Article

An Exploratory Study of Employee Silence: Issues That Employees Don't Communicate Upward and Why

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Abstract

ABSTRACT There is evidence from a variety of sources that employees often do not feel comfortable speaking to their bosses about organizational problems or issues that concern them. The purpose of this study was to shed light on the types of issues that employees are reluctant to raise, and identify why employees sometimes decide to remain silent rather than voice their concerns. We interviewed 40 employees and found that most had been in situations where they were concerned about an issue but did not raise it to a supervisor. Silence spanned a range of organizational issues, with several of our respondents indicating that they did not feel comfortable speaking to those above them about any issues or concerns. The most frequently mentioned reason for remaining silent was the fear of being viewed or labeled negatively, and as a consequence, damaging valued relationships. From our data, we develop a model of how the perceived consequences of voice contribute to silence, and a model of how the social and relational implications of speaking up can take away employees’ ability to have influence within an organizational setting.

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... For instance, found that the ability of all individuals to give considerations and thoughts regarding basic work forms portrays effective learning in different sorts of groups. However, in spite of this "learning basic," numerous people don't work in situations where they see it as protected to voice their opinions (Milliken, Morrison, and Hewlin, 2003). This poses an unsettling situation: Voice, which is characterized as the optional procurement of data expected to enhance authoritative working to somebody inside an association with the apparent power to act, despite the fact that such data might challenge and annoy usual business of the association and its stakeholders, is basic to hierarchical prosperity yet inadequately given by representatives, who see the dangers of employee voice as exceeding the advantages. ...
... Administrative openness alludes to subordinates' observations that their supervisor listens to their thoughts, is considerate of their opinions, gives reasonable thought to the opinions exhibited, and in any event, makes a move to address the matter pointed out. Such practices are important in keeping up beginning inspiration to employee voice (Milliken et al., 2003). All the more vitally, practices showing openness to representative information might diminish the remarkable quality of the force differential in the middle of pioneers and subordinates in a manner that workers see few expenses from raising possibly threatening thoughts. ...
... Specifically, a few issues are especially additionally undermining to the substance of the director than different sorts of issues. Issues that representatives commonly raise incorporate the administrator's capability then again execution, issues with authoritative procedures, worries about pay and value, conflict with organization arrangements and choices, moral or reasonableness issues, badgering or mishandle, and strife with a collaborator (Milliken et al., 2003). ...
Article
Change-oriented leadership is a specific leadership style in encouraging employee voice behaviors. In present day, voice is regarded as an essential tool in improving the performance of any organization. Employee voice acts as a driving factor in influencing organizational change and suggesting innovative ideas. Employee personality moderates the relationship between change-oriented leadership and perceived issue threat. When employees feel they will not be treated unjustly and are free to express their ideas, they are more likely to voice their opinions without hindrance. Moreover, by anticipating positive responses from the manager, employees are more likely to have trust in management to appreciate their input; hence managerial openness is a positive indicator of voice behaviors and intent to quit. This study has four propositions. The first states that transformational leadership has a positive impact on voice behaviors and intent to quit. Secondly, managerial openness has a positive impact on voice behaviors and intent to quit. Thirdly, employee personality moderates this relationship while lastly; perceived issue threat mediates this relationship. The study concludes in the acceptance of these propositions. Researchers should explore the diversity factors associated with change-oriented leadership and voice behaviors.
... If such situation happens on a departmental or organization-wide scale, it will cause significant consequences in the performance and bring about further problems such as increased attrition. Corporations with sophisticated procedures and mechanisms for employee voice is able to improve therefore able to guard against any challenges that derive from the psychological demands of being duty-bound to be silent (Detert & Trevino, 2010;Milliken, Morrison & Hewlin, 2003;Morrison, 2014). ...
... Another interesting result drawn from Edmondson's (2003) research shows that when supervisors have openness to change, employees are inclined to have more of a mind to contribute by voicing their opinions. A leader's openness refers to leader's ability to take into consideration of improvement-oriented suggestions and ultimately acknowledge them, thereby motivates workers to say their piece (Milliken et al., 2003). However, in many organizations, some may not be viewed as very open or interested to hear the input from employees which may stifle voice. ...
... In negative emotion like anger and fear are the pattern of high provocation sentiments that organize the individuals to take action (Lerner & Keltner, 2001). At work place, employees experiencing fear generally seek protection and defensive strategy by retreating and moving back from work (Ashford et al., 1989;Rafferty & Griffin, 2006) or remaining silent (Milliken, Morrison, & Hewlin, 2003;Vogel et al. 2015;Ashkanasy 2017& Lebel 2018). ...
... The statistical result disclosed that fear has a significant and positive relationship with protective effort. The result of the study is in line with the prior results of Ashford et al. (1989); Milliken, Morrison, & Hewlin, (2003); & Rafferty & Griffin, (2006) that employee's experiencing fear usually seek protection by moving back from the work place. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to develop and test an empirical model which describe when and how discrete negative emotions can spark proactivity and can be molded to produce positive decision making. Nexus to the problem statement, drawing the theory of emotions, and theory of planned behavior (TPB), a quantitate research study was designed based on onion model while data was collected from the 357 faculty members of eleven public sector universities of KP, Pakistan. The data was analyzed via SPSS 27 and SEM-PLS 3.3.3 in two stages of measurement modeling and structuring modeling techniques. The results of the present study provided a new insight that how two discrete negative emotions i.e. anger and fear can be molded to produce constructive decision making. The novelty of this study is the use of molding discrete negative emotions into positive outcomes by using the mechanism of sequential mediation. The study is relatively new as none of the study related to molding discrete negative emotion in positive outcomes is available in the context of Pakistan. The outcomes of the study can be applied in education sector, health sector any public and private sectors where the issue of negative emotions are at their peak. More work is required in this area to study emotion regulation knowledge and pro-social motivation to strengthen the phenomena of molding negative emotion into positive outcomes.
... They have a vital role in determining the silence behaviour of employees (Vakola-Bouradas, 2005); therefore, organizational factors are likely to decide on whether silence develops. The related studies found some factors that come due to the policies, practices and communication atmosphere within the organization including, formal authority abuse, fear of negative reactions, lack of support, mistrust, and injustice (Alkhlaifat, 2019;Bagheri et al., 2012;Milliken et al., 2003;Panahi et al., 2012). ...
... The researcher utilized a questionnaire that consists of three parts: The demographic characteristics of the sample (gender, age, and level of education). Secondly, silence organization-related factors measure developed based on the results of the related-study (Alkhlaifat, 97 2019;Brinsfield, 2013;Milliken et al., 2003;Panahi et al., 2012). This part has 31 questions distributed as follows: ...
... The judgment supporting this statement can be that keeping silent and the decisions made by other employees are related to each other. Remarkably, most employees feel that they are not alone in hiding information about a particular issue or the whole problem, revealing that silence is usually a collective phenomenon (Milliken et al., 2003). ...
... Organizational silence causes a feeling of inadequacy and anxiety among people and disruptions in businesses. When organizational silence occurs, employees feel worthless, perceive a lack of control, or experience cognitive dissonance (Milliken et al., 2003). Hochschild (1983), who first used the statement of emotional labor, states that employees do their jobs by managing most of their emotions and by serving in patterns determined in advance for a specific fee, and they take it as a part of their job. ...
Article
Amaç: Bu çalışmada hemşirelerde örgütsel sessizlik düzeyinin duygusal emek üzerine etkisinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır.Yöntem: Araştırmanın örneklemi %95 güven aralığında %5 hata payıyla 274 kişi olarak hesaplanmıştır. Örneklem grubunu basit tesadüfi örnekleme yöntemi ile seçilen 250 (%91.2) hemşire oluşturmuştur. İlgili kurumlardan gerekli izinler alındıktan sonra veri toplama araçları araştırmacı tarafından gönüllü katılımcılara yüz yüze görüşme tekniği kullanılarak uygulanmıştır.Bulgular: Elde edilen bulgular neticesinde hemşirelerin duygusal emek davranışı alt boyutları ile örgütsel sessizlik davranışı alt boyutları arasında; kabul edilmiş sessizlik alt boyutu ile yüzeysel davranış, derinlemesine davranış, duygusal çaba ve gerçek duyguları bastırma değişkenleri arasında pozitif yönde çok zayıf düzeyde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmuştur.Sonuç: Çalışmamızda hemşirelerde örgütsel sessizliğin duygusal emek üzerine pozitif etkisi ortaya konulmuştur. Örgütsel sessizlik ölçeğinin alt boyutları ve duygusal emek ölçeğinin alt boyutlarının ortalamasına baktığında, örgütsel sessizlik ölçeğinden en yüksek puanı örgüt yararına sessizlik alt boyutundan, en düşük puanı savunma amaçlı sessizlik alt boyutundan almışlardır. Hemşireler, duygusal emek ölçeğinden en yüksek puanı duygusal çaba alt boyutundan, en düşük puanı ise derinlemesine davranış alt boyutundan almışlardır. Örgütsel sessizlik ölçeğinin örgüt yararına sessizlik alt grubu ile yaş grubu arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark bulunmuştur (p<0.05). Yaş grubu 51 ve üzeri olanların örgüt yararına sessizlik alt grubunun ortalama değeri, yaş grubu 20-35 olanların örgüt yararına sessizlik alt grubunun ortalama değerinden anlamlı düzeyde yüksek olduğu gözlenmiştir. Meslekte 22 ve üzeri yıl çalışanların örgüt yararına sessizlik alt grubunun ortalama değeri, meslekte 0-10 yıl arası çalışanların örgüt yararına sessizlik alt grubunun ortalama değerinden anlamlı düzeyde yüksek bulunmuştur.
... Beheshtifar, Borhani, and Moghadam (2012), define organizational silence to discourage employees from expressing behavioral, cognitive and effective assessments of organizational situations. Milliken, Morrison, and Hewlin (2003), also consider organizational silence as a social phenomenon in which employees refuse to express their views and concerns about organizational problems. ...
Article
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This research has been conducted with the aim of predicting organizational citizenship behavior based on the organizational silence of employees of the Department of Education of Iran by correlation method. The statistical population of the study consisted of all employees of the Education Department. A sample of 2215 employees was selected by stratified random sampling. Data collection tools were Dyne, Ang, and Botero (2003) scale, and Van Dyne, Graham, and Dienesch (1994) Citizenship Behavior scale, which were distributed among the research sample in one step. The collected data were analyzed using stepwise regression test. The findings of this study showed that there is a significant negative correlation between organizational silence, social silence and individual silence with organizational citizenship behavior of employees. Organizational silence components explain organizational citizenship behavior. But defensive silence is not related to organizational citizenship behavior of employees. As a result, organizational silence is one of the predictors of organizational citizenship behavior in the education Staff.
... Even though the intention of the employee to remain silent has been principally connected to perceived dangers associated with speaking out (Kurzon, 2007). However, Milliken et al. (2003), explore that the silence of the employees is the psychological outcome of their feeling that speaking up has no apparent value or they hesitate to convey negative information due to the Leaders response to that particular information (Adeel & Muhammad, 2017). ...
Article
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Purpose: The main aim to conduct this research is to identify whether LMX mediates the relationship between despotic leadership and acquiescence silence. In addition, the study also takes into account the role of Quality of work life as a mediator in the relationship between despotic leadership and work withdrawal behavior Methodology: The data was collected by sharing the adopted questionnaire with the target population a total of 247 valid responses were received from the employee working in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. Smart PLS was used to measure the model. The research is conducted for the managers leading a team of professionals and the community of Human Resource Development that includes business consultants, advisors, employees, top management, scholars, specialists, and students. Findings: The study found that despotic leadership increases withdrawal behavior and acquiescence in silence among employees. Moreover, leader-member exchange mediates the relationship between despotic leadership and work withdrawal behavior and quality of work-life mediates the relationship between despotic leadership and work withdrawal behavior. Conclusion: The findings declared that despotic leadership has a destructive influence on subordinates concerning increased work withdrawal behavior and acquiescent silence.
... In particular, organizations that want to gain a competitive advantage (Farndale et al., 2011), consider employee voice in the context of organizational behavior (Budd et al., 2010;Holland et al., 2011), and it is stated that employee voice has a positive effect on the performance and outputs of employees and the organization (Harley, 2014;Holland et al., 2011;Marchington, 2007;Mowbray et al., 2019;Pohler & Luchak, 2014). Despite the positive effects of employee voice on employees, employees who think they are not supported and valued due to the fear of punishment hide their views from the management, leading to employee silence (Milliken et al., 2003). In an organization where employee silence is dominant, the affective occupational commitment of the employees' decreases, leading to conflict with other employees, resistance to management and ultimately leaving the job (Holland et al., 2019). ...
Article
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The research aims to reveal the effect of teachers’ agile leadership perceptions on their affective occupational commitment and how employee voice plays a mediating role in this effect. The study group of the research consists of 354 teachers working in Istanbul in 2021. The research is carried out according to the relational survey model. Correlation analysis is carried out and tested using the suggested mediation model based on the relationship between the variables to determine the relationship between variables. According to the research findings, the agile leadership characteristics of school principals positively affect their affective occupational commitment. Additionally, mediation analysis showed that employee voice is a partial mediator between agile leadership characteristics and affective occupational commitment. This research contributes to the theory by revealing the important effects of the agile leader in the school. In the light of the findings, the implications of the agile leader, employee voice, and occupational commitment of teachers were discussed, and suggestions were made for future research.
... In the work team, employees' voice behavior and leaders' voice endorsement can have an impact not only on the voicers themselves but also on the coworkers around them. Milliken et al. (2003) have argued that due to the negative impact that voice may have on other employees, employees will consider social relationships and social factors when choosing to voice. Voice endorsement can show the voicers' work ability, which helps them obtain approval and praise from the leaders, and thus improves their social status in the group (Morrison, 2011). ...
Article
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Existing studies mainly explore the antecedents of voice endorsement and its distal outcomes on voicers themselves. However, few have examined the mechanism of leaders’ voice endorsement on the voicers’ coworkers. Drawing on the self-evaluation maintenance theory, this paper uses perceived status threat as the mediator and trait competitiveness as the moderator to construct a conceptual model to explore the effect of leaders’ voice endorsement on coworkers’ self-improvement motivation. Through an empirical study with 279 sets of questionnaires from a manufacturing enterprise in China, the results show that leaders’ voice endorsement has a positive effect on coworkers’ self-improvement motivation through coworkers’ perceived status threat and that coworkers’ trait competitiveness can strengthen the positive relationship between leaders’ voice endorsement and coworkers’ perceived status threat. In addition, coworkers’ trait competitiveness can strengthen the indirect effect of leaders’ voice endorsement on coworkers’ self-improvement motivation via coworkers’ perceived status threat. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
... Employees are frequently prohibited by non-disclosure agreements in these situations from communicating information about their employer (Lobel, 2018;Sussman, 2008). Further, many employees in particularly tightly regulated industries such as financial services are often hesitant to speak up for fear of reprisals (Milliken et al., 2003). ...
... Similarly, Detert and Burris [35] indicated that employees consider the risk of being labeled troublemakers who challenge the status of quo before sharing their opinions. Individuals become reluctant to express themselves when they perceive that sharing opinions or ideas may trigger retaliation and damage relationships with others [36]. According to Mayer et al. [31], individuals tend to take risks when having trust in their superiors. ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to test the role of trust in supervisors in mediating the link between paternalistic leadership styles and employee voice and to investigate the contingency role of self-efficacy on the relationship between trust in supervisors and employee voices. We designed the items using survey questionnaires that were assessed by prior studies and collected data from 485 highly skilled employees of manufacturing organizations. To assess the validity of the suggested hypotheses, we used a Baron and Kenny (1986) approach and conducted hierarchical regression analysis. The findings reveal that authoritarian leadership and moral leadership styles are significantly related to trust in supervisors, which explains the association between authoritarian leadership style, and moral leadership style and employee voice. However, the results suggest that trust in supervisors does not explain the association between benevolent leadership style and employee voice. Moreover, the findings reveal that self-efficacy moderates the link between trust in supervisors and employee voice. The originality of this work lies in the fact that this research is the first to test the mediating role of trust in supervisors in the relationship between paternalistic leadership styles and employee voice and the moderating role of self-efficacy on the association between trust in supervisors and employee voice.
... Since the time of its definition, many researchers have gone on to study the reasons for organizational silence to occur. Milliken, Morrison and Hewlin (2003) argued that the reasons are fears and beliefs, while Bowen and Blackmon (2003) stated that organizational norms are the affecting factors. Moreover, Dyne, Ang and Botero (2003) suggested that the perception of a supportive work environment can determine whether one stays silent or speaks up. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the organizational silence behaviors of nursing faculty members and the factors that influence them. Method: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey of 127 nursing faculty members working in Turkey. The data were gathered using the Organizational Silence Behavior Scale and a 14-item survey for sociodemographic and job-related information and preferences for speaking up. Results: The participants obtained the highest mean score from "acquiescence silence" (3.33±.89), and the result of the multiple regression analysis revealed that "remaining silent because academic career would be negatively affected" had the greatest influence on the subscales of the Organization Silence Behavior Scale. Conclusion: Nursing faculty play an important role in empowering future nurses. To make valuable contributions to nursing, all faculty members should work in an environment without fear and inhibit organizational silence. To improve the nursing profession, deans/directors and policymakers in nursing should support open communication.
... The outputs that are related to silence in an organization have been frequently questioned in recent years (Hekim, 2019;Özçınar et al., 2016). In the literature, education level, age, gender, position, experience, bias, and the desire to maintain the existing structure are examined as individual antecedents (Boufounou & Avdi, 2016;Harmanci Seren, Topcu, Eskin Bacaksiz, Unaldi Baydin, Tokgoz Ekici & Yildirim, 2018), whereas, a climate of distrust, obedience to group behaviors, managerial neglect, and delays in responses, the ineffectiveness of policies, uncertainties in the reporting process, taboo issues that are forbidden to be discussed, and hierarchical structure are examined as organizational antecedents (Harmanci Seren et al., 2018;Manafzadeh, Ghaderi, Moradi, Taheri & Amirhasani, 2018;Milliken, Morrison & Hewlin, 2003;Premeaux & Bedeian, 2003;Vakola & Bouradas, 2005;Walumbwa & Schaubroeck, 2009). There is also evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic has also effects (Chaofan, Qiaobing, Debin & Shiguang, 2021). ...
... Locals also thought that the Chinese leaders want to hide things, and they therefore felt insecure and did not identify with the company. According to Milliken et al. [20], leaders in high powerdistance cultures have an implicit assumption that employees are not trustworthy, and they do not understand the problems inside the organization. However, this kind of assumption is outdated in the modern era, wherein everyone has access to all kinds of information. ...
Article
Cultural differences have a strong influence on the work and study climate in cross-cultural environment. A difference in power distance has been shown to be a major factor in decreasing motivation, especially when the superior follows a hierarchical leadership style but the subordinates expect equality. This can lead to high turnover rates in companies and low learning outcomes in schools if not taken into consideration. In this paper, we use examples to demonstrate how the problems appeared in two case studies of Chinese companies operating in Europe. The findings have been categorized into five themes: hierarchy, authority, closed communication, promotion, and unequal treatment.
... Doing so could damage their relationships with their colleagues or supervisors (LePine & Van Dyne, 1998;Morrison, 2014) or their own credibility or social standing (LePine & Van Dyne, 1998). They may fear negative consequences or personal losses such as retaliation from supervisors such as a negative performance evaluation, undesirable job assignments, or even termination (Milliken et al., 2003). However, one significant reason why individuals may avoid questioning others' immoral or questionable behaviors is the concern of disrupting the status quo (Klaas et al., 2012). ...
Chapter
The introductory chapter to Creativity and Morality outlines the relationship between the constructs, summarizing the AMORAL model of dark creativity (Kapoor & Kaufman, in press). Specifically, the Antecedents, Mechanisms (individual), Operants (environmental), Realization, Aftereffects, and Legacy of the creative action are theorized and described within the context of general and dark creativity. We present real-life and simulated examples to illustrate the application of the theory across multiple domains, from law enforcement to interpersonal relationships, from the initial idea to the impact of the eventual action. The AMORAL model will help introduce the main concepts that will be addressed in subsequent chapters.
... Doing so could damage their relationships with their colleagues or supervisors (LePine & Van Dyne, 1998;Morrison, 2014) or their own credibility or social standing (LePine & Van Dyne, 1998). They may fear negative consequences or personal losses such as retaliation from supervisors such as a negative performance evaluation, undesirable job assignments, or even termination (Milliken et al., 2003). However, one significant reason why individuals may avoid questioning others' immoral or questionable behaviors is the concern of disrupting the status quo (Klaas et al., 2012). ...
... As a result, most employees consider challenging managers too great a risk. Some employees may perceive that speaking up in their organization puts them with negative labels, such as "troublemaker, " "disobedient member, " or "disrespectful employee" (Milliken et al., 2003). Employees are sensitive to the informational signals transmitted by leaders because of leaders' higher status (Chiu et al., 2016). ...
Article
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This study aimed to explore the psychological mechanisms through which psychological safety and self-efficacy mediate the relationship between leader-expressed humility and employee voice. Moreover, attribution theory was applied to examine the possible detrimental effects of leader-expressed humility when employees perceive manipulative intentions in their humble leader. The current study proposed the leader’s manipulative intention as a moderator to weaken the indirect relationships between leader-expressed humility and employee voice through psychological safety and self-efficacy. Time-lagged supervisor–subordinate matched data were used to test the model. Our findings reveal leader’s manipulative intention weakens the positive effect that leader-expressed humility impacts on employee voice through psychological safety and self-efficacy. The implications of the findings were discussed from both theoretical and practical perspectives.
... In line with the reasoning above, internal CSR should increase workers' felt obligation and their willingness to make extra-effort to support organizational goals through constructive suggestions. Yet, employees are often reluctant to speak up because they are afraid that their voice behavior may be negatively perceived within the organization and undermine their internal status (Milliken et al., 2003). As outlined above, internal CSR fulfills employees' needs for safety and in doing so, contributes to a working environment in which employees feel safe to express their true opinion (Glavas, 2016). ...
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While a positive relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and employee outcomes has been widely researched, most studies have been conducted in a Western context and for white-collar employees. Thus, little is known about Chinese blue-collar workers’ reactions to CSR. In two studies, we investigated the outcomes of internal CSR for blue-collar workers in the Chinese manufacturing industry. In the cross-sectional study, we found that perceived internal CSR is positively related to job satisfaction, trust in management, and perceived supervisory support. To further disentangle cause-and-effect relationships, we conducted a field experiment. The results show that internal CSR information increases performance quantity and lowers complaints, but also lowers performance quality and does not affect workers’ voice behavior. Our results further reveal that workers’ attitudes toward ethics and social responsibility are an important moderator which strengthens some of the hypothesized effects.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the U-shaped relationship between ambidextrous leadership and employee silence by examining power distance orientation as a boundary condition and role stress and relational energy as mediators. Design/methodology/approach The authors tested the theoretical model with 212 matched samples collected across three-wave-data from 21 companies and branches in China. Findings Results revealed that ambidextrous leadership showed a U-shaped relationship with employee silence through role stress and relational energy. Moreover, the authors found that the curvilinear relationship was more significant for employees higher in power distance orientation. Practical implications Organizations should be aware of the negative side of ambidextrous leadership as well as its stimulation on employee silence. The leaders should pay more attention to subordinates and judge whether they are under too much stress, as well as treat employees more cautiously in both work and non-work situations. Originality/value This study provides a first step to the understanding of curvilinear influence of ambidextrous leadership through investigating the mediating effects of role stress and relational energy, and integrating the moderating role of power distance orientation in the process.
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Based on the Resource Conservation Theory, this study constructs a mediating effect model with defensive silence as the mediating variable and employee belonging needs as the regulating variable. The results show that: (1) workplace exclusion has a positive predictive effect on employees' knowledge possession behavior; (2) Defensive silence mediates the relationship between workplace exclusion and employees' knowledge possession; (3) Employee belonging needs not only positively regulates the positive relationship between workplace exclusion and employees knowledge possession behavior, but also positively regulates the positive relationship between workplace exclusion and defensive silence; (4) Employee belonging needs regulate the mediating role of employee defensive silence in the relationship between workplace exclusion and employee knowledge possession behavior. This study provides a new perspective on how to optimize the knowledge management process, and provides insights for managers to break the cycle of knowledge possession and create a new model of knowledge sharing among employees in the workplace.
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, çalışanların duygusal zekâ düzeylerinin çalışan sesliliği üzerinde etkisi olup olmadığının araştırılmasıdır. Araştırma Azerbaycan'da teknoloji ve yazılım alanında faaliyet gösteren firmalarda bulunan çalışanlar üzerinde anket tekniği uygulanarak yapılmıştır. Bu doğrultuda elde edilen verilerin analizinde SPSS paket programından yararlanılmıştır. Araştırma bulgularına göre, duygusal zekânın kendi duygularını anlama, diğerlerinin duygularını anlama, duyguları düzenleme ve duyguları kullanma boyutlarının çalışan sesliliği üzerinde anlamlı ve pozitif yönlü bir etkisinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bu kapsamda çalışmanın sonuç kısmında yöneticiler ve gelecekti araştırmacılar için çeşitli önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Anahtar Kelimeler: Duygusal zekâ, çalışan sesliliği, teknoloji, yazılım. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the emotional intelligence levels of employees have an effect on employee voice. The research was carried out by applying the survey technique to the employees of companies operating in the field of technology and software in Azerbaijan. In this direction, SPSS package program was used in the analysis of the data obtained. According to the research findings, it has been determined that the dimensions of emotional intelligence, understanding one's own feelings, understanding the feelings of others, emotion regulation dimension and using emotions have a significant and positive effect on employee voice. In this context, in the conclusion of the study, various suggestions were made for managers and future researchers.
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Amaç: Çalışmamızın amacı, Türkiye’deki bireylerin kişisel ilişkilerinde bağlanma eğilimlerinin, çalışma ortamındaki ses davranışıyla ilişkisinde, yöneticiye güven faktörünün aracı etkisi göz önünde bulundurularak incelenmesidir. Tasarım/Yöntem: Araştırmanın örneklemi Türkiye’de aktif çalışan toplam 225 katılımcıdan oluşmaktadır. Çalışmada, çalışanların ses davranışları, yöneticiye güven seviyeleri ve ikili ilişkilerinde bağlanma eğilimlerini saptamak amacıyla güvenilirlik analizleri yapılmış olan standartlaştırılmış ölçekler kullanılmıştır. Online platform (Qualtrics) üzerinden gerçekleştirilen çalışmada, anketlerden edinilen sonuçlar korelasyon ve moderasyon analizleriyle değerlendirilmiştir. Sonuçlar: Katılımcılardaki güvenli bağlanma stilleri, yöneticiye güven ve yapıcı ses davranışıyla ilişkili bulunmuştur. Yöneticiye güvenin de olduğu durumda, ilişkilerinde güvenli bağlanma eğilimindeki bireyler işyerinde yapıcı (aktif) ses davranışı yerine kabullenici (pasif) ve daha az savunmacı davranışlar sergiledikleri bulunmuştur. Güvensiz (kaçıngan ya da kaygılı) bağlanma eğiliminin ise, yöneticiye güveninde azaldığı yerde, yine kabullenici ve tartışmadan (savunmadan) uzak davranışlar göstermektedir. Özgün Değer: Bu çalışma ile, yöneticiye güvenin yapıcı sesi Türkiye’deki katılımcılarda arttırıyor olduğu gözlenmiş; adayların yakın ilişkilerdeki bağlanma eğilimlerinin değerlendirilmesinin kurumların işe alım süreçlerinde kritik bir girdi sağlayabileceği öngörülmüştür. Çalışan sesi için yöneticiye güvenin merkezde olduğu görülen bu çalışmada; özellikle güvensiz bağlanma eğilimlerinin yapıcı (aktif) ses önünde engel teşkil etmektedir. Bu durumun, organizasyonların küresel dünyada daha yenilikçi ve rekabetçi olmalarını engelleyici olabileceği tartışılmıştır. Çalışmamız, ses davranışı ve bağlanma stilleri arasındaki ilişkiyi yöneticiye güveni de göz önünde bulundurarak inceleyen özgün bir çalışmadır.
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The power literature's focus on questioning power relations has gone at the expense of deliberate attempts to improve organizational practices. How can critical performativity and other scholars address power as an enabling force, thereby also allowing for more engagement with practitioners? We integrate the literature on power in and around organizations with studies of organizational change and behavior. By focusing on enabling instead of restrictive power, we draw attention to the potentially pivotal role of key actors-managers, other practitioners, and scholars-in fostering empowerment and emancipation within organizations. Our review points at four social mechanisms that drive enabling power: formal authority, language shaping action, community formation, and the dynamics of safety and trust. Furthermore, we identify various types of actions which can trigger these mechanisms that, in turn, may give rise to outcomes such as empowerment and emancipation. The main contribution of this paper involves an integrated framework of power as an enabling force. By synthesizing various separate discourses, this framework extends prior reviews focusing on power-over, resulting in a systemic understanding of enabling power and thereby creating novel avenues for research on power. The integrative framework also provides a foundation for an intervention-oriented body of knowledge on enabling power.
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Our research investigates when and why voice sustains or ceases at work. Based on the issue‐selling framework and approach/avoidance theory of power, we argue that leader humble behavior is a power‐equalizing behavior that facilitates subsequent voice after present voice. By contrast, leader abusive behavior is a power‐asymmetry‐exacerbating behavior that inhibits subsequent voice after present voice. The results from one experiment conducted in the United States and one two‐wave, two‐source survey study conducted in China demonstrated that when employee present voice was accompanied by leader humble behavior, employee psychological safety was enhanced, which, in turn, increased subsequent voice. However, when employee present voice was accompanied by leader abusive behavior, employee psychological safety was reduced, which, in turn, decreased subsequent voice. The field study further demonstrated that power differential perception mediated the interactive effects of employee present voice and leader behaviors on employee psychological safety and, consequently, on subsequent voice.
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يهدف هذا البحث الى التعرف على دور القيادة الإجررايي بأبعادها المتمثل )السياس التييتبعها القايد، تعزيز المرؤوسين، توفير المستلزمات، الإدارة بالاستثناء( في الحد من الصمت التنظيمي بأبعاده الاربع )الخوف من ردود فعل السلبي ، الخوف من المدراء، ضعف مهاراتالاتصال، عدم دعم الإدارة العليا(، وتم تصميم مخطط فرضي للبحث يعبر عن الفرضيات الرييسوالفرعي ، واستخدمت الاستبان كأداة لجمع البيانات، وتم توزيعها على ) 157 ( إداري ا كمستجيبينفي ) 15 ( كلي كعين للبحث وتم استرجراع ) 150 ( استبان صالح للتحليل. ولأجرل التأكد من صح.(SPSS V. الفرضيات خضعت لاختبارات متعددة من خلال استخدام البرنامج الاحصايي ( 20وانتهج البحث المنهج الوصفي التحليلي، وصل البحث الى عدد من الاستنتاجرات أهمها وجرود علاقةوتأثير معنوي موجرب بين القيادة الإجررايي والحد من الصمت التنظيمي، واقةترح البحث ضرورةقةيام بمشاورة ومعرف القدرات الذاتي للعاملين عند تكليفهم بمهام إضافي ، وإعطايهم مجال لتبنيأفكار جرديدة لديهم في الكليات المبحوث في الحد من الصمت التنظيمي.
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Sağlık kurumları sürekli değişen, gelişen kurumlardır. Bu nedenle yüksek teknolojiye sahiptirler. Yüksek teknolojiye sahip olmalarına rağmen insan emeğinin fazla olduğu, personel çalışma saatlerinin uzun olduğu, stres yükü fazla meslek gruplarının bir arada çalıştığı hizmet sektörleri arasında yer almaktadır. Bu nedenle sağlık kurumlarında yaşanacak olumsuzluklar telafisi olmayan sonuçlar doğurmaktadır. Sağlık kurumlarında etkin yönetim ilkelerinin benimsenebilmesi ve verimliliğin artırılabilmesi için karşılaşılabilecek olumsuzlukların önüne geçilmesi önem arz etmektedir.
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Purpose Information sharing is vital to organizational operations, yet employees are often reluctant to share negative information. This paper aims to gain insight into which employees will be reluctant to share negative information and when by drawing from the proactive motivation literature examining effects of proactive personality and motivational states on individuals’ willingness to share negative information. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional design was used, with data collected from a final sample of 393 individuals via an online survey. Hypotheses were tested using correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Findings Interactive effects indicate proactive individuals with accompanying high levels of role breadth self-efficacy (“can do”) or high levels of felt responsibility for constructive change (“reason to”) were less likely to be reluctant to share negative information. However, findings also suggest proactive individuals with lower levels of proactive motivation avoid sharing negative information. Originality/value The findings extend what is known about personality factors and employee willingness to share information to highlight which employees may be likely to avoid sharing negative information. The authors also examine the moderating influence of proactive motivational states on the relationships between proactive personality and reluctance to share negative information.
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There is an increasingly prevalent expectation in contemporary society that employees be passionate for their work. Here, we suggest that employers and employees can have different understandings of passion that potentially conflict. More specifically, we argue that although employers may often be well-intentioned, their emphasis on employee passion may at times amount to normative control and reflect a means to attain valued work outcomes. In contrast, employees may primarily view their pursuit of passion as an opportunity to self-actualize, and thereby, view passion as an end in itself. We propose that when employees notice that these two understandings of passion diverge, they experience uncertainty in adjudicating which understanding of passion—their own or their employer’s—to privilege. Critically, employees may feel responsible for and subsequently seek ways to reduce this uncertainty, and doing so places added demands that impedes employees’ ability to perform. We discuss why employers may not necessarily recognize how their understanding of passion can create challenges for employees, and examine the difficulties employers face in attempting to resolve the tensions employees experience. Subsequently, we develop an agenda for future research that highlights how individual, organizational, and cultural differences may lead to variation in divergent understandings of passion, and the critical role managers could play in helping address employees’ uncertainty.
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Job risk and organizational conflict create pervasive dilemmas within the tourism industry that significantly concern managers and practitioners. However, little research has informed the relationship between job risk and organizational conflict. Based on conservation of resources theory, this study adopted a multi-study design and examined the effect of perceived job risk on organizational conflict in the tourism industry in both tourist hotels (Study 1, n = 495) and tourist attractions (Study 2, n = 401). In addition, the roles of employee responsible behavior and employee silence in moderating the effect of job risk on organizational conflict were examined. Study 1 and study 2 results indicate that in the hotel and tourist attractions context perceived job risk is positively related to organizational conflict but neither employee responsible behavior nor employee silence has significant moderating role in the relationship between perceived job risk and organizational conflict. This study provides empirical support for the effect of perceived job risk on organizational conflict, and offers implications on organizational conflict management in hotels and tourist attractions.
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Although voice is communication that is intended to benefit the performance of collectives, little is known about the benefits or costs to individual task performance and what mechanisms drive these effects. Our research offers new theory to articulate and illustrate the conditions under which voice has positive versus negative effects on individual task performance by directly acknowledging that employees have many options for where to direct their ideas. We introduce an agency perspective on voice by theorizing that one fundamental reason why employees speak up is to generate the implementation of corrective action for issues affecting themselves and to the extent targets of voice have agency to facilitate action through implementation of voice, voicing employees should be more likely to realize performance benefits from speaking up. In a first field study, we present evidence that two characteristics—the hierarchical position of the voice target (boss versus peer) and the competence of the voice target—alter the relationship between voice and the voicing employee’s task performance. In a second field study, using an event-contingent design, we provide evidence of the unique mechanisms underlying how competent managers (via their resources) and competent peers (via their efficacy to act) affect how upward and sideways voices lead to idea implementation. We discuss the theoretical implications of these ideas and findings by highlighting how voice target characteristics influence not just the incidence of voice but also, its outcomes.
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Designers collaborate extensively with other stakeholders in professional settings. These actors frame the design situation in varying perspectives and go through a long negotiation process to create collectively agreed upon frames. Understanding this socio-collaborative aspect of the design process requires an expanded view of framing that considers power hierarchies and communication barriers in authentic settings. This study sheds light on the dynamics and practices underpinning collaborative framing. Based on a 3-month field study in an industrial design consultancy, we conducted qualitative analysis on in-situ, real-time data captured from 48 product development meetings and conversations. While the prevailing literature tends to assume that individual-level frames are equally expressed and successively developed among actors to culminate in collective-level frames, our analysis instead highlights that individual and collective-level frames constantly shape one another’s evolvement, that power relations feature in collaborative framing practices and that collaborative framing appears to be dominated by the recurrent revisitations of previous framings. By reconceptualising collaborative framing as a cross-level, power-related and recurrent process, our findings extend insights to advance framing theory in real-world design practice.KeywordsDesign processFramingCollaborative designProfessional design practiceField study
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هدفت الدراسة الحالية إلى التعرف على واقع الصمت التنظيمي لدى قادة المدارس الابتدائية بمدينة بريدة من وجهة نظر المشرفين التربويين والمعلمين؛ باستخدام المنهج الوصفي التحليلي، وقد استخدم الباحث استبانة من إعداده كأداة للدراسة، تم تطبيقها على جميع المشرفين التربويين بمدينة بريدة، وعددهم (213) مشرفا ومعلما ابتدائيا، وقد توصلت نتائج الدراسة إلى حصول الأداة على متوسط كلي (1.95 من 3) بتقدير ممارسة (متوسطة) وعلى مستوى الأبعاد حصل تخوف قائد المدرسة من التغذية الراجعة من قبل إدارة التعليم على أعلى متوسط (2.17) يليه التخوف من التغذية الراجعة من المعلمين بمتوسط (1.99) وثالثا ممارسة ما يتعلق بإساءة السطلة الرسمية بمتوسط (1.82) ورابعا ممارسة وسائل الاتصال بمتوسط (1.80) وجميعها بتقدير ممارسة (متوسطة)، كما كشفت الدراسة أن أهم أسباب الصمت التنظيمي قلة دعم الإدارة لمقترحات المعلمين، وتخوف قائد المدرسة من ردود أفعال إدارة التعليم، وقلة صلاحيات قائد المدرسة، وكثرة مسئوليات ومهام القائد، وضعف الخبرة، كما وُجدت فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية بين متوسطات استجابات العينة تبعاً لمتغير الوظيفة لصالح المشرفين التربويين، وتبعا لمتغير المؤهل العلمي لصالح حملة الدكتوراه، واستنادا للنتائج قدم الباحث عددا من التوصيات والمقترحات. من بينها: يجب أن يعمل قائد المدرسة على توفير فرص مشاركة كافية للمعلمين لطرح أفكارهم، على قائد المدرسة عدم الاحتفاظ بكل الصلاحيات لنفسه دون تفويض أحد من فريق العمل.
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تناول البحث موضوعاً على قدر من الأهمية للجامعات المعاصرة ممثلاً بأثر أبعاد المناخ التنظيمي ( الهيكل التنظيمي، نمط القيادة، نمط الاتصالات، المشاركة في اتخاذ القرارات، طبيعة العمل) في مظاهر الصمت التنظيمي. هدف البحث هو معرفة أثر أبعاد المناخ التنظيمي في مظاهر الصمت التنظيمي، وجرى اختيار جامعة زاخو لإجراء الجانب الميداني من البحث، وشملت عينة البحث (100) من الموظفين الإداريين في تلك الجامعة، وتم تصميم استمارة الاستبانة لجمع بيانات الجانب الميداني، وتم تحليل هذه البيانات باستخدام العديد من الأدوات الاحصائية. توصل البحث إلى مجموعة من الاستنتاجات من أهمها وجود مستويات عالية من أبعاد المناخ التنظيمي لدى المستجيبين ووجود مستويات متوسطة من مظاهر الصمت التنظيمي لديهم، ووجود علاقات ارتباط معنوية سالبة بين أبعاد المناخ التنظيمي ومظاهر الصمت التنظيمي وكذلك علاقة تأثير معنوية سالبة بينهما. وخلص البحث إلى مجموعة من المقترحات كان من أهمها ضرورة أن يعقد المدراء الإداريين لقاءات دورية مع الموظفين يسمح لهم للحوار دون قيود للتعرف على آرائهم ومقترحاتهم بخصوص كيفية بناء مناخ تنظيمي مناسب لتبادل المعلومات والمعرفة والتحدث عن المشاكل التنظيمية التي تواجههم وتشخيص العوامل التي تسبب شعورهم بالصمت التنظيمي والتصدي لتلك العوامل.
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How we see ourselves and how we want others to see us affect our behaviors. We often act in ways that support and protect our valued identities and self-perceptions. Research on the creative identity supports this idea. If we see ourselves as creative people, we act in ways that we associate with creativity. This might mean engaging in idea generation or other creativity-related behaviors. However, depending on what people subjectively associate with creativity, it also can lead to behaviors that we often associate with people who are creative like being unconventional or counter-normative. Engaging in those behaviors can lead to both moral and immoral behaviors in order to support one's creative identity.
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In this study, it was aimed to comparatively examine the levels of exposure to mobbing of physical education and branch teachers and organizational silence in terms of some variables. In the study, based on the comparative relational screening method, the levels of physical education and branch teachers' exposure to mobbing and organizational silence were compared according to the variables of gender, age, professional seniority, school level and school type. The sample of the research consists of 212 physical education and branch teachers working in Konya. Organizational Silence Scale and Negative Behaviours Questionnaire were used to collect research data. According to the research findings, physical education and branch teachers' exposure to mobbing and organizational silence levels show significant differences according to branch, gender, age and school type. In addition, there is a significant positive relationship between physical education and branch teachers' mobbing exposure and organizational silence levels. This research aimed to test the effects of mobbing and silence, which affect productivity and performance, on branch teachers, physical education and sports teachers. The fact that the research findings are based on quantitative data is an important limitation of the study.
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Objectives The purpose of this study is to determine the role of emotional intelligence in the relationship between the stress perceptions of emergency medicine doctors and their organizational silence behaviors. Methods Data were collected digitally from 434 doctors working in emergency departments in Turkey. On the assumption that perceived stress was effective on organizational silence behavior and that emotional intelligence mediates this relationship, hypotheses were developed and a mediating effect model was established. The research model and hypotheses were shaped through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Hayes 4th model was used to test the research hypotheses. The research model was tested via SPSS Process v4.1 by Andrew F. Hayes. Results According to the correlation analysis to determine the relationship between the variables, it was determined that perceived stress was positively correlated with organizational silence behavior, emotional intelligence was negatively correlated with perceived stress, and emotional intelligence was negatively correlated with organizational silence. As a result of the mediating effect model test, it was determined that emotional intelligence had a statistically significant mediating effect in the effect of perceived stress on organizational silence. Conclusion Within the framework of the findings, it is thought that emotional intelligence is a key variable in turning the negative energy between stress and silence into positive.
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This paper is an outcome of the business ethics course conducted during the third semester of the MBA course and aims to examine how a subordinate employee’s response, either by raising a concern or being quiet to repeated misbehavior of the leader, impacts an organization. Primary data was collected from the employees of mid-sized IT companies in India using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. Structural equation modeling has been used to analyze the data. Mediation analysis has been conducted to verify the mediating role of organizational culture. It is found that if an employee feels safe in an environment, they open up to suggestions or else suppress their thoughts to escape repercussion. The analysis shows that silence and voice in an organization have an impact on the organization’s culture. The implications of this study show that leaders violate the integrity of the organization by vandalizing the organization's objectives, outcomes, assets, and well-being of the co-employees. Previous studies have not focused on the mediating role of organizational culture on employee voice or silence.
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Wir lieben Kap. 11. Du gehst auf echte Großwildjagd nach den Energieräubern in Deinem Team. In unserer Praxiserfahrung stellen wir fest, dass viele Teams denken, sie haben keine Gemeinsamkeiten und seien daher kein richtiges Team. Aber eine Gemeinsamkeit scheint uns universell: große Energieräuber. Du erfährst in diesem Kapitel zwei wichtige Dinge. Erstens, wie Du ganz individuell in deinem Team herausfindest, was Deinen Leuten Energie abzapft (Methoden: Energie-Räuber-Coaching und Energie-Räuber-Portfolio-Matrix); und zweitens, wie Du die drei größten Energieräuber in Unternehmen eliminierst. Du erfährst, wie eine niederländische Pflegefirma zum beliebtesten Arbeitgeber wird, was Affen auf einer Leiter mit Entbürokratisierung zu tun haben und was wir von neuseeländischen Grundschülern über Vertrauen lernen können. Du lernst außerdem, was Nilpferde in Führungsetagen zu suchen haben, wie ein Japaner Weltmeister im Hotdog-Essen werden konnte und was wir von Disney Pixar Animation über das Vorwärtskommen lernen können. Wir haben uns entschieden, Lösungsstrategien für die drei häufigsten Energieräuber zu erarbeiten, da wir überzeugt sind, dass Du damit schon einmal auf dem richtigen Weg bist. Außerdem werden Dich die Praxisbeispiele und kreativen Herangehensweisen inspirieren, sodass Du am Ende mit einer tiefen Überzeugung das Kapitel beendest: Für jeden Energieräuber gibt es eine Lösung.
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The concepts of organizational democracy, organizational voice, and organizational performance have recently attracted the attention of businesses. In this study, the mediating role of organizational polyphony in the effect of organizational democracy on organizational performance was examined. The universe of the research consists of 390 employees working in a company operating in the food sector in Vienna. As a result of the research, it was determined that there is a significant and directly proportional relationship between organizational democracy and organizational performance. In addition, it has been determined from the research that organizational voice has a mediating role between organizational democracy and organizational performance
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In the environment of changes in working life and competition, organizations employ their employees by interacting with different individuals. These employees contribute to their organizations by working with many colleagues and managers. This study aims to examine the mediating effect of workplace ostracism on workplace loneliness and organizational silence. Individuals working in health services in public institutions in the Marmara Region constitute the study group. The study data were collected using an online survey method. This study concluded that workplace ostracism has a positive effect on workplace loneliness. Workplace ostracism and workplace loneliness affect organizational silence positively. In addition, workplace loneliness has a mediating role in the effect of workplace ostracism on organizational silence.
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Purpose Promotive and prohibitive voice behavior is essential for effective team performance and organizational sustainability. However, the existing literature is limited on the role of team voice in predicting employee voice behavior. The authors proposed that team members' voices serve as a cue for engagement in felt obligation for constructive change, which sets the path for employees' engagement in promotive and prohibitive voice behavior. This study further proposed that supervisor expectation for voice may alter the relationship between team voice and felt obligation for constructive change of employees. The authors' proposed model is based on social information processing theory. Design/methodology/approach The data were collected from 313 telecommunication sector employees and the companies supervisors through a multi-source time-lagged design. Linear regression analysis and the Preacher and Hayes Process for mediation and moderation were used to test the proposed hypothesis. Findings The results support the direct effect of team voice on promotive and prohibitive voice behavior, and the indirect effect of team voice on promotive voice behavior through the mediation of felt obligation for constructive change was also supported. However, mediation of felt obligation for constructive change between team voice and prohibitive voice behavior was not supported. The results also support the moderation of supervisor expectation for voice between team voice and felt obligation for constructive change. Originality/value Findings of the study may help organizational practitioners and managers about the value of promotive and prohibitive voice behavior for better team functioning through team voice. The study also highlights the importance of supervisor expectations for voice to strengthen the association between team voice and felt obligation for constructive change among employees. Both dimensions of voice behavior, i.e. promotive and prohibitive voice, are crucial for improved organizational functioning and preventing the organization from harm and loss. Organizations should create environments high on voice behavior to remain competitive and meet the challenges of dynamic business environments.
Article
The main purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between the transformational leadership behaviors of managers and organizational silence and organizational justice, and to determine the direction and strength of the relationship if there is a relationship between them. Moreover, the effect of managers' transformational leadership behaviors on organizational silence and organizational justice is also examined in this study. Therefore, the current research contributes to the related field by addressing the variables of transformational leadership, organizational silence and organizational justice. The changing of environment which the organizations are located in, technological, economic and cultural changes force organizations to change. With this situation, there is a need for leaders to manage change in organizations. These developments have led to the emergence of transformative leadership theory. The concept of transformational leadership is a concept that emerged in the last quarter of the twentieth century and is also used in the literature as transformational or transformative leadership. Organizational silence is defined as employees not expressing or hiding their work-related concerns, ideas and thoughts knowingly. Organizational justice refers to the positive perception of justice formed within the organization by employees feeling that they are respected and valued thanks to a fair management. The research consists of the process that analyses the data taken from 478 employees working in a selected Metropolitan Municipality in the Eastern Anatolia Region with the survey method. According to the results, it is observed that the transformative leadership behavior of the managers has a positive effect on organizational justice and a negative effect on organizational silence. It is determined that there is a negative relationship between the transformational leadership behavior of managers and organizational silence, and a positive relationship with organizational justice.
Article
Based on social cognitive theory (SCT), we develop and test a model that links ethical psychological climate to ethically‐focused proactive behavior (i.e., ethical voice and ethical taking charge) via two distinct mechanisms (i.e., duty orientation and moral potency). Results from multi‐wave field studies conducted in the United States, Turkey, France, Vietnam, and India demonstrate that an ethical psychological climate indirectly influences employees’ ethical voice and ethical taking charge behaviors through the dual mechanisms of duty orientation and moral potency. Additionally, we find that individuals’ moral attentiveness strengthened these mediating processes. Together, these findings suggest that ethical psychological climate is an important antecedent of ethically‐focused proactive behavior by stimulating individuals’ sense of duty and enhancing their moral potency, particularly when employees are already highly attuned to moral issues.
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Although teacher emotion has been recognized as one important factor affecting teaching, learning, and teachers’ wellbeing, less attention has been paid to its role in school management. As an emotional perspective of explaining organizational behavior, the Affective Event Theory was used to uncover the emotional mechanism of the associations between leader feedback quality and teacher voice behavior. A sample of 491 teachers from 27 primary and secondary schools participated in this study. A moderated mediation model was used in data analysis. The result demonstrated that: First, leader feedback quality was positively associated with teacher voice behavior. Second, teacher positive emotion mediated the relationship between leader feedback quality and teacher voice behavior while teacher negative emotion played a masking effect. Third, leader feedback accuracy moderated the relationship between leader feedback quality and teacher negative emotion.
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Purpose Employee voice behavior is an important source of corporate competitiveness but employees often face difficulties in voicing their opinions. This research analyzes how authentic leadership may increase psychological safety perceived by employees, consequently encouraging employees to actively share their ideas. In addition, the authors explore the unique concept of Zhongyong thinking, a way of thinking that is common in cultures rooted in Confucianism. The authors analyze how Zhongyong thinking may affect the relationship between psychological safety and employee voice behavior. Design/methodology/approach For the empirical analysis of authentic leadership and employee voice behavior in the Chinese context, the authors distributed surveys to employees working in various different industries in various provinces in China. The authors distributed 250 surveys in total and 213 surveys were used for analyses. Findings The authors' empirical analyzes illustrate that authentic leadership increases employee voice behavior, partially mediated by psychological safety. The authors also analyzed how psychological safety's effect on employee voice behavior could be moderated by Zhongyong thinking. The results demonstrate that the effect of psychological safety on voice behavior is weaker when employees are capable of exercising Zhongyong thinking. Originality/value Zhongyong thinking is still a relatively new concept that has not been studied thoroughly, and to the authors' knowledge, Zhongyong thinking has never been studied as a moderator in the relationship between psychological safety and employee voice behavior.
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Sessizlik, her ne kadar ulusal kültürümüzde olumlu olarak ifade edilen atasözleriyle yer bulmuş olsa da işletmelerde çalışanların sessizlik yaşamasının nedeni örgüt de yaşanan olumsuzluklardan kaynaklanmaktadır.
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Drawing on categorization theory and labeling theory, we argue that individuals working in or transacting with the organization tend to be perceived largely in terms of social categories (e.g., gender, job title)-though more individuated perceptions are possible if the perceiver has sufficient motivation and time. The primary functions of this categorization are to structure and simplify the social environment and to foster social control. Characteristics perceived to be prototypical of category members are often attributed to the individual such that he or she comes to be seen as exemplifying the category. The perceiver's frame of reference is a product of the organizational context, role and task demands, and certain individual characteristics. The labeling process tends to become more automatic with task experience as the perceiver develops a repertoire of expected categories. However, given the ambiguity of social stimuli and the multiplicity of potential labels, the act of labeling is often a negotiated process between the perceiver and the individual. The effects of labeling include altered interpersonal interactiolIS, formation of outgroups and ingroups, changes in social identity, and self-fulfilling prophecies that seemingly validate the labels. Tactics that may be utilized to cope with the more negative effects include embracing, distancing, passing, and repudiating, as well as more collective approaches. This perspective on labeling may help explain such diverse phenomena as stereotyping, tokenism, deifying, scapegoating, group polarization, and social identity formation.
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In-depth interviews with business school faculty members suggest that work relationships are more than strategically chosen means to career mobility. Relationships are career-defining ends as well, and negative relationships may be as consequential as helpful ties. Findings also showed significant gender differences: women, more than men, told stories about harm; men, more than women, told stories about help. Workplace relationships may play different roles for professionals and managers, and men's and women's different relational experiences may foster different career logics, or ways of striving for success.
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In this study, we examined 82 accounts of "issue selling" to better understand managers' implicit theories for successfully shaping change from below by directing the attention of top management. The study reveals the importance of various issue-selling moves, including packaging, involvement, and timing. Managerial accounts uncover three kinds of contextual knowledge that are critical to the execution of issue-selling moves. The study shows managers actively shaping the issue-selling microprocesses that contribute to organizational change.
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A review of the literature revealed that superiors were often thought to be poor sources of performance feedback for their subordinates. A study was undertaken to discover if and when delay and upward distortion of feedback occurred. It was expected that feedback to moderately low performers would be delayed longer and distorted upward more than would feedback to moderately high performers. Further, superiors of moderately low performers were expected to anticipate a less pleasant reaction to feedback by superiors and to believe that their subordinates liked them less than superiors of moderately high performers. A 2–2 design was used with the factors feedback vs no feedback and moderately high vs moderately low subordinate performance. 168 college students served as superiors of a subordinate who was a confederate. Ss monitored and rated their subordinate's performance, then those in the feedback condition gave feedback at a time of their own choosing. All hypotheses were supported except the delay hypothesis. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Conducted an examination of the relative explanatory power of procedural justice (E. A. Lind and T. R. Tyler, 1988) and gender socialization (S. Riger; see record 1991-27670-001) to explain the consistently low reporting rates of sexual harassment in academia. Demographic, situational, and attitudinal variables representing various obstacles to filing formal grievances were assessed in 118 college and graduate students, staff, and faculty divided into 51 reporters and 67 nonreporters of sexual harassment. Procedural justice, rather than gender socialization, was a superior explicator of the reliably low reporting rate. The most important attitudinal predictor of nonreporting was a factor-derived, futility index assessing uncertainty about the response efficacy of filing a grievance. Implications for a broader theoretical framework are discussed as well as ways in which formal agencies could refine their grievance procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the impact of trust in the superior, perceived influence of the superior, and mobility aspirations of subordinates on upward communication behavior. 429 members at all job levels in 4 diverse organizations completed a 20-item questionnaire. While the importance of trust as a facilitator of open information exchange was supported by the results, this was less true of influence of the superior and mobility aspirations. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This paper examines how the structure and content of individuals' networks on the job affect intraorganizational mobility. Consistent with prior research, we find that mobility is enhanced by having large, dense networks of informal ties for acquiring information and resources. However, studies of networks and organizational careers have overlooked the importance of informal ties in transmitting social identity and normative expectations within organizations, which is facilitated by networks with the opposite features: smaller size and greater density. We use this argument as the basis for developing a typology of network contents, and we document this interaction between network structure and content in analyses of mobility among employees of a high technology firm. We also show how the effects of tie duration on mobility vary across types of network ties. The implications of these findings for theory and research on networks and organizational mobility are discussed.
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Although employee silence is pervasive in organizations, its study has been neglected for a variety of reasons, including the assumption that it is a unitary concept meaning little more than inactive endorsement. We review disparate literatures to reveal additional meanings and conceptual complexities related to silence to stimulate its study in work organizations. We develop the concept of employee silence and introduce two attendant forms (i.e. quiescence and acquiescence) along with their behavioral, affective, and cognitive components. We also offer a model that explains why some mistreated employees become silent, how some break their silence, and what organizational contexts produce and reinforce employee silence. Implications of the model for human resource management as well as for future research are discussed.
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The authors argue that there are powerful forces in many organizations that cause widespread withholding of information about potential problems or issues by employees. They refer to this collective-level phenomenon as 'organizational silence.' In their model the authors identify contextual variables that create conditions conducive to silence and explore the collective sensemaking dynamics that can create the shared perception that speaking up is unwise. They also discuss some of the negative consequences of systemic silence, especially for organizations' ability to change and develop in the context of pluralism. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Review is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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A growing number of sociologists, political scientists, economists, and organizational theorists have invoked the concept of social capital in the search for answers to a broadening range of questions being confronted in their own fields. Seeking to clarify the concept and help assess its utility for organizational theory, we synthesize the theoretical research undertaken in these various disciplines and develop a common conceptual framework that identifies the sources, benefits, risks, and contingencies of social capital.
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"To appear in: Barry Staw (ed.) Annual review of research in organizational behavior, vol. 1, New York: JIP Press, 1978."
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varying in the extent to which the message connoted gocd or bad news for the recipient. Within a standard communication situation, subjects were asked to indicate if they would transmit each message and to list their reasons for the decision to transmit or not transmit. Results of a content analysis of reasons indicated that, with increasing frequency, persons justify their communication decisions in terms of self-relevant reasons, normative reasons, and recipientrelevant reasons. The impact on chese reasons of message valence and whether the decision is to communicate or not is also explored. Folk wisdom suggests that no news is good news. However, recent, systematic investigation of situations relevant to this aphorism leads to just the opposite conclusion, namely, that bad news tends to be withheld while good news is freely transmitted. This phenomenon has been referred to as the MUM effect, i.e., a tendency to keep MUM about Unwanted Messages (Rosen & Tesser, 1970). Tesser and Rosen (1975) have reviewed a good bit of evidence suggesting that the MUM effect is a result of three factors: the communicator's concern for himself, the communicator's concern for the recipient, and norms concerning the transmission of various messages. In none of the studies reviewed, however, were subjects systematically asked why they did or would communicate a particular message or why they did not or would not communicate a particular message. The present study was undertaken to fill that void. In spite of the fact that subjects are sometimes unable or unwilling to describe the variable( s ) that determine their behavior (Freedman, 1969), often their self-reports are quite accurate, especially with respect to their propensity to communicate a particular message ( Tesser, Rosen, & Batchelor, 1972a). Also, subjects' self-generated reasons for communicating and not communicating may usefully serve to validate previous'hypotheses as well as to suggest new hypotheses.
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This paper reports the results of two longitudinal studies we conducted to find out when dissatisfied employees will respond to their dissatisfaction with exit, voice, loyalty, or neglect. We found consistent evidence that exiters were affected by the costs and the efficacy of their responses as well as the attractiveness of their employing organization. Loyalists were primarily affected by the efficacy of their responses, although, unexpectedly, loyalty resembled entrapment in the organization more than it did supportive allegiance to the organization. Neglecters were primarily affected by the costs and the efficacy of their responses, and voicers were very difficult to predict. We conclude by arguing that we need a much better understanding of voice and loyalty in order to predict better how employees will respond to dissatisfaction.
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Previous research on organizational citizenship behavior indicates that such behavior is critical for organizational effectiveness, but little theoretical work details how it might contribute to enhanced organizational functioning. Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) argue that a firm's social capital comprises a critical source of sustainable organizational advantage. Based on their work, we suggest that citizenship behaviors enhance firm functioning by contributing to the development of social capital in organizations; specifically, citizenship behaviors contribute to the creation of structural, relational, and cognitive forms of social capital.
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It was hypothesized that reluctance to communicate bad news (the MUM effect) is partially due to communicators assuming that recipients do not want to be told bad news. In a design in which news (Good versus Bad) and recipient desire to hear the news (Low versus. Not Expressed versus High) were independently manipualted, 60 male Ss were given the choice of transmitting or not transmiting the news (an aptitude score). Greatest news transmission was to recipients perceived as having high desire to hear (p .005). Potential recipients of good news were assumed to have high desire to hear more often that were potential recipients of bad news (p=.30). The MUM effect was replicated (p .50).
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The common sense notion that people will be more reluctant to communicate information which is negative rather than positive for the recipient was tested under conditions that would rule out the following variables as determinats of this difference: the recipient's prior behavior toward the communicator, specified present or anticipated role relationships and/or interaction, a unit relation between communicator and message, and obvious anticipated rewards and punishments as a consequence of transmission (or non-transmission). Even when these factors were controlled for the hypothesized effect was obtained $(p<.001)$ . The difference in communication rates as a function of whether the news was good or bad was discussed in terms of some of the costs which might inhere in the communication situation per se and of other variables which might moderate the relationship.
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This paper reviews the upward communication literature and identifies factors which facilitate or impede upward information flow in organizations. Studies are classified into the following categories: (1) subordinate characteristics, (2) superior characteristics, (3) the superior/subordinate relationship, (4) message characteristics, and (5) structural characteristics. A model is presented to summarize factors associated with the frequency, accuracy, and utility of upward communication. The model is integrated into a broader information processing framework which emphasizes the role of upward communication in managerial and unit effectiveness. A number of directions for future research on upward information flow are suggested.
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This article reports the results of two studies examining some factors that increase the likelihood that employees will voice to their supervisors. The way employees perceive that their supervisors manage employee voice was identified as a major cause of the likelihood that employees will voice upward. The Supervisor as Voice Manager Scale is presented along with data demonstrating its reliability and validity. Theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed.
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A dynamic model of personal control is proposed in this paper. Personal control is defined as the individual's beliefs, at a given point in time, in his or her ability to effect a change, in a desired direction, on the environment. Individuals in organizations are viewed as desirous of increasing their personal control. It is argued that employees of organizations persist in their attempts to restore a balance in their control perceptions, even when desired outcomes may not be attainable. Managerial implications of the model are described.
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In hazardous industries, regulatory agencies confront the dual mission of enforcing regulations while learning from experience. This research examines how incentives, designed for rule enforcement, influence the gathering and interpretation of hazard-related information that is essential for learning. It explores a high reliability theory argument that strict adherence to standard operating procedures can coexist with organizational learning from mishaps. Drawing on interviews with participants in aviation safety monitoring systems, the research analyzes archival data. The findings suggest that incentives for compliance alternatively decreased or increased the availability of hazard-related iinformation, depending on the design system. The research supports a political theory of organizational reliability.
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Examines and defends two forms of dissent in organizational life, "rocking boats" and "blowing whistles." Suggests ways speech communication teachers can prepare students to cope with the organizational world. (PD)
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Previous research on organizational citizenship behavior indicates that such behavior is critical for organizational effectiveness, but little theoretical work details how it might contribute to enhanced organizational functioning. Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) argue that a firm's social capital comprises a critical source of sustainable organizational advantage. Based on their work, we suggest that citizenship behaviors enhance firm functioning by contributing to the development of social capital in organizations; specifically, citizenship behaviors contribute to the creation of structural, relational, and cognitive forms of social capital.
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A group of 52 superiors and 52 respective subordinates were randomly selected from 3 major industrial organizations and evaluated on 3 measures: accuracy of upward communication, mobility, and trust-influence. Hypotheses were tested concerning the relationship between upward mobility among executives and the accuracy of communication of problem-related information to superiors. In general, the relationship was found to be negative and significant. It is conditioned by the degree of interpersonal trust held by the executives for their superiors, and there is some indication that it is also conditioned by the degree of perceived influence of superiors by subordinates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article is based on a much longer paper published in German in Ernst Forsthoff and Reinhard Horstel (Eds.) Standorte im Zeitstrom: Festschrift fur Arnold Gehlen. Zum 70. Geburtstag am 29.1.1974. Frankfurt am Main: Athenaum, 1974. The longer version documents in detail (33 tables) the results of surveys conducted to test the propositions contained in the five hypotheses presented in this article. The propositions are confirmed or refuted, or they are tentatively supported by the data, or they await further testing. Research is being continued. A complete English translation of the paper is available to interested scholars upon request.
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Recollection of Emotional Events among Children and AdultsNon-conscious Access Routes to Traumatic MemoryInterconnected Representation of an Affective ExperienceRepresentation of Emotional Events in an Associative Memory MatrixConclusion AcknowledgmentsReferences
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Obvious strengths, hidden barriers -- The silent killers -- How the six barriers interact to block strategy implementation and learning -- What can be done? -- The principles of effective management -- Can the silent killers be overcome?
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Según el autor de esta obra, el aprendizaje organizacional es una competencia que todas las organizaciones deben desarrollar. Mientras mejores son las organizaciones para aprender, más probable es que sean capaces de detectar y corregir errores. En un primer apartado se abordan las defensas organizacionales, entendiéndose las mismas como las políticas, prácticas o acciones que impiden que los participantes experimenten confianza para expresar sus inconformidades. Después, se exploran los obstáculos en torno a varias funciones administrativas clave como: contalibilidad administrativa y presupuestación, estrategia, y sistemas de información. Finalmente, se analizan los recursos humanos, en especial el aprendizaje por experiencia, el desarrollo organizacional, y las prácticas de cambio.
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Issue selling is an important mechanism for creating change initiatives in organizations. This paper presents two studies that examine what middle managers think about as they decide whether or not to sell strategic issues to top management. In Study 1 middle managers identify themes that indicate a favorable or unfavorable context for issue selling. Top management’s willingness to listen and a supportive culture were the most often named contributors to context favorability, while fear of negative consequences, downsizing conditions and uncertainty were thought to signal that a context was unfavorable for issue selling. Study 2 identifies factors that middle managers associate with image risk in the context of issue selling. Violating norms for issue selling, selling in a politically vulnerable way and having a distant relationship with top management were regarded as major contributors to a middle manager’s level of image risk. Both studies enrich our understanding of the social psychological mechanisms that undergird the strategic change process. © 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/34603/1/881_ftp.pdf
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Two studies investigated the effect of good mood on cognitive processes. In the first study, conducted in a shopping mall, a positive feeling state was induced by giving subjects a free gift, and good mood, thus induced, was found to improve subjects' evaluations of the performance and service records of products they owned. In the second study, in which affect was induced by having subjects win or lose a computer game in a laboratory setting, subjects who had won the game were found to be better able to recall positive material in memory. The results of the two studies are discussed in terms of the effect that feelings have on accessibility of cognitions. In addition, the nature of affect and the relationship between good mood and behavior (such as helping) are discussed in terms of this proposed cognitive process.
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Distortion of upward communication by subordinates is viewed as instrumental for attainment of need-goals. The study investigates relationships between distortion of upward communication, needs of subordinates, and aspects of organizational climate. Distortion of upward communication is negatively related to level of security and positively related to achievement needs; also positively related to a "heteronomous" organizational climate and negatively related to an "autonomous" climate.
Freedom inside the organization
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Ewing, D. W. 1977. Freedom inside the organization. New York: Dutton.
The influence of positive affect on the decision rule in risk situations
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‘Enron official says many knew about shaky company finances
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Out on a limb: The role of context and impression management in selling gender-equity issues
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Ashford, S. J., Rothbard, N. P., Piderit, S. K., & Dutton, J. E. 1998. Out on a limb: The role of context and impression management in selling gender-equity issues. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43: 23-57.