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Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self-criticism: Overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach

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Abstract

Compassionate mind training (CMT) was developed for people with high shame and self-criticism, whose problems tend to be chronic, and who find self-warmth and self-acceptance difficult and/or frightening. This paper offers a short overview of the role of shame and self-criticism in psychological difficulties, the importance of considering different types of affect system (activating versus soothing) and the theory and therapy process of CMT. The paper explores patient acceptability, understanding, abilities to utilize and practice compassion focused processes and the effectiveness of CMT from an uncontrolled trial. Six patients attending a cognitive–behavioural-based day centre for chronic difficulties completed 12 two-hour sessions in compassionate mind training. They were advised that this was part of a research programme to look at the process and effectiveness of CMT and to become active collaborators, advising the researchers on what was helpful and what was not. Results showed significant reductions in depression, anxiety, self-criticism, shame, inferiority and submissive behaviour. There was also a significant increase in the participants' ability to be self-soothing and focus on feelings of warmth and reassurance for the self. Compassionate mind training may be a useful addition for some patients with chronic difficulties, especially those from traumatic backgrounds, who may lack a sense of inner warmth or abilities to be self-soothing. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... Insecure children are likely to become insecure adults, as such, the SEEKING, CARE and PLAY systems may be underdeveloped, and the FEAR and PANIC systems may be too sensitive (Panksepp et al., 2019). The SEEKING and CARE systems are essential to the development of a secure attachment style and also for the regulation of emotions (Gilbert & Procter, 2006). The SEEKING system has an arousing and activating effect, most likely driven by a surge of dopamine, whereas as the CARE system appears to generate the production of oxytocin, which is known to regulate the stress hormone cortisol (Gilbert & Procter, 2006). ...
... The SEEKING and CARE systems are essential to the development of a secure attachment style and also for the regulation of emotions (Gilbert & Procter, 2006). The SEEKING system has an arousing and activating effect, most likely driven by a surge of dopamine, whereas as the CARE system appears to generate the production of oxytocin, which is known to regulate the stress hormone cortisol (Gilbert & Procter, 2006). When caregivers provide their children with opportunities to feel safe, the child will explore (SEEKING) and use their imagination (PLAY), whereas children who experience unsafe feelings as the result of shame, criticism and negative evaluation are likely to experience high levels of cortisol and find themselves caught up in the PANIC and FEAR systems (Gilbert & Procter, 2006). ...
... The SEEKING system has an arousing and activating effect, most likely driven by a surge of dopamine, whereas as the CARE system appears to generate the production of oxytocin, which is known to regulate the stress hormone cortisol (Gilbert & Procter, 2006). When caregivers provide their children with opportunities to feel safe, the child will explore (SEEKING) and use their imagination (PLAY), whereas children who experience unsafe feelings as the result of shame, criticism and negative evaluation are likely to experience high levels of cortisol and find themselves caught up in the PANIC and FEAR systems (Gilbert & Procter, 2006). Witness chronic procrastinators who fear failing, and you see an attempt to avoid the PANIC and FEAR systems: This works as a strategy in the short term, but only delays and heightens the inevitable consequences. ...
... Thus, examining potential ways to reduce selfcriticism could provide valuable experimental evidence for the relationship between self-criticism and NSSI as well as aid in the development of novel prevention and treatment programs for NSSI engagers. One potential method that has been found to effectively counteract self-criticism is the development of self-compassion (Gilbert & Procter, 2006). ...
... Self-compassion has been conceptualized as a construct that consists of three main domains that exist on a continuum-self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation, and mindfulness versus overidentification. Each of these three domains have been suggested to directly or indirectly work toward reducing an individual's self-directed negative thoughts and emotions (Gilbert & Procter, 2006). Past cross-sectional research consistently supports the inverse relationship between self-compassion and self-criticism across diverse community samples (Sirois et al., 2015;Warren, 2015;Xavier et al., 2016). ...
... Additionally, recent studies assessing the efficacy of brief self-compassion training in populations have supported the counteracting effect of self-compassion on self-criticism, by reporting a reduction in psychopathological symptoms of depression, anxiety, shame, and self-criticism in healthy as well as subclinical populations (Albertson et al., 2015;Gilbert & Procter, 2006;Toole & Craighead, 2016). A brief three-week self-compassion training showed a significant reduction in body shame, as compared to the waitlisted control group, in a community sample of adult women presenting with body image concerns (Albertson et al., 2015). ...
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Objectives This study examined the efficacy of a brief online self-compassion training in reducing explicit and implicit self-criticism, pain endurance, and inclination to engage in self-harm among non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) engagers and ideators. Methods Sixty-three adults reporting presence of self-injurious thoughts or behaviors in the past year were randomly assigned to either a one-week self-compassion training group or a waitlisted control group. Results As compared to the control group (n = 33), the training group (n = 30) yielded significantly greater reduction in explicit self-criticism after a single session (p = .013, partial η² = .101) and significantly greater reduction in self-criticism (p = .001, partial η² = .170), and pain endurance (p = .004, partial η² = .130), as well as the explicit inclination to self-injure (p = .051, partial η² = .063) after the one-week training. The reduction in explicit self-criticism (p = .006, partial η² = .155) and inclination to self-injure (p = .04, partial η² = .105) was maintained at the two-week follow-up. Conclusions The findings provide suggestive evidence supporting the use of an online self-compassion training in reducing self-criticism and pain endurance in NSSI ideators. This study supports the potential use of brief online trainings in order to improve accessibility and adherence of treatment especially for individuals suffering from highly stigmatized conditions such as self-harm.
... One way of cultivating compassion is with compassionate mind training (CMT) which was developed within compassion-focused therapy (CFT) (Gilbert, 2020;Gilbert & Procter, 2006). CMT helps people develop courage and wisdom to engage with various aspects of suffering. ...
... Taken together, CMT has been shown to promote coping strategies and reduce depression and anxiety (Gilbert & Procter, 2006), while improving immune system functioning, physical well-being (Gilbert et al., 2011;Pace et al., 2009), and health-related quality of life in patients with long-term conditions (Austin et al., 2021). The particular framework of CMT as a foundation was selected as it could help patients with HT manage their symptoms, engage empathically with and accept their disease, come to terms with feelings of shame or fears, while decrease the risk of developing another autoimmune disease. ...
... The intervention incorporated several evidence-based CMT components that have been proven effective in previous studies (Gilbert & Procter, 2006). The specific selection and order of components, and their adaptation to HT patients, was done by one of the authors, AHG, a psychotherapist that suffers from HT herself. ...
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Objectives Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) experience mental health complaints due to the immune system dysregulation. Preliminary evidence suggests that psychological interventions could improve patients’ quality of life. Compassionate mind training (CMT) is part of compassion-focused therapy (CFT) and can be used to help individuals address physical and mental health difculties. The present study sought to assess the acceptability and preliminary efcacy of Reset Your Immune System, a 6-week CMT-based online intervention, in patients with HT. Methods Nine women were randomly selected from a wider sample that undertook the online intervention. Upon completion, they were interviewed with nine standard open-ended questions. Additionally, pre- and post-intervention questionnaires were flled out. Results Qualitative analysis indicated that participants observed improvements in symptoms, sleep quality, self-awareness, stress-management, and self-regulation skills. Participants did experience some difculties in undertaking compassion-related exercises. Quantitative analyses showed that negative afect, social/role limitations, and HT symptoms indicated a reliable change from pre- to post intervention. Conclusions Overall, Reset Your Immune System showed benefcial efects on patients with HT, suggesting that including psychological care as part of the standard treatment of HT might have added value. It is important to assess long-term efects in a larger sample through a randomized control trial.
... To begin to build an empirical understanding of the mechanisms of action of mindfulness training in trauma recovery among forcibly displaced people, we focus here on one such candidate mechanism of action of MBTR-R-(mal)adaptive self-referentiality, and specifically self-compassion and self-criticism (Garland et al., 2015;Gilbert & Procter, 2006;Gu et al., 2015). Self-referentiality refers broadly to mental processes related to the notion of "self", such as self-referential thoughts and beliefs, associations with one's self, and phenomenological experience of self (Bhar & Kyrios, 2016;Desbordes, 2019;Mennin & Fresco, 2013;Northoff et al., 2006;Tagini & Raffone, 2010;Wheeler et al., 2017). ...
... Self-referentiality refers broadly to mental processes related to the notion of "self", such as self-referential thoughts and beliefs, associations with one's self, and phenomenological experience of self (Bhar & Kyrios, 2016;Desbordes, 2019;Mennin & Fresco, 2013;Northoff et al., 2006;Tagini & Raffone, 2010;Wheeler et al., 2017). Self-criticism has been conceptualized as a common maladaptive form of selfreferentiality and reduced self-criticism is theorized to be a change mechanism and outcome of mindfulness and compassion training (Desbordes, 2019;Gilbert & Procter, 2006;Shahar et al., 2015). Self-criticism has been conceptualized as a self-evaluative process, associated with negative self-schemas, excessive self-judgment Shahar et al., 2015), and is accompanied by harsh negative affect (Greenberg et al., 1990(Greenberg et al., , 1998Whelton & Greenberg, 2005). ...
... theorized to promote the development of positive emotion and selfappraisals, acceptance, and reduced emotional reactivity (Garland et al., 2015;Trompetter et al., 2017). Likewise, self-compassion is thought to facilitate self-soothing, warmth, and reassurance following traumatic experiences and stressors, rather than maladaptive self-criticism, shame, or self-blame (Au et al., 2017;Gilbert & Procter, 2006). Theory and research have implicated self-criticism and selfcompassion in trauma recovery, and as change mechanisms and outcomes of mindfulness-and compassion-based interventions. ...
Article
Objective: Mindfulness- and compassion-based interventions may represent a promising intervention approach to the global mental health crisis of forced displacement. Specifically, Mindfulness-Based Trauma Recovery for Refugees (MBTR-R)-a mindfulness- and compassion-based, trauma-sensitive, and socioculturally adapted intervention for refugees and asylum-seekers-has recently demonstrated randomized control evidence of therapeutic efficacy and safety. Yet, little is known about potential mechanisms underlying these therapeutic effects for trauma recovery and for refugees and asylum-seekers. Method: Thus, we examined adaptive and maladaptive forms of self-referentiality, namely self-compassion and self-criticism, as mechanisms of action for trauma recovery in a randomized wait-list control trial of MBTR-R among a community sample of 158 traumatized and chronically stressed asylum-seekers (46% female) in an urban postdisplacement setting (Middle East). Self-compassion and self-criticism were measured vis-à-vis an experimental Self-Referential Encoding Task (SRET) designed to quantify cognitive processes underlying self-compassion and self-criticism using diffusion modeling, a computational modeling approach to quantify cognitive processes underlying decision-making from behavioral reaction time data. Results: Findings indicate that self-compassion and self-criticism were associated with trauma- and stress-related psychopathology at preintervention. Relative to wait-list controls, MBTR-R led to significant elevation in self-compassion, and reduction in self-criticism, from pre to postintervention. Finally, pre to postintervention change in self-criticism significantly mediated therapeutic effects of MBTR-R on depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) outcomes, while pre to postintervention change in self-compassion only mediated therapeutic effects on PTSD outcomes. Conclusions: Findings speak to the importance of (mal)adaptive self-referentiality as a target mechanism in MBIs and trauma recovery broadly, and among refugees and asylum-seekers specifically. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... It is well established that negative attitudes about mental health can lead to internalisation potentially manifesting in a sense of shame [29][30][31][32][33]. The emotional state of shame is complex and arises when individuals feel that they fall short of internalised socially constructed standards [32,[34][35][36]. ...
... Research that focused on mental health improvement and shame reduction has consistently identified self-compassion as a protective factor [31,[46][47][48][49][50]. Rooted in the tradition of Buddhism [51], self-compassion is related to practicing kindness towards oneself when facing adversity, acknowledging that struggling and suffering is a shared human condition, and becoming mindful and aware of one's painful thoughts [52]. Self-compassion has been linked to lower rates of depression, anxiety, and stress [52][53][54][55], as well as reduced social comparison [56] and self-criticism [31,47,57,58]. ...
... Research that focused on mental health improvement and shame reduction has consistently identified self-compassion as a protective factor [31,[46][47][48][49][50]. Rooted in the tradition of Buddhism [51], self-compassion is related to practicing kindness towards oneself when facing adversity, acknowledging that struggling and suffering is a shared human condition, and becoming mindful and aware of one's painful thoughts [52]. Self-compassion has been linked to lower rates of depression, anxiety, and stress [52][53][54][55], as well as reduced social comparison [56] and self-criticism [31,47,57,58]. It has also been beneficially linked to life satisfaction, happiness, optimism, and overall wellbeing and better mental health [53,54,57]. ...
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High rates of mental health problems are a growing concern in Czech higher education; negatively impacting on students' performance and wellbeing. Despite the serious nature of poor mental health; students often do not seek help due to negative attitudes and shame for mental health problems. Recent mental health research reports self-compassion is strongly associated with better mental health and reduced shame. However, relationships between those constructs remain to be evaluated among Czech students. This study aimed to appraise the relationships between mental health problems; negative mental health attitudes; mental health shame; and self-compassion in this population. An opportunity sample of 119 psychology students from a Czech university completed questionnaires regarding these constructs. Correlation, regression and path analyses were conducted. Mental health problems were positively associated with neg-ative mental health attitudes and shame; and negatively associated with self-compassion. Self-compassion negatively predicted mental health problems, while negative attitudes and shame did not. Lastly, self-compassion fully mediated the negative attitudes-mental health problems relationship, and partially mediated the shame-mental health problems relationship. Findings suggest self-compassion is essential for mental health in Czech students; and associated with negative mental health attitudes and mental health shame. Czech universities can benefit from incorporating self-compassion training in their curriculum to protect students' mental health.
... Self-compassion may be a valuable resource to attenuate setback experiences, such as receiving feedback that may be perceived as performance mistakes. For example, evidence suggests that self-compassion interventions led to decreased self-critical thoughts and concern over mistakes (Jopling, 2000;Gilbert and Procter, 2006). Leary et al. (2007) measured undergraduate students' responses to emotionally difficult situations encountered in their daily lives and concluded that self-compassion explained unique variance beyond self-esteem when predicting an individual's adaptive emotions, thoughts, and reactions to negative or emotionally difficult scenarios. ...
... To measure participants' levels of self-criticism, the state selfcriticism measure by Gilbert and Procter (2006) was used (α = 0.84: Gotwals and Dunn, 2009). This seven-item scale asks participants about the frequency, power, intrusiveness, length, and the difficulty of distraction from their self-critical thoughts (e.g., "How long did your self-critical thoughts last?"). ...
... A possible reason for these nonsignificant relationships could have been our participants' high mean levels of self-compassion-descriptive analyses revealed that athletes who participated in this study had higher levels participants. Selfcompassion can be used as a coping strategy to reduce an individual's self-criticism and concern over mistakes ( Gilbert and Procter, 2006;Mosewich et al., 2013). Additionally, selfcompassion can reduce maladaptive emotions, thoughts, and reactions by fostering more positive perceptions of the self (Neff, 2003b). ...
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Athletes regularly face the possibility of failing to meet expectations in training and competition, and it is essential that they are equipped with strategies to facilitate coping after receiving performance feedback. Self-compassion is a potential resource to help athletes manage the various setbacks that arise in sport over and above other psychological resources. The primary purpose of this research was to explore how athletes respond to objective biomechanical feedback given after a performance. Specifically, we investigated if levels of self-compassion, self-esteem, self-criticism, and concern over mistakes were related to one another before and after a series of sprint tests interspersed with biomechanical feedback, and whether self-compassionate athletes achieved a better sprint performance after receiving and implementing biomechanical feedback. Forty-eight athletes (20 female: Mage = 19.8 years, SD = 3.1; 28 male: Mage = 23.6 years, SD = 7.8) completed online measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, self-criticism and concern over mistakes before performing four sets of 40-m sprints. Participants received personalized biomechanical feedback after each sprint that compared their performance to gold standard results. Following all sprints, they then completed measures of self-criticism, and reported emotions, thoughts, and reactions. Self-compassion was positively correlated with self-esteem (r = 0.57, p < 0.01) and negatively related to both self-criticism (r = −0.52, p < 0.01) and concern over mistakes (r = −0.69, p < 0.01). We also found that athletes with higher levels of self-compassion prior to sprint performance experienced less self-critical thoughts following biomechanical feedback and subsequent sprint trials (r = −0.38, p < 0.01). Although the results of this study provide some support for the effectiveness of self-compassion in promoting healthy emotions, thoughts, and reactions in response to sprint performance-based biomechanical feedback, a moderated regression analysis between the first and fourth sprint time variables revealed that self-compassion was not a moderator for change in sprint performance (R2 = 0.64, ΔR2 = 0.10, p > 0.05). These findings suggest that there are likely longer-term benefits of athletes using self-compassion to cope with biomechanical feedback, but that any benefits might be limited in a short series of sprint trials.
... In this study we aim to investigate the impact of an unconditional self-acceptance and a self-compassion training exercise on selfblame, empathy, and performance. We will also explore whether increasing selfcompassion and unconditional self-acceptance impact the level of shame-and guilt-proneness, given that both unconditional self-acceptance and self-compassion have been studied in relation to these self-referential emotions (e.g., Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2017;Cândea & Szentagotai-Tătar, 2018;Dryden, 2013;Ellis, 1995;Gilbert & Procter, 2006;Johnson & O'Brien, 2013). Self-blaming refers to the attribution of guilt to oneself for one's negative experiences and emotions. ...
... This study supports the literature that points to self-compassion (e.g. Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2017;Cândea & Szentagotai-Tătar, 2018;Gilbert & Procter, 2006;Johnson & O'Brien, 2013) and unconditional self-acceptance (e.g. Dryden, 2013;Ellis, 1995) as being efficient ways of reducing the levels of shame that one experiences. ...
... In this case, pairwise comparison showed that the self-compassion training phase was successful in reducing the level of guilt-proneness. Because both self-compassion and unconditional self-acceptance are known to lower the level of guilt (e.g., Arimitsu & Hofmann, 2017;Cândea & Szentagotai-Tătar, 2018;Dryden, 2013;Ellis, 1995;Gilbert & Procter, 2006;Johnson & O'Brien, 2013), it is unclear why guilt-proneness levels did not lower in the unconditional self-acceptance condition. It is possible that the level of guilt-proneness could lower if the training phase is prolonged, or if the number of exercises is increased. ...
Article
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Self-compassion implies kindness towards oneself, a feeling of shared humanity and mindfulness. On the other hand, unconditional self-acceptance means that the self has inherent value due to its existence, therefore it should be accepted unconditionally. While there is research on each of these concepts separately, the literature is scarce when it comes to differences between the two. This study aims to investigate the effect of a self-compassion training and an unconditional self-acceptance training on self-blame levels, empathy levels, guilt- and shame-proneness levels, and performance on a task. Participants of all ages were recruited and randomized into two groups. Daily, for a week, each group had to apply a self-compassion exercise, or an unconditional self-acceptance exercise. Out of the original sample, 157 participants completed the study. A mixed ANOVA was employed for analysis. Self-compassion and unconditional self-acceptance increased in both groups. No significant differences were found between the two groups on self-blame and empathy levels. Shame-proneness levels lowered in both groups. After the training, participants in the self-compassion group presented significantly lower levels of guilt-proneness than participants in the unconditional self-acceptance group. Performance did not differ between the two groups. Although self-compassion and unconditional self-acceptance seem like different concepts, it is possible that the two lead to similar outcomes, using different means.
... Self-compassion is an inherent trait, but it can be improved by training (Raab, 2014). To date, clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness of this type of therapeutic approach for reducing self-criticism and rumination (Gilbert & Procter, 2006 ...
... The results of the current study revealed that compassion-focused therapy had a positive impact on some components of mindfulness. These results were in line with the findings ofGilbert and Procter (2006), showing that compassion-focused therapy can be effective in reducing psychological problems and increasing compatibility. Mindfulness is one of the main components of self-compassion. ...
... The theoretical basis of the current study is the psychobiological model for Compassionate Mind Training (CMT) which was developed by the Compassionate Mind Foundation [30][31][32][33]. As the Compassionate Mind Foundation [30] explains, humans switch between three mood-regulating systems: the threat, the drive and the soothing systems ( Figure 1). ...
... In the box below, please enter the code given to you by the researcher. [26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35] You are free to withdraw at any stage, just stop answering the questionnaire or leave this page. ...
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HE’s pandemic-driven shift to online platforms has increased social and learning disconnection amongst students. In online group work/teamwork, many are reluctant to switch on their cameras to be more present to others. Compassion in group work/teamwork is defined as noticing, not normalizing, one’s own and/or others’ distress or disadvantaging and taking wise action to prevent or reduce this. This notion of compassion is being assessed in the HE sector using filmed task-focused in-class group work meetings to identify levels of both inclusivity and criticality around the team. This study investigates the use and outcomes of using the compassionate communications strategies (that were developed in and for the offline classroom) in online team meetings. In this mixed-methods study, two groups of four international STEM students, each from a sample of five UK universities, were video-recorded in task-focused group work meetings (TGMs) before and after an online interactive 90-min training session (‘the intervention’) on the Cognitive Skills of Compassionate Communications (CSCC) in teams. A comparison of the (pre and post CSCC intervention) quantitative and qualitative data results indicated, post-intervention, a significant increase in students’ screen gaze attentiveness to each other, and reasons why students’ motivation to switch on their cameras had changed.
... A protective factor that is receiving increasing attention in the literature is self-compassion, due to its association with constructive psychological outcomes, reduced risk for psychopathology (e.g., Inwood & Ferrari, 2018), and reduced physiological responses to stress (Finlay-Jones et al., 2015). Self-compassion is considered a healthy way of relating to oneself that is positively related to positive mental health and negatively related to poor mental health (Gilbert & Procter, 2006;Neff, 2003a), and it plays an important role in mitigating stress outcomes (Arch et al., 2014;Wilson et al., 2018). ...
... As growing evidence indicates self-compassion can be enhanced through training and interventions (Gilbert & Procter, 2006;Neff & Germer, 2013), the implications of our findings for clinical practice are significant. Two main programs, compassion-focused therapy (CMT; Gilbert, 2010Gilbert, , 2014 and the mindful self-compassion program (MSC; Neff & Germer, 2013), have shown that higher levels of self-compassion may facilitate various well-being outcomes (Barnard & Curry, 2011;Diedrich et al., 2017;Neff & Germer, 2013). ...
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Parents of children with emotional and behavioral problems often experience emotional regulation difficulties and decreased well-being. The study examined two models (mediating and moderating) explaining associations between difficulties in emotion regulation, self-compassion, and subjective well-being among parents of children with emotional and behavioral problems. The sample comprised 662 parents of children attending the child and adolescent psychiatric center of a public hospital. Measurements included: Personal Wellbeing Index, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Self-Compassion Scale. A regression-based path analysis directly tested the proposed moderation model using model 1 in PROCESS. Path analysis using AMOS examined the mediation model. Results supported the moderation model wherein self-compassion moderated the association between difficulties in emotion regulation and well-being. The interaction between difficulties in emotion regulation and self-compassion was significant in predicting subjective well-being. Increased difficulties in emotion regulation were associated with decreased subjective well-being, and increased self-compassion was associated with increased subjective well-being. Parents with high difficulties in emotion regulation and low self-compassion had the worst subjective well-being. The mediation model, wherein difficulties in emotion regulation mediated the association between self-compassion and subjective well-being. was not supported. The results support the subjective well-being homeostasis theory, suggesting self-compassion is a protective factor. Cultivating self-compassion may foster parents’ ability to respond to emotional distress and improve well-being.
... Mindfulness-based interventions have shown efficacy in targeting trauma-related symptoms and functional outcomes as both stand-alone treatments and adjuncts [54,55], and in both civilian and veteran populations (see [56] for a veteran-specific meta-analysis of mindfulness-based interventions). Similarly, compassion training, which may include specific mindfulness meditations like loving-kindness (LKM) [57] and compassion meditation [58], has demonstrated efficacy for targeting PTSD symptoms and a wide range of functional outcomes in civilian [58,59] and military [53] samples (for reviews of compassion and LKM-based intervention RCTs and of mindfulness and compassion's relationship with PTSD see [60] and [61], respectively). The range of functional outcomes that may benefit from mindfulness and compassion training speaks to their broad applicability to multiple domains of functioning, but their positive effects on well-being [58], shame [59,62,63], guilt [63], suicidality [60], chronic pain and anger [64], sense of purpose [65], and social support and connectedness [65-67] may be especially relevant for those suffering from PTSD, MI, or TL. ...
... Similarly, compassion training, which may include specific mindfulness meditations like loving-kindness (LKM) [57] and compassion meditation [58], has demonstrated efficacy for targeting PTSD symptoms and a wide range of functional outcomes in civilian [58,59] and military [53] samples (for reviews of compassion and LKM-based intervention RCTs and of mindfulness and compassion's relationship with PTSD see [60] and [61], respectively). The range of functional outcomes that may benefit from mindfulness and compassion training speaks to their broad applicability to multiple domains of functioning, but their positive effects on well-being [58], shame [59,62,63], guilt [63], suicidality [60], chronic pain and anger [64], sense of purpose [65], and social support and connectedness [65-67] may be especially relevant for those suffering from PTSD, MI, or TL. Furthermore, LKM specifically has demonstrated non-inferiority in treating PTSD in veterans and superiority in treating depression when compared to CPT-C [68], as well as positive effects on broad functional outcomes like personal growth, environmental mastery, purpose, and acceptance [69]. ...
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Purpose of Review Modern evidence-based practice (EBP) primarily consists of the blanket application of treatment packages to purportedly treat behavioral health syndromes regardless of patient characteristics or context, which may be why current EBPs for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are less effective for treating veterans and military service members (SMs) than for civilians. Adaptive Disclosure is designed to operate within the culture and ethos of the military, and developments since the publication of the original manual reflect further effort to meet the needs of this population. This review presents to providers the rationale and evidence for the original AD manual, as well as an overview of the more recent developments and directions of the literature. Recent Findings The original AD manual has demonstrated efficacy in two clinical trials and noninferiority when compared to another EBP for PTSD. Additional treatment elements and enhancements are based on a rehabilitative model for treatment, primarily targeting functional outcomes over symptom reduction and promoting shared decision-making. Summary AD and its recent enhancements target symptoms related to PTSD, moral injury, and traumatic loss, but more importantly, they target the functional concerns of veterans and SMs within the military cultural context. Current research is focused on maximizing treatment flexibility to provide clinicians and patients with an adaptable and evidence-based framework for treatment.
... Such processes are proposed therapeutic mechanisms in compassion-focused therapy (CFT; Gilbert, 2009), which is a third-wave behavioural therapy focused on fostering the above skills through psychoeducation, mindfulness skills and a range of experiential exercises to develop self-kindness and a sense of common humanity. CFT is commonly delivered in a group format, such as Compassionate Mind Training (Gilbert & Procter, 2006), which involves modules covering the above elements, alongside group-based exercises to promote the interpersonal experiences of common humanity, mindfulness and kindness. CFT has a growing evidence base as a psychological treatment for shame, self-criticism and limited skills in self-compassion (Cuppage et al., 2017;Gilbert, 2009), although this study is limited by short-term follow-up measurements of 2 months. ...
... The group protocol was developed by the lead author and was based around Compassionate Mind Training group protocol (Gilbert & Procter, 2006) and a similar pilot with sexual minority people (Pepping et al., 2017), which adapted Compassionate Mind Training using sexual minority-specific issues and discussion points (see Table 1 for session content). The group protocol contained a mix of experiential, didactic and discursive exercises and weekly home practice tasks from four modules: psychoeducation about compassion (e.g. ...
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Objectives Transgender and gender non-conforming people may face elevated rates of shame and self-criticism in light of minority stress. Compassion-focused therapy has a growing evidence base in addressing trans-diagnostic processes in mental health difficulties, including shame and self-criticism. The objective of the present study was to explore the experience of an initial pilot compassion-focused therapy group delivered online in a Gender Service during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Six transgender people completed a semi-structured interview after attending an 8-week compassion-focused therapy group in a national Gender Service. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify themes in the data. Results Four themes were identified from the data: Transition Needs Compassion; Acceptability of the Compassion-Focused Approach; Being in a group with other transgender people; and Online delivery works despite its challenges. Participants reported that the compassion-focused framework was an appropriate and helpful way of understanding their experiences of stigma and that both the content and process of the group had benefitted them. Being with other transgender people raised some anxieties, such as comparisons or fear of offending, but also enabled seeing the self in more positive and accepting ways. While online delivery had some challenges, participants largely felt it was an effective mode of delivery, aided by the experiential nature of the group. Conclusions Compassion-focused therapy seems to be a feasible and acceptable approach for transgender and gender non-conforming people. Group processes may be helpful in increasing self-acceptance. Further quantitative exploration of therapy process and outcomes is warranted.
... Shame also affects expression of symptoms, abilities to reveal painful information, various forms of avoidance (e.g. dissociation and denial) and problems in help seeking (Gilbert & Procter, 2006) -all symptoms identified by participants in the current study. ...
... 'Living in the Minds of Others' explored how shame was exacerbated by perceived views of others, in turn impacting on participants own internal sense of self and supporting existing literature that shame can impact on people's sense of self, well-being and vulnerability in mental health (Matos et al., 2015). As Gilbert and Procter (2006) explain, "to experience 'self ' as 'living in the minds of others' as a rejectable person can make the social world unsafe and activates a range of defences." This subtheme also supports existing findings from Øktedalen et al. (2014) that patients in clinical settings are sometimes reluctant to disclose feelings of shame out of fear of being exposed and rejected (Macdonald & Morley, 2001), our participants describing fear of judgement and criticism. ...
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Offence related trauma refers to a trauma reaction following the perpetration of a violent offence. This research explores the lived experience of offence related trauma, in two forensic patients. The meaning and understanding these individuals make of their own coping strategies, triggers and treatment and how this contributes to their behaviour was explored using a semi-structured interview and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Two super-ordinate themes emerged from the data: ‘Journey to Forgiveness’ and ‘Living with the Whole Me.’ These themes and their subthemes highlight the nuances of offence related trauma and raise the question of how processes such as complicated grief and associated shame can impact on recovery and rehabilitation. The implications of the findings for professionals providing treatment in forensic settings are considered.
... Indeed, those changes were maintained 3 months later. Gilbert and Procter (2006) applied the Compassionate Mind Training in individuals with high levels of shame and guilt. The results showed a significant impact on the reduction of depression, anxiety, selfattacking, self-criticism, feelings of inferiority, submissive behaviour and shame (Gilbert & Procter, 2006). ...
... Gilbert and Procter (2006) applied the Compassionate Mind Training in individuals with high levels of shame and guilt. The results showed a significant impact on the reduction of depression, anxiety, selfattacking, self-criticism, feelings of inferiority, submissive behaviour and shame (Gilbert & Procter, 2006). A recent meta-analysis evaluating 27 randomised controlled trials for self-compassion-based interventions found that those interventions have large effect sizes in the reduction of eating disorder symptoms and rumination and moderate effect sizes for symptoms in the reduction of self-criticism, stress, depression and anxiety outcomes (Ferrari et al., 2019). ...
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Objectives Self-compassion, defined as the ability to be accepting and loving towards oneself, has been identified as a potential protective factor against the development of body dissatisfaction and eating disorders (ED). In contrast, compulsive exercise is a core feature in the development and progression of EDs and is often employed as a maladaptive coping strategy for negative emotions and body image concerns. However, the relationships between self-compassion and compulsive exercise attitudes and behaviours are as yet unexplored. Methods A total of 539 Spanish female university students (Mage = 20.03, SD = 2.22) completed measures of compulsive exercise, frequency of compensatory exercise, self-compassion, eating disorder symptoms, and anxiety and depression. Results Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that lower levels of self-compassion significantly predicted some compulsive exercise elements (namely, weight control exercise and lack of exercise enjoyment) after controlling for ED symptoms, anxiety, depression and age. However, frequency of compensatory exercise was unrelated to self-compassion elements. Findings from the mediation models suggest an indirect effect of self-compassion on the association between compulsive exercise and ED symptoms. Conclusions The findings suggest a significant link between low self-compassion and greater harmful exercise attitudes and behaviours towards exercise. Further research is needed to clarify whether self-compassion may be a core feature in the development and maintenance of harmful attitudes and behaviours towards exercise.
... The theoretical basis of the current study is the psychobiological model for Compassionate Mind Training (CMT) which was developed by the Compassionate Mind Foundation [30][31][32][33]. As the Compassionate Mind Foundation [30] explains, humans switch between three mood-regulating systems: the threat, the drive and the soothing systems ( Figure 1). ...
... In the box below, please enter the code given to you by the researcher. [26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35] You are free to withdraw at any stage, just stop answering the questionnaire or leave this page. ...
Article
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HE’s pandemic-driven shift to online platforms has increased social and learning disconnection amongst students. In online group work/teamwork, many are reluctant to switch on their cameras to be more present to others. Compassion in group work/teamwork is defined as noticing, not normalizing, one’s own and/or others’ distress or disadvantaging and taking wise action to prevent or reduce this. This notion of compassion is being assessed in the HE sector using filmed task-focused in-class group work meetings to identify levels of both inclusivity and criticality around the team. This study investigates the use and outcomes of using the compassionate communications strategies (that were developed in and for the offline classroom) in online team meetings. In this mixed-methods study, two groups of four international STEM students, each from a sample of five UK universities, were video-recorded in task-focused group work meetings (TGMs) before and after an online interactive 90-min training session (‘the intervention’) on the Cognitive Skills of Compassionate Communications (CSCC) in teams. A comparison of the (pre and post CSCC intervention) quantitative and qualitative data results indicated, post-intervention, a significant increase in students’ screen gaze attentiveness to each other, and reasons why students’ motivation to switch on their cameras had changed. Keywords: cognitive skills; compassion; team/group work; online; screen gaze
... Research has demonstrated CFT's effectiveness for a wide range of therapeutic issues (see Craig et al., 2020;Kirby, 2017;Leaviss and Uttley, 2015 for reviews). Importantly, CFT is effective in reducing shame and self-hating self-criticism (Au et al., 2017;Gilbert and Procter, 2006), which are common and lasting effects of CSA and perpetuating factors in ongoing post-trauma symptomatology (Feiring & Taska, 2005;Finkelhor & Browne, 1985;Whiffen & MacIntosh, 2005). Promising results have been found in studies investigating CFT as an intervention for survivors of interpersonal trauma more broadly, including a 6-week CFT individual therapy intervention with trauma survivors (n = 10), including survivors of adult sexual assault (Au et al., 2017), a 16-week CFT mixed-gender group intervention for participants (n = 8) with a history of complex trauma and had a diagnosis of a personality disorder (Lucre & Corten, 2013), and a 5-week CFT group program for adult female survivors of gender-based or intimate partner violence (Naismith et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Objectives The adverse effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are often significant and enduring. It is therefore important to identify therapeutic interventions that can effectively minimize these effects. Compassion focused therapy (CFT) was originally developed for people with high levels of self-criticism and shame. It holds significant promise as an intervention for survivors of CSA, but has not yet been empirically tested. This study explored both the acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a CFT group intervention (CFT-SA) for adult female survivors of CSA. Methods CFT-SA was developed and tested with adult female survivors of CSA, to determine if there was any change in outcome measure scores after participating in the 12-week intervention ( n = 30) and at 3-month post-intervention follow-up ( n = 25). Results Low attrition and high session attendance, in addition to positive participant feedback, suggested the program had high acceptability. Significant improvement was observed across all outcome variables from pre- to post-intervention ( n = 30), which were maintained at follow-up ( n = 25). Participants demonstrated increased self-compassion and self-reassurance, and reduced symptoms of post-traumatic stress, shame, and self-criticism, as well as fears of compassion, depression, anxiety, and stress, with medium to large effect sizes ( d = .55 to 1.36). Across all measures, between 20 and 57% of participants demonstrated reliable change pre- to post-intervention, and 22 to 57% from pre-intervention to follow-up. Conclusions This study provides preliminary support for the acceptability and potential benefits of utilizing CFT-SA as an intervention for adult female survivors of CSA and offers recommendations for future research. Trial Registration. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616001041448.
... This result may be related to the sample and also to cultural characteristics. There are some studies that show the relation of self-criticism with self-compassion to be low as conducted in Japanese culture (Arimitsu, 2014) and high as conducted in American culture (Gilbert and Procter, 2006;Zhang et al., 2019). According to the Neff 's conceptualization of self-compassion, individuals who are more self-compassionate criticize themselves less, while people who are open to giving compassion resort to self-criticism, criticizing themselves more. ...
Article
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Aim This study aims to translate the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales (CEAS) into Turkish and to test their subsequent validity, reliability, and psychometric properties. Turkey is one of the blended cultures with eastern and western elements under the influence of traditional religion. This cultural diversity brings about a rich context to study compassion and its relationship to mental health. The scales assess the ability to be sensitive to suffering and engage and then take helpful actions in compassion. The motivation for compassionate engagement and action is measured at three ‘flows’ as follows: (1) compassion for others; (2) compassion from others; and (3) compassion for self. Methods The sample consists of 525 college students aged 18 years or older. The participants completed the CEAS Turkish Form for Others, Self and from Others, Self-Compassion Scale Short Form, Compassionate Love Scale, and Self-Criticism Scale. Results The confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using AMOS version 27 to examine the validity of the three scales with two different factor structures each. All the three models show good fits to the data. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the CEAS for Others and for Self and from Others are good to excellent (between 0.70 and 0.95 for all subscales). Compassion for self, compassion for others, and compassion from others correlated modestly. Conclusion It can be concluded that the Turkish version of the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales for Others and Self and from Others has sufficient psychometric properties and can be used as a reliable and valid measure to assess compassionate engagement and action.
... It has been observed that self-compassion facilitates emotional regulation (Inwood and Ferrari 2018). Self-compassion training has been found to be a preventive and even therapeutic factor in emotional disorders (Cleare et al. 2019;Gilbert and Procter 2006;Hofmann et al. 2011;Inwood and Ferrari 2018;Kirby et al. 2017;MacBeth and Gumley 2012;Neff 2003aNeff , 2003bWilson et al. 2019). Self-compassion has also been observed to be a protective factor from emotional distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population in China (Lau et al. 2020;Li et al. 2021) and Spain (Gutiérrez-Hernández et al. 2021;Jiménez et al. 2020) and also among doctors (Kotera et al. 2020), pregnant women (Taubman-Ben-Ari et al. 2020) and parents (Preuss et al. 2021). ...
Article
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Research has shown that the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a mental health burden worldwide. Most studies have focused on the factors associated with a higher risk of mental health problems, and only a few studies have looked at the potential protective factors. The general objective of this study was to determine whether self-compassion has a protective effect against the risk of mental health problems and especially on perceived infectability. If so, we intended to determine which of the three specific facets of self-compassion (i.e., mindfulness vs. over-identification; self-kindness vs. self-judgment; common humanity vs. isolation;) has the greatest weight in predicting emotional distress. We conducted a cross-sectional study through an online survey completed by 855 participants in Spain. Results confirmed that the three facets of self-compassion reduce the negative correlation between perceived infectability and emotional distress, diminishing its role in predicting emotional distress. These results are discussed in relation to the protective role of self-compassion and the need to further explore the variables associated with a lower risk of mental problems derived from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
... Self-compassion positively correlates to factors such as life satisfaction (Neff, 2003), happiness (Neff & Vonk, 2009), optimism (Neff et al., 2007), positive affect (Neff et al., 2007), emotional intelligence (Castilho et al., 2017;Di Fabio & Saklofske, 2021;Heffernan et al., 2010;Neff, 2003) and coping skills (Neff et al., 2005). Besides, unlike rumination, self-compassion improves mood by reducing negative affect (Gilbert & Procter, 2006). This is because accepting negative emotions and expressing self-compassion increases positive feelings, leading to well-being (Bluth & Blanton, 2014). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic and its accompanying restrictions, apart from the destructive global economic and social impact, brought negative psychological consequences to the world. The aim of the current study is to investigate the factors that help individuals maintain psychological well-being under the condition of self-isolation, a global restriction against the spread of the pandemic. Specifically, the role of trait emotional intelligence, self-compassion, and rumination was explored in order to determine how these variables relate to psychological well-being. According to the results, trait emotional intelligence and self-compassion positively correlate with psychological well-being, while rumination is negatively correlated. Self-compassion mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and well-being. The relationship between rumination and well-being is affected by emotional intelligence and self-compassion: Self-compassion mediates the relationship between depression related rumination and well-being, while self-control and emotionality factors of trait emotional intelligence moderate the relationship between reflection rumination and well-being. The findings of the current study provide insight about self-compassion, rumination, and emotional intelligence as different contributing factors to the individuals’ well-being in self-isolation, suggesting further implications about the use of these strategies to help people cope with this stressful situation.
... Promoting group discussion through group therapy can provide "the ideal opportunity to resolve the experience of shame" and promote social belongingness (Shapiro & Powers, 2011; see also : Alonso & Rutan, 1988;Gilbert & Procter, 2006;Lansky & Morrison, 1997;McDermut et al., 2001;Schoenleber & Gratz, 2018). While groups appear to be important to MST-focused treatment, and although nearly 40% of a large study sample of Iraq-Afghanistan combat veterans have demonstratable interest in group therapy (Sayer et al., 2010), research continues to be lacking to guide clinicians on what group treatments should be used for PTSD and when they should be applied (Sloan et al., 2012). ...
Article
Objective: Despite recognition of its prevalence and impact, little is known about treatment for veteran men with a history of military sexual trauma (MST). While research suggests that such veterans may suffer from gender-based distress that poses unique treatment challenges, MST-focused treatment draws upon contemporary PTSD best practices that may overlook gender. The current initial pilot study evaluated a multimodal, time-limited men's MST group therapy that integrated exposure- and mindfulness-based, psychoeducational, and psychodynamic group interventions. Method: This study examined pre- and posttreatment data from patients who completed group treatment (n = 24). Three-fourths of patients were 60 years or older, over 80% Black, Indigenous, People of Color. Assessment data were collected using the PTSD Checklist (PCL-5), an adaptation of the Recovery Assessment Scale, and open-ended written responses. Paired-samples t tests and effect sizes (Hedge's g) were calculated. Indictive thematic analysis was used for qualitative analysis. Results: Qualitative and quantitative data showed improvements in shame, self-forgiveness, and belonginess. There were significant reductions from pre- to posttreatment in total PCL-5 score (g = -0.69) and all 4 symptom clusters (g = -0.51--0.71), and significant improvements in 8 out of 10 recovery items (g = 0.44-2.46). Conclusions: More research is needed to assess whether veteran men with a history of MST benefit from treatment that provides multimodal, multitheoretical interventions that address gender-based symptoms in addition to PTSD. The results of this study support future research in a randomized controlled study.
... For instance, patients who treated by a compassionate caregiver tend to share more information about their symptoms and concerns which helps the care giver for more accurate understanding and diagnoses [4]. In addition, compassionate behavior reduces patient anxiety [6]. On the other hand, anxiety and fear delay healing [5], and As a result, compassionate care can positively affect patients' rate of recovery and probability to be healed. ...
Article
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Background: Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) practices have a key role in encouraging the performance of Compassionate, Respectful and Caring (CRC) initiatives. However, during the last five years, CRC implementation was given less attention, and caused to a lack of integration and oppression. Therefore, this study aimed on assessing how to strengthen the M&E system to improve the CRC.
... Self-compassion (compassion directed toward oneself when confronting distress or painful circumstances; Neff, 2003) is a protective psychosocial factor that may be especially relevant for ameliorating the health impacts of lung cancer stigma. In noncancer samples, self-compassion interventions significantly reduce shame, distress, and depressive symptoms, particularly for those high in shame and self-criticism (Albertson et al., 2015;Gilbert & Procter, 2006;Johnson & O'Brien, 2013). Furthermore, one study in lung cancer patients has shown that higher self-compassion is associated with lower distress (Schellekens et al., 2017). ...
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether three facets of lung cancer stigma (internalized stigma, constrained disclosure, and perceived subtle discrimination) uniquely predicted psychological and physical health-related adjustment to lung cancer across 12 weeks. Additionally, self-compassion was tested as a moderator of the stigma-health relationship. Method: Adults receiving oncologic treatment for lung cancer (N = 108) completed measures of lung cancer stigma, self-compassion, depressive symptoms, cancer-related stress, and physical symptom bother. Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships (at 6- and 12-week follow-up) between indicators of stigma and health-related outcomes, controlling for covariates. Self-compassion was tested as a moderator of these relationships. Results: At study entry, higher internalized stigma, constrained disclosure, and perceived subtle discrimination were associated significantly and uniquely with higher depressive symptoms (all p < .05). Constrained disclosure and perceived subtle discrimination were also associated significantly with higher cancer-related stress and higher physical symptom bother at study entry (all p < .05). Furthermore, higher internalized stigma predicted significant increases in depressive symptoms across 12 weeks and in cancer-related stress across 6 and 12 weeks (all p < .05). Higher self-compassion significantly moderated relationships between perceived discrimination and psychological health outcomes at study entry as well as between internalized stigma and increasing depressive symptoms across 12 weeks (all p < .05). Conclusions: Results indicated robust relationships between distinct facets of stigma and health-related adjustment to lung cancer. Supportive care programs that bolster self-compassion may be useful for reducing lung cancer stigma. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Self-compassion is a learnable skill which involves three components: self-kindness, common humanity and mindfulness (Neff, 2003a(Neff, , 2003b. These have been suggested to positively influence psychological wellbeing (Neff, 2003b), coping (Neely et al., 2009) and resilience (Gilbert and Procter, 2006) whereas a negative relationship has been identified between self-compassion and psychopathology (MacBeth and Gumley, 2012) and compassion fatigue (Gilbert, 2005). ...
Article
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Utilising an online survey, this study aimed to investigate the concurrent effects of pre-pandemic and COVID-19 stress on resilience in Mental Health Psychology Practitioners (MHPPs) (n=325), focussing on the mediation effects of specific individual factors. Optimism, burnout and secondary traumatic stress, but not coping strategies, self-efficacy, compassion satisfaction, or self-compassion, mediated both the relationship between pre-pandemic stress and resilience and COVID-19 stress and resilience. Increased job demands caused by the pandemic, the nature and duration of COVID-19 stress may explain this finding. Training and supervision practices can help MHPPs deal with job demands under circumstances of general and extreme stress.
... -Intermediate Phase (sessions [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. Focused on the gradual development of compassion towards oneself and others. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper outlines the theoretical and empirical basis for a treatment of psychosis from an evolutionary model of emotional regulation: Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) for recovery from psychosis. CFT was originally developed for people with high levels of shame and self-criticism. Along with stigma, these are common features in people who are recovering from psychosis, and who may also develop serious emotional regulation problems. Elements of attachment theory involved in the origin of these difficulties are explored and some empirical facts about the clinical utility and efficacy of this new treatment are presented. A brief description is given of a recent group protocol that has been subjected to randomized trial, obtaining promising results.
... In contrast, self-compassion activates the soothing system, creating balance between the three systems [31]. Indeed, compassionate mind training reduced participants' levels of self-criticism and shame [33]. ...
Article
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Although students in education have high rates of mental health problems, many of them do not ask for help, which can exacerbate their symptoms. One reason for their low help-seeking is shame associated with mental health problems. As education students aspire to provide care for chil-dren, they may feel ashamed to care for themselves as the role identity theory suggests. Self-compassion is reported to reduce shame and mental health problems. This study explored the relationships between mental health problems, mental health shame, self-compassion and care-giver identity among UK education students. One hundred nine postgraduate students completed four self-report scales regarding those constructs. Correlation and regression analyses were per-formed. Mental health problems were positively associated with shame and identity, while nega-tively associated with self-compassion. Self-compassion was the only significant predictor of mental health problems. Findings will help educators and education students to develop effective approaches for their mental health problems.
... Son zamanlarda alanyazında merhamet temelli altı farklı müdahale yöntemi ortaya konulmuştur (Kirby, 2017;Kirby, Tellegan ve Steindl, 2017). Bunlar; Merhamet Odaklı Terapi (Gilbert ve Procter, 2006), Farkındalık Temelli Özmerhamet Eğitimi (Germer ve Neff, 2013), Merhamet Geliştirme Eğitimi (Jazaieri ve diğerleri,2013), Bilişsel Temelli Merhamet Eğitimi (Ozawa-de Silva ve Dodson-Lavelle, 2011), Duygusal Denge ve Merhamet Geliştirme (Kemeny ve diğerleri, 2012) ve Sevme ve İyilik Meditasyonları'dır (Hofmann, Grossman, ve Hinton, 2011). Aşağıda merhamete dayalı eğitim ve müdahale yöntemlerine yer verilmiştir. ...
Article
Merhamet konusu günümüzde psikoloji, eğitim, sağlık, sosyal hizmet, hukuk ve etik gibi çeşitli alanlarda yaygın şekilde araştırılan konulardan biri haline gelmiştir. Temelde bireyin başkasının acısını fark etmesi ve o acıyı dindirmek için harekete geçip eylemde bulunması olarak kavramsallaştırılan bu kavram, ruh sağlığı alanında kaygı, korku, stres, depresyon, değersizlik, öfke, kendini suçlama, aşırı özeleştiri gibi çeşitli sorunların tedavisinde de etkin şekilde kullanılan terapötik güçlerden biridir. Yapılan araştırmalarda merhametin sosyalleşmenin gelişmesinde, sosyal adaletin sağlanmasında, prososyal davranışların ve iyi oluşun artmasında etkili olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca merhametin zorlu duygularla başa çıkmada ve olumsuz psikolojik durumları azaltmada önemli bir işlev gördüğü ortaya konulmuştur. Merhamet kavramı bireyin hem kendisine hem diğer insanlara hem de doğaya ve diğer bütün canlılara duyduğu his olarak çok boyutlu şekilde ele alınmaktadır. Son yıllarda hem bireylerde merhameti geliştirmek hem de merhamet eğitimi yoluyla eğitim ve ruh sağlığı alanlarında olumlu sonuçlar elde etmek için çeşitli uygulamalar yapılmakta, eğitim programları geliştirilmekte ve yeni terapi modelleri ortaya atılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada merhamet konusuna artan ilgi, merhamete ilişkin çeşitli tanımlar, merhamet duymanın faydaları, merhametin gelişimi, merhamet temelli müdahale programları ve eğitim alanında merhamet konuları ele alınmıştır. Bu bağlamda, bu çalışmanın amacı merhametle ilgili alanyazındaki güncel araştırmalar ve ortaya konan yaklaşımlar çerçevesinde merhamet eğitimi ve eğitimde merhamet konularını çeşitli boyutlarıyla ele almak ve eğitimcilere, ebeveynlere, araştırmacılara ve uygulayıcılara bazı öneriler sunmaktır.
... The results of this study offer support for the burgeoning evidence of self-compassion-based and mindfulness-focused interventions aimed to promote flourishing. These findings are in line with the theory of compassionate mind training [45]. This theory suggests that despite early negative experiences, by practicing skills and attributes of mindful attention and self-compassion, people can replace negativity with positivity. ...
Article
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Introduction: An important research avenue on flourishing is to understand the predictors and mechanisms associated with flourishing. Most evidence has been reported from western countries. However, little is known about whether the relationship between self-compassion and flourishing could be explained through mindfulness in a non-western country. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the mediating role of mindfulness in the association between self-compassion and flourishing in a sample of Arabic speaking adults. Methods: A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data from 396 (50% females) Arab adults recruited from the general public. Participants ranged in age fro 19 and 59 years with a mean age of 30.7 years (SD = 10.3). Participants completed online versions of the Self-Compassion Scale – Short Form, the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, and the Flourishing Scale. Results: The results of correlation analysis indicated significant positive correlations among self-compassion, mindfulness, and flourishing. The results of mediation analysis showed that self-compassion significantly predicted mindfulness and flourishing. Mindfulness also significantly predicted flourishing. Mediation analysis supported the hypothesis that mindfulness played a mediating role between self-compassion and flourishing. Discussion: The results suggest the importance of mindfulness in understanding the association between self-compassion and flourishing. Intervention efforts aimed at improving flourishing may benefit from increased mindfulness and self-compassion. Take-home message: In this study, individuals with high levels of self-compassion experienced more mindfulness and flourishing in their lives.
... Study by Neff & McGehee, (2010) has shown supportive and receptive parenting to be associated with the capability to be self-compassionate and self-soothing during periods of duress. Conversely, a lack of self-compassion and harsh self-critique have been related to stemming from clashing, cold and rebuffing family environments (Gilbert & Procter, 2006). ...
Article
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Rationale. With social distancing and work from home the COVID-19 (WHO, 2020) pandemic has created a new reality for parents worldwide and brought along significant challenges in their lives. In particular, the process of mothering has been affected during the COVID-19 pandemic with higher physical and emotional labour and a greater responsibility for managing care of the children and household without the usual support system in place. Objective. The primary objective of the current study was to explore the mediating role of Psychological Inflexibility (PI) between the relationship of Parenting Stress (PS) and Self-Compassion (SC) among Indian mothers with children aged under 10 years during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design. Self-reported measures of PI, PS and SC through respective scales were used to collect data from N=552 Indian mothers. Results. The data analysis was indicative of a positive relationship between Self-compassion and Parental Stress and Self-compassion and Psychological Inflexibility. Psychological Inflexibility was found to positively mediate the relationship between Parental Stress and Self Compassion with the mediating effect being close to 31%. Conclusion. Increased parenting stress could have propelled mothers to be more self-compassionate in order to cope with the stress induced by the pandemic.
... Similarly, the therapist used the Thought Record she completed with Briana in session 7 (shown in Figure 6) to add more elements to the formulation. This Thought Record focuses on a summary sort of description of Briana's situation, identifies her response to these problems as self-criticism (Gilbert & Procter, 2006)) and "why" thinking (Watkins, 2016)), shows how these thoughts feed emotions of depression and doubt, which in turn feed behaviors of rumination, paralysis, and a general behavioral "in limbo" state that, as shown in the coping responses column, block active problem-solving. ...
... Evidence has suggested significant benefits of adding CFT-based approaches to CBT for a range of psychiatric problems (Beaumont et al., 2012;Gale et al., 2014). Several studies have also shown that CFT interventions increase the ability to selfsoothe, distress tolerance, reduce shame and self-criticism, enhance self-perception, and positively affect cognitive patterns associated with particular psychiatric disorders, such as eating disorders and personality disorders (Ashworth et al., 2011;Beaumont et al., 2012;Gale et al., 2014;Gilbert & Procter, 2006;Judge et al., 2012;Laithwaite et al., 2009;Lucre & Corten, 2013). Compassion training techniques applied in CFT have also demonstrated impacts in biological measures such as changes in activity in brain regions associated with emotional regulation (Begley, 2007;Davidson et al., 2003;Longe et al., 2010), heart rate variability, and cortisol levels in directions suggesting improved emotion regulation (Rockliffe et al., 2008). ...
Article
Hoarding Disorder (HD) was formally recognized as a mental health diagnosis in 2013. A number of therapeutic methods have been developed and tailored for HD, including Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT). The aims of this article are threefold: First, to provide a description of the rationale of developing a group CFT protocol for HD (CFT-HD); Second, to introduce the theoretical framework, treatment targets, and techniques of CFT-HD; Third and finally, to share existing empirical evidence of CFT-HD, and an ongoing study on CFT-HD conducted in a private practice setting. Implications of the development of and research findings on CFT-HD, as well as future directions, are discussed.
Article
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The purpose of this study is to determine the level of depression, anxiety, stress and emotional intelligence of university students with different level of compassion (low, medium, high). Research sample was composed of students from Ahmet Keleşoğlu Faculty of Education, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Literature and Science. Participants of the research were 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year university students from Selçuk and Necmettin Erbakan University chosen by convenience sampling method. Participants were made up of 576 students of whom 322 were females and 254 males. In order to determine the depression anxiety stress scores of the students, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale for emotional intelligence scores Trait Emotional Intelligence Scale for compassion scores Compassion Scale, Turkish adaptation made by the researcher. One-way Anova was employed to determine if depression anxiety stress emotional intelligence mean scores differentiate with respect to compassion levels. Tukey test was used as further analysis to determine the source of differentiation. According to the findings of the research, the students with low and medium compassion levels have more depression, anxiety and stress levels than students with high level of compassion. It was found that there is no significant differentiation between the levels of anxiety and stress on the students with different level of compassion (low, medium, high). The students with low and medium compassion levels have less emotional intelligence levels than students with high compassion.
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Öz Merhamet, bir başkasının acısına tanıklık ederken ortaya çıkan ve daha sonra yardım etme arzusunu tetikleyen bir duygu durumudur. Bu araştırmada, merhamet konusuna ilişkin Türkiye’de yapılan araştırmaların çeşitli ölçütler açısından incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu araştırmada doküman analizi yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Bu kapsamda 2000-2020 yılları arasında merhamet konusunda yayınlanmış 84 çalışma incelenmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre merhamet konusunda 2000’li yılların başında herhangi bir çalışmanın yapılmadığı 2010-2014 yılları arasında ilk çalışmaların yapılmaya başlandığı ve 2018 yılından itibaren ise bu konudaki araştırmalarda önemli bir artış olduğu belirlenmiştir. Yapılmış araştırmaların katılımcılarının bir kısmını hemşireler ve üniversite öğrencileri oluşturmuşken, bazı araştırmalar kuramsal-derleme türünde yapılmıştır. Ayrıca araştırmaların büyük çoğunluğu 200’ün altındaki katılımcılarla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmalarda çoğunlukla ANOVA, t testi, Kruskal Wallis, Man Whitney U testi ve korelasyon analizi gibi temel istatistik teknikleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırmaların yarıdan fazlasında Merhamet Ölçeği uygulanmıştır. Ayrıca yapılmış araştırmaların büyük çoğunluğu sağlık ve sosyal hizmetler alanında gerçekleştirilmiş; son yıllarda ise eğitim, ruh sağlığı ve psikoloji alanında da araştırmalar yapılmıştır. ABSTRACT Compassion is an emotional state that arises when the person witnesses someone else's pain and then triggers a desire to help. In this study, it was aimed to investigate research about compassion conducted in Turkey in terms of various criteria. Document analysis method was used in this research. In this context, 84 studies published related to compassion between 2000 and 2020 were examined. According to findings of the research, it was determined that there were not any studies about compassion in the early 2000s but the first studies were started between 2010-2014 and there has been a significant increase in research on this subject since 2018. While participants of some research were nurses and university students, some studies were conducted in the form of theoretical review. Also, most of the research was conducted with less than 200 participants. Basic statistical techniques such as ANOVA, t-test, Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney U test and correlation analysis were mostly used in the studies The Compassion Scale was used as a data collection tool in more than half of the studies. In addition, most of the research has been conducted in the field of health and social services; In recent years, research has also been done in the fields of education, mental health and psychology.
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A core aspect of compassion focused therapy (CFT) is addressing fears, blocks, and resistances (FBRs) to compassion. How CFT therapists do this with clients remains unclear. This study aims to explore the perspectives of well‐trained, experienced CFT therapists regarding how they work with FBRs in the context of CFT. A qualitative study was conducted. Participants were asked five open‐ended questions regarding (a) their experiences of working with FBRs to compassion, (b) how they understand and formulate FBRs, (c) specific ways they address FBRs, (d) how other therapists might learn about working with FBRs, and (e) their top recommendations. A total of 64 participants completed the online questionnaire, and the qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. The analysis produced four interrelated superordinate themes: (a) Getting “alongside” and “behind”: The central role of formulation, (b) “It's not your fault”: Psychoeducation, (c) “Get experiential”: An emphasis on experiential interventions, and (d) “Respect the wisdom”: The importance of therapeutic process. Working with FBRs to compassion is critical in CFT. Understanding the wisdom in the client's FBRs, and validating and de‐shaming the client's FBRs are crucial. We provide clinical recommendations regarding working with FBRs as part of CFT.
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Purpose: Literature shows that sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals are at higher risk of developing minority stress-related mental health problems. Recently, it has been suggested that promoting self-compassion through affirmative mental health care for SGM people can be beneficial. However, no systematic analysis has been published exploring the relationship between self-compassion and mental health indicators in SGM individuals. We aim to fill this gap by synthesizing and meta-analyzing studies that focus on the relationship between self-compassion and mental health in SGM people. Methods: After registering in PROSPERO (CRD42021254774), PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and Web of Knowledge were systematically searched to identify studies assessing the association between self-compassion and mental health and/or minority stress indicators in SGM individuals. All screening steps and data extraction were performed independently by the two researchers. The quality of each study was assessed with the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute tool, and meta-analysis was performed on R software. Results: Twenty-one studies were included in the meta-analysis, corresponding to a total of 6573 nonheterosexual and/or noncisgender participants. All meta-analytic models were significant: higher levels of self-compassion were associated with less depression, anxiety, psychological distress, suicidal ideation, internalized homophobia/transphobia, and stigma, and with more well-being, outness, and social support. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that self-compassion is significantly associated with mental health indicators in SGM people, and this relationship is especially strong with internalized homophobia/transphobia in older SGM adults, and with suicidal ideation in younger SGM individuals. Results suggest that affirmative mental health care may benefit from promoting self-compassion.
Thesis
This study consists of two separate studies. In the first study, the Turkish adaptation of the Beliefs About Emotions Questionnaire (BAEQ; Manser et al., 2012) was carried out. A total of 436 Turkish university students between the ages of 18-29 (M = 23.5, SD = 3.19) participated in the study. The findings showed that the data set confirmed the factor structure suggested for BAEQ with some modifications, and that the 37-item scale is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used by emotion regulation researchers and mental health professionals in Turkey. In the second study, a structural equation model was tested in order to better understand the relationships between trait/dispositional mindfulness, beliefs about emotions, adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, and negative and positive mental health. A total of 608 Turkish university students between the ages of 18-29 (M = 23.14, SD = 2.89) participated in the study. The findings revealed that the indirect effect of trait/dispositional mindfulness on adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies as well as on positive and negative mental health through beliefs about emotions and the indirect effect of beliefs about emotions on negative and positive mental health through maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies were statistically significant. The present findings are discussed in accordance with the relevant literature.
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Research has repeatedly demonstrated that individual and group psychotherapy are equally effective. Compassion‐focused therapy (CFT) has been shown to be an effective approach to treating individuals with a wide range of presenting mental health concerns. In this study, we discuss the basic tenets of CFT and introduce a 12‐module CFT group psychotherapy approach for college counseling centers. We use a clinical vignette to provide an example of how psychotherapists may implement this approach. We then discuss clinical applications, including strengths and limitations of this approach.
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Background Resilience and positive mental health may be negatively influenced by childhood maltreatment. While many scholars have noted that adolescents exposed to childhood emotional abuse could meet the criteria for flourishing, little research has investigated the mediating effect of self-compassion and the moderating effect of curiosity on the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and adolescent flourishing. Objective This study proposed and tested a moderated mediation model that attempted to explain the pathway from childhood emotional abuse to adolescent flourishing. Participants and setting The sample consisted of 315 female students (mean age 12.81 years, range 12–14 years) in a girls' secondary school in Hong Kong, China. Methods We conducted a three-wave study with six-month intervals. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires at school under the guidance of trained research assistants. Results Self-compassion at Time 2 mediated the relationship between childhood emotional abuse at Time 1 and adolescent flourishing at Time 3. Furthermore, the mediating effect was moderated by adolescent curiosity at Time 1 and Time 2. Conclusions The findings of this study suggested that although childhood emotional abuse may hinder the development of self-compassion, reduced levels of self-compassion and curiosity (especially the stretch dimension of curiosity) could work together to promote flourishing in adolescents with a history of childhood emotional abuse. The results lent further support to the developmental psychopathology and resilience perspectives in explaining the relationship between childhood trauma and positive developmental outcomes.
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Abundant research has shown that self-compassion robustly contributes to adults' psychological well-being. Meanwhile, a few studies have shown that self-compassion is rooted in early experiences with parents. However, it is unclear whether interactions with partners and children affect adults' self-compassion, and the role of their self-compassion in interactions with significant others. This study examined bidirectional longitudinal relationships between Chinese parents' marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and self-compassion following a three-wave longitudinal design. A sample of 322 Chinese father-mother dyads (father's Mage = 35.84, SDage = 5.76; mother's Mage = 34.32, SDage = 5.46) completed a set of questionnaires at three time points. The results showed that marital satisfaction positively predicted the fathers' and mothers' self-compassion, while parenting stress did not significantly predict the parents' self-compassion; In contrast, parents' self-compassion did not significantly predict marital satisfaction or parenting stress. Additionally, there was a bidirectional relationship between marital satisfaction and parenting stress in fathers and mothers. Finally, mothers' marital satisfaction positively mediated the relationship between parenting stress and self-compassion/next-stage parenting stress. This study revealed that adults' self-compassion can develop from caring and supportive relationships, including marital relationships. Highlighting key mechanisms of marital satisfaction, such as increasing self-compassion and reducing parenting stress, may contribute to the improvement of adults' mental health.
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Objectives: Individuals who have a parent with mental illness are more likely to experience mental illness than their contemporaries. As such, it is valuable to examine potential psychological resources, which might assist these individuals to experience good mental health throughout their lifespan. We aimed to learn how clinicians perceive self-compassion, and how it can be incorporated into therapy with clients who have parents with mental illness. Design: A qualitative interview design was employed to explore clinicians' perspectives and experiences. Methods: Eight mental health clinicians experienced in working with clients who have parents with mental illness were interviewed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to establish themes representing the clinicians' perspectives and experiences of incorporating self-compassion into their work. Results: This study found that clinicians were generally positive about incorporating self-compassion into interventions with clients who are children of parents with mental illness. The participants noted barriers to self-compassion for these clients, namely a poor sense of self and divided loyalty between self and family. Participants recommended taking time and care, building rapport and involving others when cultivating self-compassion with those who have parents with mental illness. Conclusions: This group of clinicians viewed self-compassion as relevant to clients whose parents have mental illness and believe it can be introduced therapeutically in various ways. Suggestions are made for tailoring self-compassion training to the needs and experiences of this group.
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Objective: Difficulties in emotion regulation are thought to play a transdiagnostic role across eating disorders (ED). In the current study, we explored with a path analysis the mediating role of self-criticism, experiential avoidance and negative urgency on the relationship between ED-related symptoms and dimensions of difficulties in emotion regulation. Method: Participants were 103 female outpatients recruited at a Portuguese ED hospital unit, diagnosed with an ED, aged 14-60 years old (M = 28.0, SD = 10.5), body mass index (BMI) ranging from 11.72 to 39.44 (M = 20.1, SD = 5.4). Results: The path analysis resulted in a model with an adequate fit to the data (SRMR = 0.05; RMSEA = 0.07 [0.00, 0.12], PCLOSE = 0.269; TLI = 0.97; IFI = 0.99; GFI = 0.95). A final model in which the relationship between ED-related symptoms and dimensions of difficulties in emotion regulation was mediated by self-criticism, experiential avoidance and negative urgency, accounted for a variance of 71% for strategies, 57% for non-acceptance, 62% for impulses, 56% for goals and 20% for clarity. Conclusion: Results suggest that self-criticism, experiential avoidance and negative urgency, combined, are relevant in the relationship between ED-related symptoms and difficulties in emotion regulation. ED treatment and emotion regulation skills may be enhanced through the inclusion of specific components that target self-criticism, experiential avoidance and negative urgency, as they become prominent during the therapeutic process.
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School-level bullying and workplace bullying are globally recognized as threats to organizational productivity, emotional safety, psychological wellness, and overall morale. Consequently, some countries have instituted legislation to prohibit bullying at various levels in society. This essay will proceed from two vantage points. First, workplace bullying will be addressed, considering the cost to organizations and individuals. Second, school bullying will be addressed with an examination of the bully as a threat to the school's reputation and individual student welfare. Further, cyberbullying affects both children and adults. Therefore, the purpose of this essay is to consider policy development for international leaders who are managing both students and professional educators.
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Shame is a significant factor for psychological problems in adolescents. The present study aims to assess the Persian version of the Adolescent Shame‐Proneness Scale (ASPS) among Iranian adolescents. Participants of this correlation study were 2291 high school students aged 12–18 (1296 girls and 1036 boys), selected through a multistage random cluster sampling method. The results indicated that the ASPS has adequate validity and reliability. Assessment of model fit using confirmatory factor analysis revealed satisfactory goodness of fit indices. Similar to the original version of ASPS, a three correlated factor model was confirmed in the present sample, and girls scored higher on all three subscales of ASPS. This scale can be a reliable and flexible instrument for measuring the significant emotion of shame in Iranian adolescents in research and clinical settings and can help expand the shame literature. (1) The Persian version of the Adolescent Shame‐Proneness Scale (ASPS) is a reliable scale for researchers and therapists to expand the shame literature in Iran and has cross‐cultural utility. (2) Girls scored higher than boys on all three subscales of ASPS, “Negative Self‐Evaluation,” “Emotional Discomfort,” and “Externalization.” (3) Shame and guilt differ despite overlap because shame is associated with negative self‐evaluation in general attributions, whereas guilt is characterized by a specific behavior. The Persian version of the Adolescent Shame‐Proneness Scale (ASPS) is a reliable scale for researchers and therapists to expand the shame literature in Iran and has cross‐cultural utility. Girls scored higher than boys on all three subscales of ASPS, “Negative Self‐Evaluation,” “Emotional Discomfort,” and “Externalization.” Shame and guilt differ despite overlap because shame is associated with negative self‐evaluation in general attributions, whereas guilt is characterized by a specific behavior.
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Background The adverse effects of childhood maltreatment on the mental health of individuals have received increasing attention. However, it is unclear whether the effects of invisible emotional abuse and visible physical abuse differ on child depression and the mediating processes under this relationship. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether self-compassion and negative automatic thoughts mediated the effects of physical abuse and emotional abuse on child depression and the underlying mechanistic differences. Participants and setting Using a two-wave longitudinal design, a total of 946 elementary school students completed the self-report questionnaires at two-time points, including child abuse, self-compassion, negative automatic thoughts, and depression. Methods This study constructed structural equation models (SEM) to examine the mediating role of self-compassion and negative automatic thoughts between emotional/physical abuse and child depression. Results After controlling for demographic covariates, structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that only physical abuse significantly and positively predicted child depression directly (β = 0.16, p < 0.01). Emotional abuse was positively associated with child depression through self-compassion (β = 0.02, p < 0.05) and negative automatic thoughts (β = 0.02, p < 0.05), while physical abuse influenced child depression only via negative automatic thoughts (β = 0.07, p < 0.001). Conclusions The findings showed a strong association between emotional/physical abuse and child depression, but there were mechanistic differences under these relationships. Therefore, we also need to pay equal attention to the adverse effects of emotional abuse on children.
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Students who have self-criticism, high shame and it is hard for them to accept his/herself and are afraid of self-warmth, compassionate mind training was formulated for them. This study consisted of participants whose understanding, acceptance and abilities were used to practice the compassion focused process and effectiveness of CMT using an uncontrolled trial method. 70 participants were recruited and assessed through questionnaires. The aim of the study was to find out the effectiveness of CMT and participants were requested to take active part in training. Results showed that CMT significantly enhances the person's feelings of self-warmth, self-soothing and self-reassurance. It was proven that CMT is effective for self-shame and self-doubt in adults. Intervention programs should be designed to promote self-warmth in adults. In order to promote hope and acceptance in adults, awareness and guidance can be provided regarding these problems in adults.
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Students who have self- criticism, high shame and it is hard for them to accept his/herself and are afraid of self-warmth, compassionate mind training was formulated for them. This study consisted of participants whose understanding, acceptance and abilities were used to practice the compassion focused process and effectiveness of CMT using an uncontrolled trial method. 70 participants were recruited and assessed through questionnaires. The aim of the study was to find out the effectiveness of CMT and participants were requested to take active part in training. Results showed that CMT significantly enhances the person’s feelings of self -warmth, self-soothing and self-reassurance. It was proven that CMT is effective for self-shame and self-doubt in adults. Intervention programs should be designed to promote self-warmth in adults. In order to promote hope and acceptance in adults, awareness and guidance can be provided regarding these problems in adults.
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Students who have self-criticism, high shame and it is hard for them to accept his/herself and are afraid of self-warmth, compassionate mind training was formulated for them. This study consisted of participants whose understanding, acceptance and abilities were used to practice the compassion focused process and effectiveness of CMT using an uncontrolled trial method. 70 participants were recruited and assessed through questionnaires. The aim of the study was to find out the effectiveness of CMT and participants were requested to take active part in training. Results showed that CMT significantly enhances the person's feelings of self-warmth, self-soothing and self-reassurance. It was proven that CMT is effective for self-shame and self-doubt in adults. Intervention programs should be designed to promote self-warmth in adults. In order to promote hope and acceptance in adults, awareness and guidance can be provided regarding these problems in adults.
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Responding with self‐compassion to lapses in goal pursuit helps people to achieve their goals, yet evidence suggests that some people struggle to respond with self‐compassion. The current research proposes that social cognition models such the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Prototype Willingness Model could explain why some people, such as those high in perfectionistic concerns, struggle to respond with self‐compassion. We therefore conducted a pre‐registered prospective study that measured participants’ beliefs about self‐compassion, difficulties enacting self‐compassionate responding, perfectionistic concerns, and then tested their ability to be self‐compassionate in response to a recalled and future lapse. The results showed that participants were less likely to respond with self‐compassion to lapses if they held negative beliefs about self‐compassion and experienced difficulties enacting self‐compassion. Participants high in perfectionistic concerns were more likely to have negative beliefs about self‐compassion and experience difficulties enacting self‐compassion. Together, these findings provide evidence that social cognition models can be used to understand self‐compassionate responding and identify why some people struggle to respond with self‐compassion to goal lapses.
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Salivary IgA, heart rate and mood were measured in thirty individuals before and after experiencing care or anger. Two methods of inducing the emotional states were compared: self-induction and external induction via video tapes. Anger produced a significant increase in total mood disturbance and heart rate, but not in S-IgA levels. Positive emotions, on the other hand, produced a significant increase in S-IgA levels. Examining the effects over a six hour period we observed that anger, in contrast to care, produced a significant inhibition of S-IgA from one to five hours after the emotional experience. Results indicate that self-induction of positive emotional states is more effective at stimulating S-IgA levels than previously used external methods. Self-induction techniques may therefore be useful in minimizing the immunosuppressive effects of negative emotions.
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BACKGROUND: The presence of social support has been associated with decreased stress responsiveness. Recent animal studies suggest that the neuropeptide oxytocin is implicated both in prosocial behavior and in the central nervous control of neuroendocrine responses to stress. This study was designed to determine the effects of social support and oxytocin on cortisol, mood, and anxiety responses to psychosocial stress in humans. METHODS: In a placebo-controlled, double-blind study, 37 healthy men were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test. All participants were randomly assigned to receive intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) or placebo 50 min before stress, and either social support from their best friend during the preparation period or no social support. RESULTS: Salivary free cortisol levels were suppressed by social support in response to stress. Comparisons of pre- and poststress anxiety levels revealed an anxiolytic effect of oxytocin. More importantly, the combination of oxytocin and social support exhibited the lowest cortisol concentrations as well as increased calmness and decreased anxiety during stress. CONCLUSIONS: Oxytocin seems to enhance the buffering effect of social support on stress responsiveness. These results concur with data from animal research suggesting an important role of oxytocin as an underlying biological mechanism for stress-protective effects of positive social interactions.
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The literature is replete with evidence that the stress inherent in health care negatively impacts health care professionals, leading to increased depression, decreased job satisfaction, and psychological distress. In an attempt to address this, the current study examined the effects of a short-term stress management program, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), on health care professionals. Results from this prospective randomized controlled pilot study suggest that an 8-week MBSR intervention may be effective for reducing stress and increasing quality of life and self-compassion in health care professionals. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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Parental caregiving consists of a set of behaviors that has evolved to a high level among mammals and has been most developed among humans. In this article, I propose an evolutionary model of 4 changes (3 of them neurobiological) leading to caregiving. Two of the changes, including the emergence of a dyadic preference bond, occurred first among the reptile precursors to mammals. The dyadic preference bond is hypothesized to have preceded and facilitated the emergence of mammalian species through the subsequent emergence of mammary glands and live births. Somewhat later, the dyadic preference bond began to evolve into the complex, multifaceted parental caregiving system in humans. The evolutionary model of caregiving suggests a need to expand attention beyond cognitions, which are of major importance in humans as mechanisms of planning and implementing strategies, to include at least some emotional processes located in older parts of the brain that appear to follow a different, emotional logic. The model identifies a neurobiological basis for the emotional attraction of parent to child and the motivation to nurture. Further research is needed to translate these neurobiological processes into psychological models of caregiving.
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When things go wrong for people, those who are self-critical, compared to those who self-reassure, are at increased risk of psychopathology. However, little is known of the internal processes involved in self-criticism and self-reassurance, such as the ease of eliciting critical imagery, and the power, emotion and vividness of self-criticalness and self-reassurance. This study used a self-imagery task to investigate trait self-criticism and trait self-reassurance in relation to the ease and clarity of generating self-critical and self-reassuring images, and the felt power and emotion of self-critical and self-reassuring imagery. We also explored these in relation to depressive symptoms in students. Results suggested that trait self-criticism is associated with ease and clarity in generating hostile and powerful self-critical images, while trait self-reassurance is associated with ease and clarity of generating warm and supportive images of the self. Data analysis using structural equation models also suggests that difficulties in generating self-reassurance and compassionate images about the self with self-directed warmth, may also contribute to depressive symptoms. Thus self-critics may not only suffer for elevated negative feelings about the self but may also struggle to be able to generate self-supportive images and feelings for the self, and these difficulties could be a focus of therapeutic interventions.
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Syndromal classification is a well-developed diagnostic system but has failed to deliver on its promise of the identification of functional pathological processes. Functional analysis is tightly connected to treatment but has failed to develop testable, replicable classification systems. Functional diagnostic dimensions are suggested as a way to develop the functional classification approach, and experiential avoidance is described as 1 such dimension. A wide range of research is reviewed showing that many forms of psychopathology can be conceptualized as unhealthy efforts to escape and avoid emotions, thoughts, memories, and other private experiences. It is argued that experiential avoidance, as a functional diagnostic dimension, has the potential to integrate the efforts and findings of researchers from a wide variety of theoretical paradigms, research interests, and clinical domains and to lead to testable new approaches to the analysis and treatment of behavioral disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study of university students (64 men and 99 women) examined both dispositional and situational influences of self-critical (SC) perfectionism on stress and coping, which explain its association with high negative affect and low positive affect. Participants completed questionnaires at the end of the day for 7 consecutive days. Structural equation modeling indicated that the relation between SC perfectionism and daily affect could be explained by several maladaptive tendencies associated with SC perfectionism (e.g., hassles, avoidant coping, low perceived social support). Multilevel modeling indicated that SC perfectionists were emotionally reactive to stressors that imply possible failure, loss of control, and criticism from others. As well, certain coping strategies (e.g., problem-focused coping) were ineffective for high-SC perfectionists relative to low-SC perfectionists.
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Depression: The Evolution of Powerlessness offers a fresh perspective on research, theory and conceptualisations of the depressive disorders, derived from evolution theory and arguing for the adoption of the biopsychosocial model. The book is split into three parts. Part I explores the major distinctions between all types of depression and Part II offers an overview of evolution theory and its application to depression. Part III covers the major theories of depression; theories are compared and contrasted, highlighting controversies, weaknesses and strengths, and where cross fertilisation of ideas may be beneficial. The final chapter outlines why simple theories of aetiology are inadequate and explores the role of culture and social relationships as elicitors of many forms of depression. This Classic Edition, with a new introduction from the author, brings Paul Gilbert’s early work to a new audience, and will be of interest to clinicians, researchers and historians in the field of psychology.
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Human Nature and Suffering is a profound comment on the human condition, from the perspective of evolutionary psychology. Paul Gilbert explores the implications of humans as evolved social animals, suggesting that evolution has given rise to a varied set of social competencies, which form the basis of our personal knowledge and understanding. Gilbert shows how our primitive competencies become modified by experience - both satisfactorily and unsatisfactorily. He highlights how cultural factors may modify and activate many of these primitive competencies, leading to pathology proneness and behaviours that are collectively survival threatening. These varied themes are brought together to indicate how the social construction of self arises from the organization of knowledge encoded within the competencies. This Classic Edition features a new introduction from the author, bringing Gilbert’s early work to a new audience. The book will be of interest to clinicians, researchers and historians in the field of psychology.
Chapter
IntroductionClassification and Unipolar DepressionSymptoms and SyndromesCompeting ClassificationsThe Limits of ClassificationLeaky Classes and ComorbidityDepression and the Threshold ProblemCase Identification in ResearchQuestionnaires and InterviewsBottom-up and Top-Down Case IdentificationThe Frequency of Depressive DisorderDepression and SexDepression and AgeOther Sociodemographic Variables That Influence Rates of DepressionBIological Explanations for the Sex Ratio In DepressionLife Stress and DepressionThe Childhood Antecedents of Later DepressionThe Epidemiology of Treatment for DepressionThe Genetic Epidemiology of Major DepressionConclusions References
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This article defines the construct of self-compassion and describes the development of the Self-Compassion Scale. Self-compassion entails being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical; perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as isolating; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in mindful awareness rather than over-identifying with them. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the scale is presented in a series of studies. Results indicate that self-compassion is significantly correlated with positive mental health outcomes such as less depression and anxiety and greater life satisfaction. Evidence is also provided for the discriminant validity of the scale, including with regard to self-esteem measures.
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A sample of 70 women who had experienced marital violence were studied to assess degree of placing blame on self and on partner for violence. It was hypothesized that the focus of blame would change with marital circumstances and that different types of attributions for violence while in the violent relationship would be associated with different antecedent and outcome factors. Women currently living with violent partners reported the highest rate of self-blame, and women no longer living with such a partner reported a significant change from past self-blame to current partner-blame. Attributions while in the relationship fell into four categories; characterological self- and partner-blame, behavioral self-blame, and partners' situational response. Characterological self-blame was shown to be most highly associated with repeated physical or sexual abuse in childhood, lack of social support concerning the violence, and a high rate of depression once out of the relationship.
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The clinical experience of cognitive therapies is adding to the understanding of emotional disorders. Based on clinical experience and evidence, this groundbreaking book represents a development of cognitive therapy through the concept of metacognition. It provides guidelines for innovative treatments of emotional disorders and goes on to offer conceptual arguments for the future development of cognitive therapy. Offers a new concept in cognitive therapy and guidelines for innovative treatment. Clinically grounded, based on a thorough understanding of cognitive therapies in practice. Written by a recognized authority and established author.
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An ACT Approach Chapter 1. What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy? Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Kara Bunting, Michael Twohig, and Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 2. An ACT Primer: Core Therapy Processes, Intervention Strategies, and Therapist Competencies. Kirk D. Strosahl, Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson and Elizabeth V. Gifford Chapter 3. ACT Case Formulation. Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Jayson Luoma, Alethea A. Smith, and Kelly G. Wilson ACT with Behavior Problems Chapter 4. ACT with Affective Disorders. Robert D. Zettle Chapter 5. ACT with Anxiety Disorders. Susan M. Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer, Jennifer Block-Lerner, Chad LeJeune, and James D. Herbert Chapter 6. ACT with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Alethea A. Smith and Victoria M. Follette Chapter 7. ACT for Substance Abuse and Dependence. Kelly G. Wilson and Michelle R. Byrd Chapter 8. ACT with the Seriously Mentally Ill. Patricia Bach Chapter 9. ACT with the Multi-Problem Patient. Kirk D. Strosahl ACT with Special Populations, Settings, and Methods Chapter 10. ACT with Children, Adolescents, and their Parents. Amy R. Murrell, Lisa W. Coyne, & Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 11. ACT for Stress. Frank Bond. Chapter 12. ACT in Medical Settings. Patricia Robinson, Jennifer Gregg, JoAnne Dahl, & Tobias Lundgren Chapter 13. ACT with Chronic Pain Patients. Patricia Robinson, Rikard K. Wicksell, Gunnar L. Olsson Chapter 14. ACT in Group Format. Robyn D. Walser and Jacqueline Pistorello
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This book examines how Western behavioral science - which has generally focused on negative aspects of human nature - holds up to cross-cultural scrutiny, in particular the Tibetan Buddhist celebration of the human potential for altruism, empathy, and compassion. Resulting from a meeting between the Dalai Lama, leading Western scholars, and a group of Tibetan monks, this volume includes excerpts from these dialogues as well as engaging chapters exploring points of difference and overlap between the two perspectives.
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During breastfeeding or suckling, maternal oxytocin levels are raised by somatosensory stimulation. Oxytocin may, however, also be released by nonnoxious stimuli such as touch, warm temperature etc. in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid. Consequently, oxytocin may be involved in physiological and behavioral effects induced by social interaction in a more general context. In both male and female rats oxytocin exerts potent physiological antistress effects. If daily oxytocin injections are repeated over a 5-day period, blood pressure is decreased by 10–20 mmHg, the withdrawal latency to heat stimuli is prolonged, cortisol levels are decreased and insulin and cholecystokinin levels are increased. These effects last from 1 to several weeks after the last injection. After repeated oxytocin treatment weight gain may be promoted and the healing rate of wounds increased. Most behavioral and physiological effects induced by oxytocin can be blocked by oxytocin antagonists. In contrast, the antistress effects can not, suggesting that unidentified oxytocin receptors may exist. The prolonged latency in the tail-flick test can be temporarily reversed by administration of naloxone, suggesting that endogenous opioid activity has been increased by the oxytocin injections. In contrast, the long-term lowering of blood pressure and of cortisol levels as well as the sedative effects of oxytocin have been found to be related to an increased activity of central α2-adrenoceptors. Positive social interactions have been related to health-promoting effects. Oxytocin released in response to social stimuli may be part of a neuroendocrine substrate which underlies the benefits of positive social experiences. Such processes may in addition explain the health-promoting effects of certain alternative therapies. Because of the special properties of oxytocin, including the fact that it can become conditioned to psychological state or imagery, oxytocin may also mediate the benefits attributed to therapies such as hypnosis or meditation. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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This study explored the associations and interactions between social rank (submissive behaviour and social comparison), shame, rumination and depression. 125 undergraduate students completed a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring the research variables. It was found that social rank and shame are highly related and that both shame and social rank are significantly correlated with rumination. A moderator analysis suggested an effect of gender on the relationship between external shame and rumination. A mediational path analysis suggested that rumination partially mediated a link between shame and depression, but shame retained a unique contribution to depression after controlling for rumination.
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Childhood trauma has profound impact on the emotional, behavioral, cognitive, social, and physical functioning of children. Developmental experiences determine the organizational and functional status of the mature brain. The impact of rruumufic experiences on the development and function of the brain are discussed in context of basic principles of neurodevelopment. There are various adaptive mental and physical responses to trauma, including physiological hyperarousal and dissociation. Because the developing brain organizes and internalizes new information in a use-dependent fashion, the more a child is in a state of hyperarousal or dissociation, the more likely they are to have neuropsychiatric symptoms following trauma. The acute adaptive states, when they persist, can become maladaptive traits. The clinical implications of this new neurodevelopmental conceptualization of childhood trauma are discussed. Le trauma de l'enfance a un impact profond sur le fonctionnement émotionnel, comportemental, cognitif, social et physique des enfants. Les expériences en matière de développement déterminent l'organisa-tion et le fonctionnement du cerveau arrivé à maturité. L'impact d'expériences traumatiques sur le développement et le fonctionnement du cerveau sont discutés dans le contexte de principes de bases de neurodéveloppe-ment. Il existe plusieurs résponses mentales et physiques d'adaptation au trauma, parmi lesquelles l'excitation physique intense et de la dissociation. Parce que le cerveau qui se développe organise et internalise les nouvelles “informations” d'une manière liée B l'utilisation et en dépendant, plus un enfant se trouve dans un état d'excitation ou de dissociation et plus il risque d'y avoir des symptǒmes neuropsychiatriques aprés le trauma. L'“état” adaptatif aigu peut devenir persistent et conduire à des “traits” d'inadaptation. Les implications cliniques de cette nouvelle conceptualisation de neurodéveloppement du trauma de l'enfance sont discutées.
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This article defines and examines the construct of self-compassion. Self-compassion entails three main components: (a) self-kindness—being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical, (b) common humanity—perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as separating and isolating, and (c) mindfulness—holding painful thoughts and feelings in balanced awareness rather than over-identifying with them. Self-compassion is an emotionally positive self-attitude that should protect against the negative consequences of self-judgment, isolation, and rumination (such as depression). Because of its non-evaluative and interconnected nature, it should also counter the tendencies towards narcissism, self-centeredness, and downward social comparison that have been associated with attempts to maintain self-esteem. The relation of self-compassion to other psychological constructs is examined, its links to psychological functioning are explored, and potential group differences in self-compassion are discussed.
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This paper describes the development of a social comparison scale using the semantic differential approach. It also explores the relationship between this social comparison scale and psychopathology. The dimensions of social comparison measured here are derived from evolution theory and focus primarily on judgements of social rank, judgements of relative attractiveness and judgements of group fit. The factor structure of the scale appears consistent with theoretical predictions. Evidence suggests that social rank and attractiveness dimensions may be more salient for a clinical group, while group fit judgements become less important.
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The relationship between shame measures, in particular the Other As Shamer Scale (OAS), and self-report measures of psychopathology was explored in a non-clinical population. Results indicate that beliefs about negative evaluations by others is associated with measures of clinical relevance. Additionally, shame scales which tap into global negative beliefs, including the OAS, are more strongly associated with measures of psychopathology than scales which focus on shame responses to specific events.
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A primary interest of the field of infant mental health is in the early conditions that place infants at riskfor less than optimal development. The fundamental problem of what constitutes normal and abnormal development is now a focus of developmental psychology, infant psychiatry, and devel- opmental neuroscience. In the second part of this sequential work, I present interdisciplinary data to more deeply forge the theoretical links between severe attachment failures, impairments of the early develop- ment of the right brain's stress coping systems, and maladaptive infant mental health. In the following, I offer thoughts on the negative impact of traumatic attachments on brain development and infant mental health, the neurobiology of infant trauma, the neuropsychology of a disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern associated with abuse and neglect, trauma-induced impairments of a regulatory system in the orbitofrontal cortex, the links between orbitofrontal dysfunction and a predisposition to posttraumatic stress disorders, the neurobiology of the dissociative defense, the etiology of dissociation and body- mind psychopathology, the effects of early relational trauma on enduring right hemispheric function, and some implications for models of early intervention. These findings suggest direct connections between traumatic attachment, inefficient right brain regulatory functions, and both maladaptive infant and adult mental health.
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Because there is a large overlap between HIV manifestations and somatic symptoms of anxiety and depressions, it is crucial to use measures that do not contain somatic items to validly and reliably assess these psychological states in HIV-infected patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a questionnaire that does not include any somatic items, in HIV-seropositive individuals. Because the study was conducted among French. Canadian individuals, the quality of the translation was 1st subjectively and empirically assessed. Then, the psychometric properties of the HADS were evaluated in 162 HIV-seropositive patients, who, in addition to the HADS, also completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory The French Canadian version used was found to be subjectively and empirically equivalent to the original English version. Moreover, resells of this study demonstrated a bifactorial structure with factors corresponding to the HADS subscales, an excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability, a very good convergent validity, and an acceptable discriminant validity. Strikingly, in contrast to the BDI, HADS scores were found to be unconfounded by the presence of HIV symptomatology. The HADS appears to represent the best currently available self-report scale, to reliably and validly assess anxiety and depression in HIV-infected patients. The HADS is simple and brief to administer (14 items) and may therefore be easily implemented in routine HIV care.
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Acknowledgements. Permissions Acknowledgements. List of Figures. Foreword by Steve Biddulph Introduction to the Second Edition. Part One - The Foundations: Babies and their brains 1. Before we meet them 2. Back to the beginning 3. Building a brain 4. Corrosive Cortisol. Conclusion to Part 1. Part 2 - Shaky Foundations and their Consequences 5. Trying Not to Feel 6. Melancholy Baby 7. Active Harm 8. Torment 9. Original Sin. Part 3 - Too Much Information, Not Enough Solutions 10. 'If all else fails, hug your teddy bear' 11. Birth of the Future. Bibliography. Index.
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This volume presents state-of-the-art research on the processes by which people understand their interpersonal experiences. Leading investigators integrate findings from experimental social psychology with insights from developmental, personality, and clinical psychology, bringing fresh ideas to bear on universal issues and identifying salient directions for future research. Authoritative and timely, the book thoroughly examines the ways in which information about social interactions is perceived, interpreted, stored, and recalled, as well as connections to emotions and behavior. In each chapter, the contributors set out the theoretical background to their work, describe major contributions they have made, and then focus on recent findings and controversies. Provided are innovative models of the pathways by which we glean social knowledge from early caregiving experiences and family relationships; friendships; romantic partnerships, whether happy or conflictual; and other interactions throughout life. Careful consideration is given to the effects of biases and expectancies about significant others on relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, and mental health. Implications for psychotherapy and counseling are also addressed. Throughout, chapters strike an appropriate balance between theory and method, offering an understanding of the core issues involved as well as the tools needed to study them. Interpersonal cognition is increasingly recognized as a central topic in social cognition, and this book brings together the most important current perspectives in the field. It will be read with interest by psychologists involved in the study of close relationships, and will serve as a text in graduate-level courses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Cruelty and compassion are the antithesis of each other. Compassion emerges from complex interactions - from genes that guide the building of physiologies, and physiologies that are shaped via experience, through to social contexts that shape self-identifies and roles people enact with each other and within themselves. Compassionate caring can be the mentality that we can use to construct forms of relating with all sentient beings. Cruelty, as indifference to, or pleasure in, the suffering of others, is a turning off of this mentality towards a specific group or class of living things. Compassion and cruelty are then strategies, operating through various subsystems in our brains for feeling and reasoning. The Buddha's great insight was that the mind needs to be trained to understand the power of the threat system, and self-identities forming systems, for they will easily take control of our minds. He did not speak of threat systems as such, but of our effort to escape "suffering". As the Dalai Lama has often noted, compassion, no less than any other of our potentials, can be put under a scientific spotlight and when we do this we can bring new insights to the discussion, from a variety of disciplines, on "its emergence into the world." In this chapter I try to widen our focus beyond the domains of individual psychology, for ecologies, group processes and leadership-follower psychology all need to be understood if we are working towards greater compassion in the world. Although our sense of self emerges from complex interactions of genes, evolved strategies, social relationships and social ecologies, we do not need to be passive actors in these dramas. Our high-level cognitive abilities allow us to step back, reflect, and understand ourselves, and the nature and consequences of our social actions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents an ordinary language framework that encompasses self-condemnation and integrates different psychotherapeutic positions to contrast a rational–emotive approach with an alternative that addresses the purposiveness of perfectionistic tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)