Article

Ten Myths of Science: Reexamining What We Think We Know About the Nature of Science

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Abstract

This article addresses and attempts to refute several of the most widespread and enduring misconceptions held by students regarding the enterprise of science. The ten myths discussed include the common notions that theories become laws, that hypotheses are best characterized as educated guesses, and that there is a commonly-applied scientific method. In addition, the article includes discussion of other incorrect ideas such as the view that evidence leads to sure knowledge, that science and its methods provide absolute proof, and that science is not a creative endeavor. Finally, the myths that scientists are objective, that experiments are the sole route to scientific knowledge and that scientific conclusions are continually reviewed conclude this presentation. The paper ends with a plea that instruction in and opportunities to experience the nature of science are vital in preservice and inservice teacher education programs to help unseat the myths of science.

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... Finally, in this section, there will be discussion of each of the key aspects and a discussion of misconceptions regarding each NOS aspect. This chapter adopts and expands on the "myth" approach used in previous publications (McComas 1996(McComas , 2015(McComas , 2017. ...
... This emphasis on diverse ways is infrequently depicted in science textbooks which tend to emphasize a single scientific method to describe scientific inquiries Sterner 1998;Bauer 1992;. One of the most prevalent myths about science is scientists use a single method to solve problems McComas 1996;Bauer 1992;. There is some utility in discussing the single scientific method to identify the steps and characteristics of scientific investigations but this one-size-fit all model does not accurately reflect the diverse approaches that real-world scientists take when conducting investigations. ...
... The traditional step-by-step scientific method often included in textbooks as the school science version of scientific inquiry typically lists the following steps: (1) recognition of a problem, (2) collection of relevant data, (3) formulation of hypoth-eses, (4) testing of hypothesis, and (5) drawing conclusions (Dressel et al. 1960). Certainly these events or steps do occur as scientists generate knowledge, but as Cooper 2002;McComas 1996; and many others have pointed out, a stepwise model for inquiry is not reflective of how real science is conducted and using this model, therefore, fails to portray accurately the lively and diverse processes scientists use in approaching their investigations. ...
Chapter
Nature of science (NΟS) is considered to be an essential aspect of science literacy. However, the incorporation of NΟS into school practice turns out to be challenging. History of science (HOS) has been repeatedly acknowledged as valuable in teaching NOS. We propose that stories derived from HOS should be introduced in class by storytelling followed by a conversation. Storytelling has been a universally successful teaching and learning method ever since humans started to communicate through speech, yet it remains intemporal and modern. By the term “storytelling” we mean the act of someone telling a story orally, live, in his/her own words. We propose story-organizing and storytelling tips for effective storytelling based on HOS. We include examples of stories that can illuminate NOS aspects, and we examine the attribution of storytelling to understanding different NOS aspects. Our research findings reveal that telling stories derived from the HOS in combination with class conversation may be a sufficient method to teach NOS, in an easy and satisfying way for the teachers to apply.
... Inquiry requires identification of assumptions, use of critical and logical thinking, and consideration of alternative explanations. (NRC, 1996, p. 23) Since its introduction to the discourse by John Dewey (1910b) as a philosophical theory how science -in general -extends its knowledge, scientific inquiry has -in schoolsfrequently (and mistakenly; Tang et al., 2009) been equated with hands-on science (Hodson, 2014), experimentation (Lederman et al., 2014), or "the" Scientific Method, a stepwise heuristic scientists assumedly employ in their research (Ioannidou & Erduran, 2021;McComas, 1996;Woodcock, 2014). Probably, it is this distorted understanding of scientific inquiry in schools that the Practices aim to transcend ("the specific practice of inquiry": Michaels et al., 2008, p. 34). ...
... 10). Its prominence in, e.g., textbooks has made it a virtual myth according to which all research scientists adhere to this prescribed sequence (McComas, 1996(McComas, , 2020bWoodcock, 2014). Although actual ways of scientific inquiry may be "few in number and capable of formulation" (Schwab, 1960b, p. 1), school science appears to have decided on spreading a single, i.e., hypothetico-deductive approach which implies a methodological monism that defies authentic inquiry. ...
... NRC, 1996). Nonetheless, scientific inquiry in schools has often been equated with hypothesis testing by experiment (Furtak & Penuel, 2019;Hodson, 1998;Ioannidou & Erduran, 2021;Lederman et al., 2014;Reiff et al., 2002;Windschitl, 2004) -and often falsely so (Abrahams & Millar, 2008;McComas, 1996McComas, , 2005. Experimentation has been understood to be the quintessential empirical activity of science (Kirschner, 1992;Manz et al., 2020), and thus, the laboratory has become a defining aspect of science classes (Hofstein & Kind, 2012;Hofstein & Lunetta, 2004). ...
Article
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There are some crucial critiques on scientific inquiry and “the” Scientific Method in current science education. Recent research literature is replete with arguments against inquiry’s legitimacy to be included in science classes, and it has even been abandoned from the Next Generation Science Standards . Critics of scientific inquiry in schools blame it to be a caricature of authentic inquiry suffering from five shortcomings: (1) knowledge becomes desocialized from its generative contexts, (2) scientific inquiry in schools suggests methodological monism favoring (3) a primacy of experimentation , (4) which portrays scientific inquiry as a knowledge automaton (5) raising an illusion of determination with regard to the generation of knowledge. This article argues for a reorientation of scientific inquiry in schools tentatively embracing “the” Scientific Method anew since critics appear not to sufficiently consider that scientific inquiry operates differently in schools from science. It will be shown that most critiques can be defused when untangling such an illegitimate mix-up of science proper with school science. It will be argued that current (and recent) descriptions of how science generates knowledge lack authoritative validity and should be fundamentally revisited. “The” Scientific Method will be shown to be a valid idealization that can serve as a frame of reference for introductory science classes. Still, it is understood that science education needs to extend beyond “the” Scientific Method if it is to prepare for science-related careers.
... Scientists are similarly shaped by the paradigm of theory through which they intellectually entered the field . Thus, we must be careful not to uncritically confer the objectivity of science upon any individual scientist (McComas, 1996). ...
... Joly would not have used thermodynamics and Kelvin would not have used sodium concentration. It is at this level that science is deeply influenced by the experience of the individual scientist and, thus, both subjective and highly creative (McComas, 1996). The scientist will approach a problem with their personal lexicon. ...
... However just because there is some experience of connection and sense making does not mean that there is correct understanding . The scientific project itself is never a lone activity regardless of the caricature of the mad professor or the individualist way in which the scientific method is sometimes presented (McComas, 1996). The judgement and decision making parts of the process are an inherent part of the scientific method and require engagement with the community. ...
... The conventional misconception about the variable nature of science is the claim that science and scientific methods provide conclusive evidence (McComas, 1996). Although scientific knowledge is reliable and long-term, it is not precise and absolute. ...
... The traditional misconception in this dimension is that all scientists are objective (McComas, 1996). Although science strives to be objective, the development of scientific knowledge always includes subjectivity. ...
... It is one of the common misconceptions that science is a methodical process rather than a creative one (McComas, 1996). Although experimentation and observation are prerequisites for science, creativity and imagination are manifested in every scientific stage (NSTA, 2000). ...
... Yet, more colloquial, everyday use of the term involves characterizing ideas that are conjectures of possible explanations, even perhaps hypotheses, but lacking much, if any, evidentiary support. This variation in epistemological value, confounded through language, also lays the groundwork for another NOS misconception involving an inaccurate progression of theories into scientific laws, which are grand descriptive ideas that serve a different epistemological function in science than theories (Flick & Lederman, 2004;McComas, 1996). ...
... Figure 1 also provides an image of this particular sign. Although the development of this shared use of the sign is understandable, the conflation of "evidence" with "proof" serves as a well-established misconception regarding NOS, as the concept of "proof" directly contradicts the tentative yet durable nature of scientific knowledge claims (Flick & Lederman, 2004;McComas, 1996). Thus, to consistently use this shared sign to describe information and analyses that support a particular knowledge claim could also confuse DHH students that such information has enough epistemic value that it is beyond critique and revision, which does not reflect how evidence should be considered in science classrooms (Osborne, 2014). ...
Article
Science classrooms have been demonstrated to be educational contexts with unique and challenging language demands. Enhanced cognitive and linguistic demands arising from an emphasis on the science and engineering practices (SEPs) and the nature of science (NOS) in the Next Generation Science Standards warrant consideration of how to support students with different language abilities. Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) students must negotiate multiple languages in the science classroom, including academic science vocabulary, written English, and spoken American Sign Language (ASL). However, science‐specific ASL vocabulary is rather limited, and current development efforts mostly focus on developing signs for more traditional content vocabulary. Yet, effective science instruction for DHH students must also provide them opportunities to engage in and communicate about the NOS and the functions of the SEPs. The current study explores the availability of such ASL resources across a body of science‐specific resources available for teachers of DHH students. Reviewing a body of publicly available resources, researchers identified a small list of 21 ASL signs that are common across multiple resources. These signs, and the larger data set, were reviewed to identify trends and patterns across them and how well they communicate scientific meanings for NOS and the SEPs. Issues that emerged and classroom implications are discussed.
... It has been said that teachers do not have a clear idea of the values or assumptions that scientists make in developing scientific knowledge (Morrison, Raab & Ingram, 2009). According to previous studies, teachers have many misconceptions about NOS and these ideas could pose problems for effective scientific teaching (Jun-Young & Lederman, 2018;Leinonen, Haaranen, Kesonen, Koponen, Hirvonen & Asikainen, 2020;McComas 1996;Ucar, 2012), although it has been shown that teachers' conceptions of the nature of science do not necessarily influence all of their classroom practice (Lederman, 1999). It has also been stated that teachers' view about NOS are related to their religious opinions and their adherence to positivist science (Akerson & Donnelly, 2008). ...
... On the basis of our methodological approach to data analysis, our contention is that each period of the philosophy of science can be understood as a set of theoretical models that theorize on what science is and how it works (see McComas, 1996). Those models are aimed at interpreting distinct central aspects of science as a process and as a product, such as the relations between facts and theories, the modes of reasoning deemed valid by the scientific community, the construction of specific technical languages to 'capture' the world, the diverse contexts in which science is developed, the ways in which scientific theories evolve in time, etc. ...
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This article presents the results of a piece of research that analyzed the views on the nature of science (NOS) among student teachers enrolled in programs of Primary Education at two public universities in Spain. Previous studies have reported that science teachers maintain ‘eclectic’ epistemological perspectives on science; in this article, we test if such a hypothesis holds when teachers’ NOS ideas are ‘anchored’ in specific periods and topics of the philosophy of science. We studied 114 prospective teachers attending an undergraduate teaching course with emphasis on the natural sciences at the Universities of Burgos and Valladolid in the period of 2017-18. A Likert-scale questionnaire with 50 items was applied to determine trends in those teachers’ epistemological views on science. The results showed that teachers’ views are mostly correlated with the philosophical period of Logical Positivism/Received View, and to some extent to the period of Recent and Contemporary Accounts. Regarding the classical epistemological topics of correspondence, methodologies, intervention, evolution and representation, teachers’ views could be related to the period of Logical Positivism/Received View and Critical Rationalism, but also to the New Philosophy of Science. The main conclusion of this study is that teachers’ expressed views on NOS are epistemologically eclectic to a much smaller degree when examined with more detail concerning specific periods and topics of the philosophy of science.
... To accomplish these goals, a Likert-scale format is primarily used, although validity and reliability are enhanced by requiring participants to answer a constructed response for each of the six dimensions measured (Deng et al., 2011). Common naïve views of NOSSI, as informed by literature (such as McComas, 1996), were incorporated into the test. After development and trialling, SUSSI was validated (Liang et al., 2006) and implemented in an international comparative study (Liang et al., 2009). ...
... This finding suggests that naïve views of the NOSSI may possibly be taught in South African science courses at tertiary undergraduate level. This is certainly conceivable, given the prevalence, in science instruction and support material elsewhere, of views such as the existence of a single scientific method (Tang, Coffey, Elby & Levin, 2010) and hypotheses progressing to theory and then law status (McComas, 1996). Similarly, Liang et al. (2009) suggest that the reason that the Turkish and US respondents performed slightly worse in the SUSSI test than the Chinese respondents was that supporting material that promoted NOSSI misconceptions was prevalent in Turkey and the US. ...
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The convenience sample used in the study reported on here consisted of 91 students enrolled in the primary and middle school Postgraduate Certificate in Education course for 2 consecutive years at a South African university. We used the Student Understanding of Science and Science Inquiry instrument to answer questions about these students' knowledge of the nature of science and scientific inquiry compared to that published for pre-service primary and middle school teachers from China, Turkey, and the United States of America (USA), whether the changes proposed for the instrument enhanced its reliability, and whether any correlation could be found to these students' age and educational factors. The findings show that these South African student teachers shared similar levels of knowledge of the nature of science and scientific inquiry to their counterparts from Turkey and the USA, all of which were less sophisticated than that of the Chinese students. The test was found to have a high degree of reliability in the South African context, with the proposed changes to the instrument doing little to enhance this. The older students and those who did not study any tertiary science or mathematics courses scored statistically significantly higher. We suggest that the confirmatory nature of tertiary practical science work and exposure to the complexity of science in postgraduate work or employment in industry could explain these findings.
... Driver, Leach, Millar, and Scott exemplify this view of understanding the nature of science by describing it as: …ideas which a student has about science, as distinct from their ideas about the natural world itself, how the body of public knowledge called science has been established and is added to; what our grounds are for considering it reliable knowledge; how the agreement which characterizes much of science is maintained (1996, p.13) This particular way of de ning an understanding of NOS is re ected in the teaching of "aspects of NOS" or "NOS tenets"-statements about science such as "science is based on empirical evidence" (McComas and Olson 1998) and in confronting myths about the nature of science (McComas 1996). For example, a student who understands NOS would understand human elements of science, such as creativity being vital to scienti c work. ...
Chapter
Although there have been both contributions and debate among science educators regarding the best way to assess understanding of NOS for research purposes (Chen 2006; Chen et al. 2013; Elby and Hammer 2001; Lederman et al. 2002), teachers’ classroom strategies for assessing their students’ understanding of NOS have received only minimal attention. Studies have examined the utility of explicit approaches to teaching about NOS, which are defined as approaches in which NOS is “… intentionally planned for, taught, and assessed (emphasis added)” (Lederman et al. 2001, p. 137), yet this latter component (assessment of NOS) is often not addressed in research that examines teachers’ NOS instruction.
... Tanto autores mais próximos da tendência "positivista" (como Francis Bacon, Auguste Comte ou Karl Popper) quanto os mais próximos da tendência "construtivista" (como Thomas Kuhn, Paul Feyerabend ou Bruno Latour) não adotariam, em geral, esse tipo de postura" (Ibid, 2013, p. 217) Uma outra possibilidade de classificação das diferentes visões sobre a natureza da ciência consiste em separá-la pelos aspectos "consensuais" entre os vários filósofos da ciência ou por agrupa-los por sua semelhança familiar (family resemblance) (Moura, 2014). Entre os defensores da tendências de aspectos consensuais da ciência podemos citar El-Hani (2006), Gil Perez et al (2001), McComas (1996), McComas et al (1998) e Pumfrey (1991. Estes pesquisadores acreditam que os professores devem enfatizar o ensino nos pontos de convergência das diferentes epistemologias da ciência. ...
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O livro didático é um dos mais importantes recursos didáticos utilizados pelos professores. É uma fonte que auxilia o docente no planejamento e execução das aulas. Apesar de sua importância para a educação básica, alguns pesquisadores evidenciaram a presença de erros conceituais crassos, imagens caricatas e distorcidas sobre a natureza da ciência, que acabam por dificultar a alfabetização científica dos alunos. Neste trabalho, analisamos o conteúdo de Teoria da Relatividade Especial em doze livros didáticos de física aprovados pelo Plano Nacional do Livro Didático (PNLD) de 2018 do Ministério da Educação a fim de verificar a presença de imagens deformadas do trabalho científico. A análise revelou três deformações: visão aproblemática e ahistórica; visão individualista e elitista da ciência; uma imagem descontextualizada, socialmente neutra. Tais deformações operam como barreiras epistemológicas e revelam que a qualidade dos livros didáticos ainda está longe de ser satisfatória. Palavras chave: livros didáticos de física, teoria da relatividade especial, imagens deformadas da ciência.
... A significant conceptual hurdle that should be addressed in STEM education professional development is the perception that science is a rigid and linear process. 1,2 In spite of nearly two decades of efforts to increase awareness of how science takes place, 3,4 many educational publishers continue to offer products (e.g. text books, lab books) that promote a five-step scientific method. ...
... First, the IMRD macrostructure of professional scientific research articles is actually inconsistent with the complex and dynamic reality of scientific inquiry where writing has been shown to progress through iterative cycles of (re)writing and (re)drafting rather than sequentially and linearly from Methods to Results (Swales, 1990). Second, following the IMRD structure has the potential to promote and reinforce misconceptions about the nature of science such as the widespread myth of "the scientific method" (Lederman et al., 2002;McComas, 1996), that is, the mistaken view that scientists invariably follow a linear and fixed sequence of steps. Lastly, macroscaffolds overlook the fact that the scientific genre also has unique stylistic features at the micro level. ...
Article
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Literacy practices in science classrooms have been traditionally limited to the provision of macroscaffolds (writing templates like Question-Hypothesis-Methodology-Results). This paper explores the allowances and shortcomings of such practice by means of a systematic examination of a corpus of lab reports written by two small groups of college students taught to write scientifically through a macroscaffold-based approach. Despite reporting the same experience and being supported by the same macroscaffold, students’ science writing differed in important ways. Group A’s impersonal inferences expressed social detachment and objectivity (students positioned themselves as distant and objective knowledge producers), whereas Group B adopted a position of social closeness and subjectivity more typical of personal genres (e.g., personal diaries). Atypical of what is expected of science writers, Group B’s personal inferences was taken as indicative of an alternative conception of what it meant to scientifically infer from one’s empirical observations. Such a different style pointed to the possibility of some students holding alternative conceptions about what it means to scientifically infer from one’s empirical observations. It is argued that, although macroscaffolding may be a helpful starting point, students need additional guidance on specific linguistic aspects of science writing, and possibly engage in genre-based literacy activities.
... While Murcia and Schibeci (1999) stated that elementary teacher candidates' understanding of the nature of science contributes greatly to science education, Lederman and colleagues (2001) stated that teacher candidates who do not internalize the importance of the nature of science do not teach in accordance with the nature of science. Students also reported that they did not have scientific myths, and these myths were taught by their teachers (McComas, 1996). In his study with elementary teacher candidates, Kıran (2019) attributed that sophomores in undergraduate education has the lowest level of knowledge about the nature of science and the reason for this is that there are no courses related to the nature of science at this grade level. ...
... While Murcia and Schibeci (1999) stated that elementary teacher candidates' understanding of the nature of science contributes greatly to science education, Lederman and colleagues (2001) stated that teacher candidates who do not internalize the importance of the nature of science do not teach in accordance with the nature of science. Students also reported that they did not have scientific myths, and these myths were taught by their teachers (McComas, 1996). In his study with elementary teacher candidates, Kıran (2019) attributed that sophomores in undergraduate education has the lowest level of knowledge about the nature of science and the reason for this is that there are no courses related to the nature of science at this grade level. ...
... The lack of prior knowledge of the participants related to some concepts (theory, hypothesis, etc.) may cause some myths (e.g. P7) of science (McComas, 1996;1998) Apart from the fictional character of the film scenario and possible pre-mythical assumptions/misconceptions of the participants, it can be said that there are possible limitations of the study that are effective in the results of the study. These limitations can be listed as; not watching the film in a teaching program or in a teaching environment, lack of discussions while watching the film, watching the film for the first time and some other factors in the process until retention test. ...
Article
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In this study, the effects of a documentary and a biographical film, which was watched in an informal environment, on the prospective science teachers’ nature of science (NOS) views were examined. The study conducted according to the mixed research methodology. The data were obtained through the open-ended questionnaire prepared by considering the consensus aspects of the NOS. The participants were shown a documentary-style biographical film about a cross-section of the life of a famous scientist. The findings show that there are changes in the participants' views on some of the consensus aspects of the nature of science. Some of these were in the desired direction, but the retention was weak. Also, some of the changes are in an undesirable direction such as to create a science myth. According to the results, it can be thought that films adapted from the history of science can be used to teach the nature of science. Since films produced for different purposes such as art and entertainment may cause problems in teaching the nature of science, it can be suggested to use such films in a more structured learning environment.
... O raciocínio indutivista, sugerido por Bacon como o caminho pelo qual produzem-se generalizações que permitem predições (McComas 1996), responde, segundo Chalmers, a três proposições. ...
Thesis
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Esta pesquisa pretende contribuir para um conhecimento melhor sobre as implicações no ensino de ciências das reflexões epistemológicas atuais. Analisou-se como as diferentes dimensões deste contexto educacional estão relacionadas com concepções sobre a natureza da ciência. Em particular, discutiu-se como a corrente epistemológica empirico-indutivista, apesar da sua superação como forma adequada de descrever a produção de conhecimento, ainda permanece bastante impregnada na educação científica atual. Considera-se que, para a mudança dessa situação, o papel do professor é central. Assim, com o objetivo de fazer um estudo exploratório-descritivo sobre as suas concepções sobre a natureza da ciência, elaborou-se um questionário que pedia ao professor que expressasse o nível de sua concordância ou discordância com uma série de afirmativas, em uma escala tipo-Likert O questionário foi aplicado em um grupo de 534 professores em efetivo exercício, oriundos dos mais diferentes níveis da Educação Básica, e participantes de processos de formação permanente. As respostas foram analisadas em relação a algumas posições didáticas e em relação às diferenças de formação e de atuação no ensino. Os resultados mostram que a concepção sobre a natureza da ciência empirico-indutivista ainda é bastante considerada por professores de ciências e que estas concepções variam pouco em função do nível de formação, da experiência profissional ou das áreas e níveis de atuação. No final, apresenta-se sugestões de como os processos de formação de professores podem colaborar com a superação desta perspectiva, aproximando-se de uma concepção sobre a natureza da ciência mais evolutiva e mais construtivista.
... I found guidance from the artifacts my students produced as well as through the process of tracing my journey through the 10 phases of Transformative Learning (Mezirow, 2000). As part of the coursework, the students read an article that outlined 10 common myths in science, filled out a reflection worksheet regarding those ten myths, and then participated in a class discussion which was followed by an extension of that discussion in an online forum (McComas, 1996). The following sampling of excerpts from the online discussion allowed me to gain some perspective as to my student"s backgrounds in science education, prior to university. ...
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The purpose for this self-study was to explore the theoretical and practical understandings of scientific inquiry inherent in our elementary teacher preparation program, specifically those of new instructors. Although scientific inquiry and inquiry-based learning are emphasized in our program, several new instructors, doctoral students hired to teach undergraduate courses, expressed some discomfort with the lesser amount of traditional science content that could be found in the course syllabi. To support their development and our own understandings of how to guide them as they begin teaching in higher education, it was important that we understood the transition in regard to teaching scientific inquiry and using inquiry-based pedagogy. Thus, we conducted this collaborative self-study on how a new instructor, experiencing such discomfort, was experiencing a transition in which her epistemology of science was being challenged. The implications of the findings, which derived from critical friend meetings, journal entries, and student artifacts from the scientific inquiry course she taught, serve to inform the field of science education in terms of new science teacher educators moving from a traditional teacher-centered science classroom into a student-centered classroom.
... Al respecto, los hallazgos de algunas investigaciones permiten comprender las concepciones que se tienen respecto de la ciencia y la investigación científica. Por ejemplo, Vázquez, Acevedo, Manassero y Acevedo (2006), al evaluar las creencias y actitudes de un grupo de 57 estudiantes españoles, bachilleres matriculados en una materia de Ciencia, Tecnología y Sociedad, encontraron que sostenían varias creencias ingenuas en cuanto a lo que significa la ciencia, lo cual, en opinión de los investigadores, evidencia lo que McComas (1996) define como mitos sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia. Algunas de las ideas de los bachilleres aluden a que la ciencia consiste en inventar cosas para beneficio de la sociedad, que la ciencia está disponible para el uso y beneficio de todas las personas, pero que no se debe estudiar en la escuela ya que no da a los estudiantes la facultad de comprenderla mejor ni de acrecentar su interés en ella. ...
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Se presentan resultados de un estudio correlacional que tuvo como propósito conocer la relación entre la percepción de la investigación científica y la intención por titularse con un trabajo de este tipo. Se trabajó con una muestra de 160 estudiantes, hombres y mujeres, de las carreras de Psicología y Enfermería que cursaban el último año escolar. Los resultados muestran una correlación significativa entre la intención por titularse y el interés por la investigación científica, y asimismo se muestran diferencias entre los estudiantes de cada una de las carreras. Por otra parte, se observa que el principal predictor de la intención por desarrollar un trabajo de investigación y obtener el titulo es el interés por la investigación científica. Se discute respecto a la importancia de establecer en los programas educativos contenidos temáticos relacionados con la investigación y el gusto por la ciencia desde los primeros semestres en cada una de las disciplinas científicas.
... Ancak uygulanmakta olan fen öğretiminin öğrencilerin bilimin doğası anlayışlarını geliştirmede yetersiz kaldığı ve uygun olmayan anlayışlar oluşturmalarına sebep olabileceği yapılan araştırmalar sonucunda birçok araştırmacı tarafından rapor edilmiştir (Küçükoğuz, 2011;Yiğit, Alev, Akşan ve Ursavaş, 2010;Yamak, 2009;McComas, 1996). ...
... 141). Se trata en sí de un proceso de desmistificación de la ciencia, en concordancia con lo que también ha mencionadoMcComas (1996).El docente de ciencias del siglo XXI debe superar las deficiencias del tradicionalismo didáctico que ha heredado y debe empoderarse de un hablar ciencia que involucre los tres elementos hodsonianos antes mencionados. ¿Cómo hablar ciencia sin tener un conocimiento apropiado de su naturaleza? ...
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Las ideas que la mayoría de los docentes de ciencias tienen sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia (NDC) han sido ampliamente reportadas como ingenuas en variadas investigaciones realizadas a través de diferentes métodos; sin embargo, un acercamiento fenomenológico a esta problemática ha sido poco abordado. En este trabajo cualitativo se intenta dar una mirada fenomenológica husserliana desde la experiencia de aprendizaje sobre los significados de la NDC de dos docentes de ciencias cursantes de una maestría en la UPEL-IPC, develados en un contexto de lectura reflexiva sobre dicha temática. La reducción eidética pretende ir a la esencia pura con pretensión teórica de universalidad esencial. Los hallazgos permitieron identificar categorías fenomenológicas esenciales que sirvieron para estructurar una aproximación teórica a través de cuatro principios esenciales emanados del análisis protocolar. Se espera profundizar en esta área en futuras investigaciones en la Cátedra de Bioquímica del Instituto Pedagógico de Caracas. Palabras clave: ciencia, ideas ingenuas, aprendizaje, fenomenología husserliana.
... Instead, she purposefully limited the situation to six materials, and that focused the problem and discussion on two variables: materials and temperature. Her approach might have helped students tie the concept of the material-heat transfer relationship to their claims and explanations, rather than simply promote an empiricist orientation (McComas, 1996;Tsai, 1998) that emphasizes "truths" discovered through hands-on activities, experiments, and observation. That is, focusing on the uncertainty related to students' claims and explanation promotes students' competence in the interpretation of the phenomenon, and moves away from the orientation of scientific knowledge as unproblematic and data as representing a correct and unchanging answer. ...
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Science teachers usually view students' uncertainty as a barrier to overcome, a negative experience to be avoided, a deficiency in need of remedy. Building on the theory of deep learning in science as a generative and sensemaking process, the purpose of this design‐based study is to identify tactics for teachers to manage their students' epistemic uncertainty as a pedagogical resource to develop student conceptual understanding during whole‐class discussion. Classroom observations of whole‐class discussion were collected from six teachers' classes ranging from third to eighth grade. A total of 18 whole‐class discussions were collected, transcribed, and analyzed. A storyline talk to manage uncertainty during whole‐class discussion was developed and consisted of three stages: (1) Raise epistemic uncertainty through creating ambiguous conditions; (2) Maintain epistemic uncertainty through preventing immature disclosure and discussing alternative explanations or conflicting ideas; and (3) Reduce epistemic uncertainty through making coherent connections among current uncertainty, prior knowledge, and familiar phenomena. Seven nuanced tactics used by teachers to achieve each stage of uncertainty management were identified. The results suggest that managing uncertainty goes beyond asking questions and problematizing phenomena. When engaging students in storyline‐based whole‐class discussion, teachers should focus on one specific uncertainty and establish a coherent, consistent storyline that raises, maintains, and reduces student uncertainty to horizontally and vertically construct a collective knowledge among students. The horizontal nature occurs within a stage of management, and the vertical nature of a storyline talk is related to moving along from stage to stage. Through the storyline talk focusing on students' epistemic uncertainty, students can truly become agents in the learning process when the lesson is centered on and driven by students' uncertainty.
... Only one article (2.1%) included information about teaching students the function and relation of theory and law in science, while 10 articles (21.2%) focused on characterizing the multiple and diverse methods of science. The reason for such low frequency of occurrence of the ‗theory and law' aspect in the articles is unclear, especially when NOS literature emphasizes that students carry alternative conceptions regarding theory and law that are inconsistent with the understandings of theory and law among the scientific community (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, Bell & Schwartz, 2002;McComas, 1996). Two other aspects, the empirical basis of science (19.1%) and tentativeness (17%) are more frequent and all the other aspects of science lag far behind in terms of frequency of occurrence in the JCST articles. ...
Article
Recent efforts to reform science education have strongly emphasized the understanding of the nature of science (NOS) as important to achieving broader scientific literacy. Despite the realization that students‘ understanding of NOS is important, there is a gap between research and practice. In order to teach NOS effectively in pre-college or college classrooms, teachers need appropriate activities, examples, and models of instruction that can contribute towards the development of their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching NOS. One widespread and readily-available source teachers may consult to find appropriate models of teaching practice and example activities is professional journals. The present study investigates articles published in the Journal of College Science Teaching (JCST) in the years 1996-2012 (total n=47). We explored the extent to which these provide appropriate models for teaching NOS at the college level and the degree to which the information included can serve to inform readers‘ PCK for teaching NOS. The findings reveal that there is not a diverse representation of examples for teaching specific aspects of NOS outlined in the reforms. Furthermore, we found a discrepancy between recommendations for effective teaching of NOS in the research literature and the approaches advocated in the articles. Few of the articles included the kinds of robust information that could inform college instructors‘ PCK for NOS, particularly in regard to assessment. The study identifies gaps in the literature to be explored in further research.
... Scientifically literate individuals are those who know the nature and characteristics of scientific knowledge and can effectively use the concepts, principles, theories, and laws of science while interacting with their environment. A scienceliterate individual is expected to understand the nature of science and scientific knowledge, basic science concepts, principles, and theories, to use scientific process skills while solving problems, to be aware of and understand the interaction between science, technology, and society, and to have scientific attitudes and values (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000;Küçük, 2006;Küçük & Yıldırım, 2020;McComas, 1996). Again, scienceliterate individuals are more effective individuals in accessing and using information, in solving problems, in making decisions about problems related to science and technology, taking into account the possible risks, benefits, and options available, and producing new knowledge. ...
... On this, we would agree that teaching about science and doing science are quite different, and in fact, the distinction should be made between science education and scientific knowledge, between knowing science, and knowing about science. For this, some suggest emphasizing the tentative character of scientific knowledge (Lederman et al., 2002;McComas, 1996McComas, , 2002, or the absence of a unified scientific method. In contrast, we propose emphasizing both scientific content, as well as those elements identified in Section 5, particularly the robustness that emerge from science's particular social practices, which justify considering scientific knowledge as the most reliable source of knowledge about the material world. ...
Article
Scientific research is a human endeavour, performed by communities of people. Disproportionate focus on only some of the features related to this obvious fact has been used to discredit the reliability of scientific knowledge and to relativize its value when compared with knowledge stemming from other sources. This epistemic relativism is widespread nowadays and is arguably dangerous for our collective future, as the threat of climate change and its denialism clearly shows. In this work, we argue that even though the social character of science is indeed real, it does not entail epistemic relativism with respect to scientific knowledge, but quite the opposite, as there are several characteristic behaviours of this specific human community that were built to increase the reliability of scientific outputs. Crucially, we believe that present-day scientific education is lacking in the description and analysis of these particularities of the scientific community as a social group and that further investing in this area could greatly improve the possibilities of critical analysis of the often very technical issues that the citizens and future citizens of our modern societies have to confront.
... Al respecto, los hallazgos de algunas investigaciones permiten comprender las concepciones que se tienen respecto de la ciencia y la investigación científica. Por ejemplo, Vázquez, Acevedo, Manassero y Acevedo (2006), al evaluar las creencias y actitudes de un grupo de 57 estudiantes españoles, bachilleres matriculados en una materia de Ciencia, Tecnología y Sociedad, encontraron que sostenían varias creencias ingenuas en cuanto a lo que significa la ciencia, lo cual, en opinión de los investigadores, evidencia lo que McComas (1996) define como mitos sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia. Algunas de las ideas de los bachilleres aluden a que la ciencia consiste en inventar cosas para beneficio de la sociedad, que la ciencia está disponible para el uso y beneficio de todas las personas, pero que no se debe estudiar en la escuela ya que no da a los estudiantes la facultad de comprenderla mejor ni de acrecentar su interés en ella. ...
Article
Se presentan resultados de un estudio correlacional que tuvo como propósito conocer la relación entre la percepción de la investigación científica y la intención por titularse con un trabajo de este tipo. Se trabajó con una muestra de 160 estudiantes, hombres y mujeres, de las carreras de Psicología y Enfermería que cursaban el último año escolar. Los resultados muestran una correlación significativa entre la intención por titularse y el interés por la investigación científica, y asimismo se muestran diferencias entre los estudiantes de cada una de las carreras. Por otra parte, se observa que el principal predictor de la intención por desarrollar un trabajo de investigación y obtener el titulo es el interés por la investigación científica. Se discute respecto a la importancia de establecer en los programas educativos contenidos temáticos relacionados con la investigación y el gusto por la ciencia desde los primeros semestres en cada una de las disciplinas científicas.
... It is argued that' design' is an activity in that a wide range of experiences, knowledge and skills are used to find optimum solutions to given problems within specific constraints (McComas, 1996;Williams, 2002). Going by this contention, the activity involves identifying and clarifying a problem, making a thoughtful response and then creating and testing one's solution. ...
Book
Urban planning and real estate development are essential to solving urgent urban problems of the 21st century, yet current professional planning practices have sometimes failed to keep pace with the challenges. This can be attributed to the inadequacy or incapacity of planning education and curricula especially in developing countries. Urban planning education is the practice of teaching and learning urban theory and professional planning practice. Real estate and planning education are normally gained through formal learning at planning schools and also through interaction between public officials, professional planners and the public. This book deals with aspects of the need to reinvent real estate and planning education and training, in a bid to address the current pressing needs and challenges in the domain of planning, as the major denominator in determining the health and sustainability of human settlements and habitats. Critical to note in this volume are points to technical and hard aspects of the built environment yet there are soft aspects including professionalism and the human factor components. The book covers aspects of university curricula while at the same time addressing those aspect that go with the technical, vocational and education training (TVET) which is about training that goes at technical and vocational colleges.
... Fen ve teknoloji dersi; bilim ve teknoloji arasındaki ilişkileri anlama, bireylerin evrendeki yerini anlama, bilimsel sonuçlara ulaşmada gözlem ve incelemelerden yararlanma gibi genel konularla birlikte birçok soyut kavram da içerir. Literatürde soyut kavramları içeren fen ve teknoloji dersi konularının öğrencilere somutlaştırılmadan verilmesinin; öğrencilerde farklı kavram yanılgıları oluşmasının ve fen ve teknoloji dersindeki başarısızlığın temel nedenleri arasında yer aldığı belirtilmiştir (Pınarbaşı vd., 1998;Braund, 1999;Üstün vd., 2001;Sağırlı, 2001;Küçükturan, 2003). Bu durum fen ve teknoloji derslerinde öğrencilerin bilişsel gelişimi göz önünde bulundurularak seçilecek doğru öğretim yöntemlerinden yararlanmanın önemini ortaya koymaktadır. ...
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Özet Bu çalışmanın amacı, 6. sınıf fen ve teknoloji dersi "Destek ve Hareket Sistemi" konusunda, drama yönteminin öğrencilerin akademik başarılarına etkililiğini incelemek ve öğrencilerin drama yönteminin fen ve teknoloji dersinde kullanımı ile ilgili görüşlerini araştırmaktır. Çalışmanın örneklemini bir ortaokulda öğrenim gören 26 kontrol grubu, 24 deney grubu olmak üzere toplam 50 öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışma deneysel desenler içinde yer alan statik grup ön test-son test desenin esas alındığı nicel ve nitel bir araştırmadır. Araştırma problemlerinin çözümü için gerekli veriler "Başarı Testi" ile belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca öğrencilere uygulamalar süresince "günlük" tutturularak drama yönteminin fen ve teknoloji dersinde kullanımı ile ilgili görüşleri saptanmaya çalışılmıştır. Çalışmadan elde edilen sonuçlar, deney grubu öğrencilerinin başarı puanları ile kontrol grubu öğrencilerinin başarı puanları arasında istatistiksel olarak deney grubu lehine anlamlı bir farklılık olduğunu göstermektedir. Çalışma, drama yönteminin fen ve teknoloji derslerinde kullanımının, etkili bir öğrenmenin gerçekleşmesinde destekleyici bir kaynak olabileceğini ortaya koymuştur. Bununla birlikte, çalışmanın nitel sonuçları da sınıf içi etkileşimin ve derse katılımın arttırılmasında drama yönteminin etkili olabileceğini de göstermiştir. Anahtar Sözcükler: Drama, Fen Eğitimi, Destek ve Hareket Sistemi Abstract The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of educational drama method on students' academic achievement and is to research the students' opinion about using drama method in 6th grade science course. The sample consisted of 50 students from secondary school. Twenty-six of them are control group and twenty-four of them are experimental group. This study is a qualitative and quantitative survey that bases on static group pretest-posttest design which is involved experimental design. Data for solving research questions is specified by "Achievement Test". Moreover, this study tries to determine students' opinion about using drama method in science courses by being kept diary. Results of this study show that there is a significant difference for the benefit of experimental group between experimental group and control group. This study reveals that using drama method in lessons of science can be source which supports effective learning. Moreover, the qualitative results of stud y explain that classroom communication and class participation can be increased by educational drama method. GİRİŞ Fen ve teknoloji dersi; bilim ve teknoloji arasındaki ilişkileri anlama, bireylerin evrendeki yerini anlama, bilimsel sonuçlara ulaşmada gözlem ve incelemelerden yararlanma gibi genel konularla birlikte birçok soyut kavram da içerir. Literatürde soyut kavramları içeren fen ve teknoloji dersi konularının öğrencilere somutlaştırılmadan verilmesinin; öğrencilerde farklı kavram yanılgıları oluşmasının ve fen ve teknoloji dersindeki başarısızlığın temel nedenleri arasında yer aldığı belirtilmiştir (Pınarbaşı vd., 1998; Braund, 1999; Üstün vd., 2001; Sağırlı, 2001; Küçükturan, 2003). Bu durum fen ve teknoloji derslerinde öğrencilerin bilişsel gelişimi göz önünde bulundurularak seçilecek doğru öğretim yöntemlerinden yararlanmanın önemini ortaya koymaktadır. Günümüzde eğitimdeki yeni yaklaşımlar öğrenciyi merkeze alan, baskıcı unsurlardan uzak, aktif, yaparak yaşayarak öğrenmelere imkan tanıyan öğretim yöntemlerinin gündeme gelmesine olanak sağlamıştır. Temelinde oyun olan aktiviteler öğrencilerin bilgiyi kolaylıkla yapılandırmasını sağlar. Drama da bu aktivitelerden birisi olup, soyut olan kavramları somutlaştırabilir (Wright, 2000). Drama, katılımcılara hem çalışma ortamında hem de özel yaşamda, yalnızken ya da başkalarıyla etkileşim halindeyken, ilişkileri ve sorunları anlamak, değerlendirmek, yorumlamak, sorgulamak ve gereken tutum ve davranışları ortaya koymak için yaratıcılıklarını olabildiğince kullanmalarını sağlayan bir öğrenme yöntemidir (Tobdal, 2004).
... 4. Posisi filosofis pada aspek teori dan hukum Hukum digunakan untuk mengekspesikan tentang apa saja yang telah diamati dan untuk memprediksi hal-hal yang belum diamati (Sumranwanich dan Yuenyong, 2014). Teori didefisisikan sebagai sebuah penjelasan dari fenomena dan hukum-hukum yang terkait McComas, 1996). Mempertimbangkan epistemologi teori dan hukum, secara luas dipersepsikan bahwa teori dan hukum diciptakan oleh ilmuwan untuk menafsirkan dan mendeskripsikan fenomena (Sumranwanich dan Yuenyong, 2014). ...
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This study aims to examine the concept of the nature of science (NOS) and attitudes towards teaching the NOS. The research used the View on Science Education (VOSE) instrument that was developed by Chen (valid and reliable) which online distributed to students of Physics Education Program from Surabaya State University and IKIP PGRI Pontianak, as well as students of Science Program from IAIN Ponorogo. The survey research method was conducted to determine the profile of students’ views on the NOS and science education. Respondents who filled out the research questionnaire were 102 students. Based on the survey results, the VOSE profile was obtained that the Science-Physics students had difficulty conceptualizing the general picture of VOSE because in some aspects of NOS it appeared that students experienced confusion.Science-Physics students have a positive attitude towards teaching NOS in terms of tentativeness, aspect of the nature of observation, as well as aspect of theory and law.However, Science-Physics students have negative attitudes towards teaching NOS in the aspect of the scientific method. Thus, the implication of this research requires that Science-Physics students learn and further research about the concept of NOS in order to have a correct understanding.
... Desta forma sendo um discurso de pós-verdade. Infelizmente, esse tipo de narrativa (pós-verdade científica) ainda encontra adesão entre os acadêmicos e professores ciências naturais (AIKENHEAD 1973, LEDERMAN, O'MALLEY 1990, LEDERMAN 1992, RYAN & AIKENHEAD 1992POMEROY 1993, ROTH & ROYCHONDHURY 1994, SOLOMON 1994ABRAMS & WANDERSEE 1995, MCCOMAS, 1996, ROTH & LUCAS 1997PORLÁN, RIVERO, POZO, 1997, LEDERMAN ET AL. 1998, ABD-EL-KHALICK & LEDERMAN, 2000, GIL-PEREZ, 2001, SILVEIRA, OSTERMANN, 2002, El-HANI, TAVARES, ROCHA, 2004, TEIXEIRA, FREIRE JR., El-HANI, 2009) sendo o cientificismo seu produto mais bem acabado (JUPIASSU, 1975(JUPIASSU, , 1991(JUPIASSU, , 1992(JUPIASSU, , 2001. A ideologia cientificista se apoia em dois mitos: "a) o da ciência conduzindo necessariamente ao progresso; b) o da ciência pura." ...
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Em 2016, a palavra pós-verdade foi eleita pelo Dicionário de Oxford como a expressão do ano. Por pós-verdade entende-se um conjunto de práticas que buscam manipular o comportamento individual e coletivo, baseado nos sentimentos e crenças pessoais em oposição aos fatos objetivos. Entre essas práticas se destaca o negacionismo da ciência e da própria história. Como uma resposta a essa tendência, muitas vezes textos científicos buscam uma reconstrução racional da história da ciência de seus atores. Nestas reconstruções, as interfaces entre a filosofia natural e a ciência moderna com as chamadas não ciências, como a astrologia, magia e alquimia, são minimizadas ou completamente ignoradas. Do ponto de vista historiográfico, uma reconstrução racional é tão falaciosa quanto os discursos de pósverdade. Esse fato, levou o historiador Butterfield a declarar que não é raro que pareça que Clio (a musa da história) favoreça aos discursos anacrônicos. Nesse ensaio sugerimos que a reconstrução sincrônica e diacrônica da história da ciência fornece os filtros adequados que corrigem a paralaxe e colocam Clio em seu devido lugar. Para isso mostramos como as práticas alquímicas de Newton beneficiaram a construção de seus Principia e que uma discussão contextualizada e problematizada desse episódio não favorece ao discursão não científico e negacionista, mas pelo contrário, permite identificar as intenções enviesadas e ideológicas que não visam favorecer o conhecimento ou debate, mas doutrinar o indivíduo a adotar uma postura particular.
... Issues with the scientific method are often raised in NOS studies in science education. The myth of the scientific method is well-documented in the NOS literature (e.g., Allchin, 2004;McComas, 1996;Thurs, 2015). Advocates of the consensus view to NOS note that "the myth of the scientific method is regularly manifested in the belief that there is a recipelike stepwise procedure that all scientists follow when they do science. ...
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Using the social media platform Twitter, this study explores public reference to “scientific method(s)” in tweets specifically pertaining to COVID-19 posted between January and June 2020. The study focuses on three research questions: When did reference to scientific methods peak, which aspects of nature of science (NOS) do these tweets address, and the extent to which Twitter users’ sentiments provide useful information about their attitudes towards the scientific method. COVID-19 tweets were mined and queried using “scientific method(s)” as a keyword. A content analysis using the Family Resemblance Approach (FRA) to NOS and a non-computational sentiment analysis were conducted on the obtained data set. The findings revealed that tweets using science method(s) peaked most during the months of April and May, as more information was being communicated about promising treatments and vaccine development. Most tweets were assigned multiple FRA categories. The sentiment analysis revealed that attitude towards the scientific method was predominantly supportive. Discussion of three events that were observed in clusters of tweets provided additional context. The paper concludes by noting the methodological affordances and limitations of applying the FRA for identifying NOS-related content in Twitter environments and underscoring the potential of targeted NOS messaging in promoting informed discussions about NOS in the public sphere.
... Hume, 1896;Chalmers, 1999;Gloy, 2003;Gordon, 2004) as well as the experiment specifically in its role as the golden standard (e.g. McComas, 1996;Chalmers, 1999;Kiene, 2001). In this article we focus on the problem that the empirical cycle does not fully cover the reality of the scientific process. ...
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The concept of naturalness can be used to characterize organic agriculture and to distinguish it from conventional agriculture, provided naturalness not only refers to the non-use of synthesized chemicals, but also to the ecological and systemic principles, and to a respect for the integrity of living organisms. Examples of the implicit use of the integrity concept in agriculture will be described to show its practical aspects and implications. The (non-atomistic) holistic concept of integrity of organisms has been the subject of severe scientific criticism — specially from in essence ontological reductionists. In their view, an organism is essentially no more than a complex set of atoms and molecules and its integrity a non-concept. In order to reach scientific acceptance of the integrity concept and to support its use in organic agricultural practice, it needs further underpinning. In this article, based on a critical analysis of (a) ontological and methodological aspects of reductionism, and (b) expert knowledge and the process of pattern recognition and application, the validity of the holistic concept of integrity will be explored.
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Este trabalho aborda a análise da produção de artigos envolvendo o tema de divulgação científica em periódicos de ensino de ciências nos últimos dez anos. Adotou-se a perspectiva de que esse gênero é uma terceira cultura e um discurso próprio, pois possui uma linguagem particular. O presente trabalho tem como motivação a busca de demandas de pesquisas sobre divulgação científica com o intuito de nortear o problema de pesquisa de uma dissertação de mestrado. Assim, surge a nossa questão de pesquisa: Qual é o estado da arte das pesquisas sobre análise e construção de materiais didáticos com o tema divulgação científica nos últimos dez anos no Brasil? Para responder essa pergunta utilizamos a metodologia de pesquisa documental tipo síntese e propomos as seguintes questões a serem respondidas: quais os referenciais teóricos utilizados? Quais as metodologias utilizadas na análise e construção dos materiais de divulgação científica? Quais os temas científicos utilizados nessas análises e construções? Foram analisados 11 periódicos e coletados 52 artigos. Estes artigos foram categorizados segundo a sua disciplina, finalidade e referenciais teóricos. Por meio das análises destes trabalhos procurou-se responder as questões propostas. Concluiu-se que se trata de um campo que tem grandes potencialidades para alfabetização e educação científica, mas pouca atenção tem sido dada a qualidade dos materiais que são produzidos, as análises e construções envolvendo aspectos historiográficos e epistemológicos, ao feedback dos leitores e a construção de novos materiais por docentes e discentes. Isto revela um campo ainda a ser explorado pelos pesquisadores em divulgação científica e de educação em ciências.
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Objectives: This study aimed to (a) identify the different patterns of perceived barriers to psychological treatment in Chinese college students with depression and (b) determine whether self-compassion and depression severity distinguished individuals with different patterns. Methods: This study included 338 college students with depression. The perceived barriers to psychological treatment scale were used. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was performed to identify the differential patterns. Results: Results of LPA indicated four patterns of perceived barriers, which differed with respect to levels and patterns, namely, "low barriers" (31%, n = 105), "moderate barriers" (45%, n = 153), "attitudinal and availability barriers" (18%, n = 61), and "high barriers" (6%, n = 19). Self-compassion (particularly, negative self-compassion) and depression severity distinguished participants with the four patterns. Conclusions: A small number of participants reporting high levels across different types of barriers deserve special attention because they would be less likely to seek professional help.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a one-week program, which was supported by TÜBİTAK and based on the indirect teaching of science, on the learning of the science student teachers’ nature of science views. Total 28 student teachers studying in third class from 22 different Education Faculty of Science Teaching participated for the program which lasted eight days. For the first three days of the program participants were taught about the nature and philosophy of science, project management, access to information, project approach in science education, ethics in science, evaluation of scientific data, presentation techniques, and poster preparation and interactive reporting. Afterwards, the participants were divided into four working groups and an academicians working in the departments of Physics, Chemistry and Biology at Recep Tayyip Erdogan University was assigned to each group as advisor. The participants have designed a project from the basic sciences under the guidance of their advisors. After the project proposals were approved by the scientific committee, the participants completed their data collection, analysis, reporting and presentation processes under the guidance of their advisors. As a means of data collection, Form C (Lederman, Abd-El Khalick, Bell and Schwartz, 2002) was applied as a pre-post tests. The questionnaire consisted of 10 open-ended questions and each question was prepared to determine the views of the students within the scope of one or several main elements related to the nature of science. The data were analyzed based on a triple evaluation category including in -scientific opinion, partly scientific opinion and non-scientific opinion (Vazquez-Alonso and Manassero-Mas, 1999). The results revealed that the approach used in the study of teaching the nature of science via indirect method was effective only in some dimensions of the NOS.
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Objectives Falsification is regarded as a cornerstone of science. Anomalous data—even when highly credible—do not always lead to an adjustment of theory. In this paper, we discuss reasons for why current theories are not modified despite a corpus of work falsifying (parts of) the theory, using the case of self-compassion as an example. During more than 15 years, this psychological construct has been heralded as a protective factor against stress and emotional adversity.MethodsA search in the Web of Science database using [SELF-COMPASSION in title] as the search term was conducted and found empirical papers were critically evaluated.ResultsGood evidence abounds indicating that the theoretical definition of self-compassion is limited and that as a consequence its proper assessment with the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) is obscured as the measure is contaminated by psychopathological characteristics. Surprisingly, few researchers take these critical notes into account when conducting and reporting new studies on this topic. We argue that this might be due to all kinds of (conscious and unconscious) tendencies and cognitive biases of researchers and clinicians.Conclusion Research lines are not always guided by solid data but strongly determined by social factors. We close by providing a recommendation for researchers regarding the assessment of self-compassion including the continued use of the SCS.
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Myths in Psychology are beliefs that are widely spread and inconsistent with the empirical evidence available within this field of knowledge. They are characterized by being relatively stable, resistant to change, and prevalent both among the non-academic population and among students and professionals within this discipline. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of these myths among Spanish psychology students and the influence of three variables: the type of university, face-to-face (UAM) and online (UNED), the academic year in which participants were enrolled and familiarity with scientific dissemination. Results show that participants from the face-to-face university, enrolled in higher academic years and that reports familiarity with scientific dissemination believe less in myths than those from the online university, enrolled in lower years and that report no familiarity with scientific dissemination.
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Scientific literacy not only involves scientific content relative to each branch of science, as a scientifically literate person is also aware of what science is, as well as how it operates in a broader and complex sense. Therefore, in order to develop and implement successful methodologies in the classroom aiming to improve students’ scientific literacy, it seems crucial to know what exactly science is. However, defining science turns out to be a complex problem inside the philosophy of science, and it has even been claimed that science cannot be defined. There are several strategies to face this problem in science education. Here, we show that most of the current strategies are lists of features trying to capture the nature of science, and we also show that the kind of strategies based on lists of features have insurmountable problems. We recognise the strengths and weaknesses of two main approaches, and building from those lessons we create a tool guiding the exploration of science nature which is free of the problems identified in previous approaches.
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The ability to navigate scientific obstacles is widely recognized as a hallmark of a scientific disposition and is one predictor of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics persistence for early-career scientists. However, the development of this competency in undergraduate research has been largely underexplored. This study addresses this gap by examining introductory students' emotional and behavioral responses to research-related challenges and failures that occur in two sequential research-based courses. We describe commonly reported emotions, coping responses, and perceived outcomes and examine relationships between these themes, student demographics, and course enrollment. Students commonly experience frustration, confusion, and disappointment when coping with challenges and failures. Yet the predominance of students report coping responses likely to be adaptive in academic contexts despite experiencing negative emotions. Being enrolled in the second course of a research-based course sequence was related to several shifts in response to challenges during data collection, including less reporting of confusion and fewer reports of learning to be cautious from students. Overall, students in both the first and second courses reported many positive outcomes indicating improvements in their ability to cope with challenge and failure. We assert that educators can improve research-based educational courses by scaffolding students' research trials, failures, and iterations to support students' perseverance.
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Computational thinking is a contemporary science and engineering practice that has been introduced to the US science classrooms due to its emphasis in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). However, including computational thinking into science instruction may be challenging. Therefore, for biological evolution (an essential theory within biology that spans across temporal and organizational scales), we recommend integrating computational thinking into evolution teaching to overcome misconceptions, reinforce the nature of science (NOS), and allow student embodiment (as students become emerged in their models, i.e., personification). We present a learning progression, which outlines biological evolution learning coupled with computational thinking. The defined components of computational thinking (input, integration, output, and feedback) are integrated with biology student roles. The complex nature of both teaching computational thinking and biological evolution lends toward a learning progression that identifies instructional context, computational product, and computational process and spans from simple to complex. Two major themes of biological evolution, unity and diversity have each been paired with both computational thinking and specific corresponding NGSS standards at levels of increasing complexity. There are virtually no previous studies which relate computation and evolution across scales, which paves the way for questions of importance, support, benefits, and overall student achievement in relation to the advancement of science in education.
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Scientific reading and communication have become key components in postsecondary science education. However, undergraduates have often been found to lack motivation to engage in these tasks. The present study surveyed 2098 undergraduates and 27 biology faculty members to compare their views on the importance and time cost of eight practices in authentic inquiry. Overall, the undergraduates considered scientific reading and communication less important than other inquiry practices (e.g., data analysis), whereas the faculty members ranked reading and writing highly important. The undergraduates who ranked scientific reading and communicative practices important tended to include the purposes and functions of these practices in their explanations. In contrast, the undergraduates who ranked the practices less important expressed multiple misconceptions about the applications of reading and communication, including that they are peripheral research components; they may not affect the inquiry results; they come after experiments; they are less important than other practices; and they are unnecessary. Four inquiry perspectives were identified from the respondents, including collective equality, knowledge generation, chronological order, and time investment. These perspectives significantly impacted undergraduates’ rankings on scientific reading and communication practices and six underlying perceptions.
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DISSERTAÇÃO DE MESTRADO - PPEC-UFMS Essa pesquisa tem como questão básica investigar quais as contribuições de Henri Poincaré para o desenvolvimento da teoria da relatividade especial? Para respondermos a esta questão, propomos a construção de uma micro-história, no sentido proposto por Ginzburg e Levi, sobre as contribuições de Henri Poincaré à da Teoria da Relatividade Especial, orientada pela epistemologia de Fleck. A natureza realista crítica da epistemologia de Fleck permite que compreendamos a estrutura das teorias em suas dimensões científicas, humanísticas e sociais, mostrando que a ciência é uma construção coletiva que envolve a circulação de ideias entre a cultura científica, a cultura humanística e a sociedade. A análise revelou que diferente da opinião majoritária dos livros didáticos e textos históricos de divulgação científica, Henri Poincaré antecipou praticamente todos resultados atribuídos a Albert Einstein, a proposta de um espaço-tempo quadrimensional onde as grandezas físicas devem apresentar quatro componentes invariantes frente as transformações de Lorentz. Poincaré, em 1905, previu até mesmo a existência de ondas gravitacionais, que foram recentemente detectadas por interferômetros gravitacionais, e celebradas como um dos feitos de Einstein. Todos esses resultados são ostensivamente omitidos e desconhecidos até de acadêmicos. Durante a análise fleckiana, também detectamos fortes evidências da influência social e outros elementos externos na fabricação da relatividade. Tendo em vista a falta de material que aborde as contribuições de Poincaré e os elementos sociais, realizamos a elaboração de contos de ficção científica em relatividade especial, por meio de uma leitura fleckiana e do uso do recurso de Comunicação Não-Violenta (CNV) com sugestões de atividades e temáticas, fornecendo subsídios para professores de física. Palavras-Chaves: Sociologia da Ciência, Epistemologia de Fleck, Relatividade Especial, Henri Poincaré, Micro-história.
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This chapter is founded on the notion that there is a consensus view of NOS and so offers a rich discussion of a shared set of NOS elements to guide the development of NOS learning standards and classroom assessment and ultimately inform science curriculum development. We begin with some assertions about NOS learning and then offer nine key NOS elements (evidence, law theory distinction, shared methods, creativity, subjectivity, society and science interaction, science and engineering distinction, tentativeness, and the limits of science) clustered in three domains (tools and processes of science, human elements of science, and the domain of science and its limitations). A robust description of each of these key NOS aspects is provided along with common misconceptions about that element of NOS. These descriptions are introductions and/or reviews for educators but cannot substitute for the more complete understanding that would come from a deeper study of these sophisticated notions.
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DESCRIPTION The ability to mathematical represent relationships and to quantify error is an essential skill for physics students. Students are sometimes asked to determine how well overall experimental results align with a theoretical expectation. Teachers should be familiar with dimensional analysis to help students develop theoretical models for relationships and error propagation. This chapter describes the simple pendulum lab and uses it uses it as an exemplar for understanding the methods of scientific inquiry.
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DESCRIPTION Traditional forms of physics teaching rarely authentically incorporate the general procedures classical scientists have used to make discoveries throughout history. For many generations, students have been expected to learn the processes of physics through osmosis; too often, with the use of cookbook verification labs. Effective teaching of the processes of physics should be based on inquiry-oriented practices and should include direct instruction only when necessary. This chapter presents, in a more formal fashion, some of the inquiry approaches that are best taught in the laboratory setting by authentically conducting scientific inquiry.
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DESCRIPTION The nature of science (NoS) refers to the scope and characteristics of science. While scientific practices describe the individual or group behaviors of scientists who research particular phenomena, the NoS describes science as a contextualized endeavor of a broad, professional community. It includes the human side of this endeavor, including its historical, social, and cultural contexts. Good science teachers help their students to model the behaviors of scientists, and they also help them to understand the scientific endeavor holistically by infusing considerations for the NoS throughout their instruction. While teaching about the NoS might be limited in scope and duration on any one day, like inquiry-oriented instruction, it must be explicit and ongoing.
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The National Science Education Standards (NSES) describes scientific inquiry as “the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence derived from their work” (NRC 1996, p. 23). This emphasis on diverse ways is infrequently depicted in science textbooks which tend to emphasize a single scientific method to describe scientific inquiries (Anderson 2002; Sterner 1998; Bauer 1992; Conant 1947). One of the most prevalent myths about science is scientists use a single method to solve problems (Lederman 1998; McComas 1996; Bauer 1992; Duschl 1990; Conant 1947). There is some utility in discussing the single scientific method to identify the steps and characteristics of scientific investigations but this one-size-fit all model does not accurately reflect the diverse approaches that real-world scientists take when conducting investigations. This chapter will focus on the myth and reality of the scientific method so that science teachers can better provide students with accurate views on how scientists contribute to the scientific knowledge base. Before discussing the reality of the scientific method, it will be useful to examine how textbooks often portray knowledge production in science.
Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings from AIP Publishing and AIP Member Societies
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Discusses the nature of science and addresses the question of why scientific knowledge cannot be absolute. (SL)
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Reexamines the traditional role of observation in science and science education. Proposes that since observation is based on some view of the world, it is not innocent and unbiased, but theory-dependent. Discusses possible implications for the science curriculum when reconsidering the role and status of observation in science. (TW)
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Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings from AIP Publishing and AIP Member Societies
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