive impact of perceived teacher support on student engagement (Brewster & Bowen, 2004) and achievement (Murray, 2009) for low-income at-risk Hispanic youths. ...
Article
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This study utilized growth curves and change models to understand the impact of student perceptions of teacher caring on the development of math motivation for an ethnically and linguistically diverse sample of adolescents in middle school (N = 1926) and high school (N = 1531). Using an expectancy-value framework, growth curves revealed declining math motivation for both middle school and high school cohorts. However, perceived teacher caring buffered against these declines and was positively associated with math self-efficacy and subjective task values. Change models revealed that perceived teacher caring at the beginning of the school year increased math motivation by the end of the year. The results shed light on the important role that student-teacher relationships play in influencing math motivation during adolescence.
... Good and Brophy (1997) stated that the academic success of students is strongly related to what the teachers expect from the students. This proposition is also supported by Muller (2001) stating that what teachers do and what attitudes they show in the form of expectations from students, greatly relates to the academic success of students. Alderman (1990) also accept the fact that teacher's expectations greatly influence the academic performance of at-risk students and he identifies the teacher expectations as the feelings given to students that teachers are really looking forward to their success and that the objectives will be achieved by them and the assurance that expertise needed for them to achieve teachers' expectations will be taught to them. ...
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This study is conducted to explore and identify factors that put students at risk. Secondly, it introduces teaching practices that are found to be helpful in dealing with those students who are entitled at-risk. The data for the study has been collected through a critical review of available literature. The findings indicate that different factors related to school, personal life, family and community contribute in putting students at-risk. The findings also show that caring and committed teaching, involvement in learning, peer tutoring, tutoring and small groups are the beneficial teaching practices for students at-risk.
... Perez (2000) describes the positive influence the communication of care has on culturally diverse students. Other care researchers have also drawn attention to the fact that at-risk students benefit from teacher caring (Muller, 2001;Sanders & Jordan, 2000;Shann, 1999). Educational care can profoundly influence all students, but could, in fact, be transformational for some students, particularly students that are traditionally deemed to be at-risk. ...
... Several studies have shown that creating positive relations among students can support and develop student engagement and performance (Serpieri & Vatrella, 2017). Student motivation and engagement can also help build more constructive relations with teachers compared with students who are less involved in school activities (Muller, 2001). Usually, students who are less engaged have more learning and socialisation difficulties and need extra care and support from well-trained teachers (Ansong et al., 2017;Jennings & Greenberg, 2008;Lee & Burkam, 2003). ...
Article
Through a mixed methods approach, this paper explores young people’s perceptions about critical issues in secondary school and the improvements being made to prevent dropout risk. The empirical data were gathered from a representative sample of young people (14–24) in a socioeconomic disadvantaged region in the European Union. A principal component analysis assessed the most significant indicators that influence young people’s scholastic experience and effectiveness of education. A content analysis was applied to identify the key critical issues and possible strategies to support young people’s school satisfaction. The findings reveal a set of key indicators: interpersonal relationships; learning process; teacher role; school management; the impact of new technologies.
... As reported by DYS (2014), the qualitative findings of this study also confirmed that the middle secondary schools taught life skills either as an independent subject by fulltime counselors or teacher-counselors, or by other teachers through lessons of their teaching subjects. This was evident in their high regards for LSE, and its positive impacts that they have seen on children's academic performances, disciplinary behaviors, adaptation skills, and psychosocial competencies thus corroborating with the findings of Adams (2010) and Muller (2001). Therefore, the teachers implied that the students be continuously taught all ten core life skills (See WHO, 1997) either as an independent subject or through lessons of other subjects such as sciences, mathematics, and history, for example. ...
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As a part of the Preparing Teachers for Global Citizenship Education (GCED) project in Bhutan, the situational analysis study of GCED in the curricula of Bhutan was carried out. This study intends to identify potential curricula contents which could be taught through GCED lens. It is also to understandthe readiness of teaching and learning GCED concepts among teachers and students. The findings of this study will provide a strong basis to prepare teachers for GCED in Bhutan. While similar initiative closely aligned to GCED such as Educating for Gross National Happiness is currently implemented,the GCED intends to complement it through curriculum integration.Three sources of data were identified: curriculum mapping by curriculum developers and teachers with field experiences, teachers’ and students’ perspectives on GCED concepts. The study found that substantial curricula contents could be taught through GCED lens. Although teachers and students tend to understand the concept of GCED, there are certain gaps that need to be addressed through integration of GCED into the curriculum.
... There has been much research which illustrates why effective relationships are key for good learning to occur (Muller, 2001;O'Connor, Dearing and Collins, 2011;O'Connor, Collins, and Supplee, 2012) this relates to forming attachments for academic and social adjustment and how good classroom relationships can provide a stable platform for progression through the school years. Effective teachers engage in practice which creates a positive climate for learning (Shelton, 2016). ...
... increase their positive feelings about themselves, their lives, and their school activities (Noddings, 1984(Noddings, , 2006; and foster a sense of security, which can increase their ability to engage in school activities (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2010;Pianta, 1992Pianta, , 1999. However, as feeling that their teacher cares for them is expected to increase students' trust and positive affect toward him/her and trust was linked to open communication with teachers (e.g., Frymier & Houser, 2000), teachers' caring is also expected to enhance students' willingness to openly interact with their teacher, disclose emotional and personal information, and thus contribute to their relationship with him/her (Muller, 2001). Thus caring, as a behavior and feeling (Mayseless, 2015), has been considered a foundation of a positive, reinforcing teacher-student relationship that involves a meaningful connection allowing teachers to fulfill the students' needs sensitively with empathy, affection, and concern (Mayseless, 2015;Noddings, 1984Noddings, , 1992Pianta, 1992Pianta, , 1999Wentzel, 1997). ...
Article
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Research on teacher-student relationships shows their impact on students. However, it typically focuses on teachers’ interactions and instruction, with less attention to motivations/feelings. Specifically, almost no quantitative research has focused on teachers’ caring for students, despite its potential importance. The present multilevel study, comprising 675 students in ages 15–17 and their 33 homeroom teachers, linked students’ feelings that their teacher cares for them with their self-esteem, well-being, and school engagement and indicated that teacher-student relationships quality mediates these links. Furthermore, students’ reports on teachers’ caring were associated with teachers’ sense of meaning at work, suggesting its role in enhancing caring.
... Empirical research on student-teacher relationships (STRs) consistently emphasizes their benefit to students. Over the last four decades, qualitative and quantitative literature has identified associations between strong STRs and improved academic, social, and developmental outcomes, including deeper academic engagement (e.g., Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004;Murray & Zvoch, 2011), increased academic achievement (e.g., Lewis et al., 2012), resiliency in the face of trying life circumstances (e.g., Werner & Smith, 1982, 2001, and lower incidences of health-risk behaviors such as smoking and alcohol use (e.g., Darwich, Hymel, & Waterhouse, 2012;Resnick et al., 1997). Students who report having a strong, supportive relationship with a teacher are also less likely to drop out of school (Tuck, 2012). ...
Article
Background: A large body of survey-based research asserts that the quality and strength of student-teacher relationships (STRs) predict a host of academic and nonacademic outcomes; however, advances in survey design research have led some to question existing survey instruments’ psychometric soundness. Concurrently, qualitative research on STRs has identified important developmental and sociocultural variation in the ways students define, understand, and react to relationships with their teachers. The questions raised by survey methodologists, together with the conceptual elaboration of STRs, suggest that survey instruments used to assess STRs are due for a systematic review. Purpose/Research Questions: This review of survey instruments examines the strengths and shortcomings of existing measures of STRs. Specifically, we ask: How do student self-report survey instruments assess STRs? We examined the extent to which these instruments reflect current survey design principles and existing knowledge about how STRs work, particularly for adolescents. Research Design, Data Collection, and Analysis: A systematic search of peer-reviewed journal articles that (a) focused on North American middle- or high-school students, (b) linked STRs to student outcomes, and (c) used a student-report measure of STRs yielded 66 studies for which we could obtain the full instrument. Instruments were analyzed using a literature-informed protocol and an iterative process that resulted in strong inter-rater agreement. We used tables and matrices to examine patterns, themes, and outliers in our coded data. Findings: The 66 studies varied considerably with respect to how they operationalized STRs and how they addressed the validity of their instruments. Similar survey items were used to measure different constructs, and constructs with the same names were measured inconsistently across studies. Many instruments were limited by (a) items that included words with ambiguous meanings, (b) inconsistent identification of instruments’ focal students and teachers across instruments, and (c) the use of negatively worded items to measure STRs’ strength. Conclusions and Recommendations: If STR research is to meet its promise to guide and inform teachers’ efforts to develop and sustain effective relationships with their students, the field needs to properly identify those behaviors that make a difference for different students and those that do not. The next generation of student-report STR survey instruments requires more stringent attention to construct specification and validity, as well as to item generation (specifically, language use), in order to most effectively measure and identify aspects of STRs that affect student performance and well-being.
... Personal attention and care appeared to be especially important teacher contributions, and we are able to offer preliminary evidence that autistic girls were more likely to experience attention and care from their teachers than were boys. There is some research suggesting that student perceptions of teacher care are important for academic success (Muller 2001). Autistic boys' experience of attention and care from their teachers may then be an important area for future research, which could include exploration of the specific ways that teachers could work to build positive and caring relationships with autistic boys in high school. ...
Article
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We used an online survey to gather perspectives of autistic youth (n = 248) on the impacts of autism, school professionals, family members, and peers on their high school experiences; what each stakeholder group could have done better; and what future high school professionals and autistic youth should know. Two-thirds of participants viewed autism as negatively impacting their school experience, and this was more prevalent in women. The majority viewed impacts of school professionals, family, and peers as positive. Women were more likely to view school professional contributions as positive than men, and LGBT youth were more likely to view school professional and peer contributions as negative than non-LGBT youth. Suggestions for stakeholders included providing more help, care, and quality time.
... Conversely, friendships may play an important protective role against negative psychosocial outcomes for individuals with ADHD [27]. Apart from peers in the classroom, teachers make a crucial contribution to adolescents' academic and social-emotional outcomes [28,29], and this may well hold for ADHD symptoms as well. However, students with ADHD exhibit a variety of behaviors in the classroom that may disrupt teaching, increase teacher's experience of stress, and may stand in the way of a supporting school climate [30]. ...
Article
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We examined bidirectional relations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and family and school climate, and the possible role of DRD4 and/or 5-HTTLPR genotypes herein. Three-wave longitudinal data of 1860 adolescents (mean ages 11, 13.5, and 16 years) from the general population and clinic-referred cohort of TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey were used. Using a multigroup Random Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Model, we tested between-person (i.e., stable trait levels) and within-person (i.e., causal processes) associations across ADHD symptoms, family and school climate, and the extent to which these depended on genotype. Findings indicated no influence of genotype. Results did show significant between-person differences (ADHD symptoms with family climate r = .38; and school climate r = .23, p values < .001), indicating that higher stable levels of ADHD symptoms were associated with a less favorable family and school climate. Regarding within-person causal processes, ADHD symptoms predicted a less favorable family climate in early adolescence (β = .16, p < .01), while ADHD symptoms predicted a more favorable family climate in the later phase of adolescence (β = − .11, p < .01), a finding which we explain by normative developmental changes during adolescence. Overall, this study showed that negative associations between ADHD symptoms and both family and school climate are largely explained by stable between-person differences. We recommend applying the Random Intercept Cross-Lagged Path Model to developmental data to tease stable associations and change processes apart.
... In the last three decades, more and more scholars have emphasized the importance of social capital, since it affects a wide array of educational outcomes, ranging from enrollment, attendance, attainment and educational achievement (e.g. Fasang, Anette, Mangino, & Bruckner, 2011;Muller, 2001;Grootaert, 1999;Smith et al., 1995). There is continuous debate about how to think about social capital and how to properly measure diverse conceptualizations of social capital (cf. ...
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Improving access to and quality of education is necessary condition to prepare a skilled workforce to advance a country from one economic level to the next level. However, increasing access to and quality of education alone is not sufficient without equitable learning for all. Equal opportunity on education affects an individual’s life because it has the potential to improve the ability to think critically, to solve problems and to make appropriate decisions. Indonesian government simultaneously improves access to and quality of education for all citizens. Although its efforts had noticeable impact, many of the targets to improve access to and quality of education nevertheless still have not been achieved and education inequality is still persistent. This dissertation studies the complex and multifaceted phenomenon of inequality in access to and quality of education. It uses analyses drawn from a multilevel multi-resource framework involving various nation-wide surveys, administrative datasets and experts’ interview data from three non-governmental organizations in Indonesia to comprehend some of the mechanisms behind the unequal access to and quality of education. It suggests that the impact of and interplays between human, social, economic, political and infrastructural capital at the individual, household, school, community and government level are important on inequality in access to and quality of education in Indonesia. Some of the questions discussed in the four empirical chapter of the dissertation include: Which characteristics at the level of municipalities, households and children help to explain why children never attend or drop out from school in Indonesia? To what extent and under which conditions can variations in preschool participation be explained by differences in household-level and community-level resources, and what is the moderating role of social capital? To what extent did the decentralization of Indonesia’s educational sector affect (variability in) educational attainment at the provincial and municipal levels? How can variations in the (gender and parental socio-economic status related gaps of) academic achievement of students attending private Islamic schools be explained by ideological and organizational differences of their schools? Which characteristics at the level of municipalities, households and children help to explain why children never attend or drop out from school in Indonesia? We examine the relationship between municipality and household characteristics and the likelihood of children out of schooling. Building on opportunity structure approach, we theorize that a set of municipality and household characteristics could either hinder or facilitate children to be out of school. Hypotheses are tested using data from 221,392 children, nested in 136,182 households in 497 municipalities. Multilevel multinomial analyses show municipality education expenditure can help prevent dropout but it could not attract children to attend school to begin with. In contrast, the availability of schools decreases the likelihood that children never attend school but it does not reduce dropout. High municipality poverty rates increase the likelihood of children never attending school, but they also lead to lower dropout rates. Family factors, such as wealth, education investment and educational background also reduce the likelihood that children are out of school. Belonging to a female-headed household increases the likelihood that children never attend or drop out from school. To what extent and under which conditions can variations in preschool participation be explained by differences in household-level and community-level resources, and what is the moderating role of social capital? Drawing on social capital theory, we theorize that high levels of household and community social capital not only lead to higher preschool enrollment rates, but also temper the negative effects of low socio-economic status on preschool attendance. Hypotheses on socio-economic status and social capital effects and their interaction were tested with Indonesian survey data, collected in 2009, on 43,879 children nested in 42,855 households in 14,774 villages. Multilevel logistic regression analyses confirm the strong negative main effects of low socio-economic status. In addition, low levels of access to modern mass media significantly decrease preschool attendance. Social capital represented by household association and community reciprocity increase preschool participation. Social capital based on perceived reciprocity compensates low-income parents that empower them to send their children to preschool. Our findings revealed three interplay mechanisms: (1) reciprocity can compensate low-income families for sending their children to preschool as a within-level cross-resource effect; (2) living in a higher trust strengthen the effect of association on preschool participation as a between-level single-resource effect; (3) residing in urban area reinforces the effect of associations but it weaken the effect of reciprocity on preschool participation as a between level cross resource effect consists in urbanization. To what extent did the decentralization of Indonesia’s educational sector affect (variability in) educational attainment at the provincial and municipal levels? We advance existing research by examining the influence of both municipal factors and other explanatory variables on educational attainment in Indonesia. In particular, we hypothesize that after decentralization, 1) educational attainment is higher compared to the pre-decentralization era, 2) regional variations in educational attainment will have increased, and 3) the fiscal capacity, degree of urbanization, and development will be higher; the higher the municipality’s mean year of schooling. The latter is also expected for the newly created municipalities of the past years. Hypotheses are tested using panel data on 5,541,983 respondents aggregated to 3,880 observations in 491 districts/cities in 32 provinces for the pre and post-decentralization periods. Multilevel analyses reveal that after decentralization, the length of schooling slightly increased but progress in the length of schooling slightly decreased. In addition, educational attainment variation between provinces slightly decreased but the variation among municipalities increased. Moreover, the degree of municipalities’ development and urbanization have a significantly positive impact on improving educational attainment while the fiscal capacity and the status of being a new municipality do not have a significant effect on extending the length of schooling. How can variations in the (gender and parental socio-economic status related gaps of) academic achievement of students attending private Islamic schools be explained by ideological and organizational differences of their schools? We investigate the effects of different organizational governance (tracks) and ideological organization (streams) of private Islamic schools on student achievement and achievement gaps. Drawing on an education production function approach, we outline differences in investment and resource allocation decisions across these tracks and streams. Hypotheses are tested using Indonesian data collected in 2013 on 156,952 students in 3,150 schools in 366 municipalities. Evidence showed that student achievement and achievement gaps vary over private Islamic school tracks and streams. Even though student achievement and achievement gaps are strongly determined by student and family characteristics, the results show that differences between school tracks and streams also play an important role. Moreover, this study found two interplay mechanisms: (1) attending in Traditionalist and Modernist streams significantly decrease the achievement of female students as an example of between-level and cross-resource effects; (2) being located in a municipality with a high poverty rate decreases the positive effect of madrasah on student achievement as a between-level single-resource effects.
... In a report of the five essential factors found to be effective for learning in CPS, measures of teacher-student trust were defined by teachers who were perceived by students to be effective in keeping their promises, helping students feel safe and comfortable at school, who listened to their ideas, and who treated them with respect (Chicago Consortium on School Research 2016). As well, Muller (2001) found that students who perceive that their teachers care for their wellbeing, expect them to find success, listen to them, and praise them for their efforts are more likely to see improvements in academic achievement among their students. As well, teachers who use regular feedback and revision cycles through writing assignments to establish systems of communication with students (Lee and Schallart 2008), those who vocally communicate with assertiveness and responsiveness (Van Petegem et al. 2007), and those who show enthusiasm and variation in methods when teaching (Wooten and McCroskey 1996) have all been shown to enhance student well-being and build teacher-student trust. ...
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Teacher–student trust is associated with the social and emotional development of students, their school connectedness and engagement, and their academic achievement. However, few studies have examined how trust develops between teachers and students in ninth grade, a critical year in high school for students to start off on-track. Even less research has examined how teacher–student trust develops from the perspective of students to help identify specific teacher classroom practices that are effective at doing so, particularly at the start of the school year when students’ relationships and connections to high school are just beginning to take shape. Drawing on data from a longitudinal, qualitative study of ninth-grade teacher–student relationships in one neighborhood public high school in Chicago, this study highlights three critical classroom practices that appear particularly effective for helping to build trusting teacher–student relationships during the first 10 weeks of high school. Highlighting the perspectives and insights of ninth grade students, this analysis finds that (1) the priority that teachers place on specific classroom practices, and (2) the timing of when these practices are used by teachers, are both critical in establishing teacher–student trust—an essential ingredient in helping ninth grade students gain important social and school connections during their transition to high school. By highlighting the voices of ninth grade youth, this study provides valuable insights for educators aiming to use specific classroom-based practices that are essential for helping ninth grade students make valuable school connections and get on-track right from the start of the year.
... Having 'too much trust' in the school teacher was another barrier to creating a comfortable relationship with, and obtaining consent from, the children. Several studies demonstrated that interpersonal trust is important for the success of relationships (Jeffries & Reed, 2000;Rotter, 1980) including enhancing the learning of (at-risk) students (Muller, 2001;Teven & Hanson, 2004). However, organisational studies show, 'too much' trust or 'trust without verification' may result in control over, and stress on, the trusters and thereby trusters may feel obliged to pay back the trust bestowed on them (Langfred, 2004). ...
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In my PhD project, I used a participatory, ethnographic case study which examines how children living in an urban slum in Bangladesh perceive the impact of schooling on their learning and wellbeing. Building rapport or a degree of comfort and mutual trust in the interactions between the researcher and participants (Given, 2008) is central to gathering rich data. Establishing an ethical and respectful rapport with children living in the slum was a continuous challenge for my study. In this chapter, I describe these challenges and explain the steps that ‘worked well’ for me in building rapport with the children. I argue that despite there being constant and unexpected challenges in conducting research with the children living in marginalised communities (such as slums), the consideration of children being the ‘social actors and agents’ and researcher’s endeavour to be a ‘listener’ of children; ensuring continuous consent and data sharing; and becoming ‘localised’ within the context have the potential to build a strong rapport with the participants. In doing so, first, I briefly describe the purpose of my study. Then, I explain the challenges I faced followed by the associated steps in rapport building. Drawing on my field experience, I conclude by emphasising the connection between rapport-building and reflexivity—management of which is another challenge that the researcher needs to deal with continually.
... Lärares förhållningssätt och relationerna i klassrummet Positiva relationer med lärare och att klassrumsklimatet upplevs som tryggt är generellt viktiga aspekter av elevers känsla av tillhörighet i skolan och för studiemotivation (Pianta, La Paro, Payne, Cox & Bradley, 2002), och bidrar även till högre kunskapsresultat (Hattie, 2008;Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). Muller (2001) fann att för elever "i riskzonen" hade en upplevelse av att läraren bryr sig om dem, och en generell uppfattning hos deras lärare att elever anstränger sig, samt bådas upplevelse av investering i relationen, en betydande effekt på skolprestationer i matematik. Enligt DeCapua och Marshall (2011) är relationella aspekter av särskilt stor betydelse för elever med migrationsbakgrund, som har tvingats lämna sin kända miljö och viktiga relationer och måste finna sig tillrätta i nya sammanhang. ...
... As the knowledge produced in research interviews is constructed between the interviewer and the interviewee (Kvale & Brinkman, 2009, p. 2), their relationship can have an impact on the interviewees' answers (Anyan, 2013;Karnieli-Miller, Strier, & Pessach, 2009). The teacher-student relationship contains power asymmetry in favor of the teacher (Jamieson & Thomas, 1974;Muller, 2001). To give an example, when I conducted the practitioner interviews in the development project in which children's data was collected (and in which I worked as an in-service teacher educator), several participants found it difficult to discuss the possible shortcomings of the project . ...
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The current stage of early years information and communication technology (ICT) integration research has been criticized for not paying enough attention to the unique pedagogical features of early childhood education. Similarly, children’s views about educational use of ICT have been underrepresented in research. This dissertation study contributes to resolving these gaps in the literature by exploring children’s ideas and preservice teachers’ beliefs regarding the role of ICT in early childhood education.The study consists of two data sets that are reported in three empirical articles. The first study focused on children’s ideas and their contextual roots. The second study explored preservice teachers’ beliefs about children and ICT at home. The third study investigated preservice teachers’ perceptions of ICT integration through the frames of teaching, education, and care, referred to as the EDUCARE approach. In this compilation, the findings of the empirical studies are scrutinized through the analytical device of third space theory.The findings suggest that there is a dissonance between the meanings children and preservice teachers give to ICT use. Children conceptualized ICT use as a leisure activity whereas preservice teachers approached ICT mainly through learning. The findings also imply that although EDUCARE has been described as a holistic framework in the context of ICT integration, the framework acts as a disintegrating vehicle: When ICT integration was approached from the perspective of teaching, the views were mainly positive. When the perspective was changed to care, the views were profoundly negative. Care-related concerns were associated with preservice teachers’ beliefs about children’s use of ICT at home being extensive and unregulated. Another exaggerated belief was considering children born-competent ICT users.The results of this study have several implications for early childhood education, as well as preservice teacher education. To make ICT pedagogy truly meaningful for children, ICT should be approached as a cultural form, and space should be given for children’s views, values, and experiences. Additionally, educational technology courses need to pay more attention to aspects of care, as well as to preservice teachers’ often unrealistic beliefs about children and technology.
... Cognitive area covers acquisition of information, skills, frames of references related to facts, the written language and mathematical thinking. Muller (2001) indicated that moral aspect is generally co-terminus with citizenship training. Muller further posited that this begins with respect for the teacher, friendliness towards classmates and good work habits such as punctuality and gratification, but aims at culminating in the capacity for leadership and initiative. ...
... Students need to be assured that their teachers care about their often difficult situations and any possible discrimination that they or their family is facing. Students' perceptions of teachers' empathy and support have been shown to be vital to their success (Muller, 2001;Stone & Han, 2005). Part of this may require more training with teachers on how best to reach second language learners and immigrant students. ...
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In the last few years, xenophobic rhetoric and policies have sharply increased across the world and is especially apparent in the rise of far right political parties in Europe, the Brexit vote in Great Britain, and the election of Donald Trump in the United States. In these times, teachers have a responsibility to stand for values of inclusion and justice and be a voice of reason among the growing angst and fear-based policy decisions. This article explores the theoretical rationale for taking this position in the classroom in relation to the purpose of education, promoting the good of all students, and creating a classroom environment based on critical thinking and a strong analysis of current cultural and political trends. The article then looks at practical ways teachers can deconstruct this xenophobia in the classroom through instructional practices, creating a welcoming classroom environment, and curricular choices. Although these concepts are applicable in all subject areas, they are of special relevance to social studies teachers.
... Teachers provide the greatest impact on student achievement (Hanushek, 2011); therefore, administrators must ensure that the right teachers are serving the right students, especially at-risk students, who are the most vulnerable to negative academic outcomes. Social capital for at-risk students who can develop relationships with teachers they perceive as caring is higher and may contribute to their success (Muller, 2001). By employing this type of action research at the building level, practioners can see how their staff could potentially influence at-risk students' graduation status by making better resource and human resource allocation decisions. ...
... Most of the research that has examined the factors and processes that benefit lowachieving students, including QTSRs and intentions to graduate, have largely focused on only at-risk samples, rather than comparative samples (for samples of only low-achieving students, see Hughes et al., 2008 andLiew et al., 2010; for samples of only students with multiple risk factors, see Brewster &Bowen, 2004 andWatson et al., 2016; for an exception, see Muller, 2001). While this work is critical in providing evidence about which factors and processes may best support these students, such research is unable to provide insight about how these QTSRs, Intentions to Graduate, and High School Completion 9 factors and processes impact low-achieving students as relative to more highly achieving students. ...
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Introduction: Stage-environment fit theory (SEF) posits that students leave school when their environments do not meet their needs. Quality teacher-student relationships (QTSRs) are a critical element of students' environments. Moreover, QTSRs help students internalize positive intentions to graduate. QTSRs and intentions to graduate have both been identified as separate determinants of high school completion. These factors may also form a longitudinal socio-motivational process that supports graduation. However, few studies have examined such processes. Methods: This investigation examined data from N = 4691 Australian secondary students (43% female) included in the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 cohort. Participants were in grade 10 at Time 1 (Mage = 15.74; SD = 0.28), with a total of four annual time points examined. Longitudinal probit regression was used to examine the extent to which grade 10 QTSRs predicted students' intentions to graduate (in grades 10 and 11), and QTSRs and intentions to graduate predicted high school completion. Multi-class analysis and indirect effects testing were also conducted. Results: Grade 10 QTSRs are positively associated with grade 10 intentions to graduate and grade 11 intentions to graduate (beyond the effects of grade 10 intentions to graduate). QTSRs and intentions to graduate were also positively associated with increased chances of high school completion. QTSRs were found to play a stronger role for low-achieving students over time. Conclusions: Overall, QTSRs and intentions to graduate appear to be significantly associated with intentions to graduate and high school completion, especially for low-achieving students. Intervention implications are signalled.
... To foster such an environment, teachers must build positive relationships with and among students (Cornelius-White, 2007;Kiuru et al., 2015;McGrath & Van Bergen, 2015;Muller, 2001). They must maintain classroom norms and procedures that support students in becoming responsible for their own behavior (Charney, 1993;Egeberg et al., 2016;Marzano et al., 2003;Pianta & Hamre, 2009) and ensure constructive use of time and high student engagement (Hamre & Pianta, 2010). ...
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Research focused on emotionally supportive teaching has typically run in parallel to the study of rigorous, standards-aligned mathematics teaching. However, recent work theorizes that positive and warm classroom environments may be necessary to help students meet the ambitious goals outlined in newer mathematics standards. We analyze the relationship between facets of classroom environments and the prevalence of standards-aligned mathematics instruction across more than 400 mathematics lessons in Washington, D.C., classrooms. We find no evidence of consistent standards-aligned mathematical engagement absent an engaging, emotionally supportive learning environment. These findings suggest that efforts to help teachers make the instructional shifts outlined in college and career ready standards might also need to support the provision of productive, warm, and nurturing learning environments.
... Perceived instructor credibility, according to the participants of the study, would drive them to put in more efforts in their academic study, engage in activities and classroom instruction, and face the learning challenges. The findings, hence, supported the argument that different dimensions of credibility engender different learning outcomes; for example, the instructor caring increases the effort and intention of the students to keep learning and furthering their education (Won et al., 2017), as well as their willingness to articulate their challenges and weaknesses (Muller, 2001). Instructor competence can improve the classroom engagement, knowledge retention, and learning of the students by enabling them to seek advice, raise questions, and complete assignments and in-class tasks (Frymier and Houser, 2000). ...
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In instructional contexts, instructor credibility or ethos is deemed to play a paramount role in teacher–student interaction and relationships. Much effort has been devoted to instructor credibility conceptualization, measurement, and its association with other instructional variables of interest in dominantly quantitative inquiries. However, little research has been undertaken in second-language education in which communication is both a means and an end. This qualitative research set out to explore the perception of the students of instructor credibility in the context of higher English education and how gender, nativeness, and subject matter might impact their perceptions. It also aimed to study how instructor credibility could, in turn, influence the engagement and success of the students. Thirteen senior students of English as a foreign language from a university in Iran participated in this study. They were given a scenario about their prospective professors for two courses of “Research Methodology” and “Essay Writing.” The professors included four native English- and Persian-speaking male and female PhD holders. The participants were, then, interviewed about their perceptions of instructor credibility, their choices of instructors, and how they would affect their engagement. The data were recorded, transcribed, and recursively analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis. While instructor credibility is commonly characterized as a three-dimensional construct, involving competence, character, and caring, the data analysis generated a new component of performance concerned with the effectiveness of classroom knowledge presentation and activity organization. Caring also emerged as a constituent of a more inclusive component of rapport. Interestingly, albeit they viewed native English professors as generally more competent due to their nativeness, they perceived non-native professors as more credible for both courses, mainly because of their rapport building and familiarity with the needs and challenges of the students. Most of the participants also viewed male professors as more competent and communicative for both courses. The participants also tended to argue that perceived instructor credibility would encourage them to put in more effort in their academic undertakings and to engage in class activities. This would ultimately enhance their academic achievements and success. The paper discusses the findings and implications for second-language instructor credibility conceptualization and practice.
... The influence of social capital on students' educational achievements has been established (Pishghadam & Zabihi, 2011) and might explain the disparities in academic success and why some schools and students outperform others (Plagens, 2011;Rogošić & Baranović, 2016). Social capital influences educational attainment, such as high-school graduation and college enrollment (Carbonaro, 1998;Muller & Ellison, 2001), grades, and test scores (Hao & Bonstead-Bruns, 1998), and students' educational outcomes (Israel et al., 2001;Muller 2001). Perna and Titus (2005) argue that increased social capital enables parents to develop positive academic patterns such as expectations and obligations and become more confident in advocating for their children. ...
Article
One feature of deprived communities is a lack of social capital. Yet, research reports that social capital contributes to poverty reduction and positively impacts schools and student educational outcomes. In South Africa, there is a deficit in social capital in under-resourced and underperforming schools that limits students’ educational opportunities and achievement. Partners for Possibility (PfP) responds to the lack of social capital in South African schools by partnering school principals and business leaders to develop support structures such as collaboration, networking, and professional learning communities. Findings from a site visit, conversational interviews, and examining participants’ portfolios indicate that PfP provides opportunities for developing three types of social capital: structural, cognitive, and relational. These produce options that would otherwise be unavailable to these students. The discussion raises issues about social capital as a resource for development and offers suggestions for further research.
... Empirical research on student-teacher relationships (STRs) consistently emphasizes their benefit to students. Over the last four decades, qualitative and quantitative literature has identified associations between strong STRs and improved academic, social, and developmental outcomes, including deeper academic engagement (e.g., Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004;Murray & Zvoch, 2011), increased academic achievement (e.g., Lewis et al., 2012), resiliency in the face of trying life circumstances (e.g., Werner & Smith, 1982, 2001, and lower incidences of health-risk behaviors such as smoking and alcohol use (e.g., Darwich, Hymel, & Waterhouse, 2012;Resnick et al., 1997). Students who report having a strong, supportive relationship with a teacher are also less likely to drop out of school (Tuck, 2012). ...
Article
A large body of survey-based research asserts that the quality and strength of student-teacher relationships (STRs) predict a host of academic and nonacademic outcomes; however, advances in survey design research have led some to question existing survey instruments’ psychometric soundness. Concurrently, qualitative research on STRs has identified important developmental and sociocultural variation in the ways students define, understand, and react to relationships with their teachers. The questions raised by survey methodologists, together with the conceptual elaboration of STRs, suggest that survey instruments used to assess STRs are due for a systematic review.
... Advancement in technology regardless of facing all the challenges helps us to implement and plan the content in multiple ways for E-learning. Faculty members of any educational institution may contribute by guiding the students about digital learning too, which enhances their motivation towards such academic setup [16]. Students' satisfaction and positive perception about the learning process are very important for the readiness and motivation of the students. ...
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The study explored the moderating role of teachers’ academic support between students’ satisfaction with online learning and academic motivation during the pandemic of COVID-19 in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that teachers’ academic support is likely to moderate the relationship between students’ satisfaction with online learning and the academic motivation of undergraduate students. A correlational research design was used and a sample of 406 students (male and female) within the age ranges of 18–22 years (M = 21.09, SD = 1.41 (male); M = 20.18, SD = 0.71 (female)) were included. The sample was selected through the purposive sampling strategy from different universities in Punjab, Pakistan. Students’ Satisfaction with Online Learning Questionnaire, Teachers’ Academic Support Scale, and Academic Motivation Scale were used. The results of moderation analysis through PROCESS macro 3.5 revealed that teachers’ academic support played a moderating role in students’ satisfaction with online learning and the academic motivation of undergraduate students. Findings will provide support to educational administrators, policymakers, course designers, and curriculum developers for organizing the curriculum and formulating a system to identify that students need different support optimally in a digital learning environment.
... On campuses where administrators have fostered collaborative and supportive relationships, these relationships extend throughout the school web (Madhlangobe & Gordon, 2012) bringing the ESL teacher into a collaborative partnership that naturally produces more tools and resources. Furthermore, these relationships extend from the teachers to the students, to the parents, and to the community (Brooks, Jean-Marie, Normore, & Hodgins, 2007;Madhlangobe & Gordon, 2012;Muller, 2001). The data shows that sustainability is stronger when stakeholders are involved in planning and decision-making when implementing EL policy as practice. ...
... Review studies also suggested the association between negative teacher-student relationships and student mental health problems such as depressive symptoms, aggression, anxiety, and other psychological problems (Dods, 2013;Krane, Karlsson, Ness, & Kim, 2016). Some findings showed that students' perception of being openly humiliated, labeling, and punished by teachers negatively impacts their wellbeing (McGrath & Bergen, 2015;Muller, 2001). Therefore, these findings increase the likelihood that shortened TARQ scores will be negatively correlated with the scores of WHO-5-J (Hypothesis 2). ...
... Elle porte parfois sur les interventions didactiques et parfois sur les comportements des élèves. 6. L'établissement de relations harmonieuses Pour fournir un enseignement individualisé et intervenir efficacement auprès des élèves, l'enseignant doit savoir ce qui caractérise chacun: ses forces, ses difficultés, ses qualités et ses intérêts (Bowen et al., 2005;Bru et al., 2002;Klem et Connell, 2004;Muller, 2001). Le fait d'établir une relation chaleureuse, caractérisée par l'implication émotionnelle, peu de dépendance et de conflits (Harme et Pianta, 2001) avec chacun des élèves favorise leur motivation, leur réussite et le développement d'un sentiment d'appartenance à l'école (Lapointe et Legault, 2004;Murdock et Miller, 2003). ...
... Teachers' respectful behavior toward students has important consequences for children's academic and social development. When teachers treat their students respectfully, this promotes positive teacher-student relationships, which in turn has a significant long-term positive impact on students' academic achievements (Muller, 2001). ...
Article
Increased use of high-stakes testing has been accompanied by an expansion of summer school programming. Few investigations focus on student experience within these programs. Using multiple methods, we examined how low-performing students attending the Chicago Public Schools’ Summer Bridge program perceived their summer learning environments. Students reported substantial increases in academic press and personalism between the school year and summer. Qualitative analysis revealed that over half of the students characterized their experience as substantively better in the summer than in the school year. They particularly focused on exposure to new content, increased attention from teachers, and an improved classroom climate that helped in the mastery of material.
Article
Perceptions about the relationship between teacher and student refer to the confidence, motivation and interest of the students, and to the expectations and attitudes of the teachers. With the aim of arousing and encouraging discussions about these aspects that can, eventually, improve the relationship between teachers and students through the study of a teacher’s perceptions about this relationship, this article was carried out in the light of Critical Discourse Analysis and studies focusing on teachers’ expectations. The corpus – answers to a questionnaire applied to a high school teacher at a San Diego/CA suburban school – was submitted to the analysis of the author’s position regarding her role as teacher. The willingness to engage in a good relationship with students was present in the corpus as expected. However, there were a few unexpected occurrences: predominantly dominant attitude about problem solving, heterogeneity in the division of responsibilities, and explicit citation of power struggle in the classroom.
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This book examines the extent to which British-born Black African youth have access to opportunities and support during their preschool , primary school and secondary school years. Through the voice of British-born Black African youth, this book explores why and how some racial-ethnic and linguistic minority students fail academically while students from other linguistic minorities excel despite coming from similar socioeconomic backgrounds. Drawing on interpretive-qualitative research analysis, the author demonstrates the racial dimension of social capital in education that challenges the traditional social capital theory, which recodes structural notions of racial inequality as primarily cultural, social, and human capital processes and interactions. In contrast to the focus on achievement gaps, the concept of opportunity gaps shows how and why language policies have shaped the educational experiences and outcomes of linguistic minority students. This book will be of interest to policy makers, practitioners and scholars of Multicultural Education, Black and African Diaspora Studies and Educational Sociology. Chapter 1 Introduction ABSTRACT The introductory chapter begins by briefly explaining the representation by the popular press, the media and mainstream educational researchers of Black Africans as “Model Black” in Britain and North America, and public perceptions of their academic success. It focusses on the ways the previous and current research studies have framed Black Africans in education, paying close attention to the overemphasis on Black African students' success and how this lends itself to the perpetuation of the “Model Black” myth, which overlooks their racialised educational experiences within schools. In addressing the academic achievement gap between anglophone and non-anglophone Black African students, the review goes on to challenge the assumptions of those who believe that there are “inherent deficiencies” in English as an additional language (EAL) Black African students and in their heritage languages that do not allow them to succeed academically. The second part of this chapter presents the rationale for the study and explicitly discusses the significance of the qualitative methodological approach used to explore how race shapes everyday practices and experiences in schools, and how and why the academic outcomes of EAL Black African students differ from those of other racial and linguistic minority students even though they come from similar socio-economic backgrounds.
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Cercetările privind percepțiile profesorilor specializați în educație timpurie privind integrarea tehnologiei în procesul educațional au fost criticate pentru că nu au acordat suficientă atenție caracteristicilor pedagogice unice ale educației timpurii. S-a constatat existența unor diferențe importante între educatori și învățători și faptul că este nevoie de metodologii diferite pentru aceste două profile profesionale. O diferență se referă la sarcinile de bază ale educației copilului și a educației timpurii: în timp ce educația-care este înțeleasă aici ca un proces prin care copiii construiesc cunoștințe și abilități-este accentuată în pedagogia școlii, în educația timpurie se acordă o pondere egală în îngrijire, care se referă la oferirea de îngrijire fizică și a avea o atitudine grijulie față de copii. Utilitatea analizei cadrelor derivă din natura sa bidirecționa lă : metaforic vorbind, oferă cercetătorului o lupă, permițându-i să-și concentreze privirea analitică pe detaliile situațiilor sociale și un telescop prin care cercetătorul poate explora rolul discursului la nivel macro în modelarea interacțiunii și dinamicii dintre cadre diferite. Integrarea tehnologică a fost considerată crucială pentru copiii care nu aveau acces la tehnologie acasă, dar dăunătoare pentru cei despre care se credea că folosesc tehnologia în exces. Cu alte cuvinte, analiza cadrelor recunoaște complexitatea minții umane recunoscând că un professor, în funcție de situație, poate fi atât pentru cât și împotriva utilizării tehnologiei. Un alt merit al analizei cadrelor este acela că recunoaște faptul că percepțiile nu sunt doar structuri interne ale profesorilor, ci sunt modelate de circumstanțe istorice, culturale și materiale mai largi, o problemă care a fost trecută cu vederea în primii ani de cercetare a integrării tehnologice. Cuvinte cheie: framing, teoria cadrelor, digitalizare, asistență comunitară 1. Teoria cadrelor în digitalizare Conceptul de digitizare, reflectă tranziția de la date de tip analogic la format digital, sau pe scurt, începutul erei digitalizării (Rad, D., Demeter, E., Ignat, S., Rad, G., 2020). Cu ani în urmă, și chiar și în prezent, educația în România și procesele educaționale în general, erau analogice. Transformare digitală, se referă la crearea de concepte educaționale inovatoare, rezuntate în urma proceselor de digitalizare (Rad,
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VULNERABILITAȚI ÎN ASISTENȚA SOCIALA
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This chapter explores 15 strategies being employed at various public military charter schools across the United States to support the socio-emotional learning and education of the whole learner. These research-based strategies are intended to overcome and vanquish the adverse childhood experiences (identified in a Kaiser health study), various forms of trauma, and typical “at risk” factors so common amongst families who tend to choose public military academies in the hopes these schools will “fix” the many challenges their children face. Through a careful examination of each strategy (including its research basis and benefits and challenges), the author provides a glimpse into a possible formula other public and private schools might consider employing to meet the socio-emotional and educational needs of students impacted by a cacophony of life's challenges.
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This chapter opens with a brief definition of key terms such as “Muslim diasporas,” “prevention of violent extremism” (PVE), “countering violent extremism” (CVE) and discusses the role of Islamophobia in radicalization and its impacts on the prevention of radicalization. The size of the Muslim population in each of the selected five Western countries and the appearance of jihadist, left- and right-wing-groups, as well as the number of attacks resulting from these milieus are briefly discussed at the beginning of the country reports. The main body of this chapter discusses academic, governmental, and civil society approaches to PVE/CVE. For each country, some PVE examples are presented which might be helpful to policymakers and practitioners. A literature review regarding PVE/CVE approaches in each country seeks to provide an overview of the academic state of the art concerning the prevention of radicalization. Finally, a number of recommendations with regard to future PVE initiatives are provided, based on the author’s field research in Salafi milieus in various European countries.
Chapter
This chapter explores 15 strategies being employed at various public military charter schools across the United States to support the socio-emotional learning and education of the whole learner. These research-based strategies are intended to overcome and vanquish the adverse childhood experiences (identified in a Kaiser health study), various forms of trauma, and typical “at risk” factors so common amongst families who tend to choose public military academies in the hopes these schools will “fix” the many challenges their children face. Through a careful examination of each strategy (including its research basis and benefits and challenges), the author provides a glimpse into a possible formula other public and private schools might consider employing to meet the socio-emotional and educational needs of students impacted by a cacophony of life's challenges.
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Teachers’ beliefs and awareness regarding immigration policy is an area of research that has been largely unexplored in the broader discussion of socio-political consciousness and critical social studies education. This study is based on a multi-methods methodology, particularly a partially mixed sequential equal status design (Leech and Onwuegbuzie in Qual Quant 43(2):265–275, 2009). The quantitative portion of this study is based on a survey conducted in 2017 among K-12 teachers nationwide (n = 5190) and a nested sample of 200 Southern Social Studies teachers. (McCorkle in The awareness and attitudes of teachers towards educational restrictions for immigrant students. Doctoral dissertation, Clemson University, 2018a). The qualitative sample is a content analysis from an examination of South Carolina social studies textbooks (n = 8). The quantitative analysis revealed a concerning pattern of unawareness of immigration policy among many teachers as well as a strong relationship between embrace of false immigration narratives and exclusionary attitudes towards immigrant students. The analysis of the textbooks showed little in the formal curriculum that would problematize false immigration narratives and instead demonstrated a tendency to bolster these narratives. The results reveal a need of teacher education programs and additional professional development to help critique these “common-sense” (mis)understandings about immigration that are factually incorrect and help contribute to the larger patterns of xenophobia in the society.
Article
Student cooperativeness underlies high quality teacher-student relationships, and has been positively associated with students' school engagement. Fostering cooperative rather than oppositional student behavior might be especially helpful for protecting at-risk students against academic failure. To understand how exactly students' cooperativeness can be fostered, we investigated the interpersonal behaviors of secondary school teachers and at-risk students during dyadic interactions (N = 82 dyads) in the context of positive teacher-student relationships. Using Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics, moment-to-moment teacher and student behavior was captured in terms of interpersonal agency (dominance vs. submissiveness) and communion (opposition vs. cooperation). Time-series analyses were used to analyze interpersonal behavior within individuals, within dyads, and between dyads. Cooperative student behavior was most likely if teachers acted friendly and cooperatively and if teachers ‘loosened up’ their agency and the structure they imposed on the interaction repeatedly, which may give students more freedom to express themselves and to cooperate.
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This article integrates findings from three independent studies (one national quantitative and two urban qualitative) to analyze two aspects of the teacher-student relationship: (a) how teachers and students each view their mutual relationship and (b) how this relationship affects students’subsequent academic performance. All three studies corroborate the significant finding that teachers base their educational expectations heavily on students’ test scores, whereas the students shape their own educational expectations largely from their perceptions of their teachers’ expectations as well as their test scores. Teachers’ reliance on test scores masks racial differences in their expectations, which students may perceive as racism.
Article
Two studies were conducted to determine (1) whether differential educational experiences contribute to differential growth on Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores and (2) whether such experiences must occur over a long rather than a short duration to have impact. Specific content knowledge in mathematics/science and verbal areas taught during a short time interval did not increase SAT-M and SAT-V scores even when the content was of the type required to solve SAT problems. Exposure to academically rigorous educational experiences over a long time period (5 yrs) did relate to the development of abilities measured by SAT. In addition, students who experienced very large gains on SAT over this 5-yr period, in comparison with students with small gains, were achieving better in a more rigorous program of high school courses in mathematics and science for the SAT-M and in verbal areas for the SAT-V. Results support the position that educational experiences over time influence SAT scores.
Article
Many studies have shown that academic achievement is highly correlated with social class. Few, however, have attempted to explain exactly how the school helps to reinforce the class structure of the society. In this article Dr. Rist reports the results of an observational study of one class of ghetto children during their kindergarten, first- and second-grade years. He shows how the kindergarten teacher placed the children in reading groups which reflected the social class composition of the class, and how these groups persisted throughout the first several years of elementary school. The way in which the teacher behaved toward the different groups became an important influence on the children's achievement. Dr. Rist concludes by examining the relationship between the "caste" system of the classroom and the class system of the larger society.
Article
This paper suggests that students' opportunities to learn may be stratified both between and within schools: Schools serving a more affluent and able clientele may offer more rigorous and enriched programs of study, and students in college-preparatory curricular programs may have greater access to advanced courses within schools. This notion is tested with a longitudinal, nationally representative sample of public school students from the High School and Beyond data base. The results show few between-school effects of school composition and offerings but important within-school influences of curriculum tracking and coursetaking. In most cases, the difference in achievement between tracks exceeds the difference in achievement between students and dropouts, suggesting that cognitive skill development is affected more by where one is in school than by whether or not one is in school.
Article
National education standards are obviously a big step politically, but are they a big step educationally as well? Will schools really become better? Opinions among education's influentials are sharply divided. Empirical evidence is assembled to address the promise of standard setting for school improvement. From the evidence, it is predicted that standards will not lead to a standardization of practice, stifle creativity, or endanger minority students. The benefits from standard setting are less easily predicted; they depend heavily on the quality of implementation. It is probable that some teachers, some schools, and perhaps even some whole school districts would make substantial progress.
Article
Prologue: Learning from the Past 1. Progress or Regress? 2. Policy Cycles and Institutional Trends 3. How Schools Change Reforms 4. Why the Grammar of Schooling Persists 5. Reinventing Schooling Epilogue: Looking toward the Future Notes Acknowledgments Index
Article
The Dreamkeepers: Successful Teachers of African American Children. Gloria Ladson-Billings. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1994. 187 pp.
Article
In 1970 the Harvard Educational Review published an article by Ray Rist that described how, for the one class of children he observed, their public school not only mirrored the class system of the larger society but also actively contributed to maintaining it. Now, thirty years later, the Editorial Board of the Harvard Educational Review has decided to reprint this article as part of the HER Classics Series. We hope that by reacquainting readers with this article, and by introducing it to new readers, we can encourage all of us to think about the work that remains in creating a just and equitable educational experience for all children. Many studies have shown that academic achievement is highly correlated with social class. Few, however, have attempted to explain exactly how the school helps to reinforce the class structure of the society. In this article, Dr. Rist reports the results of an observational study of one class of ghetto children during their kindergarten, first- and second-grade years. He shows how the kindergarten teacher placed the children in reading groups which reflected the social class composition of the class, and how these groups persisted throughout the first several years of elementary school. The way in which the teacher behaved toward the different groups became an important influence on the children's achievement. Dr. Rist concludes by examining the relationship between the "caste" system of the classroom and the class system of the larger society.
Article
Two studies were conducted to determine (1) whether differential educational experiences contribute to differential growth on Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores and (2) whether such experiences must occur over a long rather than a short duration to have impact. Specific content knowledge in mathematics/science and verbal areas taught during a short time interval did not increase SAT-M and SAT-V scores even when the content was of the type required to solve SAT problems. Exposure to academically rigorous educational experiences over a long time period (5 yrs) did relate to the development of abilities measured by SAT. In addition, students who experienced very large gains on SAT over this 5-yr period, in comparison with students with small gains, were achieving better in a more rigorous program of high school courses in mathematics and science for the SAT-M and in verbal areas for the SAT-V. Results support the position that educational experiences over time influence SAT scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Output-Driven Schools: Principles of Design.” Pp. 13-38 in Redesigning American EducationSocial Capital in the Creation of Human Capital
  • Coleman
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Coleman, James S. 1997. “Output-Driven Schools: Principles of Design.” Pp. 13-38 in Redesigning American Education, edited by J. S. Coleman, B. Schneider, S. Plank, K. S. Schiller, R. Shouse, H. Wang, and S. A. Lee. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. . 1988. “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital.” American Journal of Sociology 94:S9S-S120
Looking in Classrooms
  • Thomas L Good
  • Jere E Brophy
Good, Thomas L., and Jere E. Brophy. 1997. Looking in Classrooms, 7th ed. New York: Longman.
The Caring Professional Pp. 160-172 in Caregiving: Readings in Knowledge, Practice, Ethics, and Politics
  • Nel Noddings
Noddings, Nel. 1996. " The Caring Professional. " Pp. 160-172 in Caregiving: Readings in Knowledge, Practice, Ethics, and Politics, edited by S. Gordon, P. Benner, and N. Noddings. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Output-Driven Schools: Principles of Design Pp. 13-38 in Redesigning American Education
  • James S Coleman
Coleman, James S. 1997. " Output-Driven Schools: Principles of Design. " Pp. 13-38 in Redesigning American Education, edited by J. S. Coleman, B. Schneider, S. Plank, K. S. Schiller, R. Shouse, H. Wang, and S. A. Lee. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
National Education Longitudinal Study of I988 Second Follow-up: Data File User$ Manual (NCES 94-374)
  • Steven J Ingles
  • L Kathryn
  • John D Dowd
  • James L Baldridge
  • Virginia H Stipe
  • Martin R Bartot
  • Frankel
Ingles, Steven J., Kathryn L. Dowd, John D. Baldridge, James L. Stipe, Virginia H. Bartot, and Martin R. Frankel. 1994. National Education Longitudinal Study of I988 Second Follow-up: Data File User$ Manual (NCES 94-374). Washington, DC: National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES), U.S. Department of Education.