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Negative Affect and Social Judgment: The Differential Impact of Anger and Sadness

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Abstract

The overwhelming majority of research on affect and social information processing has focused on the judgments and memories of people in good or bad moods rather than examining more specific kinds of emotional experience within the broad categories of positive and negative affect. Are all varieties of negative affect alike in their impact on social perception? Three experiments were conducted to examine the possibility that different kinds of negative affect (in this case, anger and sadness) can have very different kinds of effects on social information processing. Experiment I showed that angry subjects rendered more stereotypic judgments in a social perception task than did sad subjects, who did not differ from neutral mood subjects. Experiments 2 and 3 similarly revealed a greater reliance upon heuristic cues in a persuasion situation among angry subjects. Specifically, their level of agreement with unpopular positions was guided more by the credibility of the person advocating the position. These findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional experience on social information-processing strategies.
... In social, personality, and cognitive psychology, moods and emotions have been researched extensively, acknowledging that their basis and implications differ. While mood refers to more general effects of how the individual feels that persist in duration and its antecedents are not clear to the individual experiencing the mood, emotions refer to more focused affective states that arise from actual situations in the world and are shortlived as well as biologically mediated reactions to perceived survival events (Bodenhausen, Sheppard, & Kramer, 1994;Forgas, 2013;Lerner, Li, Valdesolo, & Kassam, 2015). The contrast between these two forms of effects is essential to understanding why emotions of the same valence have been found in research to have different effects on a person's cognition and motivation. ...
... Despite their similarities, anger and happiness have also been shown to have key differences in the way they affect cognitive processes. For instance, Bodenhausen, Sheppard, & Kramer, (1994) attributed the increased use of heuristic information by angry individuals to the more complicated physiological responses (e.g., increased heart rate, epinephrine secretion and blood pressure) it produces. They also attributed the decreased use of systematic processing in anger to increased impulsive behavior that is associated with the perception of an immediate threat, which may lead to difficulty concentrating in certain ambiguous situations. ...
... The same study design as Bodenhausen, Kramer, & Süsser (1994) was utilized for the emotions of anger and sadness (Bodenhausen, Sheppard, & Kramer, 1994), with researchers conducting three experiments, the first being identical to that of . Like happiness, anger significantly increased stereotyped judgments when compared to neutral and even sad participants. ...
... Langenhove ve Harre (1994) Sosyal algılayıcıların güvendiği yargısal sezgisel taramalardır. Bodanhausen, Sheppard ve Kramer (1994) Bireye veya gruba atfedilen özellikler/davranışlar hakkında paylaşılan ortak kanıların bütünüdür. Leyens, Yzerbyt ve Schadron (1994) Olumlu ve olumsuz bir takım özelliklerle grubu sınıflandıran ve tüm bireylerin bilişsel ağlarının bir parçası haline gelen kültürel kalıpları öğrendikleri bir öğrenme setidir. ...
Thesis
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Bireyler içinde bulundukları toplumsal, siyasal ve kültürel çevreden etkilenerek, başarılı yöneticinin sahip olması gerektiğine inandığı birçok özelliği ve davranış biçimini zihinlerinde modellemektedir. Bu modeller başarılı yöneticinin davranış ve niteliklerine ilişkin bireyin zihninde oluşturduğu stereotiplerdir. Stereotipler sayesinde, bireylerin zihinlerinde yöneticiye ilişkin önceden bir model oluşmakta ve birey yöneticiyi gördüğü andan itibaren bu modele göre teşhis edip, yöneticinin nasıl birisi olduğunu ve ne tür davranışlar sergilemesi gerektiğini kolaylıkla ifade edebilmektedir. Çalışmada bireylerin siyasi eğilimleri (muhafazakar, milliyetçi, sosyal demokrat, sosyalist) ile cinsiyetlerinin başarılı (iyi) bir yöneticide bulunması istenilen özellikleri tanımlamada algı farklılığı oluşturup oluşturmadığı incelenmiştir. Ayrıca başarılı yönetici prototipi ile siyasi eğilim (muhafazakar, milliyetçi, sosyal demokrat ve sosyalist) stereotipleri ve cinsiyet stereotipleri arasındaki ilişkiler karşılaştırmalı olarak analiz edilmiştir. Çalışmanın temel amacı başarılı (iyi) yönetici prototiplerinin farklı cinsiyet ve siyasi eğilimlere (muhafazakar, milliyetçi, sosyal demokrat, sosyalist) sahip olan bireylerin algılamalarında farklılık gösterip göstermediğini tespit edip, zihinlerinde şekillendirdiği başarılı (iyi) yönetici algısını ortaya çıkarmaktır. Araştırmada 92 maddelik Schein Tanımlayıcı Endeks’i (STE) kullanılmıştır. Bu tanımlayıcı endeks, erkek, kadın, başarılı yönetici, milliyetçi, muhafazakar, sosyal demokrat ve sosyalist başlıkları ile yedi farklı örneklem grubuna uygulanmıştır. Araştırma Türkiye’de IBBS-1 (düzey-1) il gruplandırmasında yer alan 2500 katılımcı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, Türkiye'deki başarılı yöneticilerin prototipi cinsiyet klişelerinin eril ve dişil özellikleriyle açıklanamamaktadır. Ancak bireylerin siyasi eğilim stereotipleri ile başarılı yönetici prototipleri arasında farklılıklar olduğu görülmüştür. Aynı zamanda başarılı olma isteği yüksek olan, atılgan, bilgi olarak donanımlı, agresif olmaktan rahatsız olmayan, hayatın gerçeklerini bilen, liderlik yeteneği yüksek olan, neşeli, istikrarlı, zeki ve düşünceleri duygularından etkilenmeyen yöneticilerin Türk kültürel ortamında başarılı yönetici olarak tercih edildiği gözlenmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Stereotip (Kalıpyargı), Cinsiyet Stereotipleri, Başarılı Yönetici, Siyasi Eğilim, Siyasi Eğilim Stereotipleri, Schein Tanımlayıcı Endeksi.
... In addition, while we studied the social-oriented language to help improve evaluations of robots for those consumers who were experiencing stress, future research should examine the effectiveness of language styles in a broader range of contexts (e.g., hedonic vs. utilitarian services). Research should also consider whether all sources and types of stress are the same, as research finds that negative emotions (e.g., anger-sadness and anger-fear) often differ in their effects (Bodenhausen et al., 1994;Lerner and Keltner, 2001). For example, those experiencing uncertainty about finances may have different preferences towards robots and language styles than those experiencing stress about a personal loss, health, or loneliness. ...
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... Jurors increased punitiveness after exposure to emotionally sensitive stimuli can be further understood through Salerno and Bottoms' (2009) review, which suggests that such stimuli increase emotion and decrease cognitive processing. This is consistent with the finding that angry individuals are less attentive with their decision making than those who feel sadness or neutral emotions (Bodenhausen et al., 1994). Importantly, the Intuitive Prosecutor Model suggests that anger incites moral outrage, which can bias jurors by shifting their focus from the discovery of facts to prosecution (Nunez et al., 2016). ...
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Chapter
Emotions are considered as aspects of complex, interactional systems of the organism. There is a relatively small number of emotions whose functions vary according to the level of the system organization in which they appear. Some emotions are primarily concerned with the maintenance of internal stability; others, such as the agonistic and sexual emotions, contribute strongly to the depth of social interactions. Therefore, no one emotion can be taken as a model for all others, rather, each functions within a separate system. A number of studies are described that lead to the conclusion that there is no hard-and-fast line between sensation and emotion, but that these grade into each other and form a continuum. The differences between systems theory, mechanistic theory and reductionism are also examined.
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1. Introduction The study of emotion Types of evidence for theories of emotion Some goals for a cognitive theory of emotion 2. Structure of the theory The organisation of emotion types Basic emotions Some implications of the emotions-as-valenced-reactions claim 3. The cognitive psychology of appraisal The appraisal structure Central intensity variables 4. The intensity of emotions Global variables Local variables Variable-values, variable-weights, and emotion thresholds 5. Reactions to events: I. The well-being emotions Loss emotions and fine-grained analyses The fortunes-of-others emotions Self-pity and related states 6. Reactions to events: II. The prospect-based emotions Shock and pleasant surprise Some interrelationships between prospect-based emotions Suspense, resignation, hopelessness, and other related states 7. Reactions to agents The attribution emotions Gratitude, anger, and some other compound emotions 8. Reactions to objects The attraction emotions Fine-grained analyses and emotion sequences 9. The boundaries of the theory Emotion words and cross-cultural issues Emotion experiences and unconscious emotions Coping and the function of emotions Computational tractability.
Chapter
This chapter examines some of the literature demonstrating an impact of affect on social behavior. It will consider the influence of affect on cognition in an attempt to further understand on the way cognitive processes may mediate the effect of feelings on social behavior. The chapter describes the recent works suggesting an influence of positive affect on flexibility in cognitive organization (that is, in the perceived relatedness of ideas) and the implications of this effect for social interaction. The goal of this research is to expand the understanding of social behavior and the factors, such as affect, that influence interaction among people. Another has been to extend the knowledge of affect, both as one of these determinants of social behavior and in its own right. And a third has been to increase the understanding of cognitive processes, especially as they play a role in social interaction. Most recently, cognitive and social psychologists have investigated ways in which affective factors may participate in cognitive processes (not just interrupt them) and have begun to include affect as a factor in more comprehensive models of cognition. The research described in the chapter has focused primarily on feelings rather than intense emotion, because feelings are probably the most frequent affective experiences. The chapter focuses primarily on positive affect.
Chapter
This chapter presents an integrated understanding of various impression formation processes. The chapter introduces a model of impression formation that integrates social cognition research on stereotyping with traditional research on person perception. According to this model, people form impressions of others through a variety of processes that lie on a continuum reflecting the extent to that the perceiver utilizes a target's particular attributes. The continuum implies that the distinctions among these processes are matters of degree, rather than discrete shifts. The chapter examines the evidence for the five main premises of the model, it is helpful to discuss some related models that raise issues for additional consideration. The chapter discusses the research that supports each of the five basic premises, competing models, and hypotheses for further research. The chapter concludes that one of the model's fundamental purposes is to integrate diverse perspectives on impression formation, as indicated by the opening quotation. It is also designed to generate predictions about basic impression formation processes and to help generate interventions that can reduce the impact of stereotypes on impression formation.
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