Article

Nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen and canned fruits and vegetables. Part 1. Vitamins C and B and phenolic compounds

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Abstract

The first of a two-part review of the recent and classical literature reveals that loss of nutrients in fresh products during storage and cooking may be more substantial than commonly perceived. Depending on the commodity, freezing and canning processes may preserve nutrient value. The initial thermal treatment of processed products can cause loss of water-soluble and oxygen-labile nutrients such as vitamin C and the B vitamins. However, these nutrients are relatively stable during subsequent canned storage owing to the lack of oxygen. Frozen products lose fewer nutrients initially because of the short heating time in blanching, but they lose more nutrients during storage owing to oxidation. Phenolic compounds are also water-soluble and oxygen-labile, but changes during processing, storage and cooking appear to be highly variable by commodity. Further studies would facilitate the understanding of the changes in these phytochemicals. Changes in moisture content during storage, cooking and processing can misrepresent changes in nutrient content. These findings indicate that exclusive recommendations of fresh produce ignore the nutrient benefits of canned and frozen products. Nutritional comparison would be facilitated if future research would express nutrient data on a dry weight basis to account for changes in moisture. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry

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... Frozen and canned vegetables are labelled as "easy to use" (20.8% and 23.7%, respectively), "longlasting" (19.9% and 22.8%, respectively) and "used for meal preparation" (16.6% and 13.4%, respectively). Freezing and canning are commonly used methods for preserving the nutritional value of various commodities (Rickman, Barrett & Bruhn, 2007) and could help in overcoming the time-limited consumption of seasonal vegetables during the year. Commonly used heat pre-treatment in vegetable preserving is short term blanching (Cengiz et al., 2006). ...
... But, they could supply consumers' needs for all nutrients since they have a similar concentration of those compounds as a fresh counterpart, in spite of the loss of some vitamins during initial thermal processing (Featherstone, 2016). According to Rickman et al., (2007) some nutrients are more stable in canned products due to a lack of oxygen during the storage period. Still, canning is commonly negatively observed because of the use of chemical preservatives, which could be the reason for the correspondents' perception and finally positioning of canned vegetables at a lower level in terms of health properties. ...
... The taste of frozen and canned commodities was emphasized among the reasons for consumption by a lower proportion of consumers (9.1% and 8.9%, respectively) in comparison to the fresh produce (19.0%). The use of freezing or canning as a food preservation technique could induce less or more severe damage in vegetables which could be reflected in texture loss, flavor modification, change in taste and color, causing a negative shift in overall sensory perception of the product (Rickman et al., 2007;Jha, Xanthakis, Chevallier, Jury & Le-Bail, 2019). Improvement of freezing techniques or promotion of innovative ways for utilization of frozen vegetables might be used as the strategies for improvement of the perception of the taste of frozen vegetable products. ...
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The consumers' preferences and their reasons for vegetable consumption were examined with the aim to provide useful information to increase the consumption of these food items. Consumers' general viewpoints about vegetable consumption were examined using an online questionnaire. The study was conducted on a sample of 711 respondents chosen randomly and obtained data were analyzed by the correspondence analysis. Results suggest that consumers consider vegetables as tasty, easy to use and healthy for consumption. The main drawbacks for vegetable consumption are safety issues, short shelf-life and high price. In order to increase the consumption of these foodstuffs, each type of fresh and processed vegetable should have a specifically designed campaign, emphasizing its specific attribute. Obtained results might provide an insight into the current state of consumers' behavior in Serbia and might be useful for creating specific promotional programs and more appropriate communication strategies aiming to increase consumers' knowledge about the importance of regular vegetable consumption. They should raise consumers' awareness by emphasizing the importance of adequate daily vegetable consumption. This, in turn, should improve public health and reduce the health and economic costs of massive chronic diseases caused by inadequate diet.
... Boiling, poaching, and frying of eggs lower riboflavin content by 6%, 18%, and 8%, respectively [107]. The canning process may result in a small decrease of riboflavin content in vegetables and mushrooms, as well as pork luncheon meat [125,126]. ...
... The amount of riboflavin in mushrooms significantly decreased during frozen storage [81,105,128], while that in freeze-dried meals declined only by 3% during 24-month storage at 1 • C, 30 • C, or 40 • C [129]. Losses of riboflavin in frozen vegetables due to blanching as a pre-freezing treatment have been reported [126]. Riboflavin is relatively stable to ionizing radiation, which has been used as a sterilization method for foods [51,68,[121][122][123][124]288]. ...
... Losses of niacin during baking of fortified cookies were about 1-12% in dependence on baking temperature and time, while, for comparison, those of riboflavin and thiamine were 2-24% and 2-50%, respectively, under the same conditions [76]. Niacin is also stable during heat processing of milk, cheese [72,472], and eggs [72,107], as well as during canning of vegetables and pork luncheon meat [125,126]. ...
Article
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This review summarizes the current knowledge on essential vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B5. These B-complex vitamins must be taken from diet, with the exception of vitamin B3, that can also be synthetized from amino acid tryptophan. All of these vitamins are water soluble, which determines their main properties, namely: they are partly lost when food is washed or boiled since they migrate to the water; the requirement of membrane transporters for their permeation into the cells; and their safety since any excess is rapidly eliminated via the kidney. The therapeutic use of B-complex vitamins is mostly limited to hypovitaminoses or similar conditions, but, as they are generally very safe, they have also been examined in other pathological conditions. Nicotinic acid, a form of vitamin B3, is the only exception because it is a known hypolipidemic agent in gram doses. The article also sums up: (i) the current methods for detection of the vitamins of the B-complex in biological fluids; (ii) the food and other sources of these vitamins including the effect of common processing and storage methods on their content; and (iii) their physiological function.
... Some of the authors state that the degradation of AsA after freezing could be associated with drip losses without involving the degradation of the compound itself, since water can act as a carrier agent [14]. In addition, most authors emphasize that the use of freezing methods that require faster freezing rates, such as quickfreezing methods, i.e., lower temperatures and shorter freezing times, can significantly contribute to the preservation of AsA content in berry fruits, compared to the classical slower freezing methods (temperatures around −20 • C, 24 h) [9,14,[45][46][47] Polyphenolic compounds are relatively not so prone to degradation by freezing process [48][49][50] and some authors even reported an increase in the phenolic compounds content after freezing [8,51]. Similar to those reported data, the results obtained in this study also indicate the increase in total phenol content (TPC) after freezing. ...
... As mentioned above, some authors reported an increase in the content of bioactive compounds (especially phenols and anthocyanins) after the freezing process, leading to an increase in antioxidant activity and consequently to an increase in the overall nutritional quality of the final product [8,10,51]. Freezing is recognized as a technology for the production of high-quality foods, as it has been shown to have very little effect on the reduction of bioactive compounds and consequently on the antioxidant properties of a product [9]. ...
Article
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Cryoprotective freezing methods are increasingly being developed and used as an effective means of protecting valuable bioactive compounds in processed berry fruits. The quick-freezing method allows the bioactive compounds in the plant material to be preserved over a longer period of time, thus providing a high-quality product with significant antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the quick-freezing method on physico-chemical properties and bioactive compounds content of fruits in three soft fruit species: tayberry, raspberry, and blackberry, and to evaluate the stability of specific phytochemicals during the three-month storage period. The freezing method had a significant effect on the physicochemical properties with a significantly less drip loss observed after thawing in fruit frozen by quick-freezing (at −34 ◦C for 25 min) compared to fruit frozen classically (−18 ◦C to 24 h). The color of quick-frozen fruits also changed significantly less compared to fresh fruits. Of the bioactive compounds analyzed, it should be noted that there was a significantly lower loss of ascorbic acid recorded during quick-freezing. On average, the quick-frozen fruits contained 28% more ascorbic acid than the classical frozen fruits. In general, the quick-freezing procedure contributed to a better preservation of total polyphenolic compounds and anthocyanins, and thus berry fruits also showed higher values of antioxidant capacity during quick freezing than during the classical procedure. During the storage period of three months, a decrease in the content of all the bioactive compounds studied was observed, although it should be emphasized that this loss during storage was not as pronounced in fruits frozen by the quick-freezing method as in classically frozen fruits. It can be concluded that the quick-freezing contributes significantly to the preservation of valuable bioactive compounds of berries and that this processing method can be considered important for maintaining the nutritional properties of berry fruits.
... Other prospective studies have shown that consumption of a larger variety of fruits and vegetables reduced the risk of type-2 diabetes and some cancers, independent of the quantity of intake (56,57). The nutritional content of a fruit or vegetable is dependent on a number of factors involved in their processing including time/duration, level of heat involved in cooking (e.g., blanching before freezing), amount of food additives like sugar or salt, or long-term storage conditions (i.e., frozen, refrigerated, or room temperature) (58,59). Variations in the method of cooking, processing, and storing, compounded by individual differences in the fruit or vegetable, can influence the availability and overall content of nutritional components like vitamins (A, B, C, and E), minerals, fibers, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds (58,59). ...
... The nutritional content of a fruit or vegetable is dependent on a number of factors involved in their processing including time/duration, level of heat involved in cooking (e.g., blanching before freezing), amount of food additives like sugar or salt, or long-term storage conditions (i.e., frozen, refrigerated, or room temperature) (58,59). Variations in the method of cooking, processing, and storing, compounded by individual differences in the fruit or vegetable, can influence the availability and overall content of nutritional components like vitamins (A, B, C, and E), minerals, fibers, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds (58,59). The results of these studies highlight the importance of understanding FVC at a more granular level and how households switch between various forms of FVC (fresh, frozen, canned, dried), and whether SES plays a role. ...
Article
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Vegetable consumption remains consistently low despite supportive policy and investments across the world. Vegetables are available in great variety, ranging in their processing level, availability, cost, and arguably, nutritional value. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted in Quebec, Canada to explore pathways of socioeconomic inequity in vegetable expenditure. Data was obtained for consumers who participated in a grocery loyalty program from 2015 to 2017 and linked to the 2016 Canadian census. Vegetable expenditure share (%) was examined as a fraction of the overall food basket and segmented by processing level. Panel random effects and tobit models were used overall and to estimate the stratified analysis by median income split. Consumers allocated 8.35% of their total food expenditure to vegetables, which was mostly allocated to non-processed fresh (6.88%). Vegetable expenditure share was the highest in early winter and lowest in late summer. In the stratified analysis, the low-income group exhibited less seasonal variation, allocated less to fresh vegetables, and spent more on canned and frozen compared to the high-income group. Measures of socioeconomic status were all significant drivers of overall vegetable consumption. Consumers with high post-secondary education in the low-income group spent 2% more on vegetables than those with low education. The complexity of observed expenditure patterns points to a need for more specific vegetable consumption guidelines that include provisions by processing level. Implications for education, marketing, intersectional policies, and the role of government are discussed. Governments can scale present efforts and catalyze health-promoting investments across local, state, national, and global food systems.
... Similarly, significant negative quadratic effect (p < 0.5) was observed which represents higher response at the centre value of storage temperature. These results are in association with Rickman et al. [41] who reported the rapid degradation in phenolic content of spinach leaves with increase in temperature. Effect of storage duration was also observed on total phenols and negative significant linear effect (p < 0.05) was observed which demonstrate that total phenols of leaves decrease with increase in storage time. ...
... It has been suggested that degradation of total phenolic content during storage may possibly be attributed to sensitiveness toward oxidation. These studies are in agreement with Rickman et al. [41] observations. During their study, the phenolic content of spinach leaves was found to decline during storage period. ...
Article
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Research on waste valorization and utilization of food by-products are increasing day-by-day. This trend not only protect the environment from pollution but also gives good value of food industries wastes and by-products. In this study, optimization of harvesting stage and storage conditions of radish leaves has been done by using response surface methodology. Different packaging materials such as paper, cling film and LDPE (low density polyethylene) were tried for storage. Among all, better retention of all quality parameters was observed in the leaves stored in LDPE. Maximum quality retention in terms of moisture content (94.44%), ascorbic acid (35.37 mg/100 g), DPPH scavenging activity (45.32%), total phenols (684.025 mgGAE/100 g), total flavonoids (1041.066 mg quercetin/100 g) and chlorophyll (48.795 mg/100 g) was observed with 9.55 cm length of leaves and 4 °C storage temperature on 24 h. The applied model was found suitable for current study with 94% of anticipated values. Graphical Abstract
... However, the retort pouches are less preferred due to their more susceptibility to damage, slow rate of production, low output and high cost (production and packaging). On the other hand, sealed tin-plated cans affects the quality of the product (especially the phenolic compounds) by expending tin to strive for available oxygen under anaerobic conditions prevailing within them (Rickman et al. 2007). Moreover, dissolution of tin into the product during long term storage may lead to many health issues including diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting (Blunden and Wallace 2003). ...
... The samples were subjected to blanching in boiling water for 1 min (Pritty and Sudheer 2012) to inactivate naturally occurring enzymes, remove air from the tissue, improve thermal conductivity and packing (Rickman et al. 2007). Then, they were promptly cooled in water at a temperature of about 28°C. ...
Article
Thermal processing is the most efficient and economical technique for the long-term preservation of tender jackfruit in ready-to-cook form on a commercial-scale. Although, thermal processing primarily focus on microbiological safety of the product, the associated quality changes need to be examined as it is decisive of consumer acceptance. The present study investigated the effect of two pasteurization (90 and 100 °C) and sterilization temperatures (110 and 121 °C) at different lethality on microbiological, colour, texture, ascorbic acid (AA), total flavonoid (TFC) and phenol (TPC) contents of tender jackfruit processed in tin-free-steel (TFS) cans. Time required for thermal processing was computed from respective heat penetration curve. Thermal processing improved both the TFC and TPC of tender jackfruit, while colour, texture and AA had degraded. Based on microbiological and physicochemical quality analyses, the study adjudged pasteurization at 90 °C for 19 min and sterilization at 121 °C for 8 min as the best temperature–time combination for thermal processing of tender jackfruit in TFS cans.
... Respiration rate plays an important role in shortening the biochemical process (D'Aquino et al., 2016;Fagundes et al., 2015;Valentinuzzi et al., 2018). A high respiration rate of the fruit and vegetables that contain about 90% of water occurs when they are harvested, leading to the growth of microbes, diminished water content, and change in quality (Rickman et al., 2007). The impact of atmospheric packaging on the extended shelf life of food materials has been investigated by many researchers (e.g. ...
... 100 % LBW waste 100 % SBW waste 50% SBW and 50% LBW 45% SBW and 55% LBW Rahman (2007) and Rickman et al. (2007) stated that the growth of spoilage microbes is enhanced for the fruit and vegetables which contain about 90% water content. In this regard, the massive weight losses in cucumber and tomato may indicate the high amount of water content with a value of 97.13% and 95.83%, respectively. ...
Thesis
High organic content waste has a significant effect on the physical and hydrological properties of waste. Therefore, understanding the properties of waste is considered key for landfill designers, and operators. This study presents the results of laboratory tests with regard to the physical properties, settlement, compressibility and hydraulic conductivity of different high organic synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) matters under different loads simulating burial in a landfill. Eight different test samples were tested under compression in saturated and unsaturated conditions using a Rowe cell reactor. The saturated tests were used to examine changes in terms of physical and hydrological properties of MSW in order to obtain an understanding of the effect of organic materials (food waste). The goal of the unsaturated test samples was to investigate leachate produced from waste itself. In this regard, food waste was classified into two different groups: loose bound water (LBW) and strong bound water (SBW). The results show a significant correlation between organic content and the geotechnical and hydrological properties and compressibility of MSW as the organic fraction of MSW dropped by 20%, 40% and 60%. The results indicated that the amount of water released greatly varied according to moisture content, material structure and type of food waste (LBW and SBW). The relationship between settlement and leachate production has been highlighted in this study. A conceptual model of the release of bound water in relation to the applied stress of mixed waste run under saturated conditions was developed in this study. The conceptual model spreadsheet consists of two variables, namely, input and calculated variables. The input variables comprise the results obtained from the experimental work using a Rowe cell. Meanwhile, the calculated variables are obtained using equations proposed for the conceptual model to determine the change in food trapped liquid occurring with increased vertical stress. In this regard, a numerical function of the volume fraction of trapped liquid was proposed; this function can be read by the LDAT model. The results obtained from the conceptual model spreadsheet and the LDAT model were compared. The findings showed that the trapped liquid of different high-organic-content waste types has a critical impact on the water released ratio gradient, which increases with the organic fraction in MSW.<br/
... This database, like many others, included a limited number of canned and frozen foods. We expanded the database to include additional frozen and canned food items (and their corresponding nutritional content based on literature (Rickman, 2007), see Supporting Information S1). These additional items were added to show how impacts would change, for example, when comparing fresh blueberries requiring long-distance transport to locally produced blueberries that had been frozen and stored. ...
Article
To remain within the limits of the planetary boundaries and address increasing disease rates due to poor eating habits, there needs to be a major shift in dietary patterns. The composition of an optimal diet changes depending on location, season, and personalized dietary needs. We develop a methodology to build a 500+ food item, nutrient, and environmental impact database specific to a given country and month, which includes several life cycle stages of a food item and calculates impacts depending on from where the item is sourced. This database is then used to develop a detailed and personalized, healthful, low impact diet by using linear optimization. We applied this methodology to several case studies to compare what low impact diets would look like depending on country (Switzerland vs. Spain), season (August vs. February), sex, the inclusion of dietary supplements, and for different diet types and impact categories (climate change and biodiversity loss). Results indicate that, although optimized diets are similar, there are marked differences in the detailed composition depending on country, season, and impact considered, especially regarding legume choice. The lowest impact diet contained local and imported foods as well as fish. Vegan diets had the lowest impact only when incorporating a supplement to meet nutrient needs. We developed a tool to be used for personalized diet composition assessments for any global geographical location and season. We anticipate this work to be useful for developing country‐ and season‐specific dietary guidelines and for consumers hoping to reduce their own personal impacts.
... Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is, by far, the most commonly assayed nutrient in blanching probably because its high solubility and heat susceptibility make it a conservative indicator of nutrient retention [16]. But, in some vegetables like green beans, it was also investigated that vitamin C (ascorbic acid) may retain more than even the fresh stuff [17][18][19]. ...
Article
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The effects of blanching on the yard long beans were investigated to examine the nutritional quality and shelf life of the frozen products during storage in deep freeze for four months. The experiment was carried out Completely Randomized Design and there were eleven treatments using five different blanching times and two temperatures. The data were analyzed under computerized statistical methods of M-stat and Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used to compare the means. The chemical compositions were analyzed and the following results were investigated: the moisture contents were gradually decreased, acidity contents of blanched bean were decreased and pH contents were increased during prolonged storage. The changes of β-carotene contents were decreased but the vitamin C contents were increased after increasing the blanching time and temperature. On the other hand, the total soluble solid (TSS) contents were decreased on blanching with different time and temperatures. Peroxidase and catalase inactivation time of enzyme for water bath blanching of the beans represents that most enzymes are inactivated rapidly as temperature rises to 95 °C using 2 min blanching time. Therefore, the investigation results showed that the frozen yard long beans were stored well in deep freeze up to two months using blanching temperature of 95 °C and duration of 2 min.
... Menurut Frankee et al. (2004, vitamin C merupakan nutrien yang paling tidak stabil dan sensitif kepada suhu dan proses pengoksidan. Degradasi vitamin C mula berlaku selepas proses penuaian sayur-sayuran degradasi berlaku secara berterusan sepanjang tempoh penyimpanan (Rickman et al. 2007 ...
Article
Kualiti fizikokimia dalam sayur-sayuran berubah semasa penyimpanan. Kajian ini menentukan perubahan fizikokimia dalam brokoli dan bunga kobis semasa penyimpanan dan menentukan keadaan penyimpanan yang paling sesuai. Uji kaji ini dijalankan berdasarkan suhu penyimpanan (4 °C dan 23 °C) dan kaedah pembungkusan (tidak dibungkus dan dibungkus dengan beg plastik polietilena) berbeza sepanjang tempoh 168 jam (7 hari). Perubahan warna, kehilangan berat (PLW), kandungan kelembapan, kandungan klorofil dan aktiviti antioksidan (kandungan jumlah polifenol (TPC) dan aktiviti penyingkiran radikal bebas (DPPH)) ditentukan pada 24-, 96- dan 168- jam. Sampel disimpan pada 4 °C dan dibungkus mengalami kehilangan fizikokimia paling minimum berbanding disimpan pada 23 °C dan tidak dibungkus. Brokoli disimpan pada 4 °C dan dibungkus dengan beg plastik polietilena mempunyai perubahan minimum bagi warna (L*= 40.63, a*= -9.88, b*= 19.71), PLW (2.03%), kelembapan (84.42%), klorofil (2.66 mg/g) dan vitamin C (122.05 mg/100 g). Manakala brokoli disimpan pada 23 °C dan dibungkus dengan beg plastik polietilena mempunyai kandungan antioksida yang lebih tinggi (171.15 mg/100 g bagi TPC, 77.66% bagi DPPH). Bunga kobis disimpan pada 4 °C dan dibungkus dengan beg plastik polietilena mengalami perubahan fizikokimia paling minimum bagi warna (L*= 67.63, a*= -1.36, b*= 4.77), PLW (0.97%), kelembapan (93.26%), klorofil (1.22 mg/g) dan vitamin C (41.92 mg/100 g). Manakala bunga kobis disimpan pada 23 °C dan dibungkus dengan beg plastik polietilena mempunyai kandungan antioksida yang lebih tinggi (167.64 mg/100 g bagi TPC, 85.51% bagi DPPH). Justeru, keadaan penyimpanan yang paling sesuai bagi sampel brokoli dan bunga kobis adalah pada suhu 4 °C dan dibungkus dengan beg plastik polietilena.
... One of the main reasons could be the variety of polyphenols measurement methods and possible measurement errors [14]. Differences in polyphenol content during processing such as canning, storing, freezing, and cooking can be another reason [44]. On the other hand, the amount, type and source of polyphenols might be different in diverse countries. ...
Article
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Despite mounting evidence that dietary polyphenols might have a protective role against the risk of breast cancer (BC), few studies have assessed the relationship between intake of polyphenol classes and subclasses with BC. Thus, we examined the relationship between dietary polyphenol classes and individual polyphenol subclasses and the risk of BC. Overall, 134 newly diagnosed BC patients and 267 healthy hospitalized controls were studied. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated 168-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). To estimate dietary intake of polyphenols, polyphenol content (flavonoids, lignans, stilbenes and phenolic acids) of 80 food items were derived from an updated version of the phenol explorer database containing information on the effects of food processing on polyphenol content. The dietary polyphenol intake was calculated by matching the subjects' food consumption data with our polyphenol content database. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Controls had higher intake of total polyphenol (marginally significant; p = 0.07), hydroxycinnamic acid (marginally significant; p = 0.05) and lignan (p = 0.01). After adjusting for potential confounders, high consumption of lignans (highest vs. lowest tertile: OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.26-0.97; p for trend = 0.04) associated with decreased risk of BC. There was no significant relationship between intake of other polyphenols and risk of BC. Our findings suggest that high lignan intake is associated with a reduced risk of BC.
... This cannot address food preferences that rely on regional specialties or animals that only reside locally, and may in fact replace local knowledge with a more homogenized global pattern, a process that has been shown in the past to be extremely harmful to health and culture (Raschke and Cheema, 2008;Burnett et al., 2016;Coté, 2016;Weerasekara et al., 2018). It also requires that food travel a long way to reach the consumer's mouth, possibly losing dietary value in the process, as well as lowering consumer acceptance as consumers show preference for fresh and locally grown foods (Rickman et al., 2007;Van der Weele and Driessen, 2013). ...
Article
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Cellular agriculture, the manufacturing of animal-sourced foods by cell cultures, may promote food security by providing a food source that is available, accessible, utilized, and stable. The extent to which cellular agriculture can promote food security, however, will depend in part on the supply system by which it produces food. Many cellular agriculture companies appear poised to follow a centralized supply system, in which production is concentrated within a small number of large plants and products are distributed over a wide area. This model benefits from economies of scale, but has several weaknesses to food security. By being built of a handful of plants with products distributed by a large transportation network, the centralized model is vulnerable to closures, as became clear for animal-sourced centralized system during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cellular agriculture systems are being built now; therefore, alternative supply system models of decentralized and distributed systems should be considered as the systems of cellular agriculture production are established. This paper defines both the requirements of food security and three possible supply system models that cellular agriculture could take and evaluates each model based on the requirements of food security.
... Cooking is an important food preparation method that reduces microbial growth and some antinutrient factors in food. The heat produced during the cooking process has been known to destroy certain nutrients in food, such as vitamin C and vitamin B, resulting in a reduction in the nutritional value of the food [26,27]. Chatthongpisut and her colleagues reported that cooking could reduce the content of total phenolic and anthocyanin compounds, along with the radical scavenging activities, in Thai purple rice [28]. ...
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Purple rice has gained attention for its health promoting potential due to a high content of bioactive phytochemicals. The heat generated during cooking alters the quality and quantity of nutrients and phytochemicals in food. This study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile and chemopreventive properties of cooked glutinous purple rice using cell-based assays and a rat model. Purple rice was cooked in a rice cooker and was then further extracted with solvents to obtain dichloromethane and methanol extracts. The methanol extracts of glutinous purple rice contained great amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. Protocatechuic acid (2.26–5.40 mg/g extract) and cyanidin 3-glucoside (34.3–65.7 mg/g extract) were the major phenolic acid and anthocyanin contents, respectively. After cooking, the content of anthocyanins, γ-oryzanols, and phytosterols decreased, while the amount of some phenolic acid and tocol contents increased. Methanol extracts of glutinous purple rice inhibited reactive oxygen species production about 60% in PMA-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, reduced nitric oxide formation in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells (26–39% inhibition), and exhibited antimutagenicity against several mutagens using the Ames test, but dichloromethane extracts presented only mild anti-inflammatory activities. Although methanol extracts induced mild mutagenicity (mutagenic index 2.0–2.5), they did not induce micronucleated hepatocyte formation and certain hepatic CYP450 isozyme activities in rats. However, the mutagenicity of the methanol extract significantly declined after cooking. In summary, the methanol extract of the cooked glutinous purple rice might be a promising cancer chemopreventive fraction, which was neither genotoxic nor posing adverse effects on phytochemical–drug interaction in rats.
... Post-harvest technologies have been used for centuries to transform fruits and vegetables, and highly perishable foods into safe, delicious, and stable products, allowing them to be consumed throughout the year and transported safely to consumers (Canto, 2016;Rickman et al., 2007). ...
Article
Latin America has a wide range of native plants spread through its territory. The palms of the Astrocaryum genus are examples of crops occurring in Central and South America, including the large plant life in Brazil. Although not very well known, the Astrocaryum spp. possess edible and non-edible fractions with potential technological and medicinal uses, as evidenced by recent research. Two native Brazilian fruits, tucumã-do-Amazonas (Astrocaryum aculeatum) and tucumã-do-Pará (Astrocaryum vulgare), typically found in the north and northeast of the country, respectively, stand out for their high antioxidant capacity and rich content in bioactive compounds, mainly carotenoids and phenolic compounds. Accordingly, experimental studies indicate their potential to prevent and treat inflammatory and oxidative stress-related conditions, including cancer. The tucumã plants have also been suggested as tools in the industry, for example for biofuel production, activated carbon technology, and as alternative packaging. Considering the importance of bringing light to underestimated yet culturally relevant native crops with potential benefits for small and large communities, this review aims to present and discuss the characteristics, bioactive composition, health effects, and technological potential of tucumã-do-Amazonas and tucumã-do-Pará fruits.
... This could be explained by the fact that phenolic compounds are water-soluble and easily dissolved in water. Additionally, the cooking temperature inactivated the enzymes that catalyze phenolic oxidation, leading to the reduction of TP content in the samples [32]. These findings were consistent with the results published by Gebczyński and Kmiecik, who found that after 12-months frozen storage, broccoli retained 69-81% of polyphenols compared with the raw material [4]. ...
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This study aimed to evaluate the influence of frozen storage time on the nutritional quality of boxed vegetables prepared with different cooking oils prior to freezing. Two types of vegetables, broccoli and Chinese cabbage, prepared with palm oil (PO) and soybean oil (SBO), were analyzed during their 12-month freezing storage (− 20 °C). The results showed that the nutritional quality of the frozen vegetable products was seriously affected during the storage period. During the storage period, some of the nutritional quality indexes, such as the vitamin C and total phenolic (TP) content, strongly deteriorated by 27–56% and 8.1–8.6%, respectively, whereas the nitrite content was increased by 10–14%. Additionally, a slight change was observed in the nitrate content. Concurrently, the oxidative degradation of the extracted cooking oils was also evaluated, and PO showed better oxidative stability than SBO. The peroxide value (PV), acid value (AV), malondialdehyde (MDA), and anisidine value (AnV) in PO increased less than those in SBO after 12 months at − 20 °C, and the PV, AV, MDA and AnV in PO were lower than those in SBO after frozen storage. On the basis of the findings from this study, PO was recommended as the best oil for the preparation of boxed frozen vegetables to reduce adverse effects during long-term storage.
... Thus, supply chain characteristics are likely more important in determining the quality of food than the distance between producer and consumer. In this sense, canned and frozen vegetables and fruit may even be as nutritious as fresh produce, and more cost-effective for meeting daily vegetable and fruit recommendations (Miller and Knudson, 2014;Rickman et al., 2007). In addition, imported agri-food products need to comply with stringent food safety and quality requirements, especially in the EU. ...
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CONTEXT Food systems worldwide are under enormous pressure. Over the past decades, local food systems have been promoted by governments and civil society organisations as a lever for change towards more inclusive, resilient and sustainable food systems based on the belief of their many purported benefits. OBJECTIVE The goal of this article is to test eight common beliefs on local food systems – from a consumer, farmer, community and environmental perspective – against scientific evidence, with a focus on North America and Europe. METHODS We conduct a systematic multi-disciplinary literature review and identify 123 peer-reviewed studies on local food systems. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS We find that the impact of local food systems on different social, economic and environmental factors highly depends on the type of supply chain under assessment, with important differences across product types and countries. Hence, our review refutes the idea that local food is inherently good. In addition, we highlight the confusion surrounding the definition of a local food scale and point out a critical lack of cross-country comparable data hindering the possibility of drawing generalisable conclusions on the benefits and drawbacks of local food systems. SIGNIFICANCE A comprehensive review of multi-disciplinary scientific evidence confirming (or refuting) claims on local food systems was missing, leading to possible counter-productive policies. Based on our findings, we suggest that policy-makers should invest in cross-country comparable data collection on local food systems (especially in Europe), which would allow the scientific community to perform robust causal analyses on their impacts on society.
... Vegetables also provide important roles to combat against cardiovascular and cancerous diseases (Akter et al. 2015). Fresh fruits and vegetables are a major source of macro and micro nutrients such as a fiber, minerals and vitamin, thiamin, riboflavin, B 6 niacin, foliate, Vitamin A and E (Rickman et al. 2007). Fruits and vegetables are well known for their antioxidants compounds that protect against oxidative damage caused by free radicals, and they have been shown to be effective in helping to prevent retinal disease such as muscular degeneration (Wada and Ou 2002). ...
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This study was conducted to determine the microbiological quality of fresh raw and unwashed leafy and salad vegetables (red amaranth, spinach, carrot, radish, tomato, and cucumber), different fruits like-Sofeda, Pineapple, Grape, Banana, Apple, Orange, Guava, papaya, Jujube and Star fruit in Dhaka, Bangladesh, where Salmonella spp., Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were bacteria and two strains of pathogenic fungi-Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were isolated. In betel leaves, both isolated fungi were showed their highest percentage of frequency (A. niger-66.66% and A. flavus-46.66%) where A. niger showed more pathogenic than A. flavus. The result of the pathogenicity test indicates that all the isolated fungi were pathogenic to their respective samples, except orange. The two species of Aspergillus spp. were found to be associated as the predominant fungi with the rotten fruits, vegetables and betel leaves. In case of fresh leafy and salad vegetables, the total microbial load ranged from 8x10 7 to 1.70x10 8 having 7 different organisms where the most predominant organism was Vibrio sp. (23%) followed by Klebsiella sp. (20%), Acinetobacter sp. (19%), Pseudomonas sp. (19%), Salmonella sp. (8%), Moraxella sp. (8%) and Escherichia coli (3%) and 11% of the Vibrio sp. isolates were V. cholerae, found from 4 samples, but no presence of V. cholerae was observed in the tomato samples. E. coli was observed only in Carrot sample. Commercial antibiotic discs were used for antibiogram by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar medium. In case of antibiogram profiling of rotten fruits, majority exhibited resistance against Erythromycin, Vancomycin and Amoxycillin and showing sensitivity against Ciprofloxacin and Ceftriaxone. It was observed in the current study that 100% isolates were resistant against Erythromycin, followed by Amoxycillin 90.63% and Vancomycin 86.25%, where only 35.27% isolates were resistant against Ciprofloxacin. In case of sensitivity 64.73% isolates were sensitive against Ciprofloxacin followed by Ceftriaxone 66.25%. on the contrary, in case of fresh leafy and salad vegetables, the isolated organisms were tested against antibiotics among which Imipenem showed the highest sensitivity (86%), followed by Ceftriaxone (100%), Nitrofurantoin (94%), Erythromycin (89%) and Amoxicillin (83%) had the highest resistance against the isolated organisms; however most of the isolates showed a multi-drug resistance pattern and they were resistant to at least four drugs.
... The demand for local produce has increased over the last decade as more and more people acknowledge the health benefits of fresh vegetables and the need to reduce carbon emissions caused by long-distance transportation of fresh vegetables. Research indicates that the vegetables lose 15% to 77% of their vitamin C within a week of harvest [4]. Chinese solar greenhouses with a south mono-slope (CSGs) do not primarily rely on supplemental heating; instead, they are designed to maximize solar energy gain and minimize heat loss to maintain suitable indoor temperatures. ...
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Most greenhouses in the Canadian Prairies shut down during the coldest months (November to February) because of the hefty heating cost. Chinese mono-slope solar greenhouses do not primarily rely on supplemental heating; instead, they mostly rely on solar energy to maintain the required indoor temperature in winter. This study focuses on improving an existing thermal model, entitled RGWSRHJ, for Chinese-style solar greenhouses (CSGs) to increase the robustness of the model for simulating the thermal environment of the CSGs located outside of China. The modified model, entitled SOGREEN, was validated using the field data collected from a CSG in Mani-toba, Canada. The results indicate that the average prediction error for indoor and relative humidity is 1.9 °C and 7.0%, and the rRMSE value is 3.3% and 11.5%, respectively. The average error for predicting the north wall and ground surface temperature is 4.2 °C and 2.3 °C, respectively. The study also conducted a case study to analyze the thermal performance of a conceptual CSG in Saskatoon, Canada. The energy analysis indicates the heating requirement of the greenhouse highly depends on the availability of solar radiation. Besides winter, the heating requirement is relatively low in March to maintain 18 °C indoor temperature when the average outdoor temperature was below-4 °C, and negligible during May-August. The results indicate that vegetable production in CSGs could save about 55% on annual heating than traditional greenhouses. Hence, CSGs could be an energy-efficient solution for ensuring food security for northern communities in Canada and other cold regions.
... Since the human body does not produce AA, it is essential to have adequate AA intake through food, drugs or dietary supplements (recommended dietary allowance is ~ 120 mg/day). AA can be added in pharmaceutical formulations in order to prevent or cure some diseases, e.g., common cold and hypohemia [2]. ...
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In this paper, we present a compact microfluidic platform for selective detection of ascorbic acid. The microfluidic chip was fabricated by xurography technique with microfluidic channel placed between the silver electrodes. To increase the conductivity of the platform and enhance electron transfer process, a graphene sheet was deposited in the gap between the electrodes. The suspension of tablets with ascorbic acid and a mixture of ascorbic acid and isomalt, a sugar substitute, were injected in the microfluidic channel. Measuring electrical parameters at the silver contacts, it was possible to successfully differentiate ascorbic acid from isomalt. The sensing mechanism of the developed microfluidic platform is based on the increase of the overall conductivity with the increase of the concentration of ascorbic acid, resulting in the decrease of the resistive parameters and increase of the capacitive parameters of the proposed equivalent electrical circuit. The addition of graphene was found to improve the response linearity by 5.28% and lower the limit of detection and quantification by 12%, compared to the reference structure without graphene.
... The lowest AA content was observed in the 120 • C sterilization variant, as expected, but even this difference was less than the expanded uncertainty of the method. Because of the thermolability and oxilability of AA [40][41][42], the results obtained from the heat treatment variants of SBT juice are remarkable. Our results are also confirmed by a study where vitamin C and total carotene content did not alter significantly depending on the pasteurization temperature and duration [43]. ...
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Since ancient times, sea buckthorn (Hyppophae rhamnoides) (SBT) has been utilized as a medical plant for its ability to extract health-promoting compounds from its fruits, seeds, pulp, skin, bark, roots, and leaves. L-ascorbic acid is primarily found in fruits, and because of this, it can be utilized as a fortification agent to enhance other juices. The study’s goal was to look into how the L-ascorbic acid and selected nutritional parameters in common sea buckthorn juice changed over the period of storage and different thermal treatments. The L-ascorbic acid stability in the processed juice in both used varieties (“Hergo” and “Leikora”) was ensured by the processing technology with a modified vat (or batch) (low-temperature long-time pasteurization) process. Even after being sterilized at 120 °C for 15 min, the amount of L-ascorbic acid in the processed sea buckthorn juice in both varieties was unaffected and ranged between 1762 and 2058 mg/kg. There was no change in the pH level at the same time; it stayed extremely low (about 2.3), which may have helped the L-ascorbic acid to stabilize. The sterilized juice variant in both varieties had the highest levels of glucose, fructose, total sugar, malic acid, total acid, and total soluble solids (TSS), which were significantly higher than in fresh juice or in either variant after pasteurization. Given this, we advise processing the SBT berries immediately after harvest using thermal processing to prevent ascorbic acid (AA) loss, or storing them under frost conditions until processing.
... This approach has also been used by various other worker in the past, some with slight modification and some with almost the same [10][11][12]. Data on vitamin C content of fruits are available for various other countries and regions [13][14][15][16][17]. However, this information is absolutely lacking for Guwahati, Assam, India. ...
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Vitamin C is scientifically known as L-ascorbic acid. The titration technique was used to measure the ascorbic acid content in fruits and vegetables. Various fruits like lemon, dragon fruit, orange, and Mosambi, and vegetables like potatoes, tomatoes, bell pepper, and cauliflower were collected from a local market. After the collection of these fruits and vegetables from the market, the pulp and seed-free juice were prepared. The juice solution was titrated against iodine solution by using starch as an indicator. Among the fruits analyzed, Mosambi has the highest ascorbic acid content in fruits, whereas dragon fruits have the lowest. In the case of vegetables, cauliflower has the highest, and bell pepper has the lowest ascorbic acid content. This analysis proves that fruits and vegetables can effectively meet daily vitamin C requirements.
... Food processing which include sorting, grading, packaging, re-shaping and value addition is aimed at increasing the shelf-life of food. However, washing, peeling and blanching steps which precede food processing are responsible for loss of essential vitamins and minerals [7]. Processes that exposed foods to high levels of oxygen, light and heat such as frying, roasting, washing and drying causes great nutritional loss [5,8]. ...
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The objective of this study was to determine the proximate and microbiological compositions of some food samples obtained at three different locations within Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria from different local food vendors. The highest mean carbohydrate, crude protein, fat, moisture, total ash and crude fibre are 88.10 ±0.79% (Roasted Yam), 17.76 ±2.29% (Roasted Fish), 20.54 ±4.0% (Suya Meat), 20.27 ±11.43% (Roasted Plantain), 4.57 ±0.10% (as in Suya Meat) and 5.07 ±0.69 (Roasted Plantain) respectively while the lowest mean carbohydrate, crude protein, fat, moisture, total ash and crude fibre are 49.14 ±1.37% (as in Fried Bean Cake), 0.08 ±0.01% (Roasted Yam), 0.47 ±0.05% (Roasted Yam), 1.81 ±0.33 (Roasted Fish), 1.37 ±0.12 (Doughnut) and 0.16 ±0.06% (Fried Bean Cake) for all the samples estimated. The highest mean heterotropic bacteria and fungi counts are 6.19× 103 cfu/ml (Roasted Yam) and 3.30× 103 cfu/ml (Fried Bean Cake) respectively while the lowest mean heterotropic bacteria and fungi counts are 1.64× 103 cfu/ml (Doughnut) and 1.08× 103 cfu/ml (Roasted Plantain) respectively. These food samples were shown to contain certain level of proximate parameters but these are not sufficient for nutritional requirements in human diet. Increasing the shelf-life of foods is one of the major purposes in food processing. Processes which precede food processing causes loss of essential vitamins and minerals. Also, roasted foods sold along Nigerian road-sides are exposed to dust accumulation and wastes from automobile exhaust.
... In addition, they contribute to the flavor, texture, and color of foods [40]. Phenols are not essential for humans, but their benefits are mainly attributed to their antioxidant activity [41]. In our study, Dazomet and chicken manure treatments had a negative impact on the accumulation of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and anthocyanins. ...
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Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a widely grown and consumed crop which provides high-level nutritional interest. In recent years, the decline syndrome in asparagus plantations has been rapidly augmenting. This syndrome causes the early death of whole plants, also negatively affecting the new replanting. Decline causes notable economic losses in the sector. The objective of this work was to verify the effect of different treatments against asparagus decline syndrome on the physiological parameters and nutritional quality of the spears. To meet the objective, four different treatments were applied to asparagus plots strongly affected by decline syndrome: (T1) untreated control soil, (T2) biofumigation with Brassica pellets, (T3) biofumigation with chicken manure pellets, and (T4) disinfestation of the soil with Dazomet. The cumulative yield and physiological and quality parameters of green asparagus spears were studied. Thus, malondialdehyde (MDA), photosynthetic pigments, glutathione (GSH), ascorbate (AsA), total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanin, antioxidant test, mineral nutrients, and the amino acid profile were measured on asparagus spears. The results showed that the Brassica pellets and Dazomet treatments were the most effective against the damage caused by the decline syndrome. However, it would be necessary to monitor the evolution in the following years.
... Freezing is regarded as a technique that has little damage effect on the phenolic content of fruits. Some authors reported an increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds after freezing [49], while other studies have shown a significant reduction. Freezing can reduce the concentration of phenolics with no effect on the total antioxidant capacity of the juice, due to the high stability of L-ascorbic acid. ...
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Inulin is a popular prebiotic that is often used in the production of ice cream, mainly to improve its consistency. It also reduces the hardness of ice cream, as well as improving the ice cream’s organoleptic characteristics. Inulin can also improve the texture of sorbets, which are gaining popularity as an alternative to milk-based ice cream. Sorbets can be an excellent source of natural vitamins and antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of inulin on the sensory characteristics and health-promoting value of avocado, kiwi, honey melon, yellow melon and mango sorbets. Three types of sorbets were made—two with inulin (2% and 5% wt.) and the other without—using fresh fruit with the addition of water, sucrose and lemon juice. Both the type of fruit and the addition of inulin influenced the sorbet mixture viscosity, the content of polyphenols, vitamin C, acidity, ability to scavenge free radicals using DPPH reagent, melting resistance, overrun and sensory evaluation of the tested sorbets (all p < 0.05). The addition of inulin had no impact on the color of the tested sorbets, only the type of fruit influenced this feature. In the sensory evaluation, the mango sorbets were rated the best and the avocado sorbets were rated the worst. Sorbets can be a good source of antioxidant compounds. The tested fruits sorbets had different levels of polyphenol content and the ability to scavenge free radicals. Kiwi sorbet had the highest antioxidant potential among the tested fruits. The obtained ability to catch free radicals and the content of polyphenols proved the beneficial effect of sorbets, particularly as a valuable source of antioxidants. The addition of inulin improved the meltability, which may indicate the effect of inulin on the consistency. Further research should focus on making sorbets only from natural ingredients and comparing their health-promoting quality with the ready-made sorbets that are available on the market, which are made from ready-made ice cream mixes.
... Processing and cooking of vegetables may compromise its nutritional benefit. Cooking, such as boiling, causes overall flavones losses (14) while microwaving pressure-cooking, griddling, baking and frying can profoundly affect both the texture and the nutritional value of vegetables (15)(16)(17) . A study from The Nurses' Health Study showed that an increase of one serving per day in green leafy vegetable consumption was associated with modestly lowering hazard of diabetes whereas the same change in fruit juice intake was associated with an increased hazard of diabetes (18) . ...
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Dietary patterns high in fibre and green leafy vegetables have shown an inverse association with lower risks of type 2 diabetes mellitus and improved glycaemic control. The study aimed to investigate the effects of increased vegetable intake and conventional diabetes diet on glycaemic control among type 2 diabetic patients. White-collar workers from one telecommunication company with type 2 diabetes were assigned to two treatment groups by cluster randomisation. Individuals with known type 2 diabetes and poor glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥8 g%) were eligible and a total of 84 subjects were recruited. Subjects in the intervention group ( n 41) were offered to attend seminars and intensive coaching weekly to encourage them to increase raw vegetable intake. The control group ( n 40) followed the conventional diet according to the guidelines of the Indonesian Society of Endocrinology. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma lipids, blood pressure, vegetable intake and anthropometric measurements were assessed at baseline and end line of 12 weeks intervention. A regression analysis was conducted using differences in HbA1C between baseline and 12 weeks as the dependent variable. Student's t test was conducted for the changes of biochemical indicators from baseline to end line during the period of 12 weeks intervention. Glycaemic control improved in the intervention group and mean HbA1C, fasting blood glucose and post-prandial blood glucose in the intervention group decreased significantly along with body weight, waist circumference and total cholesterol. The finding suggested that the intervention which emphasised raw vegetable intake contributed to improved glycaemic control among Indonesian adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
... Previous studies revealed AA content within the range of AAC showed in this work for three pea varieties (26 to 31 mg AA 100 g −1 ) [56]. Our findings are also in agreement with those of Rickman et al. [57] and Avilés and Cruz [58], who described AA values of 40 and 27 mg 100 g −1 fw in peas and pea pods, respectively. Mangetout pods can be considered a rich source of vitamin C, since orange and lemon contain 30-50 mg of ascorbic acid 100 g −1 fw [54]. ...
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Pisum sativum L. ssp. arvense, is colloquially called tirabeque or mangetout because it is eaten whole; its pods are recognized as a delicatessen in cooking due to its crunch on the palate and high sweetness. Furthermore, this legume is an important source of protein and antioxidant compounds. Quality control in this species requires the analysis of a large number of samples using costly and laborious conventional methods. For this reason, a non-chemical and rapid technique as near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was explored to determine its physicochemical quality (color, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, total polyphenols, ascorbic acid and protein content). Pod samples from different cultivars and grown under different fertigation treatments were added to the NIRS analysis to increase spectral and chemical variability in the calibration set. Modified partial least squares regression was used for obtaining the calibration models of these parameters. The coefficients of determination in the external validation ranged from 0.50 to 0.88. The RPD (standard deviation to standard error of prediction ratio) and RER (standard deviation to range) were variable for quality parameters and showed values that were characteristic of equations suitable for quantitative prediction and screening purposes, except for the total soluble solid calibration model.
... Canned foods, in general, have been regarded to be less healthy relative to chilled and frozen foods (Abu-Ghannam & Gowen, 2011), perceived to lack taste (Lea et al., 2005), and associated with greater environmental harm (Tobler et al., 2011). However, neither the environmental harmfulness of canned pulses nor relative high nutrient loss during canning has been proved by researchers (Rickman et al., 2007;Tobler et al., 2011). ...
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The growing world population and increased meat consumption pose a challenge for current food production systems. While pulses present a promising position in terms of low impacts in primary production and high nutritional quality, it is unclear whether consumers are willing to consume pulses instead of meat. Based on an online survey answered by 4,322 respondents across five European countries, this study examined consumers’ willingness to utilize pulses as a plant-based alternative to animal-based products. More than a third of pulse consumers (42%) were, to some extent, already using pulses as an alternative to animal-based foods. Beef was noted as the most frequently replaced type of food, mainly driven by arguments relating to health, environment, and sustainability, especially relevant for German and Danish consumers. Respondents who did not indicate a current replacement of animal-based foods stated a relatively low willingness to change in the future (40%). German pulse consumers were likely to be part of the low willingness segment. In contrast, Polish consumers possessed a relatively higher incidence of using pulses instead of meat, especially pork and poultry. Respondents with a low replacement willingness indicated a high importance of future pulse-based products to be natural, while respondents already using pulses instead of animal-based foods expected convenient and minimally processed foods. Respondents, who already replaced meat with pulses or expressed a low future willingness, stated to prefer plain pulses over processed and meat-resembling pulse-based products alternatively to meat. These preferences and expectations should be considered for future product development, especially if aiming to attract unwilling consumers to shift to pulse-based foods.
... The variation in rind weight loss across different locations might be attributed to a different climatic condition like humidity and temperature. These results are supported by Rickman et al. (2007) who observed that climatic condition had a profound impact on fruit peel weight loss of citrus fruits. These results are also supported by (Camarena et al., 2007). ...
... However, according to several studies, freezing can damage cell membranes and break down their physical structure, resulting in quality degradation such as color changes, drip loss, softening, and nutritional and bioactive component loss (Rickman et al., 2007;Sacchetti et al., 2009;Chassagne-Berces et al., 2009). Mirsaeedghazi et al. (2011) examined the effect of frozen storage at −25 °C on some chemical characteristics of pomegranate juice. ...
Article
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Pomegranate juice quality depends essentially on its chemical and nutritional components stability. The valuable nutritional components may be reduced during its processing or storage. This study examined the effect of pomegranate arils' frozen storage on juice quality, in terms of physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds stability. The physicochemical criteria (pH, TSS, TA, color attributes) and biochemical criteria (Total Phenolic content, Total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity) were assessed on pomegranate juice extracted from frozen arils stored at (-18°C) for 6 months. Two cultivars 'Sefri' and 'Wonderful' were subject to this study. Results showed that the pH, TSS, and TA were generally stable in frozen arils juice. However, arils freezing had a significant effect on pomegranate juice color parameters. In fact, a significant decrease of a* values were revealed in juice samples for both cultivars. Therefore, the color intensity (chroma) has decreased significantly and total color differences (∆E * ab) also showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between fresh juice and frozen arils juice. Arils freezing conditions (−18 °C) for 6 months didn't affect pomegranate juice physiochemical criteria. However, bioactive compounds of pomegranate juice were reduced significantly. In fact, total phenolic content decreased by about 27% and 31% for 'Sefri' and 'Wonderful' cultivars, respectively. Total anthocyanins content decreased by 20% and 30% for 'Sefri' and 'Wonderful' cultivars, respectively. Antioxidant activity, measured based on the juice's radical scavenging properties using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method, decreased by about 50% for 'Sefri' cultivar and 60% for 'Wonderful' cultivar.
... One of the main causes of nutritional losses is oxidation. Besides loss of essential nutritive elements, other negative effects of oxidation include enzymatic browning and production of off-flavors (Garcia & Barrett, 2002;Rickman, Barrett, & Bruhn, 2007). ...
Article
Minimally processed F&V while being as fresh as the intact product, are characterized by an accelerated produce decay which affects its nutritional value during shelf-life. In this sense, food processing needs to further evolve in terms of better preservation of nutritional properties. Active packaging technology has shown positive and promising results to maintain safety and sensory properties of minimally processed F&V. This review aims to present the recent research results regarding biopolymeric antioxidant film and coating for preservation of nutritional quality of minimally processed F&V. The mechanism by which nutritional losses (around 5-30 % loss of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds) occur from oxidation reactions in F&V and natural antioxidant have been discussed. Furthermore, regulatory aspects related to antioxidant packaging have been also reported. Biopolymers based antioxidant film and coating have been vastly used to pack F&V product. Chitosan, gelatin, casein and alginate were found to be more effective as packaging materials (both as coating and as film) to preserve the nutritional and sensory quality of F&V product. Furthermore, plant extracts (green tea and Aloe vera), essential oils (lemon grass), plant oil compounds (eugenol and citral) and phenolics (thymol) as a component of active film or coating systems have shown promising results in preserving the quality of fresh produce. The collected findings will be useful to accurately design an innovative active film or coating for nutritional quality preservation of minimally processed fresh fruits and vegetables.
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The present study aimed to produce probiotic ice cream, containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis subps. lactis BB12 as the starter cultures, by adding vegetable seed pulp powder (sesame, pomegranate seed, and grape seed) and oils of these seeds to the ice cream mixtures and to examine the effects of these additions on pH, acidity, total phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity and the probiotic viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis subps. lactis BB12 in ice cream samples stored at −20 °C for 90 days. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated on the first and last day of the storage. Vegetable seed powders and oils did not affect the pH and acidity values of the ice cream samples. The pulp powders and oils used contributed to preserving the viability of probiotic bacteria during storage. Among the seed pulp powders, the grape seed had the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Especially, ice creams containing grape seed powder, grape seed powder + seed oil, and pomegranate seed powder promoted the development of probiotic microorganisms in these ice cream samples due to the high phenolic components and antioxidant activity. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of seed powders and oils were parallel to the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of ice creams produced using these powders and oils. It can be concluded that grape seed powder and its oil can be used as a natural ingredient to develop a novel ice cream with high nutritional antioxidant activity.
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss sterilizations based on microwave-assisted methods. The application of microwave-assisted sterilization method in several areas such as in the medical field, food industry, and material processing field is included. Microwave-assisted plasma sterilization methods and combined microwave systems are also included in this chapter.
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الخالصة نظرإ إلحتوإء ساق نبات إلصبار عىل إلعديد من إلمركبات إلكيميائية إلنشطة بيولوجيا وذإت إلفوإئد إلمختلفة لصحة إإلنسان، لذإ هدفت إلدرإسة إىل معرفة مدى تأثري إلمركبات إلفعالة إلمضادة لألكسدة وإإلحياء إلدقيقة للمستخلصات إلمائية وإلكحولية لساق نبات إلصبار indica-ficus Opuntia .درست إلخوإص إلمضادة لالكسدة من خالل تقدير ، إذ بلغ محتوى وفعالية إقتناص جذر بريوكسيد إلهيدروجرين محتوى ساق إلنبات عىل حامض إإلسكوربيك وبيتاكاروترين ني 190.91 مايكروغرإم/غم من حامض إإلسكوربيك 61.90 ملغم/ 966غم من إلوزن إلجاف وبلغ محتوى إلبيتاكاروتر ( إلوزن إلرطب فيما بلغت فعالية إقتناص إلمستخلصات إلكحولية لجذر بريوكسيد إلهيدروجري 9..0, 29.9, .09.0 .ن كما. مختلفة. 5..9, .4.13, .6.02, 09.53( إلمائية إلمستخلصات فعالية إما.( % 1.4., (% باستعمال ترإكرين يا إلموجبة لصبغة كرإم إلمتمثلة ببكي ر إظهرت إلم يا ستخلصات إلمائية وإلكحولية إلقدرة عىل تثبيط إلبكي ر يا إلسالبة لصبغة كرإم إلمتمثلة ببكي ر faecalis Enterococcus , aureus Staphylococcus و إل يا بكي ر , Aspergillus niger إإلعفان ضد إلتثبيطية إلفعالية وكذلك Salmonella enteric , Enterobacter aerogenes .إلمستخلصات من مختلفة وبإضافات Alternaria alternata و Fusarium phyllophilum , Penicillium sp إذ بلغ محتوى , Aspergillus niger إإلعفان ضد إلتثبيطية إلفعالية وكذلك Salmonella enteric , Enterobacter aerogenes .إلمستخلصات من مختلفة وبإضافات Alternaria alternata و Fusarium phyllophilum , Penicillium sp إلمستخلصات إلكحولية بهاإلت تثبيط إكري مقارنة بالمستخلصات إلمائية، فقد بلغ إكري معدل قطر بينت إلنتائج تمرين يط تثبي 69.6±20 ملم عند إإلضافة 9.6 يا يىل لبكي ر مل من إلمستخلص إلكحو aureus Staphylococcus ,فيما بلغ يط يىل إعىل قطر تثبي 99.6±5 .ملم لعفن alternate Alternaria عند إإلضافة 9.6. مل من إلم
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Nanofibers were fabricated by using the electrospinning technique. The diameter of gelatin nanofibers was measured as 41.511 nm. When thiamine was integrated into the nanofibers, it was increased to 100.156 nm. After raw red meat and salmon samples were coated with the nanofibers, the samples were stored at cold storage conditions. The thiamine levels of raw uncoated red meat (RM, 400 to 379 µg/100 g: p<0.05) and salmon meat (SM, 68 to 62 µg/100 g: p<0.05) were decreased. The coating increased thiamine contents in raw (519 to 563 µg/100 g) and cooked (416 to 485 µg/100 g) RM samples. Thiamine contents of raw (75 to 78 µg/100 g) and cooked (67 to 75 µg/100 g) SM samples were increased (p<0.05). The changes in the bioaccessibility of uncoated and coated RM samples were in the range of 85-76%, and 87-79%, respectively while salmon samples were increased from 79 to 94% (p<0.05).
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Tomatoes are the second most consumed vegetable in the United States. In 2017, American people consumed 9.2 kg of tomatoes from a fresh market and 33.2 kg of processed tomato products per capita. One commonly asked question by consumers and the nutrition community is “Are processed tomato products as nutritious as fresh tomatoes?” This review addresses this question by summarizing the current understandings on the effects of industrial processing on the nutrients and bioactive compounds of tomatoes. Twelve original research papers were found to study the effects of different industrial processing methods on the nutrients and/or bioactive compounds in tomato products. The data suggested that different processing methods had different effects on different compounds in tomatoes. However, currently available data are still limited, and the existing data are often inconsistent. The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Legacy was utilized to estimate nutrient contents from raw tomatoes and processed tomato products. In addition, several other important factors specifically related to the industrial processing of tomatoes were also discussed. To conclude, there is no simple “yes” or “no” answer to the question “Are processed tomato products as nutritious as fresh tomatoes?” Many factors must be considered when comparing the nutritious value between fresh tomatoes and processed tomato products. At this point, we do not have sufficient data to fully understand all of the factors and their impacts.
Article
Purpose This study aims to examine the relationship between cash value benefit (CVB) redemption outcomes in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) across food processing types and socio-demographics. Design Cross-sectional and panel analyses. Setting Virginia. Subjects 98,067 Virginia WIC households. Measures CVB redemption rate. Results The predominant share of CVB redemption was for fresh produce (77.3%). Non-Hispanic whites and blacks redeemed a smaller share of fresh produce than Hispanic participants ( P < .001). Non-Hispanic black WIC households have a significantly lower CVB redemption rate than non-Hispanic white WIC households (β = −.008, P < .001). Households with a child participant tend to have a higher redemption rate (β = .01, P < .001). The redemption rates of fruits and of vegetables were positively correlated with household size. Conclusions Minority status and household size were significantly related to CVB redemptions among Virginia WIC participants.
Article
The present study investigated the effect of gaseous ozone on reducing microbial contamination and maintaining the shelf life of fresh-cut durian. The effect of ozone gas at 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, and 1,000 mg L⁻¹ for 3 and 5 min on the decontamination of coliforms (major microbes found in preliminary study) were determined in an in-vitro test. The results highlighted that the effectiveness of ozone increased with increased concentration, which, 500 mg L⁻¹ onward, could inhibit coliforms completely. However, the ozone treatments for 3 and 5 min were not significantly different in inhibiting coliform growth. A preliminary study on the effect of ozone at 500–1,000 mg L⁻¹ for 3 min on the visual appearance of fresh-cut durian was evaluated before the study in the in-vivo test. Ozone treatments at 500–900 mg L⁻¹ did not affect the appearance of the flesh and funiculus of fresh-cut durian but at 1,000 mg L⁻¹ caused water-soaking and browning on the funiculus. Therefore, ozone at 500 and 900 mg L⁻¹ was selected for reducing microbial contamination in an in-vivo test. The experiment was performed by fumigating fresh-cut durian with ozone at 500 and 900 mg L⁻¹ for 3 min, and a non-treated sample served as the control. All samples were packed in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) clamshell and stored at 4 °C for 14 d and then transferred to 10 °C and 25 °C for 1 d for stimulating the shelf-life condition. The results showed that ozone treatment at 500 and 900 mg L⁻¹ significantly reduced the microbial contamination of fresh-cut durian compared to the control. Ozone at 900 mg L⁻¹ was the best treatment, which could reduce total bacteria and coliforms by 2.72 and 1.93 log CFU g⁻¹, respectively, compared to the control. Thus, the effect of ozone at 900 mg L⁻¹ on maintaining the quality of fresh-cut durian was investigated. The results implied that ozone at 900 mg L⁻¹ could maintain flesh firmness, reduce the respiration rate and ethylene production, enhance the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content, and did not adversely affect the flesh color and sensory properties (flavor and overall appearance). These results prove that gaseous ozone is an alternative technology to minimize microbial loads and maintain the quality of fresh-cut durian for 15 d
Chapter
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The dietary constituents obtained from fruits vegetables include water, fiber, proteins (legumes), sometimes fats (olive, avocado, and nuts), minerals, and digestible carbohydrates. Starch-based staples, such as potato, cassava, corn, banana, and plantain, provide a major energy source in several regions, being particularly important dietary sources in developing countries. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary source of vitamin C and a significant source of provitamin A and vitamin B6. Compared to other food sources, they are high in potassium and low in sodium. Ascorbic acid (AsA) in horticultural commodities may enhance the bioavailability of dietary iron. Fruits and vegetables are low in calories (excluding staple crops) and are cholesterol-free. They also include a variety of nonnutritive bioactive phytochemicals (phytosterols, carotenoids such as lycopene, AsA, tocopherols, glucosinolates, thiosulfinates, and phenolics) that may help to prevent disease incidence. This has led to the current recommendation that healthful diets include a variety of fresh horticultural commodities. Despite efforts made in the last decade, in the United States, only 1 in 10 adults eat enough fruits or vegetables. This chapter provides an overview of the composition and nutritional properties of fruits and vegetables.
Article
Fresh fruit and vegetables contribute to almost 50% of food wasted by households in the EU. To understand the main reasons for wasteful behaviour among the consumers in Vojvodina (Serbia) cross-sectional data were collected through a self-administrated online survey of 711 correspondents. The questions presented in the study focused on the method of preserving the fruits and vegetables in domestic conditions before their consumption. Self-estimation of wasteful behaviour in the household and socio-demographic factors, including the respondents' self-estimated health status, were analysed using the correspondence analysis. The results showed that the first two dimensions explained for 95.06% of the total per cent of inertia (statistically significant at p<0.001 level) indicating the strong relationship among variables. According to the survey, the fruit and vegetables are most likely used fresh (54.43% and 48.95%, respectively), whereas the use of fruits and vegetables after storage in a refrigerator (17.16% and 29.96%, respectively) or in a deep freezer (2.81% or 5.20%, respectively) is significantly lower. Most of the survey correspondents claimed that they regularly discard the fruits and vegetables to waste (53.02% and 39.66%, respectively). The results pointed out that the storage and the amounts of discarded waste are affected by gender, income, and health conditions of the respondents’. Also, the study emphasized the growing need for educating and better planning of fresh fruit and vegetable management to reduce waste production.
Article
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Postharvest storage of many freshly picked berries affects polyphenol and sugar content. However, little is known about the impact of refrigerated and frozen storage on aronia berry composition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize how storage at 4 ± 2 °C and − 20 ± 2 °C, and temperature cycles affect aronia berry polyphenols, total solid content, pH, titratable acidity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, sugar content, acid content, color, and cell structure. Refrigerated storage reduced proanthocyanidins (21%), anthocyanins (36%), and total phenols (21%) after 12 weeks. Frozen storage increased polyphenols in the first 6 mo. of frozen storage but then decreased polyphenols at mo. 8 to levels similar to initial values. Frozen temperature cycling reduced anthocyanins 18% but did not affect total phenols or proanthocyanidins. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated temperature cycling induced cell damage, shrinking, and fusion. This disruption led to the release of anthocyanins inside the berry tissue. PPO activity did not significantly correlate with the decrease in polyphenol content during storage. °Brix did not significantly change during refrigeration and frozen storage but did during the 12th temperature cycle. Aronia berries’ pH and titratable acidity were affected more by refrigeration than frozen and temperature storage. The pH increased by 4% during refrigeration, and titratable acidity decreased by 17% at 12 weeks. In conclusion, refrigerated storage results in a modest reduction of aronia berry polyphenols, but absolute extractable polyphenols are stable for up to 8 months of frozen storage. Graphical abstract
Conference Paper
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O juá, como um fruto nativo brasileiro, está dentre os frutos mais saborosos e nutritivos do mundo. A adoção de técnicas de conservação agrega valor econômico e possibilita evidenciar o potencial deste alimento do sertão nordestino. Que até o momento é consumido por apenas alguns consumidores locais. Objetivou-se com o presente estudo, apresentar alguns métodos de conservação como alternativa para preservação do fruto do juazeiro, e consequentemente sua diversificação produtiva. O juazeiro é uma planta típica dos sertões nordestinos, possui coloração amarelo-parda, é comestível, doce e com quantidade significativa de vitamina C. Observa-se que este fruto apresenta umidade elevada, próximo a 80% de água livre, sendo bastante suscetível ao ataque de microrganismos. Assim como outros produtos de origem vegetal, o juá tem uma vida útil de poucos dias. Daí a importância de se aplicar métodos de conservação. Tais como, desidratação, como uma técnica caracterizada pela remoção da água livre, conserva o alimento pelo controle da umidade, inibindo microrganismos; a fermentação láctica, promove a acidificação de vegetais, aliado à tratamento térmico adequado, atua também na prevenção do crescimento microbiano; a irradiação, tratamento de natureza física bastante promissor, consegue manter as características sensoriais e nutricionais dos alimentos. O emprego dessas técnicas de conservação para o juá, permite a extensão de sua durabilidade. Considera-se que os métodos abordados nesta pesquisa se apresentam como técnicas de alta viabilidade, possibilitando uma maior diversificação de produtos derivados do juá, como farinhas e conservas, agregando valor econômico a um produto bastante encontrado nas regiões sertanejas. Palavras-chave: Fruto da caatinga, juazeiro, métodos de conservação, vida de prateleira, Ziziphus joazeiro Mart.
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Chlorella vulgaris has gained popularity in recent years as a functional food ingredient with its highly nutritious profile. In this study, we have explored the effects of baking at 125 °C for 15 min to C. vulgaris CCAP 211/11b on the biomass's water soluble carbohydrate and protein contents, total lipids, and soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9, B12 and C). Control (raw) and experimental (baked) groups' average soluble carbohydrate content varied between 26 and 27%, soluble proteins 21–23%, and total lipids 7–9% of dried cell weight indicating no significant effects of baking process on C. vulgaris. Results of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) showed that baking also had no significant effect on vitamins except B3. Vitamins B1, B2, and B3 were higher in baked samples compared to the control group. Overall, C. vulgaris deemed suitable for addition to functional food recipes with short baking durations considering the durability of main biochemical components as well as water soluble vitamins.
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We studied the microbial stability and quality of vacuum‐packaged ready‐to‐eat (RTE) potatoes irradiated by different doses of electron beam during storage. Results showed that irradiation effectively reduced the total bacterial count of samples, with a maximum reduction of 7.08 log units by irradiation at 5 kGy. Irradiation at dose ≥ 7 kGy completely inactivated the microorganisms. Potato color and texture were affected when irradiation dose was ≥ 3 and ≥ 5 kGy, respectively, which may be due to the reduction of a* value and chewiness of samples. An electronic nose could effectively distinguish the odor of the irradiated samples from the non‐irradiated ones. Irradiation significantly reduced potato Vc content but it had no effect on the moisture and total protein content. Potato DPPH activities were increased by irradiation at dose ≤5 kGy but decreased when the dose was ≥ 7 kGy. The FRAP values were reduced in all irradiated samples.
Article
Fruits and vegetables (F&V) are an indispensable part of a healthy diet. The volatile and nonvolatile compounds present in F&V constitute unique flavor substances. This paper reviews the main flavor substances present in F&V, as well as the biosynthetic pathways and molecular regulation mechanisms of these compounds. A series of compounds introduced include aromatic substances, soluble sugars and organic acids, which constitute the key flavor substances of F&V. Esters, phenols, alcohols, amino acids and terpenes are the main volatile aromatic substances, and nonvolatile substances are represented by amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates; The combination of these ingredients is the cause of the sour, sweet, bitter, astringent and spicy taste of these foods. This provides a theoretical basis for the study of the interaction between volatile and nonvolatile substances in F&V, and also provides a research direction for the healthy development of food in the future.
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Food loss is a global issue that may be alleviated with effective dehydration strategies. Solar dehydration, rather than traditional sun-drying, is one method that could allow for the safe, efficient preservation of food materials. In this study, passive solar dehydration was achieved using a psychrometric chamber to model the environment of sub-Saharan Africa, where the temperature was the major focus (24.3 °C to 29.4 °C). A mass decrease of 88.56% was achieved within 9 hours. Microbial testing (total aerobic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and total yeasts and molds) demonstrated no difference (all negative) between food stored at 4 °C and dehydrated food, indicating that the dehydrator introduced no new contamination. A 16.0% decrease in vitamin C (VC) concentration was observed due to the lability of VC. Insight into the visual appeal of the food samples was provided by measuring browning values, where it was found that dehydrated green apples are significantly less brown than the sample exposed to air for the same length of time. Passive solar dehydrators could provide a simple method to reduce food waste and maintain nutritional content and visual appeal.
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Solubility of phytoconstituents depends on the polarity of the extraction medium used, which might result in the different pharmacological responses of extracts. In line with this, ethnomedicinally important food plant (i.e., Caralluma tuberculata extracts) have been made in fourteen distinct solvent systems that were then analyzed phytochemically via total phenolic amount estimation, total flavonoid amount estimation, and HPLC detection and quantification of the selected polyphenols. Test extracts were then subjected to a battery of in vitro assays i.e., antioxidants (DDPH scavenging, antioxidant capacity, and reducing power estimation), antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal, and antileishmanial), cytotoxic (brine shrimps, THP-1 human leukemia cell lines and normal lymphocytes), and protein kinase inhibition assays. Maximum phenolic and flavonoid contents were computed in distilled water–acetone and acetone extracts (i.e., 16 ± 1 μg/mg extract and 8 ± 0.4/mg extract, respectively). HPLC-DAD quantified rutin (0.58 µg/mg extract) and gallic acid (0.4 µg/mg extract) in methanol–ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Water–acetone extract exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging of 36 ± 1%. Total reducing potential of 76.0 ± 1 μg/mg extract was shown by ethanol chloroform while maximum total antioxidant capacity was depicted by the acetone extract (92.21 ± 0.70 μg/mg extract). Maximal antifungal effect against Mucor spp., antileishmanial, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, THP-1 cell line cytotoxicity, and protein kinase inhibitory activities were shown by ethyl acetate-methanol (MIC: 50 µg/disc), n-hexane (IC50: 120.8 ± 3.7 µg/mL), ethyl acetate (LD50: 29.94 ± 1.6 µg/mL), distilled water–acetone (IC50: 118 ± 3.4 µg/mL) and methanol–chloroform (ZOI: 19 ± 1 mm) extracts, respectively. Our findings show the dependency of phytochemicals and bioactivities on the polarity of the extraction solvent and our preliminary screening suggests the C. tuberculata extract formulations to be tested and used in different ailments, however, detailed studies remain necessary for corroboration with our results.
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According to Spanish legislation, some of the quality parameters of canned mushroom (colour, weight and grade) have been studied. Different times of blanching treatment and two brines, with and without ascorbic acid, were used. Blanching had an important effect on the final state of mushrooms, decreasing the losses of weight and grade and improving the colour, which was clear and pleasant. A positive effect of ascorbic acid was observed. The presence of this acid in the brine improves colour stability and acceptance. It inhibited the browning process. The pH of brine plus mushroom is independent of brine composition (with or without ascorbic acid). Longer times of blanching had no significant effects on mushroom quality parameters.
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Effects of microwave and conventional cooking methods were studied on total phenolics and antioxidant activity of pepper, squash, green beans, peas, leek, broccoli and spinach. Total phenolics content of fresh vegetables ranged from 183.2 to 1344.7 mg/100 g (as gallic acid equivalent) on dry weight basis. Total antioxidant activity ranged from 12.2% to 78.2%. With the exception of spinach, cooking affected total phenolics content significantly (p < 0.05). The effect of various cooking methods on total phenolics was significant (p < 0.05) only for pepper, peas and broccoli. After cooking, total antioxidant activity increased or remained unchanged depending on the type of vegetable but not type of cooking.
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Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture Vol.83 Nr.14, 1389 - 1402 An extensive study on the effects of blanching/freezing and long-term freezer storage on various bioactive compounds of more than 20 commonly used vegetables was performed. Effects were strongly plant species-dependent. Contents of dietary fibre components either were not affected or increased slightly. Minerals in general were also stable, but some losses of soluble minerals by leaching were observed. Phenolic antioxidants and vitamins were clearly more sensitive. Significant losses (20-30%) of antioxidant activity and total phenolics were detected in many vegetables. A qualitative HPLC profiling method for phenolic antioxidants was developed which proved to be very useful when evaluating the complex behaviour of phenolics during food processing. Up to one-third of vitamin C contents were lost during blanching, and further slight losses were detected during storage. Folic acid turned out to be very sensitive to blanching, with more than half of the vitamin being lost, but was stable during freezer storage. Carotenoids and sterols were not affected by blanching or freezer storage. The usefulness of the applied screening methods for evaluation of the effects of processing on vegetables is shown. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry
Book
For more than two decades, this work has remained the leading advanced textbook and easy-to-use reference on food chemistry and technology. Its fourth edition has been extensively re-written and enlarged, now also covering topics such as BSE detection or acrylamide. Food allergies, alcoholic drinks, or phystosterols are now treated more extensively. Proven features of the prior editions are maintained: Contains more than 600 tables, almost 500 figures, and about 1100 structural formulae of food components - Logically organized according to food constituents and commodities - Comprehensive subject index. These features provide students and researchers in food science, food technology, agricultural chemistry and nutrition with in-depth insight into food chemistry and technology. They also make the book a valuable on-the-job reference for chemists, food chemists, food technologists, engineers, biochemists, nutritionists, and analytical chemists in food and agricultural research, food industry, nutrition, food control, and service laboratories. From reviews of the first edition "Few books on food chemistry treat the subject as exhaustively-researchers will find it to be a useful source of information. It is easy to read and the material is systematically presented." JACS.
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USDA has been producing electronic forms of Agriculture Handbook No. 8—the USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR)—for almost 20 years. Previously the database was only useable on a large mainframe computer; advances in hardware and software have made it possible to do most work with the database on a personal computer. Relational Database Management Systems designed for the personal computer have brought procedures such as specialized queries, data searches, and report generation which once required customized programs, to the desktop and the user. To meet the needs of its users, the Nutrient Data Laboratory has developed a new format for the SR database, using a relational structure. The various files that make up the new SR database and their relationships are described. New data fields have been added to provide more information on the data reported. The layout of these and existing fields will also be described. The structure of the SR database is not the only thing that has changed--many data have been revised and new items have been added. Extensive data on beef and lamb cuts trimmed to 1/8" external fat have been added to the database as have selected new data on ethnic foods. Updated values on breakfast cereals and canned vegetables, are also included in the revised SR database. Data on vitamin E and total dietary fiber have been revised and expanded.
Article
The variations of ascorbic acid in fresh and canned vegetables were studied in an attempt to correlate variability due to the variety, grower, size of the product and the effect of each processing operation in a commercial operation, which would result in a guide for better control of nutrients and nutritional labelling. It was found that variations in ascorbic acid content due to the variety, grower and size of product were dependent upon individual crop. However, in most cases, the heating processes such as blanching and retorting had a significant detrimental effect on the ascorbic acid content in all crops studied.
Article
In this work the correlation between the free radical-scavenging capacity and bioactive compounds (anthocyanins, ellagic acid, total phenolics and vitamin C) in four Spanish raspberry cultivars (Heritage, Autumn Bliss, Zeva and Rubi) and Spanish wild blackberry as affected by freezing and frozen storage was evaluated. From this mathematical study a significant correlation was obtained between the radical-scavenging capacity and the anthocyanin and total phenolic contents in both raspberry (r = 0.85 and 0.83 respectively) and blackberry (r = 0.84 and 0.68 respectively) fruits, but no correlation was found between this parameter and the ellagic acid and vitamin C contents. A key objective of this study was to select the raspberry cultivar most suitable for freezing preservation in terms of the stability of its health-promoting constituents. A two-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) of the raspberry cultivars explained 82% of the total variance of the factors mentioned above. The early raspberry cultivars (Heritage and Autumn Bliss) showed a lower content of bioactive compounds and lower radical-scavenging capacity, while the late cultivars (Zeva and Rubi) showed higher values, and these differences were clearly displayed by the PCA.© 2003 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
The changes in vitamin B1 content in fresh and frozen spinach subjected to different storage conditions with the aim of observing how this vitamin is affected in such conditions were studied. In frozen spinach stored in a display freezer and subjected to temperature fluctuations an increase was observed in vitamin B1 content. In spinach originally frozen but stored at room temperature the vitamin B1 content decreased after showing an initial increase. In fresh spinach stored both at room temperature and under refrigeration the content in this vitamin decreased throughout the study. Taking into account the changes and the state of deterioration of the samples observed in this study during the experimental period, it would only be possible to consider vitamin B1 as an indicator of the quality and shelf life of this product in fresh spinach.
Article
Thiamin (B-1) ascorbic acid (AA) and vitamin B-6 (B-6) were determined in pouched and canned green beans immediately after processing and after storage at 24–26°C or 38°C. AA and B-6 were also determined in pouched and canned cherries before and after storage at 24–26°C. There was significantly more B-1 and AA in drained pouched green beans, and more AA in drained pouched cherries than in canned ones. B-6 values in the solids of the pouched and canned products were not significantly different. These three vitamins were significantly reduced in drained pouched and canned green beans after storage at 38°C. B-6 was significantly reduced in the stored cherries. Compared to canned, the pouched products were brighter and firmer in texture.
Article
Pea samples were collected after various unit operations in a commercial cannery and the vitamin C losses at these points were investigated. Blanching and retorting accounted for the major losses. A substantial amount of vitamin C in peas leached into the brine. Approximately two-thirds of the original vitamin C in fresh peas was lost during processing. Shelled peas were also blanched in steam, water, and in an agitated water system under laboratory conditions. Vitamin C retention in water-blanched peas appeared to be independent of agitation rate, indicating that diffusion may be the controlling mechanism. The diffusivity of vitamin C in peas at 85°C was estimated to be 1.4 × 10−4 cm2/sec.
Article
The effect of processing method (freezing vs canning) and storage time (day 1 or 10 months) on the proximate composition and the vitamin and mineral content of fiddlehead greens was examined. Comparisons were made between the nutrient composition of raw and processed fiddlehead greens. The protein, ash and water soluble vitamin (niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C) content of the fiddle-heads decreased with processing. These losses were most likely the result of leaching and heat processing. Losses of water soluble vitamins, particularly niacin, was the greatest in canned fiddlehead greens. The mineral content (K, Mg, P) was substantially reduced by processing. Storage for up to 10 months resulted in a significant decrease in the moisture, crude fiber, and α-carotene content of frozen and canned fiddlehead greens.
Article
With few exceptions, nutrient levels and/or their bioavailability are reduced in foods following harvest, slaughter, or collection. Rate of these losses is usually attenuated by reducing temperature of storage. Initial heat processing to the point of enzyme inactivation, or to the point of microbial sterilization, “stabilizes” the food so that it does not “spoil” but at the same time causes a greater initial reduction in certain nutrients, and a more gradual reduction with extended storage. Initial heat processing and mechanical treatments may also release nutrients so that they become more available, but once released, they are also subject to losses unless stored at low temperatures. Ascorbic acid is undoubtedly the most sensitive to loss and changes to a less active form as the result of time and temperature in storage. In many instances changes in ascorbic acid reflect general changes in quality. Thiamine is the other vitamin which is frequently affected adversely by time and temperature of storage. The A vitamins appear to be lost readily in leafy vegetables, but relatively unchanged in other foods. There is little effect on mineral content of foods, but bioavailability, particularly of iron may be influenced during prolonged storage. Substantial losses in carbohydrates may be encountered as a result of respiratory activity in extended storage at relatively high temperatures. Protein content is rarely affected, but protein availability is readily reduced even in low moisture foods unless they are protected from oxygen and stored at low temperatures. These anticipated changes in nutritive value are of particular significance in nutrient labeling, and must be taken into account when preparing nutrient labels.
Article
Total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and the antioxidant activities of 1 sour cherry cultivar (Prunus cerasusL.) and 3 sweet cherry cultivars (P. aviumL.) were determined. Bing cherries were highest in anthocyanins, whereas Montmorency cherries were highest in total phenolics and antioxidant activities (oxygen radical absor-bance capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power). Total phenolics and anthocyanins for all cultivars were concentrated in the skin. More than 75% of anthocyanins in frozen Bing cherries were destroyed after 6 mo of storage at -23°C. During canning, about half the anthocyanins and polyphenolics leached from the fruits into the syrup with little total loss. Spent cherry brine contained substantial anthocyanins and polyphenolics.
Article
Humans are unable to synthesise L-ascorbic acid (L-AA, ascorbate, vitamin C), and are thus entirely dependent upon dietary sources to meet needs. In both plant and animal metabolism, the biological functions of L-ascorbic acid are centred around the antioxidant properties of this molecule. Considerable evidence has been accruing in the last two decades of the importance of L-AA in protecting not only the plant from oxidative stress, but also mammals from various chronic diseases that have their origins in oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that the plasma levels of L-AA in large sections of the population are sub-optimal for the health protective effects of this vitamin.Until quite recently, little focus has been given to improving the L-AA content of plant foods, either in terms of the amounts present in commercial crop varieties, or in minimising losses prior to ingestion. Further, while L-AA biosynthesis in animals was elucidated in the 1960s,1 it is only very recently that a distinct biosynthetic route for plants has been proposed.2 The characterisation of this new pathway will undoubtedly provide the necessary focus and impetus to enable fundamental questions on plant L-AA metabolism to be resolved.This review focuses on the role of L-AA in metabolism and the latest studies regarding its biosynthesis, tissue compartmentalisation, turnover and catabolism. These inter-relationships are considered in relation to the potential to improve the L-AA content of crops. Methodology for the reliable analysis of L-AA in plant foods is briefly reviewed. The concentrations found in common food sources and the effects of processing, or storage prior to consumption are discussed. Finally the factors that determine the bioavailability of L-AA and how it may be improved are considered, as well as the most important future research needs.© 2000 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
The ascorbic acid content and peroxidase activity of raw, canned and frozen (after blanching times of 60, 90, 120 and 150 s) broccoli florets and stems were determined. The ascorbic acid content represented 1.12 and 0.78 g kg−1 fresh weight in raw florets and stems respectively. After blanching (for different times) and freezing, the ascorbic acid content decreased to values of 0.55–0.56 g kg−1 fresh weight in florets and 0.35–0.36 g kg−1 fresh weight in stems. The industrial processing involved in canning decreased the ascorbic acid content to 0.18 g kg−1 fresh weight in florets. The peroxidase activity observed in the florets and stems of raw broccoli was 308.8 and 278.6 µmol min−1 per 100 g fresh weight respectively. The peroxidase activity remaining in frozen florets varied from 0.9 to 0.2%, while that in stems showed values of between 7.5 and 8.4%. These values for stems were within the range recommended for residual activity after blanching and freezing. The peroxidase activity of canned broccoli florets was practically undetectable.© 2000 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Broccoli, carrots, and green beans (grown in 2 consecutive years) were randomly divided into 3 treatments: fresh-refrigerated (F-R), frozen (FZ) or canned (C) (carrots only). FZ or C vegetables were processed within 24 h and stored for up to 1 yr. F-R vegetables were held at 4 °C for 3 wk (broccoli and green beans) or 6 mo (carrots). Trans b-carotene (Tb-C) and total ascorbic acid (AA) were determined at specified times, before and after microwave cooking. Vitamin content differed between years due to environmental conditions. Blanching resulted in AA loss, but retention remained stable after freezing broccoli and green beans. F-R green beans lost >90% AA after 16 d storage. Linear decreases in AAwere found in most F-R or FZ vegetables. Tb-C decreased slightly during freezer storage. Reductions in Tb-C occurred in canned carrots. Microwave cooking had minimal effects on AA or Tb-C.
Article
We evaluated the ability of fresh tomatoes and processed tomato products (whole, diced, sauce, puree, and juice) to inhibit in vitro the formation of N-Nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), under conditions similar to the human stomach. The amount of NMOR that was formed averaged 23% to 82% that of the controls, on an equal wet weight basis, with paste being the most inhibitory. On an equal soluble solids basis, the amount of NMOR formed in the presence of products averaged 82% to 88% of that formed in the distilled water control. Fresh tomatoes showed greatest inhibition of nitrosation (NMOR formation averaged 80% of control), and processed tomatoes showed similar inhibition (NMOR 82% to 88% of the control). Ascorbic acid content was the strongest predictor of ability to inhibit NMOR formation. Processed tomato products inhibited nitrosation to a similar extent as had been reported for fresh tomatoes.
Article
In this second part of our review, we examine the literature for changes in carotenoids, vitamin E, minerals, and fiber due to processing, storage, and cooking of fresh, frozen, and canned fruits and vegetables. While inconsistencies in methodology and reporting methods complicate interpretation of the data, the results show that these nutrients are generally similar in comparable fresh and processed products. The higher levels of carotenoids typically found in canned as compared to fresh products may be attributed to either reporting results on a wet rather than dry weight basis, greater extractability, or differences in cultivars. There are relatively few studies on processing, storage, and cooking effects on vitamin E in fruits and vegetables. Further research is needed to understand nutritional changes in those few fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin E, such as tomatoes. Minerals and fiber are generally stable to processing, storage, and cooking, but may be lost in peeling and other removal steps during processing. Mineral uptake (e.g., calcium) or addition (e.g., sodium) during processing can change the natural mineral composition of a product. Sodium concerns in canned food can be addressed by choosing products with no salt added. Since nutrient content varies considerably by commodity, cultivar, and postharvest treatments, inclusion of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables in the diet is encouraged. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Clingstone peaches contain a wide array of complex secondary plant metabolites and polyphenolics, and increasing evidence indicates that many of these components are important in human health. Oligomeric flavan-3-ol metabolites (procyanidins) are particularly interesting owing to their potent antioxidant activity and protective cardiovascular effects. To date, little information is available on how postharvest and processing conditions impact levels of phenolics and procyanidins in fruit. This research addresses the impact of lye peeling, freezing, storage temperature (4 and 30 °C) and three different time–temperature sterilisation combinations on levels of total phenolics (TPs) in Ross clingstone peaches. Additionally, we describe the profile of procyanidin oligomers (monomers through heptamers) in clingstone and freestone peaches and demonstrate a dramatic decrease in procyanidins in thermally processed peaches. TP levels ranged between 316 and 397 mg kg−1 in peeled peaches and between 376 and 609 mg kg−1 in unpeeled peaches. Cold storage at 4 °C for 14 days or freezing and storing at −12 °C for 3 months produced no loss in TPs. Peaches stored at 30 °C for 24 h resulted in a 1.7-fold increase in TPs. Studies of TPs in peaches processed at temperatures of 213 °F for 40 min, 220 °F for 10 min and 230 °F for 2.4 min indicate that processing above 213 °F decreases levels of both TPs (up to 21%) and procyanidins (up to 100%). Processing at 213 °F for 40 min produced no significant loss in TPs. Furthermore, studies reveal that a 30–43% loss in phenolic levels occurs during the first 3 months in storage after canning. It is clear that both storage and thermal processing conditions profoundly impact the levels of polyphenolics in peaches. More interestingly, these studies indicate that peaches are a rich source of procyanidins, having profiles similar to those found in cocoa, apples, wine and tea.© 2002 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
The proximate composition, and mineral and vitamin contents of canned white asparagus, whole peeled tomatoes, mushrooms and lentils were studied. The composition of the canned products did not vary during the harvest season, but calcium, sodium and potassium contents depended on the hardness of the water, added sodium chloride, and, in the case of lentils and mushrooms, the use of potassium metabisulfite or sulfur dioxide during soaking. After the canning process, the studied vegetables retained at least 89% protein, 65% carbohydrate and between 47% and 95% of the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C (dry weight basis, DW) versus the respective raw materials. The canned mushrooms and lentils did not lose crude fiber and whole peeled tomatoes and white asparagus retained 73% (DW) crude fiber.
Article
The antioxidative capacity of methanol/water and hexane extracts of five tomato juices, four canned tomatoes and four tomato pastes was measured using two test systems: with 2,2''-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS+) and with linoleic acid emulsion. In both the ABTS assay and the linoleic acid system, most of the antioxidative capacity of analysed products was from the methanol-water fraction, which contained polyphenols and ascorbic acid. On the basis of the wet weight of the tomato products, tomato pastes had the highest activity towards ABTS+ (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by tomato juices, and canned tomatoes. The inhibition of formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the linoleic acid emulsion was strongly dependent on antioxidant concentration. The results suggest that tomato products, in addition to fresh tomatoes, may also be important in supplying dietary antioxidant, especially polyphenols and carotenoids.
Article
The aim of the work was to evaluate the content of vitamin C, beta-carotene, thiamine, and riboflavin in raw and preserved physiologically immature grass pea seeds. The seeds of the cultivar Krab, differing in their morphology, phytometric traits, and specific gravity were divided into four stages of maturity, which corresponded to the following levels of their dry matter content: I - 25.9, II - 30.1, III - 36.4, and IV 40.6 g/100 g. The evaluation was conducted at the stage of the raw material, the material after blanching, frozen seeds after 6-month storage before and after cooking to the consumption consistency, and canned seeds 6 months after production. With the maturity degree of grass pea seeds the content of vitamin C was reduced by 19%, beta-carotene by 29%, riboflavin by 20%, while that of thiamine increased by 97%. The blanching of seeds led to a statistically significant decrease only in the content of vitamin C. Freezing and frozen storage did not significantly affect the level of the analysed components. The cooking of frozen seeds, the preservation of canned products, and their storage significantly reduced the content of all the analysed components in all the samples. No dependence was found between the magnitude of decreases in the investigated compounds and the degree of seed maturity. After cooking frozen seeds prepared from the raw material at the same maturity degree as the canned product contained 32%-51% more vitamin C, 0%-8% more beta-carotene, 40%-97% more thiamine, and 20%-25% more riboflavin, depending on the degree of seed maturity.
Article
Food levels of vitamin C and flavonoids not only vary greatly depending on species and variety, growing location, harvesting time, storage, processing, and other conditions, but also with respect to methodological differences. For accurate dietary exposure determination and in support of future studies on the effects of dietary vitamin C and flavonoids, we determined ascorbic acid, and the major dietary flavones (apigenin, luteolin), flavonols (kämpferol, quercetin, myricetin), flavanones (hesperetin, naringenin and their glycosides), and anthocyanidins (pelargonidin, cyanidin, delphinidin) in fruits and vegetables commonly consumed in Hawaii. After optimization of extraction procedures to avoid loss of these sensitive analytes, high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical, diode-array and/or mass spectrometric detection revealed concentrations ranging in foods as eaten from 4 to 801 mg/kg for ascorbic acid and 172 to 905 mg/kg for citrus flavanones to as high as 259 mg/kg for flavones/flavonols and 1168 mg/kg for anthocyanidins. Storage and processing, especially when heat was applied, led to significant losses of all analytes. The high variability in the levels of these antioxidants, in part caused by culturally diverse food preparation techniques, indicates that food level determinations are a prerequisite for accurate human diet studies.
Article
Antioxidant components, including phenolics, ascorbic acid and carotenoids, of broccoli floret and stem, antioxidant activity, and their changes during conventional and microwave cooking, were investigated. Broccoli florets and stem were cooked by conventional boiling or by microwave over up to 300 s. Total phenolics were retained by up to 28.1–28.4% in the cooked florets and 55.6–57.8% in the cooked stems, and ascorbic acid by 34.1–34.4% and 29.1–29.5%, respectively. Total carotenoids were retained better compared to total phenolics and ascorbic acid. Total antioxidant activity was retained at 34.7–35.0% in the cooked florets and 34.6–34.7% in the cooked stems and phenolic antioxidant activity was retained at 37.4% and 64.7%, respectively. The results showed that antioxidant components and antioxidant activity in broccoli were lost heavily during the cooking. These losses need to be taken into account when calculating the dietary intake of these compounds from the cooked broccoli.
Article
This study, using vitamin C (ascorbic acid) as ‘marker’, allowed a direct comparison of the nutritional quality of fresh vegetables at various stages of distribution and storage, with the same vegetable commercially quick-frozen and stored deep frozen for up to 12 months. The nutrient status of frozen peas and broccoli was similar to that of the typical market-purchased vegetable and was superior to peas that have been stored in-home for several days. Fresh peas and broccoli retained their quality for up to 14 days when stored under chill conditions. The nutrient status of frozen whole green beans and frozen carrots, with no loss on freezing, was similar to the fresh vegetable at harvest. Frozen spinach also compared reasonably well with the harvested fresh vegetable and was clearly superior to all market produce.
Article
Regular consumption of dietary antioxidants may reduce the risk of several serious diseases. As vegetables are a major source of antioxidants it is desirable to assess their antioxidant activity and compare different processing and preparation methods. The total antioxidant activity was determined in water- and lipid-soluble extracts from fresh, stored and frozen vegetables. The contribution of individual compounds to total antioxidant activity was estimated. In stored vegetables at ambient or chill temperatures antioxidant activity declined. Blanching and freezing of peas and spinach reduced water-soluble antioxidant activity by 30 and 50%, respectively, thereafter levels remained constant on storage at −20 °C. Samples of frozen peas and spinach purchased from retail outlets had substantially higher antioxidant activity than canned or jarred samples. In a comparison of cooking methods, microwave and boiling for short periods had a negligible effect on total antioxidant activity, but substantial losses occurred after prolonged boiling in water.
Article
Preparing vegetables with heat the contents of their constituents will change to a various extent. Particularly the water-soluble and the heat-sensitive vitamins are affected. At an early stage the vitamin C losses were investigated, because of vitamin C's indicating function for oxidation and leaching-out processes (1, 2, 7, 11-13, 15, 17). The degree of vitamin losses is influenced by various factors, for example the type of food, variety of vegetables, the way of cutting, preparation, duration and method of cooking. The influence of the various cooking methods with regard to the losses of certain water-soluble vitamins will be discussed.
Article
The effect of heating on ascorbic acid in green asparagus during a simulated retort operation was investigated. The asparagus was heated in trays of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer for selected time intervals at four temperatures ranging from 110 to 125 degrees C. It was found that the rate of degradation followed first-order kinetics. Kinetic parameters were obtained by using two least squares methods. The activation energy and z value were 35 kcal/mol and 20 degrees C, respectively.
Article
The change in the carotenoid and bioantioxidant content of tomato as a function of varietal and technological factors was investigated in the present work. No great differences were found between cultivars for fresh consumption (salad tomatoes) and those for processing in ascorbic acid content. The concentration of ascorbic acid ranged between 14.6 and 21.7 mg/100 g fresh weight of ripe tomato fruit. Processing cultivars contained higher amounts of tocopherols, particularly alpha-tocopherol than tomatoes for fresh consumption. Significant differences could be obtained between the examined varieties with regard to carotenoid concentration. The different tomatoes varied not only in the total carotenoid content but also in the qualitative distribution of some pigments such as lycopene, beta-carotene and lutein. During heat-based processing, ascorbic acid, tocopherols, and carotenoids showed different role and response. Ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol quinone, and beta-carotene were the most susceptible components toward thermal degradation.
Article
Processed fruits and vegetables have been long considered to have lower nutritional value than their fresh commodities due to the loss of vitamin C during processing. This research group found vitamin C in apples contributed < 0.4% of total antioxidant activity, indicating most of the activity comes from the natural combination of phytochemicals. This suggests that processed fruits and vegetables may retain their antioxidant activity despite the loss of vitamin C. Here it is shown that thermal processing elevated total antioxidant activity and bioaccessible lycopene content in tomatoes and produced no significant changes in the total phenolics and total flavonoids content, although loss of vitamin C was observed. The raw tomato had 0.76 +/- 0.03 micromol of vitamin C/g of tomato. After 2, 15, and 30 min of heating at 88 degrees C, the vitamin C content significantly dropped to 0.68 +/- 0.02, 0.64 +/- 0.01, and 0.54 +/- 0.02 micromol of vitamin C/g of tomato, respectively (p < 0.01). The raw tomato had 2.01 +/- 0.04 mg of trans-lycopene/g of tomato. After 2, 15, and 30 min of heating at 88 degrees C, the trans-lycopene content had increased to 3.11+/- 0.04, 5.45 +/- 0.02, and 5.32 +/- 0.05 mg of trans-lycopene/g of tomato (p < 0.01). The antioxidant activity of raw tomatoes was 4.13 +/- 0.36 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of tomato. With heat treatment at 88 degrees C for 2, 15, and 30 min, the total antioxidant activity significantly increased to 5.29 +/- 0.26, 5.53 +/- 0.24, and 6.70 +/- 0.25 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of tomato, respectively (p < 0.01). There were no significant changes in either total phenolics or total flavonoids. These findings indicate thermal processing enhanced the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing the bioaccessible lycopene content and total antioxidant activity and are against the notion that processed fruits and vegetables have lower nutritional value than fresh produce. This information may have a significant impact on consumers' food selection by increasing their consumption of fruits and vegetables to reduce the risks of chronic diseases.
Article
Processed fruits and vegetables have been long considered to have lower nutritional value than the fresh produce due to the loss of vitamin C during processing. Vitamin C in apples has been found to contribute <0.4% of total antioxidant activity, indicating most of the activity comes from the natural combination of phytochemicals. This suggests that processed fruits and vegetables may retain their antioxidant activity despite the loss of vitamin C. Here it is shown that thermal processing at 115 degrees C for 25 min significantly elevated the total antioxidant activity of sweet corn by 44% and increased phytochemical content such as ferulic acid by 550% and total phenolics by 54%, although 25% vitamin C loss was observed. Processed sweet corn has increased antioxidant activity equivalent to 210 mg of vitamin C/100 g of corn compared to the remaining 3.2 mg of vitamin C in the sample that contributed only 1.5% of its total antioxidant activity. These findings do not support the notion that processed fruits and vegetables have lower nutritional value than fresh produce. This information may have a significant impact on consumers' food selection by increasing their consumption of fruits and vegetables to reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
Article
Scottish-grown red raspberries are a rich source of vitamin C and phenolics, most notably, the anthocyanins cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-(2(G)-glucosylrutinoside), and cyanidin-3-glucoside, and two ellagitannins, sanguiin H-6 and lambertianin C, which are present together with trace levels of flavonols, ellagic acid, and hydroxycinnamates. The antioxidant capacity of the fresh fruit and the levels of vitamin C and phenolics were not affected by freezing. When fruit were stored at 4 degrees C for 3 days and then at 18 degrees C for 24 h, mimicking the route fresh fruit takes after harvest to the supermarket and onto the consumer's table, anthocyanin levels were unaffected while vitamin C levels declined and those of elligitannins increased, and overall, there was no effect on the antioxidant capacity of the fruit. It is concluded, therefore, that freshly picked, fresh commercial, and frozen raspberries all contain similar levels of phytochemicals and antioxidants per serving.
Article
Seeds of the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars Derek and Krab, with a dry matter content of about 33%, were used for freezing and for canning. The content of vitamins C, B1, and B2 and of carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls was determined in raw and blanched material, in frozen products after 6-month storage before and after cooking to consumption consistency, and in ca