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In previous work it has been shown that the electromagnetic quantum vacuum, or electromagnetic zero-point field, makes a contribution to the inertial reaction force on an accelerated object. We show that the result for inertial mass can be extended to passive gravitational mass. As a consequence the weak equivalence principle, which equates inertial to passive gravitational mass, appears to be explainable. This in turn leads to a straightforward derivation of the classical Newtonian gravitational force. We call the inertia and gravitation connection with the vacuum fields the quantum vacuum inertia hypothesis. To date only the electromagnetic field has been considered. It remains to extend the hypothesis to the effects of the vacuum fields of the other interactions. We propose an idealized experiment involving a cavity resonator which, in principle, would test the hypothesis for the simple case in which only electromagnetic interactions are involved. This test also suggests a basis for the free parameter η(ν) which we have previously defined to parametrize the interaction between charge and the electromagnetic zero-point field contributing to the inertial mass of a particle or object.

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... For some time researchers have speculated on the link between the quantum vacuum and gravity (Sakharov (1967); Caligiuri and Sorli (2014)). Others have speculated that the quantum vacuum may be responsible for both gravity and inertia (Rueda and Haisch, 2005). There have been a number of speculations attributing gravity to energy gradients and energy density changes in the vicinity of mass. ...

... We contend that a range of bosonic entities within the ZPE may play a role leading to masscoupling effects (resonance with quarks and leptons) as well as the emergence of energy density gradients, the intensity of which are dependent on the mass densities involved in a particular coupling. 5 The nature of the spectral energy density and coupling associated with the energy gradient has been further elaborated by Rueda and Haisch (2005). It is posited here that the energy gradient in the vicinity of mass displays specific spectral and unique coupling characteristics both of which are evident in the dependence of gravitational potential with distance. ...

... The spectral energy signature, the coupling property of the Earth and each of the object masses is identical 8 . As discussed earlier, there is a resonant coupling existing between the ZPE of the falling masses and that of the Earth (Rueda and Haisch;2005). ...

... Over the years quantum vacuum energy has become synonymous with zero-point energy (ZPE), and so this term will be used interchangeably throughout this paper. The nature of ZPE has been the subject of intense interest (Santos, 2012;Margan, nd (a&b); Rueda & Haisch, 2005;Puthoff, 2001). It was Sakharov (1967) who reached the conclusion that matter somehow induced certain changes in the quantum vacuum and that these changes might explain a number of phenomena including the Casimir effect. ...

... It was Sakharov (1967) who reached the conclusion that matter somehow induced certain changes in the quantum vacuum and that these changes might explain a number of phenomena including the Casimir effect. As time went on other workers conjectured and presented cogent arguments regarding the role of the quantum vacuum or ZPE in the emergence of gravity, inertia and indeed mass itself (Haisch et al., 1997;Rueda & Haisch, 2005). This pioneering work paved the way for Rueda, Haisch and Puthoff to propose a model in which the elementary entities making up atoms would interact with the zero-point field via a kind of resonance effect. ...

... This pioneering work paved the way for Rueda, Haisch and Puthoff to propose a model in which the elementary entities making up atoms would interact with the zero-point field via a kind of resonance effect. Ultimately a model was proposed (Rueda & Haisch, 2005); and (Rueda & Haisch, 2005) in which m i and m g are the inertial and gravitational masses, V o the proper volume, η(ω) the resonance or coupling function, and the third term represents the spectral energy density expression. c is of course the speed of light, h (bar) is the reduced Planck's constant and ω is the characteristic frequency mode. ...

Building on the work of others a novel idea is put forward regarding the possible mechanism of gravity as involving energy coupling down the energy gradient of a massive body. Free fall (acceleration) in a gravitational field is explained as arising from an interaction of the modified quantum vacuum energy in the vicinity of matter.

... This has grown out of a branch of quantum theory known as quantum electrodynamics. Several of the theoretical proposals are supported by measured phenomena such as the Unruh Effect (Note 1) and the Casimir Effect, both of which can be explained as arising from active fields that fill all of space (Rueda & Haisch, 2005;Tattersall, 2014). ...

... This, in our view is a key point. In terms of our understanding of cosmology a confirmation of the findings reported in this paper would prove to be significant, as the existence of some kind of influence (possibly arising from zero point field (Rueda & Haisch, 2005)) permeating the entire universe, would be firmly on the agenda and would require a reconceptualization of the nature of space and in particular the way in which it interacts with matter. ...

... Note 9. This leads one to speculate that the 'force' itself may be a form of electromagnetic energy, perhaps similar to the phenomena suggested by Rueda & Haisch (2005), namely a form of ZPE. ...

In The Effect Of Light On Gravitation Attraction, published in 2011 (Rancourt, 2011), a purpose built horizontal-torsion pendulum apparatus, based on the Cavendish apparatus, was used to measure the effect of light on freely moving masses. Tests indicated a laser light on one side of a freely movable mass caused the mass to move toward the light. It was hypothesised that light has a screening effect on gravitational force. In view of these findings the present authors designed a series of experiments using a specially designed light system to further test the effects of light on gravitation. This paper describes a series of experiments in which layers of light are directed above and below a test mass connected to a sensitive weighing device. The aim being to determine whether light would affect weight readings.

... In more details, in his model, a material body should be considered, with respect the electromagnetic interaction, as a resonant cavity in which a suitable set of ZPF modes oscillates. On this basis, Hairsh, Rueda and Puthoff (HRP) proposed a model in which the inertial mass associated to a body, characterized by a proper volume 0 V (the "electromagnetic equivalent volume"), is given by [6]: (1) in which ω is the angular frequency of ZPF mode, ( ) ρ ω is the spectral energy density of quantum vacuum ZPF fluctuations and ( ) η ω is a function that would quantify the fraction of ZPF energy density that electromagnetically interacts with the particles contained in the "useful volume" 0 V or, in other words the "efficiency" of interaction [6]. In this way the apparent inertial mass of a given object would originate by the interaction, during the accelerated motion of the body, between the ZPF energy density fraction enclosed in the object (given by ( ) η ω ) and the partons contained in the volume 0 V . ...

... In more details, in his model, a material body should be considered, with respect the electromagnetic interaction, as a resonant cavity in which a suitable set of ZPF modes oscillates. On this basis, Hairsh, Rueda and Puthoff (HRP) proposed a model in which the inertial mass associated to a body, characterized by a proper volume 0 V (the "electromagnetic equivalent volume"), is given by [6]: (1) in which ω is the angular frequency of ZPF mode, ( ) ρ ω is the spectral energy density of quantum vacuum ZPF fluctuations and ( ) η ω is a function that would quantify the fraction of ZPF energy density that electromagnetically interacts with the particles contained in the "useful volume" 0 V or, in other words the "efficiency" of interaction [6]. In this way the apparent inertial mass of a given object would originate by the interaction, during the accelerated motion of the body, between the ZPF energy density fraction enclosed in the object (given by ( ) η ω ) and the partons contained in the volume 0 V . ...

... In HPR model the inertial mass so defined also coincides with the rest mass of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity so that the rest energy 2 i E m c = would represent the quantity of ZPF energy electromagnetically interacting with charged elementary partons, co -moving with the accelerated body as viewed by an inertial observer. By means of relativistic reasoning, involving the demonstration of the equivalence between the force in a reference frame fixed above a gravitational field and the inertia force associated to (1) in an accelerated frame, HRP deduced the weak equivalence principle of relativity and then assumed [6] ( ) ( ) ...

... One approach, put forth within the Standard Model of particle physics, proposes a background scalar Higgs field, pervading all of space, by which otherwise massless elementary particles acquire their mass. Another approach has been put forth by B. Haisch, A. Rueda, H. E. Puthoff, et al [1][3] . With their approach , the inertial properties of ordinary matter are due to scattering of a quantum vacuum electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) by subatomic particles constituting ordinary matter. ...

... Although there seems to be some conceptual difficulties with the ZPF proposal [4][5], some aspects of the ZPF proposal seem appealing. Not only does the ZPF proposal suggest a local basis for gravitational and inertial forces, thus avoiding action at a distance phenomena often associated with Mach's principle, but also seems to suggest an intimate relationship between electromagnetism , inertia, and gravitation [1][3] . However, while current ZPF theory appears to show that zero-point phenomena give rise to the inertial mass of ordinary matter, this doesn't explain how or why inertial mass, or even mass-energy, is connected with a resistance to acceleration. ...

... This suggests that while zero-point phenomena may give rise to at least a portion of the mass-energy content of matter, the inertia of such energy arises due to the behavior of the function τ d dt [4]. It is interesting to see just how simply the conventionally accepted expression for the ZPF-induced inertial force [1][3] can be derived from Eq. (29). According to the ZPF proposal, when a material body undergoes acceleration due to an external force, the quarks and electrons constituting the body scatter a portion of the zero-point radiation passing through the body. ...

Many approaches to the problem of inertia attempt to express the inertial mass appearing in Newton's second law of motion in terms of some other more fundamental interaction. One approach proposes a Higgs field which endows subatomic particles with their respective masses. Another increasingly popular approach pro-poses that inertial and gravitational forces are drag forces arising due to interaction between matter and quan-tum vacuum electromagnetic zero-point phenomena. General relativity, however, suggests that gravitational and inertial forces are manifestations of space-time geometry. The present analysis demonstrates that the iner-tia of ordinary matter is ultimately relativistic in origin.

... Being Lorentz invariant it cannot and does not act as a universal frame of reference for rectilinear motion…However it does provide a universal frame of rest vis-a-vis acceleration…" (Haisch, Rueda & Puthoff, 1997, p.8). In their recent work, Rueda and Haisch (2005) have shown how the electromagnetic quantum vacuum field (or ZPF) makes a contribution to inertial reaction force of an accelerated object. The authors present an elaborate set of theoretical arguments in support of their Quantum Vacuum Inertia Hypothesis, in which they have put forward detailed calculations and discussion relating to the connection of inertia and gravity to the vacuum fields. ...

... The danger is that many of the candidate theories may effectively be surrogates for a deeper theory, in that they can make accurate predictions and are often in agreement with GR, but lack a clear explanation as to the cause of gravity. Rueda and Haisch (2005) in drawing on the theoretical arguments of Sakharov and others pointed to the idea that gravity emerges from the vacuum, and in fact may arise from the effect of massive bodies on the permeability and permittivity of space itself (Puthoff, 2001). This view is close to the one I am suggesting, namely that space is ZPF; in a sense a real physical presence that due to its characteristics remains of itself undetectable, but whose effects emerge in the presence of matter. ...

p class="1Body">In reflecting on the emergent ideas of Stochastic Electrodynamics (SED) the author suggests that the zero point activity, also termed ‘vacuum noise,’ is not only a fundamental aspect of space, but is space itself.
Recent experiments are discussed in which electromagnetic radiation has been shown to cause changes in gravitational effects. This essay speculates that the zero point energy may be responsible.</p

... In addition, the interpretation of mass as the results of an electromagnetic quantum vacuum energy density has been also proposed by Rueda and Hairsch [17] in whom model the inertial mass i m of a given particle is given by ...

... . This means the QV energy density diminishing " required " in any given inertial frame S is greater than its corresponding value in the preferred system 0 S , so suggesting a simple and interesting explanation of the origin of a possible QV inertia, already proposed in some models of QV [17]. ...

In a previous paper we have shown it is possible to build alternative versions of Special Theory of Relativity only considering homogeneity of space, of time and Relative Principle without invoking the postulate of invariance of light velocity in all the inertial frames. Within these alternatives, space and time transformations different than the Lorentz ones like, in particular, the Selleri inertial transformations, are possible. This has many important consequences as, for example, the need for the distinction between physical time as duration of change in space and mathematical time as a parameter quantifying this change as well as the anisotropy of one-way velocity of light. These results require a reformulation and a new understanding of relativistic energy and mass. In this paper we'll firstly show that, using only classical laws of Newtonian mechanics, classical electrodynamics and fundamental physical principles of homogeneity of space and time without referring to Theory of Relativity at all, it is possible to derive the correct form of fundamental equation E。= mc2, the relativistic energy and momentum of a free particle in a preferred inertial frame. This makes relativistic energy and mass to assume a realistic physical meaning and an unambiguous definition only when referred to this preferred inertial frame identified by inertial transformations. This special universal meaning of energy, not recognized by standard Theory of Relativity, in which relativistic energy can assume different and independent values in all the possible infinite inertial frames, appears to be related to the fundamental invariance properties of space itself on which inertial transformations are based. In order to explain the origin of relativistic energy and mass, a novel physical model, also coherent with experimental results, has been then proposed. According to our model, mass could be considered as a conventional view of more fundamental properties of space emerging from a quantum vacuum, ruled by the Planck metric, in which the most fundamental physical entity is represented by energy density. In this picture relativistic mass and energy are coherently expressed as a measure of the diminished energy density of quantum vacuum.

... Let us show this. Many physicists up to now have tried to exclude time and space from the picture of reality[1, 13, 26, 41], i.e. in fact, trying to do the same what many idealistic philosophers [21] have tried to do before them. We believe that time and space should be objects of the same nature as all others that should be built from somewhat, i.e., they should be constructed, or be reconstructible, that should mean the same. ...

... More interesting development of idea is to try to connect causal cycles with matter directly trying to interpret matter interactions geometrically. We have at least two models in this direction, i.e. model of Rueda and Haisch [quantum vacuum inertia hypothesis [26]] and model of Lisa Randall and [28], where we have to imagine that gravitational forces are these that flow through causal cycles. The model we are discussing we are going to call in se universe model. ...

Systematic use of the concept of self-reference system is suggested to apply to mathe- matics and physics. We enter concept of quantum self-references, which describe our most general mathematical distinctions, abstractions. We argue that in nature there are only self-reference systems, that we may distinct properly, and that our natural way of thinking is mathematical.

... In the case of the quartic anharmonic oscillator, Pesquera and Claverie showed that SED disagrees with quantum mechanics [16]. Additionally, the results claimed in [17][18][19] were shown to be wrong due to improper relativistic approximation [20]. While these theoretical analyses are documented in detail, it may be useful to use numerical simulation as an independent check in order to establish the validity range of SED, which is one of the objectives of our work. ...

... In the limit of Δ/ 0 ≪ 1, the above sampling method (described by (32), (33), and (34)) and the uniform spherical sampling method both approach a uniform sampling on a spherical surface at the radius = 0 / . In this limit, the addition of the condition in (19) leads to the possible choices for the frequency range Δ: ...

Stochastic electrodynamics (SED) predicts a Gaussian probability distribution for a classical
harmonic oscillator in the vacuum field. This probability distribution is identical to that of the
ground state quantum harmonic oscillator. Thus, the Heisenberg minimum uncertainty relation
is recovered in SED. To understand the dynamics that give rise to the uncertainty relation and
the Gaussian probability distribution, we perform a numerical simulation and follow the motion of
the oscillator. The dynamical information obtained through the simulation provides insight to the
connection between the classic double-peak probability distribution and the Gaussian probability
distribution. A main objective for SED research is to establish to what extent the results of quantum
mechanics can be obtained. The present simulation method can be applied to other physical systems,
and it may assist in evaluating the validity range of SED.

... guides the actualization of the processes of creation or annihilation in the different regions of the three-dimensional quantum vacuum) having the general form where is the Planck energy density (the maximum energy density that can be sustained at the Planck scale), which characterizes space in absence of matter, while is the quantum vacuum energy density in the centre of a material object of mass m and volume V. By invoking the results obtained by several authors (such as Haisch et al. [66][67][68], Santos [69][70][71][72], Hajdukovic [73], Consoli [74][75][76][77], Sbitnev [78][79][80][81][82], as well as Chiatti and Licata [61-64, 83, 84]), this model of timeless threedimensional quantum vacuum defined by a variable energy density corresponding to elementary processes of creation/annihilation of particles leads to interesting perspectives of unification of gravitational interaction, dark energy, dark matter and quantum behaviour of matter in a picture in which the non-local information associated with the quantum potential of the vacuum turns out to play an important role. Moreover, it opens the possibility to go beyond Standard Model physics by interpreting the Higgs boson as an emergent fact, in particular as the result of more fundamental specific fluctuations of the quantum vacuum energy [85][86][87][88][89][90]. ...

The vision of quantum physics developed by David Bohm, and especially the idea of the implicit order, can be considered the true epistemological foundation of quantum field theory and the idea of a quantum vacuum that underlies the observable forms of matter, energy and space-time. Assuming the non-locality as the crucial visiting card of quantum processes, it is thus possible to arrive directly to the transactional interpretation and to the idea of a non-local quantum vacuum in which the behaviour of a subatomic particle constitutes the manifestation of more elementary creation/annihilation processes of quanta.

... Starting from Mach principle, Sciama demonstrates that the mass is an effect of the interaction of one particle with all the other particles in the Universe [37]. After the development of SED another proposal was made, namely the hypothesis of generating the mechanical inertia as effect of the interactions between the particles and CZPF [38]. ...

The paper presents an original perspective on how QED and SED models the physical vacuum. We modelled a charged particle as a two-dimensional oscillator and show that the electrostatic interaction between two charged particles represents the effect of the interaction of the two particles with the CZPF background. This model allow estimating the power scattered by electrons and a hydrogen atom supports the conclusion that fundamental particles and atoms are the simplest systems that extract energy from the vacuum. We conclude the power scattered by all electrons generates by redistribution the CZPF background. This conclusion extends theoretical models to explain certain technological applications.

... In the quantum vacuum inertia hypothesis, inertial and gravitational mass are not merely equal, they prove to be the identical thing". 16 The strong nuclear force is carried by gluons which bind together quarks inside the proton and neutron. Residual nuclear force between quarks is acting also outside protons and neutrons and hold them together in nucleus of an atom. ...

The novelty of 21st-century physics is the development of the “superfluid quantum vacuum” model, also named “superfluid quantum space” that is replacing space-time as the fundamental arena of the universe. It also represents the model that has the potential of unifying four fundamental forces of the universe. Superfluid quantum space is represented as the time-invariant fundamental field of the universe where time is merely the duration of material changes.

... In that perspective, gravity cannot be considered as a fundamental interaction, it must arise from the interaction of the matter field with the quantum vacuum in the accelerating frames. Bohmian quantum gravity reveals the nature of inertia in a more interesting manner along the similar lines of thought as introduced in the quantum vacuum inertia hypothesis [31]. It was H. E. Puthoff who suggested that the quantum vacuum might be responsible for inertia [32]. ...

Generalized Dirac equation containing vacuum-mass contribution is introduced. The vacuum-mass contribution arises due to the coupling of quantum mechanical matter field with the vacuum field. Vacuum stress energy tensor arises in the Scalar-Tensor Field equation (Extended Einstein's Field equation), implies a mass like corrections to the newly formulated Dirac equation. Apart from the inertial mass of the electron, generalized Dirac equation proposed here, contains a mass-term as a result of vacuum field coupling.

... [In] textbooks geometric ideas were given a starring role, so that a student who asked why the gravitational field is represented by a metric tensor [ A second quantum theory of inertia was developed first in the Soviet Union in 1968 then from 1993 in the U.S. with a reaction force in the polarized vacuum [4]. This one has a smaller number of backers, but they do relate it to gravity, at least as far as time dilation, from which only weak field agreement has been be obtained [5][6]. Meanwhile notions of the scope of the Higgs theory were gradually broadening beyond just the W and Z bosons. ...

This paper first assesses under what conditions the Higgs field has " no deep connection " to gravity, i.e. it is gravity-independent, and also whether it has a connection with or conflicts with other proposed inertia-causing fields such as the vacuum-reaction force. Then it develops a classical consistent field strength (CFS) framework to support analysis of inertia fields that are gravity-related, which seems likely in the case of vacuum-reaction inertia. The framework can produce important exact solutions to Einstein's field equation. When used with alternative formulations it guarantees equivalence and conservative fields over a wide range of field choices from traditional metric space-time to background-embedded to emergent space-time. A short worked-out gravity-related inertia field example is given. New perspectives on spin and self-gravitation issues are discussed. 1 Introduction Since the 1960s physicists have been engaged in developing theories of rest mass, or inertia, at the quantum level. The most widely followed such theory is the Higgs mechanism [1], boosted by the recent discovery of its boson [2]. By interactions with the non-zero Higgs field, particles which would otherwise be traveling at the speed of light appear to manifest some of their energy as rest mass. There are at least superficially differing perspectives on the relation – or not – between particle physics and gravity. For example, the chief U.S. theoretician for the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) says there is " no deep connection " between Higgs and gravity. 1 By contrast Weinberg, Nobel laureate particle physicist, expressed frustration in the preface to his textbook on gravity that the " deep connection " between gravitational and particle physics was obscured, and voiced that inertia and equivalence are a legitimate starting point for the discussion of gravity [3]: [In] textbooks geometric ideas were given a starring role, so that a student who asked why the gravitational field is represented by a metric tensor [or] freely falling particles move on geodesics [or] the field equations are generally covariant would come away with an impression this [was because] space-time is a Riemannian manifold … This was Einstein's point of view … [but] the geometric approach has driven a wedge between general relativity and the theory of elementary particles. … [We no longer] expect that the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions can be understood in geometrical terms, and too great an emphasis on geometry can only obscure the deep connections between gravitation and the rest of physics. … In place of Riemannian geometry, I have based the discussion of general relativity on a principle derived from experiment: the Principle of the Equivalence of Gravitation and Inertia. A second quantum theory of inertia was developed first in the Soviet Union in 1968 then from 1993 in the U.S. with a reaction force in the polarized vacuum [4]. This one has a smaller number of backers, but they do relate it to gravity, at least as far as time dilation, from which only weak field agreement has been be obtained [5-6]. Meanwhile notions of the scope of the Higgs theory were gradually broadening beyond just the W and Z bosons. With data coming in, the Higgs field is confirmed and even if its properties are not fully known they are the subject of one of the best organized and well financed experimental programs in history. So, we expect further data.

... where mc r c / h = is its Compton's radius. Moreover, in the picture of Rueda's and Haisch's interpretation of the inertial mass as an effect of the electromagnetic quantum vacuum [13], the presence of a particle with a volume 0 V expels from the vacuum energy within this volume exactly the same amount of energy as is the particle's internal energy (equivalent to its rest mass) according to rela- tion ...

A model of a three-dimensional dynamic quantum vacuum with variable energy density is proposed. In this model, time we measure with clocks is only a mathematical parameter of changes running in quantum vacuum. Mass and gravity are carried by the variable energy density of quantum vacuum. Each elementary particle is a structure of quantum vacuum and diminishes the quantum vacuum energy density. Symmetry " particle – diminished energy density of quantum vacuum " is the fundamental symmetry of the universe which gives origin to the inertial and gravitational mass. Special relativity's Sagnac effect in GPS system and important predictions of general relativity such as precessions of the planets, the Shapiro time delay of light signals in a gravitational field and the geodetic and frame-dragging effects recently tested by Gravity Probe B, have origin in the dynamics of the quantum vacuum which rotates with the earth.

... A more complex relation exists to the idea of inertia as induced by the Zero-Point Field (ZPF), which has been evolving over several decades as a relatively complex mechanism, the mechanics and bases of which are still being evolved, [17] [18] and finally connected (somewhat) with gravity. [19] The ZPF refers to the electromagnetic (or the QED) quantum vacuum, which differs in theoretical value from the gravitational vacuum energy by one of the largest ratios in all of physics. This has not been addressed by ZPF advocates. ...

In the 1960s experiments investigating anisotropy of inertia relative to solar or galactic mass centers using the Mössbauer effect obtained negative results. Both sides of a debate over Mach’s Principle claimed the result was what should be expected. However in light of earlier comments by Einstein on the relativity of inertia to masses, Brans and Dicke felt a revised theory of gravity would better incorporate Mach’s Principle. We present a new view that the old experiment assumed, incorrectly, that Mach’s Principle affects only time dilation, which would violate the Equivalence Principle, and that the results were a predictable coordinate artifact. Using a special formalism of Distant Inertial and Spatially Homogeneous coordinates we give a plausible analysis that radial spatial distortion in a gravitational field is also related to Mach’s Principle and embodies the expected anisotropy while keeping equivalence locally intact. This leads to a view of momentum interactions via the space-time field that invites further analysis. Also, since Mach’s principle seems to be related to both time and spatial curvature, we briefly discuss whether it could be used as a postulate basis for space-time and how this might affect experiments designed to detect or exclude matter-coupled fields.

... Sidharth, resorting to the ZPF in his work ([1], [3]) elucidated several inexplicable cosmological phenomena. Also, Alfonso Rueda and Bernard Haisch have shown the inertia and gravitation nexus with the vacuum fields by using their quantum vacuum inertia hypothesis( [4]). One point of argument is the subject of how the addition of the ZPF leads from classical angular momentum to the quantum mechanical case ( [5], [6]). ...

With this approach we endeavour to bring about the justification of the Zero Point Field (ZPF) and its feasible nature. We commence our work by combining the vector potential associated with the ZPF electromagnetic vector potential, thereby modifying the elctromagnetic field. This modification explains certain phenomena regarding the spin of a slowly moving electron in the electromagnetic field and the observed electron g-factor including Schwinger’s corrections.

... Workers in stochastic electrodynamics (de la Peña & Cetto 1996) have suggested that an electromagnetic pilot-wave might arise through the resonant interaction between a microscopic particle's internal vibration and the electromagnetic vacuum field (Boyer 2011). Some have further proposed that the interaction of moving particles with this vacuum field could give rise to a speed-dependent inertial mass, a feature of relativistic mechanics (Haisch & Rueda 2000;Rueda & Haisch 2005). We here explore the relevance of this perspective to the dynamics of walking droplets through inferring their wave-induced added mass. ...

It has recently been demonstrated that droplets walking on a vibrating fluid bath exhibit several features previously thought to be peculiar to the microscopic realm. The walker, consisting of a droplet plus its guiding wavefield, is a spatially extended object. We here examine the dependence of the walker mass and momentum on its velocity. Doing so indicates that, when the walker's time scale of acceleration is long relative to the wave decay time, its dynamics may be described in terms of the mechanics of a particle with a speed-dependent mass and a nonlinear drag force that drives it towards a fixed speed. Drawing an analogy with relativistic mechanics, we define a hydrodynamic boost factor for the walkers. This perspective provides a new rationale for the anomalous orbital radii reported in recent studies.

... This theory, as well as the well-known geomagnetic influence on internal clock function, may indicate that our brain acts as an open system that can receive electromagnetic and, very likely, also quantum signals, the latter originating from universal quantum fields. A supposed example of the latter, is the earlier mentioned zero-point energy (ZPE) field, that may function as a general information storing quantum domain, that penetrates the entire universe including life organisms (Rueda andHaisch et al., 2005, Lazslo, 2007). It is supposed to be a-temporal, containing all time and all possible paths for human history and individual life and in this sense can be regarded as a many-world domain (see also Kamenshchik and Teryaev, 2013), bridging the quantum physics interpretation of Everett and Bohm. ...

Taking into account the constituting elements of the human brain, such as neuronal networks, individual neurons, trans-membrane ion-fluxes and energy producing cellular metabolism as well as other molecules that promote neural activity, there is clear consensus that the present knowledge of the brain, collectively, is insufficient to explain higher mental processes such as (self)consciousness, qualia, intuition, meditative states, transpersonal experiences as well as functional binding between distant parts of the brain.
We argue that super-causal mechanisms are required to optimally integrate the above mentioned building blocks of brain function, also enabling the brain to amplify minimal perturbations for proper anticipation and action. We propose that such a super-causal structure may function as an interface between molecular transitions and the particular higher mental functions. As attractive bridging principles, the isoenergetic brain model and the physical-mathematical hypotheses denoted as quantum brain theories are treated.
It is acknowledged that elementary quantum processes are likely to be essential for higher brain functions, as well as behavior and cognitive processing, since our central nervous system forms an integral part of a dynamic universe as a non-local information processing modality. In addition we conclude that quantum concepts may, at least, serve as a useful probability model and/or metaphor for human cognition.
Yet, versatile brain function may require complementary information processing mechanisms at the classical and quantum (macro- and micro-) levels, both enabling bottom up and top down information processing. Concerted action of isoenergetic and quantum physics-based cognitive mechanisms in the human brain, requires a nested organization of fine-tuned neural micro-sites that enable decoherence-protected information transfer. For a rapid and causally effective flux of information, as well as a continuous updating of meaningful information, a super-causal field model is required. This neural structure is conceived by us as a “bi-cyclic” mental workspace, housing interacting and entangled wave/particle modalities that are integral parts of an a-temporal and universal knowledge domain.

... According to this physical picture, the carrier wave has the Compton wavelength λ c = 2π /mc, while the de Broglie wavelength prescribes its modulation (Kracklauer 1992(Kracklauer , 1999. This conception of a particle as a ZPF-driven oscillating charge with a resonance at ω c has been further explored by Haisch & Rueda (2000), who suggest that it may offer insight into the origins of inertial mass, thereby link the ZPF with the quantum wave nature of matter and relativistic mechanics (Haisch et al. 2001, Rueda & Haisch 2005. The similarities between the resulting physical picture and the walker system are intriguing: the vacuum fluctuations would play the role of the vibrating bath in powering the system, the particle's Zitterbewegung that of the bouncing drop in triggering the pilot wave. ...

Yves Couder, Emmanuel Fort, and coworkers recently discovered that a millimetric droplet sustained on the surface of a vibrating fluid bath may self-propel through a resonant interaction with its own wave field. This article reviews experimental evidence indicating that the walking droplets exhibit certain features previously thought to be exclusive to the microscopic, quantum realm. It then reviews theoretical descriptions of this hydrodynamic pilot-wave system that yield insight into the origins of its quantumlike behavior. Quantization arises from the dynamic constraint imposed on the droplet by its pilot-wave field, and multimodal statistics appear to be a feature of chaotic pilot-wave dynamics. I attempt to assess the potential and limitations of this hydrodynamic system as a quantum analog. This fluid system is compared to quantum pilot-wave theories, shown to be markedly different from Bohmian mechanics and more closely related to de Broglie’s original conception of quantum dynamics, his double-solution theory, and its relatively recent extensions through researchers in stochastic electrodynamics.

... where mc r c / h = is its Compton's radius. Moreover, in the picture of Rueda's and Haisch's interpretation of the inertial mass as an effect of the electromagnetic quantum vacuum [13], the presence of a particle with a volume 0 V expels from the vacuum energy within this volume exactly the same amount of energy as is the particle's internal energy (equivalent to its rest mass) according to relation ...

On the basis of research of several authors, the fundamental arena of the universe is a timeless space where clocks measure only the numerical order of physical events. In this timeless background, quantum phenomena which can be explained through the idea of space as immediate information medium and the constancy of the velocity of light in different inertial systems and in areas of space with different gravity imply that relative velocity of physical phenomena starts on the scale above photon. At the photon scale and below, the velocity of physical phenomena is absolute.

... Some authors (Rueda and Haish, 2005) suggest that inertia results from an opposing force whenever a frame accelerates relative to the vacuum. Froning (1989Froning ( , 2003, Fronig andRoach (2002, 2007) relate the zero point field with fluid dynamics as having similar properties, Kelly (1976) has shown how vacuum electromagnetics can be derived exclusively from the properties of an ideal fluid and Culetu (1994), Volovik (2001), Alvarenga and Lemos (1998), Huang and Wang (2006) have treated the vacuum and cosmological phenomena as a superfluid, thus confirming the validity of our link between the vector potential induced space flow with a superfluid space flow. ...

The purpose of the present work is to trace parallels between the known
inertia forces in fluid dynamics with the inertia forces in electromagnetism
that are known to induce resistance forces on masses both due to acceleration
and at constant velocity. It is shown that the force exerted on a particle by
an ideal fluid produces two effects: i) resistance to acceleration and, ii) an
increase of mass with velocity. These resistance forces arise due to the fluid
dragged by the particle, where the bare mass of the particle at rest changes
when in motion ("dressed" particle). It is demonstrated that the vector
potential created by a charged particle in motion acts as an ideal space flow
that surrounds the particle. The interaction between the particle and the
entrained space flow gives rise to the observed properties of inertia and the
relativistic increase of mass. Parallels are made between the inertia property
of matter, electromagnetism and the hydrodynamic drag in potential flow.
Accordingly, in this framework the non resistance of a particle in uniform
motion through an ideal fluid (D'Alembert's paradox) corresponds to Newton's
first law. The law of inertia suggests that the physical vacuum can be modeled
as an ideal fluid, agreeing with the space-time ideal fluid approach from
general relativity.

In 2007, Storti predicted that the value of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) temperature may be improved: from the particle data group (PDG) value of [T
0 = 2.725 ± 0.001 K] to [T
0 = 2.7254 K]. In 2011, the PDG revised their value of CMBR to [T
0 = 2.7255 ± 0.006 K]. In 2008, Storti predicted a ΛCDM Hubble constant of [H
0 = 67.0843 km/s/Mpc]. In the same year, the PDG published their value as being [H
0 = 73 ± 3 km/s/Mpc]. In 2013, the PDG published a revised value of [H
0] as being considerably lower [H
0 = 67.3 ± 1.2 km/s/Mpc]. These predictions and experimental confirmations, in particular the value of [H
0] being successfully predicted 5 years in advance of the Planck collaboration and without Planck satellite instrumentation, demonstrate the power of the technique applied. We utilize the same technique to calculate the present values of ΛCDM [H
0], [ΩΛ], [ΩM], [q], and [Λ]. Subsequently, we describe the complete history of the cosmos from the instant of the Big Bang to the present epoch, in complete agreement with the standard model of cosmology. Moreover, we explicitly demonstrate that the Hubble tension does not exist, in a companion publication to this research article. This is achieved by utilizing a single equation to calculate both values of Hubble constant associated with the Hubble tension.

In questo lavoro si intende presentare la Teoria della Consapevolezza Unificata che ha l’intendimento di spiegare i processi di funzionamento legati alla salute di una persona in relazione ai campi di Energia-Informata che lo compongono e le loro interazioni con tutti gli altri campi esistenti in natura. Questo, secondo correlazioni e interconnessioni esistenti in una visione sistemica e unitaria dell’Universo e non solo. In questo contesto si conferma la visione in cui corpo-mente e Spirito sono correlati e che la Consapevolezza è un processo profondo, intimo e fondamentale per la Salute e che non è semplicemente uno stato di coscienza attiva ma è un Ente senziente mediatore tra i campi che compongono l’essere umano in una accezione non-locale e che potremmo anche chiamare Anima.

In Quantum Relativity, time and space are separated. Time is the numerical order of material changes, and space is the medium, in which these changes take place. Space has the origin in a three-dimensional quantum vacuum defined by fluctuations of the energy density corresponding to elementary RS (reduction state) processes of creation/annihilation of elementary quanta. Quantum Relativity provides a unifying approach to special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. Each physical object from the micro- to the macroscale can be derived from an opportune diminishing of the quantum vacuum energy density. In particular, the variable energy density of space in Quantum Relativity corresponds to the curvature of space in general relativity. In quantum theory, the behavior of each subatomic particle follows from opportune elementary RS processes of creation/annihilation of quanta guided by a quantum potential of the vacuum. Finally, the perspectives of this model regarding the view of gravity and quantum as two aspects of the same coin and the electroweak scale are analyzed.

Today, mainstream science considers that the observer and all observed physical phenomena exist in time and space as fundamental physical realities of the universe. Nonetheless, relevant recent research shows that the time measured with clocks is merely a mathematical parameter of material change, i.e. motion which runs in space. In this picture, the existence of past, present and future is merely a mathematical one. EPR paradox is established on the misunderstanding that the observer, the measuring instrument and measured phenomena exist in space and time. In this paper the perspective is introduced that, as regards EPR-type experiments, observer and observed phenomena exist only in space which originates from a fundamental quantum vacuum which is an immediate medium of quantum entanglement.

A model of a three-dimensional quantum vacuum based on Planck energy density as a universal property of a granular space is suggested. The possibility to provide an unifying explanation of dark matter and dark energy as phenomena linked with the fluctuations of the three-dimensional quantum vacuum is explored. The changes and fluctuations of the quantum vacuum energy density generate a curvature of space–time similar to the curvature produced by a “dark energy” density. The formation of large scale structures in the universe associated to the flattening of the orbital speeds of the spiral galaxies can be explained in terms of primary fluctuations of the quantum vacuum energy density without attracting the idea of dark matter.

This paper is based on the framework of a two dimensional universe considering it to be a lattice structure. The {\it Ising model} has been used to show that there is a spontaneous phase transition from the {\it Planck scale} to the {\it Compton scale}. Also, a mean field theoretic approach has been considered to delve into the statistical properties of such a lattice-structured universe. All this answers questions like matter-antimatter asymmetry.

Recognizing that physics is now at an important turning point, the authors put forward ideas relating to the nature of space and its role in the emergence of gravity, inertia, mass and, ultimately, the 'reality' thatderives from (scientific) observation and measurement. The essay cites relatively recent experiments and observations relating to phenomena such as the Casimir Effect,Unruh Effect, Zitterbewegung and the results from the 'moving mirror' experiment. Itargues that, when combined with older problems such as quantum entanglement,thesephenomena provide new evidence that might informa better understanding of the role of space in its interactionwith particle/field entities. Furthermore, it suggests that space may have a significant role in the creation of these entities. The authors suggestthat fresh creativeinsightwill beneeded for physics to address the scale of the challenge implicitin this new, and exciting, territory. However, this is unlikely to emerge withoutrevising the philosophical frameworkthat underpins physics. This wouldneed to reconcile quantum ontologies with non-quantum ontologies that may be scale dependent.In order to meet the many emerging challenges a more open, participatory and permissivephysics is envisioned.

The modern view of solid-state physics is based on the presentation of elementary excitations, having mass, quasiimpuls, electrical charge and so on. According to this presentation the elementary excitations of the non-metallic materials are electrons (holes), excitons (polaritons) and phonons. The latter are the elementary excitations of the crystal lattice, the dynamics of which is described in harmonic approximation as is well known, the base of such view on solids is the multiparticle approach. In this view, the quasiparticles of solids are ideal gas, which describe the behavior of the system, e.g. noninteracting electrons. We should take into account such an approach to consider the theory of elementary excitations as a suitable model for the application of the common methods of quantum mechanics for the solution of the solid-state physics task. In this chapter we consider not only the manifestations of the isotope effect on different solids, but also the new accurate results, showing the quantitative changes of different characteristics of phonons and electrons (excitons) in solids with isotopic substitution. The isotopic effect becomes more pronounced when dealing with solids. For example, on substitution of H with D the change in energy of the electron transition in solid state (e.g. LiH ) is two orders of magnitude larger than in atomic hydrogen. Using elementary excitations to describe the complicated motion of many particles has turned out to be an extraordinarily useful device in contemporary physics, and it is the view of a solid which we describe in this chapter.

A three-dimensional quantum vacuum condensate is introduced as a fundamental medium from which gravity emerges in a geometro-hydrodynamic limit. In this approach, the curvature of space-time characteristic of general relativity is obtained as a mathematical value of a more fundamental actual variable energy density of quantum vacuum which has a concrete physical meaning. The fluctuations of the quantum vacuum energy density suggest an interesting solution for the dark energy problem.

A proposed theory explains the origin of Inertia without violating Einstein’s two postulates that form the basis for Special Relativity. The new model agrees with observational aspects of Special Relativity and is compatible with General Relativity. The relativistic momentum becomes a property of curved spacetime during acceleration, and Newton’s second law of motion is derived from a line-element in General Relativity. The new model unambiguously resolves the Twin Paradox, since aging always progresses at the same pace, and it admits an absolute temporal reference.

Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity (STR), based on Lorentz transformations,
considers time as the fourth physical dimension, and raises the possibility of time travel,
analogous to traveling in space. Nevertheless, alternative versions of STR are possible in
which transformation in time and space different from Lorentz are allowed. We argue that
time cannot be considered as the fourth component of four-dimensional physical space-
time but only as a mathematical parameter quantifying duration of material changes i.e.
duration of motion happening in space. Time is not a physical dimension in which motion
happens but simply the duration of that motion in 3 dimensional space. This leads to a
distinction between physical, mathematical and psychological times. This view on space
and time categorically excludes time travel. Likewise, superluminal propagations are also
possible without violating causal requirement and which also contributes to the inability to
travel into the past. This proposed model has important implications for the unification
between quantum mechanics and relativity, and on quantum entanglement, quantum
teleporting, psychological time and cosmology

Experimental data confirm relative rate of clocks in different inertial systems is valid for all observers. Clocks run in a quantum vacuum, their relative rate depend on velocity of a given inertial system and on the strength of gravity in the region where the clock under consideration "ticks". In order to explain the validity of relative clocks rate for all observers the proposal here suggested is that all observers are function of some primordial vacuum into which quantum vacuum exists. This fundamental vacuum can be described with three-dimensional Euclid space where each point of the space has a potential function of observation. Wherever in quantum vacuum scientist exists fundamental vacuum observes through his organism and experience changes in quantum vacuum. In this sense fundamental vacuum acts through every human organism as the observer and is indeed the absolute reference frame for all changes.

The classical view of our external world is revised and its tacit a
priori assumptions are confronted with consequences from Mohammed S. El
Naschie's E-infinity theory. The far-reaching investigations of El
Naschie have demonstrated the necessity of a new unconventional thinking
in physics. First we motivate the a priori assumptions of classical
mechanics with the requirements of the mathematical formalisms. We
explain the difficulties to construct models for a reality which shows
the phenomenon of contextualism, like for example quantum mechanics. In
a second step we use the principles of Husserl's phenomenology to deduce
a toy world from a contextual understanding of empirical data. In such a
toy world one can illustrate the fundamental phenomena from quantum
mechanics and ideas from E-infinity theory. We will use this toy world
to demonstrate that the classical a priori assumptions are not necessary
and that alternative ways of thinking are possible in physics.

The rarely used concept of electric pressure is applied to show the existence of a counter-pressure, opposed to the change of state of motion of a charged particle in an external electric field, with characteristics similar to its inertia. Likewise, an expression of Coulomb's law is obtained for charges in motion, which predicts that, at high speed, an increasing difficulty to accelerate the charges goes along with the relativistic increase of their mass. As a spin-off, the electric pressure is found to act like a suction, that is, as a negative pressure, whereby the particle is accelerated to wherever the pressure is higher. (C) 2011 Physics Essays Publication. [DOI: 10.4006/1.3598139]

An elementary physical framework is defined for the origin of gravitation and inertia based on the time delay for transmission of forces within nucleons and expansion of the universe. The derived values for the nucleon inertial mass and the gravitational constant G, in terms of the nucleon radius, the age of the universe, and the speed of light, are quantitatively consistent with the observed values.

A vacuum is a volume of space that is essentially empty of matter, such that its gaseous pressure is much less than standard
atmospheric pressure. The root of the word vacuum is the Latin adjective vacuus which means“empty,” but space can never be perfectly empty [1, 2]. A perfect vacuum with a gaseous pressure of absolute zero is a philosophical concept that is never observed in practice,
not least because quantum theory predicts that no volume of space can be perfectly empty in this way.

The time that we measure with clocks exists only as a numerical order of material changes running in a four-dimensional (4D) space. Time cannot be considered as a physical dimension - it is not pointing into any direction and so has no arrow. By universal entropy increasing time t is numerical order of material changes that run in a 4D space. By evolution of life that is a universal process of entropy decreasing time t is also a numerical order of material changes. Time t as a numerical order of material changes is a mathematical quantity; arrow of time does not exist as a physical reality, it has exclusively mathematical value.

The inertial and gravitational mass of electromagnetic radiation (i.e., a
photon distribution) in a cavity with reflecting walls has been treated by many
authors for over a century. After many contending discussions, a consensus has
emerged that the mass of such a photon distribution is equal to its total
energy divided by the square of the speed of light. Nevertheless, questions
remain unsettled on the interaction of the photons with the walls of the box.
In order to understand some of the details of this interaction, a simple case
of a single photon with an energy $E_\nu = h\,\nu$ bouncing up and down in a
static cavity with perfectly reflecting walls in a constant gravitational field
$\vec{g}$, constant in space and time, is studied and its contribution to the
weight of the box is determined as a temporal average.

A possible relationship between the zero-point field of the quantum vacuum and the origin of inertia is investigated. The zero-point field (ZPF) is a random, homogeneous, and isotropic electromagnetic field that exists even at the temperature of absolute zero, and its energy density spectrum is Lorentz invariant. Following the approach by Rueda and Haisch (Found. of Phys. Vol. 28, 1057, (1998)), the vacuum expectation value of the ZPF Poynting vector corresponding to the field energy being swept through by the accelerated object per unit time per unit area is evaluated. Here the object is under uniform acceleration, or constant proper acceleration which is known as hyperbolic motion. From this Poynting vector, we can further evaluate the momentum of the background fields the object has swept through as seen from the laboratory frame, and this momentum can then be used to find the force exerted on an accelerated object by the ZPF. This approach had the advantage of avoiding the model dependence used previously by Haisch, Rueda, and Puthoff (Phys. Rev. A 49, 678, (1994)). Although, in their analysis, Rueda and Haisch used the classical stochastic electromagnetic zero-point field, in the present research, the quantum formulation for the ZPF is employed using the creation and annihilation operators in the Hilbert space. A relativistic result is reproduced as well by use of the electromagnetic energy-momentum stress tensor which has the Poynting vector components as some of its elements. Similar results are obtained in either approach, and the force on the accelerating object by the ZPF is found to be proportional and in the opposite direction to the acceleration. Furthermore the proportionality constant turns out to be a scalar quantity with the dimension of mass. Thus the interaction between the accelerated object and the quantum vacuum appears to generate a physical resistance against acceleration, which manifests itself in the form of inertial mass mi. It has been conjectured by Rueda and collaborators that not only the electromagnetic but other ZPFs such as those of the strong and weak interactions may contribute to the inertial mass.

On nature of mathematics. On mathematics and Reality Idea that mathematics should be considered as creative order in nature is considered. Conclusion - mathematics should be studied and exercised to much more extent than it is done today. Satura rādītājs

The work-in-progress on the conjectured origin of the inertia reaction force (Newton's Second Law) in quantum vacuum fields is discussed and reviewed. It is first pointed out that the inertia reaction force is not a fundamental effect at the particle level, but an emergent macroscopic phenomenon that appears in large condensed aggregates. A brief sketch of the analysis that leads to the derivation of the electromagnetic vacuum contribution to the inertia reaction force is presented, in several complementary ways and also in a fully covariant way. All derivations were initially done within Stochastic Electrodynamics and more recently, we briefly report here for the first time, they have been reformulated within ordinary Quantum Electrodynamics. Analysis leading to an expression for, what we can call, the vacuum electromagnetic field contribution to the inertia reaction force, is briefly reviewed. As an example, the case of an ordinary electromagnetic (microwave) cavity is briefly mentioned with its associated very small but nonnegligible inertial mass of the interior of the microwave cavity case (i.e., the cavity alone not considering its walls). Next, it is briefly mentioned that the results for inertial mass can be passed to passive gravitational mass. Thus some light is thrown on the origin of the Weak Equivalence Principle, which equates inertial mass to passive gravitational mass. Finally we mention the derivation of Newton's gravitational force expression that easily follows from this analysis. Unfortunately, all this has been accomplished just for the electromagnetic vacuum case, as contribution by the other quantum vacuum fields have not been calculated. This specially refers to the gluonic vacuum, which presumably contributes the lion's share of the inertia reaction force in ordinary objects. Furthermore, the origin of what constitutes active gravitational mass has still not been considered within this approach. I.e., why a massive object "bends" space-time still remains unexplained.

In the article by Haisch, Rueda and Puthoff Phys. Rev. A 49 678 (1994), an explanation of inertia as an “electromagnetic resistance arising from the known spectral distortion of the zero-point field in accelerated frames” is proposed. In this paper, we show that this result is an error due to incorrect physical and mathematical assumptions associated with taking a nonrelativistic approach. At the core of HRP’s theory is a calculation of the so-called magnetic Lorentz force, which can be represented in terms of a correlation function of zero-point field (ZPF) radiation and a form factor of a small uniformly accelerated oscillator. To consider this force, the authors use a nonrelativistic approach based in fact on two main assumptions. (i) A nonrelativistic approximation of the correlation function exists. (ii) In the force integral expression, contributions of the integrand for large differences in time are damped and can be ignored. We show that their implicit nonrelativistic implementation of the correlation function is incorrect, and present as the correct expression a proper nonrelativistic limit of the exact correlation function offered earlier by Boyer. We also show that the second assumption is misguided, and the force exerted on even a slow moving accelerated oscillator “remembers” the entire history of the accelerated motion including times when its velocity could have any large value. A nonrelativistic approximation of the force leads to a contradiction. The force is fundamentally a relativistic one, which we show is equal to zero. Consequently, the interaction of the accelerated oscillator with ZPF radiation does not produce inertia, at least not for the component of the Lorentz force that HRP considered. Finally, several other calculation errors are discussed in our paper: the sign (which is of paramount importance for HRP’s theory) of HRP’s final force expression should be positive, not negative, and the high-frequency approximation used is not justified.

We review concepts that provide an experimental framework for exploring the possibility and limitations of accessing energy from the space vacuum environment. Quantum electrodynamics
(QED) and stochastic electrodynamics (SED) are the theoretical approaches guiding this experimental investigation. This investigation explores the question of whether the quantum vacuum field contains useful energy that can be exploited for applications under the action of a catalyst, or cavity structure, so that energy conservation is not violated. This is similar to the same technical problem at about the same level of technology as that faced by early nuclear energy pioneers who searched for, and successfully discovered, the unique material structure that caused the release of nuclear energy via the neutron
chain reaction.

We present an approach for particle mass generation in which the physical
vacuum is assumed as a medium at zero temperature and where the dynamics of the
vacuum is described by the Standard Model without the Higgs sector. In this
approach fermions acquire masses from interactions with vacuum and gauge bosons
from charge fluctuations of vacuum. The obtained results are consistent with
the physical mass spectrum, in such a manner that left-handed neutrinos are
massive. Masses of electroweak gauge bosons are properly predicted in terms of
experimental fermion masses and running coupling constants of strong,
electromagnetic and weak interactions. An existing empirical relation between
the top quark mass and the electroweak gauge boson masses is explained by means
of this approach.

Stochastic electrodynamics (SED) without spin, denoted as pure SED, has been discussed and seriously considered in the literature
for several decades because it accounts for important aspects of quantum mechanics (QM). SED is based on the introduction
of the nonrenormalized, electromagnetic stochastic zero-point field (ZPF), but neglects the Lorentz force due to the radiation
random magnetic field Br. In addition to that rather basic limitation, other drawbacks remain, as well: i) SED fails when
there are nonlinear forces; ii) it is not possible to derive the Schrödinger equation in general; iii) it predicts broad spectra
for rarefied gases instead of the observed narrow spectral lines; iv) it does not explain double-slit electron diffraction
patterns. We show in this short review that all of those drawbacks, and mainly the first most basic one, can be overcome in
principle by introducing spin into stochastic electrodynamics (SEDS). Moreover, this modification of the theory also explains
four observed effects that are otherwise so far unexplainable by QED, i.e., 1) the physical origin of the ZPF, and its natural
upper cutoff; 2) an anomaly in experimental studies of the neutrino rest mass; 3) the origin and quantitative treatment of
1/f noise; and 4) the high-energy tail (∼ 1021 eV) of cosmic rays. We review the theoretical and experimental situation regarding these things and go on to propose a double-slit
electron diffraction experiment that is aimed at discriminating between QM and SEDS. We show that, in the context of this
experiment, for the case of an electron beam focused on just one of the slits, no interference pattern due to the other slit
is predicted by QM, while this is not the case for SEDS. A second experiment that could discriminate between QED and SEDS
regards a transversely large electron beam including both slits obtained in an insulating wall, where the ZPF is reduced but
not vanished. The interference pattern according to SEDS should be somewhat modified with respect to QED’s.

The term, propulsion breakthrough, refers to concepts like propellantless space drives and faster-than-light travel, the kind of breakthroughs that would make interstellar exploration practical. Although no such breakthroughs appear imminent, a variety of investigations have begun. During 1996-2002 NASA supported the breakthrough propulsion physics project to examine physics in the context of breakthrough spaceflight. Three facets of these assessments are now reported: (1) predicting benefits, (2) selecting research, and (3) recent technical progress. Predicting benefits is challenging, since the breakthroughs are still only notional concepts, but energy can serve as a basis for comparison. A hypothetical space drive would require many orders of magnitude less energy than a rocket for journeys to our nearest neighboring star. Assessing research options is challenging when the goals are beyond known physics and when the implications of success are profound. To mitigate the challenges, a selection process is described where: (1) research tasks are constrained to only address the immediate unknowns, curious effects, or critical issues; (2) reliability of assertions is more important than their implications; and (3) reviewers judge credibility rather than feasibility. The recent findings of a number of tasks, some selected using this process, are discussed. Of the 14 tasks included, six reached null conclusions, four remain unresolved, and four have opportunities for sequels. A dominant theme with the sequels is research about the properties of space, inertial frames, and the quantum vacuum.

Although mathematically self-consistent, Carlip’s approach to the reanalysis of Sakharov gravity is flawed by the neglect of important physical constraints associated with the interaction, and leads to an incorrect 1/R4 spatial dependence for the force. When appropriate physical cutoffs are incorporated into the modeling, however, inverse-square-law Newtonian gravity emerges as originally derived.

We analyze the proposal that gravity may originate from a van der Waals type of residual force between particles due to the vacuum electromagnetic zero-point field. Starting from the Casimir-Polder integral, we show that the proposed approach can be analyzed directly, without recourse to approximations previously made. We conclude that this approach to Newtonian gravity does not work, at least not with this particular starting point. Only by imposing different or additional physical constraints, or by treating the underlying dynamics differently than what are embodied in the inherently subrelativistic Casimir-Polder integral, can one expect to escape this conclusion.

Previous studies of the physics of a classical electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) have implicated it as a possible basis for a number of quantum phenomena. Recent work implies that the ZPF may play an even more significant role as the source of inertia and gravitation of matter. Furthermore, this close link between electromagnetism and inertia suggests that it may be fruitful to investigate to what extent the fundamental physical process of electromagnetic radiation by accelerated charged particles could be interpreted as scattering of ambient ZPF radiation. This could also bear upon the origin of radiation reaction and on the existence of the same Planck function underlying both thermal emission and the acceleration-dependent Davies--Unruh effect. If these findings are substantiated by further investigations, a paradigm shift would be necessitated in physics. An overview of these concepts is presented thereby outlining a research agenda which could ultimately lead to revolutionary technologies.

Standard pedagogy treats topics in general relativity (GR) in terms of tensor formulations in curved space-time. An alternative approach based on treating the vacuum as a polarizable medium is presented here. The polarizable vacuum (PV) approach to GR, derived from a model by Dicke and related to the TH formalism used in comparative studies of gravitational theories, provides additional insight into what is meant by a curved metric. While reproducing the results predicted by GR for standard (weak-field) astrophysical conditions, for strong fields a divergence of predictions in the two formalisms (GR vs. PV) provides fertile ground for both laboratory and astrophysical tests to compare the two approaches.

Topics in general relativity (GR) are routinely treated in terms of tensor formulations in curved spacetime. An alternative
approach is presented here, based on treating the vacuum as a polarizable medium. Beyond simply reproducing the standard weak-field
predictions of GR, the polarizable vacuum (PV) approach provides additional insight into what is meant by a curved metric.
For the strong field case, a divergence of predictions in the two formalisms (GR vs. PV) provides fertile ground for both
laboratory and astrophysical tests.

Sakharov has proposed a suggestive model in which gravity is not a separately existing fundamental force, but rather an induced effect associated with zero-point fluctuations (ZPF's) of the vacuum, in much the same manner as the van der Waals and Casimir forces. In the spirit of this proposal we develop a point-particle--ZPF interaction model that accords with and fulfills this hypothesis. In the model gravitational mass and its associated gravitational effects are shown to derive in a fully self-consistent way from electromagnetic-ZPF-induced particle motion (Zitterbewegung). Because of its electromagnetic-ZPF underpinning, gravitational theory in this form constitutes an ''already unified'' theory.

Under the hypothesis that ordinary matter is ultimately made of subelementary constitutive primary charged entities or partons'' bound in the manner of traditional elementary Planck oscillators (a time-honored classical technique), it is shown that a heretofore uninvestigated Lorentz force (specifically, the magnetic component of the Lorentz force) arises in any accelerated reference frame from the interaction of the partons with the vacuum electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF). Partons, though asymptotically free at the highest frequencies, are endowed with a sufficiently large bare mass'' to allow interactions with the ZPF at very high frequencies up to the Planck frequencies. This Lorentz force, though originating at the subelementary parton level, appears to produce an opposition to the acceleration of material objects at a macroscopic level having the correct characteristics to account for the property of inertia. We thus propose the interpretation that inertia is an electromagnetic resistance arising from the known spectral distortion of the ZPF in accelerated frames. The proposed concept also suggests a physically rigorous version of Mach's principle. Moreover, some preliminary independent corroboration is suggested for ideas proposed by Sakharov (Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 177, 70 (1968) [Sov. Phys. Dokl. 12, 1040 (1968)]) and further explored by one of us [H. E. Puthoff, Phys. Rev. A 39, 2333 (1989)] concerning a ZPF-based model of Newtonian gravity, and for the equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass as dictated by the principle of equivalence.

A classical electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) analogue of the vacuum of quantum field theory has formed the basis for theoretical investigations in the discipline known as random or stochastic electrodynamics (SED) wherein quantum measurements are imitated by the introduction of a stochastic classical background EM field. Random EM fluctuations are assumed to provide perturbations which can mimic some quantum phenomena while retaining a purely classical basis, e.g. the Casimir force, the Van-der-Waals force, the Lamb shift, spontaneous emission, the RMS radius of the harmonic oscillator, and the radius of the Bohr atom. This classical ZPF is represented as a homogeneous, isotropic ensemble of plane waves with fixed amplitudes and random phases. Averaging over the random phases is assumed to be equivalent to taking the ground-state expectation values of the corresponding quantum operator. We demonstrate that this is not precisely correct by examining the statistics of the classical ZPF in contrast to that of the EM quantum vacuum. We derive the distribution for the individual mode amplitudes in the ground-state as predicted by quantum field theory (QFT) and then carry out the same calculation for the classical ZPF analogue, showing that the distributions are only in approximate agreement, diverging as the density of k states decreases. We introduce an alternative classical ZPF with a different stochastic character, and demonstrate that it can exactly reproduce the statistics of the EM vacuum of QED. Incorporated into SED, this new field is shown to give the correct (QM) distribution for the amplitude of the ground-state of a harmonic oscillator, suggesting the possibility of developing further successful correspondences between SED and QED. Comment: 18 pages

We present an approach to the origin of inertia involving the electromagnetic component of the quantum vacuum and propose this as an alternative to Mach's principle. Preliminary analysis of the momentum flux of the classical zero-point radiation impinging on accelerated objects as viewed by an inertial observer suggests that the resistance to acceleration attributed to inertia may be at least in part a force of opposition originating in the vacuum. This analysis avoids the ad hoc modeling of particle-field interaction dynamics used previously to derive a similar result. This present approach is not dependent upon what happens at the particle point, but on how an external observer assesses the kinematical characteristics of the zero-point radiation impinging on the accelerated object. A relativistic form of the equation of motion results from the present analysis. Its covariant form yields a simple result that may be interpreted as a contribution to inertial mass. Our approach is related by the principle of equivalence to Sakharov's conjecture of a connection between Einstein action and the vacuum. The argument presented may thus be construed as a descendant of Sakharov's conjecture by which we attempt to attribute a mass-giving property to the electromagnetic component -- and possibly other components-- of the vacuum. In this view the physical momentum of an object is related to the radiative momentum flux of the vacuum instantaneously contained in the characteristic proper volume of the object. The interaction process between the accelerated object and the vacuum (akin to absorption or scattering of electromagnetic radiation) appears to generate a physical resistance (reaction force) to acceleration suggestive of what has been historically known as inertia.

The possibility of an extrinsic origin for inertial reaction forces has recently seen increased attention in the physical literature. Among theories of extrinsic inertia, the two considered by the current work are (1) the hypothesis that inertia is a result of gravitational interactions, and (2) the hypothesis that inertial reaction forces arise from the interaction of material particles with local fluctuations of the quantum vacuum. A recent article supporting the former and criticizing the latter is shown to contain substantial errors.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.29.363

From the reviews of the second edition: "It is the book par excellence
for the non-relativist who is at home with mathematics... What gives the
book its outstanding quality is Professor Rindler's profound
understanding of the ideas behind the formulas and his remarkable
ability to share this understanding with the reader. In graceful prose
he makes deep things simple. Under his guidance the basic concepts come
vividly to life and acquire a force of their own so that the mathematics
takes on a secondary role... With its combination of substantial
mathematics, insight, and physical down-to-earthedness, the book is a
delight in every way." American Mathematical Monthly

An Electromagnetic Theory of Gravitation.-An electric system in a medium whose specific inductive capacity k varies from point to point tends to move in the direction of increasing k. It is suggested that if we assume the specific inductive capacity of the ether to vary near matter, gravitation may be explained as a result of this tendency. In a medium in which at a distance r from a mass m, k=I+mr, it is shown that a rigid electrostatic system would be acted on by a force directed toward m and equal to mm'r2, where m' in the electromagnetic mass of the system. But in order to explain the observed deflection of light by the sun we must have k=I+2mr; and this will not give the force mm'r2 unless the system contracts in the ratio of I:I-mr. A physical explanation of this assumed contraction is suggested. If the system with the mass m' is also supposed to modify k, it is necessary to take into account the energy changes in m and in the ether. The effect of gravitation on the frequency of the light emitted by an atom, which was predicted by Einstein, can be easily deduced from the present theory.

In modern physics, the classical vacuum of tranquil nothingness has been replaced by a quantum vacuum with fluctuations of measurable consequence. In The Quantum Vacuum, Peter Milonni describes the concept of the vacuum in quantum physics with an emphasis on quantum electrodynamics. He elucidates in depth and detail the role of the vacuum electromagnetic field in spontaneous emission, the Lamb shift, van der Waals, and Casimir forces, and a variety of other phenomena, some of which are of technological as well as purely scientific importance. This informative text also provides an introduction based on fundamental vacuum processes to the ideas of relativistic quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, including renormalization and Feynman diagrams. Experimental as well as theoreticalaspects of the quantum vacuum are described, and in most cases details of mathematical derivations are included. Chapter 1 of The Quantum Vacuum - published in advance in The American Journal of Physics (1991)-was later selected by readers as one of the Most Memorable papers ever published in the 60-year history of the journal. This chapter provides anexcellent beginning of the book, introducing a wealth of information of historical interest, the results of which are carefully woven into subsequent chapters to form a coherent whole. Key Features Does not assume that the reader has taken advanced graduate courses, making the text accessible to beginning graduate students Emphasizes the basic physical ideas rather than the formal, mathematical aspects of the subject Provides a careful and thorough treatment of Casimir and van der Waals forces at a level of detail not found in any other book on this topic Clearly presents mathematical derivations.

The thermal effects of acceleration found by Davies and Unruh within quantum field theory are shown to exist within random classical radiation. The two-field correlation functions for random classical radiation are used as the basis for investigating the spectrum of radiation observed at an accelerating point detector. An observer with proper acceleration a relative to the Lorentz-invariant spectrum of random classical scalar zero-point radiation finds a spectrum identical with that given by Planck's law for scalar thermal radiation where the temperature is related to the acceleration by T=ℏa/2πck. An observer with proper acceleration a relative to the Lorentz-invariant spectrum of random classical electromagnetic radiation finds a stationary radiation spectrum which is not Planck's spectrum. Rather, the observed spectrum in the electromagnetic case contains a term agreeing with Planck's electromagnetic spectrum plus an additional term. This spectrum for the electromagnetic case appears in the work of Candelas and Deutsch for an accelerating mirror and corresponds to thermal radiation in the non-Minkowskian space-time of the accelerating observer. The calculations reported here involve an entirely classical point of view, but are shown to have immediate connections with quantum field theory.

The theory of classical electrodynamics with classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation is outlined here under the title random electrodynamics. The work represents a reanalysis of the bounds of validity of classical electron theory which should sharpen the understanding of the connections and dinstinctions between classical and quantum theories. The new theory of random electrodynamics is a classical electron theory involving Newton's equations for particle motion due to the Lorentz force, and Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic fields with point particles as sources. However, the theory departs from the classical electron theory of Lorentz in that it adopts a new boundary condition on Maxwell's equations. It is assumed that the homogeneous boundary condition involves random classical electromagnetic radiation with a Lorentz-invariant spectrum, classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation. The scale of the spectrum of random radiation is set by Planck's constant ℏ. In the limit ℏ→0, the theory of random electrodynamics becomes Lorentz's theory of electrons. Thus, random electrodynamics stands between two well-known theories—traditional classical electron theory with ℏ=0 on the one hand and quantum electrodynamics with its noncommuting operators on the other. The paper discusses the role of boundary conditions in classical electrodynamics, the motivation for choosing a new boundary condition involving classical zero-point radiation, and the assumed random character of the radiation. Also, the implications of the theory of random electrodynamics are summarized, including the detection of zero-point radiation, the calculation of van der Waals forces, and the change of ideas in statistical thermodynamics. In these cases the summary accounts refer to published calculations which yield results in agreement with experiment. The implications of random electrodynamics for atomic structure, atomic spectra, and particle-interference effects are discussed on an order-of-magnitude or heuristic level. Some detailed mathematical connections and some merely heuristic connections are noted between random electrodynamics and quantum theory.

In 1976 Unruh showed that a scalar quantum particle in a box accelerating through the vacuum of scalar quantum field theory responded as though it were in a thermal bath at temperature T=ℏa/2πck. Here we show an analogous result within classical electromagnetic theory. A classical electric dipole oscillator accelerating through classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation responds just as would a dipole oscillator in an inertial frame in classical thermal radiation with Planck's spectrum at temperature T=ℏa/2πck. In an earlier work it was shown that the electromagnetic field correlation functions for an observer accelerating through classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation correspond to a spectrum different from Planck's. The same spectrum is found in the quantum analysis of a vector field where the departure from Planckian form is assigned to the change in the number of normal modes associated with the event horizon of the accelerating observer. The present work shows that the relativistic radiation reaction for an accelerating classical charge contains a term which exactly compensates the departure of the electromagnetic spectrum from Planckian form so as to bring the oscillator's behavior into precise agreement with the usual Planckian thermal form.

It was proposed by Haisch, Rueda and Puthoff that the inertia of matter could be interpreted at least in part as a reaction force originating in interactions between the electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) and the elementary charged constituents (quarks and electrons) of matter. Within the limited context of that analysis, it appeared that Newton's equation of motion (f = ma) could be inferred from Maxwell's equations as applied to the ZPF, i.e. the stochastic electrodynamics (SED) version of the quantum vacuum. We report on a new approach which avoids the ad hoc particle-field interaction model (Planck oscillator) of that analysis, as well as its concomitant formulational complexity. Instead, it is shown that a non-zero ZPF momentum flux arises naturally in accelerating coordinate frames from the standard relativistic transformations of electromagnetic fields. Scattering of this ZPF momentum flux by an object will yield a reaction force that may be interpreted as a contribution to the object's inertia. This new formulation is properly covariant yielding the relativistic equation of motion: = d/dτ. Our approach is related by the principle of equivalence to Sakharov's conjecture of a connection between Einstein action and the vacuum. If correct, this concept would substitute for Mach's principle and imply that no further mass-giving Higgs-type fields may be required to explain the inertia of material objects, although extensions to include the zero-point fields of the other fundamental interactions may be necessary for a complete theory of inertia.

A paper by H. Puthoff [Phys. Rev. A 39, 2333 (1989)], which claims to derive Newtonian gravity from stochastic electrodynamics, contains a serious computational error. When the calculation is corrected, the resulting force is shown to be nongravitational and negligible.

It has been proposed that the scattering of electromagnetic zero-point radiation by accelerating objects results in a reaction force that may account, at least in part, for inertia [1, 2, 3]. This arises because of asymmetries in the electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) or electromagnetic quantum vacuum as perceived from an accelerating reference frame. In such a frame, the Poynting vector and momentum flux of the ZPF become non-zero. If one assumes that scattering of the ZPF radiation takes place at the level of quarks and electrons constituting matter, then it is possible for both Newton's equation of motion, f = ma, and its relativistic covariant generalization, F = dP/d# , to be obtained as a consequence of the non-zero ZPF momentum flux. We now conjecture that this scattering must take place at the Compton frequency of a particle, and that this interpretation of mass leads directly to the de Broglie relation characterizing the wave nature of that particle in motion, #B = h/p. Th...

Even when the Higgs particle is finally detected, it will continue to be a legitimate question to ask whether the inertia of matter as a reaction force opposing acceleration is an intrinsic or extrinsic property of matter. General relativity specifies which geodesic path a free particle will follow, but geometrodynamics has no mechanism for generating a reaction force for deviation from geodesic motion. We discuss a different approach involving the electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) of the quantum vacuum. It has been found that certain asymmetries arise in the ZPF as perceived from an accelerating reference frame. In such a frame the Poynting vector and momentum flux of the ZPF become non-zero. Scattering of this quantum radiation by the quarks and electrons in matter can result in an acceleration-dependent reaction force. Both the ordinary and the relativistic forms of Newton's second law, the equation of motion, can be derived from the electrodynamics of such ZPF-particle interactions. Conjectural arguments are given why this interaction should take place in a resonance at the Compton frequency, and how this could simultaneously provide a physical basis for the de Broglie wavelength of a moving particle. This affords a suggestive perspective on a deep connection between electrodynamics, the origin of inertia and the quantum wave nature of matter. Comment: Annalen der Physik, in press

Physics invites the idea that space contains energy whose gravitational effect approximates that of Einstein's cosmological constant, Lambda; nowadays the concept is termed dark energy or quintessence. Physics also suggests the dark energy could be dynamical, allowing the arguably appealing picture that the dark energy density is evolving to its natural value, zero, and is small now because the expanding universe is old. This alleviates the classical problem of the curious energy scale of order a millielectronvolt associated with a constant Lambda. Dark energy may have been detected by recent advances in the cosmological tests. The tests establish a good scientific case for the context, in the relativistic Friedmann-Lemaitre model, including the gravitational inverse square law applied to the scales of cosmology. We have well-checked evidence that the mean mass density is not much more than one quarter of the critical Einstein-de Sitter value. The case for detection of dark energy is serious but not yet as convincing; we await more checks that may come out of work in progress. Planned observations might be capable of detecting evolution of the dark energy density; a positive result would be a considerable stimulus to attempts to understand the microphysics of dark energy. This review presents the basic physics and astronomy of the subject, reviews the history of ideas, assesses the state of the observational evidence, and comments on recent developments in the search for a fundamental theory.

For a translation see C

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A. Einstein, Ann. Phys. 35 (1911) 898. For a translation see C.W. Kilmister, General Theory of
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P.J.E. Peebles and B. Ratra, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75 (2003) 559 (in particular §IIB)

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28 (1998) 1057; see also A. Rueda and B. Haisch

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A. Rueda and B. Haisch, Found. Phys. 28 (1998) 1057; see also A. Rueda and B. Haisch, Phys. Lett. A
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pg. 67; and for a more popularizing account

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See. e.g., R.M. Wald, General Relativity, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, (1984) pg. 67; and for a
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Directions in Physics Cosmology and the gravitational constant

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The Quantum Dice -An Introduction to Stochastic Electrodynamics, Kluwer Acad. Publ., Fundamental Theories of Physics Series

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L. de La Peña and A.M. Cetto, The Quantum Dice -An Introduction to Stochastic Electrodynamics,
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Yu. B. Zeldovich. Zh. Eksp. & Teor. Fiz. Pis'ma 6 (1967) 883 (English translation in Sov. Phys. –
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