What Do Unions Do to Productivity: A Meta-analysis

University of Vic, Vic, Catalonia, Spain
Industrial Relations A Journal of Economy and Society (Impact Factor: 1.48). 09/2003; 42(4):650 - 691. DOI: 10.1111/1468-232X.00310


The impact of unions on productivity is explored using meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. It is shown that most of the variation in published results is due to specification differences between studies. After controlling for differences between studies, a negative association between unions and productivity is established for the United Kingdom, whereas a positive association is established for the United States in general and for U.S. manufacturing.

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    • "Employee performance which is defined as the completion of duties, assigned tasks, and other formal aspects of the job (O"Reilly & Chapman, 1986), is a major concerned of management even in unionized work enviornment. Given that employees productivity is negatively affected by higher unionization (Doucouliagos & Laroche, 2003), high unionization creates a hostile industrial relation climate in organizations (Jinadasa & Opatha, 1999), and hinder the implementation of higher performance working practices (Liu, Guthrie, Flood, & MaCcurtain, 2009), it can be asserted that unionization affects employee performance negatively. Goeddeke & Kammeryer-Mucller, (2010) claimed that union commitement increases the level of employee participation in union activities and putting in extra effort in union related activities, the high unionization may reduce the performance of employees. "

    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    • "Reflecting these countervailing tendencies, the direct relationship between unions and measures of organizational performance (e.g. productivity and profitability ) has been inconsistent, and recent meta-analyses show that the results are difficult to generalize across different industries, countries, years and workplace labour relations practices (Doucouliagos and Laroche 2003, 2009; Hirsch 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Union impact research has been hindered by an underdeveloped conceptualization of management response, contributing to inconclusive empirical findings. Integrating the collective voice/institutional response model with the appropriateness framework, we propose that an employee-focused business strategy is a critical moderating variable in the relationship between union density and organizational outcomes that mitigates the negative effects of unions and enhances the positive effects by sending a clear signal of management's intentions to co-operate. Using a panel dataset of Canadian organizations over six years, we provide empirical evidence to support our arguments. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · British Journal of Industrial Relations
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    • "` A titre illustratif , le tableau 5 présente deux modèles de méta - régression ex - plicative pour illustrer cette approche qui consistè a incorporer des tests FAT ou MST dans des modèles de régression multiple . Il s ' agit ici de deux méta - régressions , réaliséesà partir des données de Doucouliagos et Laroche ( 2003 ) , dont l ' objectif est d ' examiner l ' influence de la nature des données utilisées 15 sur les résultats desétudes consacrées au lien syndicat / productivité . Les résultats du FAT - MRA présentés dans le tableau 5 indiquent que lesétudes menées sur des données américaines font ressortir plus souvent un lien positif entre la présence syndicale et la productivité du travail ( t = 2 , 08 , p < 0 , 05 ) . "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to survey and illustrate selected statistical methods that can identify and correct publication bias. Publication bias has long been a major concern to researchers. In its more benign form, it is the result of selection for statistical significance. Researchers, reviewers and editors are predisposed to treat "statistically significant" results more favorably. Hence, there are more likely to be published. Such publication bias makes empirical effects seem larger than they are. With meta-analysis, statistical methods - such as funnel asymmetry and meta- significance tests - can be employed to identify and accommodate these biases.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Revue de statistique appliquée
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