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Neighborhood Disadvantage and Police Notification by Victims of Violence

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Abstract

This research uses data from the Area-Identified National Crime Victimization Survey to examine the influence of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage on the likelihood of police notification by victims of violence. The results indicate that neighborhood disadvantage does not significantly affect the likelihood of police notification among robbery and aggravated assault victims. However, a significant curvilinear effect of neighborhood disadvantage is observed for simple assault victims. The implications of these results for community-level crime research and for theoretical perspectives on police notification are discussed.

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... Subsequently, some studies have found no victim gender effect (Tarling & Morris, 2010), other studies have indicated that female victims are more likely than male victims to report to the police (Spelman & Brown, 1984), and one study even found that male victims are more likely than female victims to report (Goudriaan et al., 2004). Regarding the offender's gender, most studies have found it has no effect on crime reporting (Baumer, 2002;Bosick et al., 2012), but some countervailing research has found that male offenders are more likely than female offenders to be reported to the police (Baumer & Lauritsen, 2010;Wong & van de Schoot, 2012). ...
... For assault victims, following norms related to crime reporting depends on whether following the norm affects their personal safety and whether the norm is enforceable by the public. When violence passes a certain threshold of severity, social norms may become less important to violence victims' reporting decisions because they are focused on ensuring personal safety (Baumer, 2002;Tarling & Morris, 2010). Experimental and observational studies have suggested that, in highly serious crimes, victim/offender characteristics and social norms are less predictive of victims' reporting behaviors (Baumer, 2002;Ruback, 1994). ...
... When violence passes a certain threshold of severity, social norms may become less important to violence victims' reporting decisions because they are focused on ensuring personal safety (Baumer, 2002;Tarling & Morris, 2010). Experimental and observational studies have suggested that, in highly serious crimes, victim/offender characteristics and social norms are less predictive of victims' reporting behaviors (Baumer, 2002;Ruback, 1994). If victims prioritize personal safety, then gender norms (and thus gender as a variable) should be less predictive of victims' crime reporting decisions in serious violence. ...
Article
This study used two theoretical perspectives—coercive power and gender norms—to examine how gender affects victims’ decisions to report physical assaults to the police. The coercive power perspective attributes gender differences in reporting to sex-linked physical coercive power differences that affect the harm of the crime and victims’ personal safety. The gender norm perspective attributes gender differences in reporting to specific gender norms that influence crime reporting decisions. Using a sample of 18,627 nonintimate partner physical assaults from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1993–2015), crime reporting models demonstrated significantly better fit when they included the interaction between the victim’s gender and the offender’s gender than when they included only the main effects. In the sample, (a) female victims were 21.9% more likely to report to the police when the offender was male (vs. female) and (b) male victims were 45.8% more likely to report to the police when the offender was female (vs. male). Victims’ tendency to report an opposite-sex offender to the police was strongest in simple assaults and absent in aggravated assaults. We conclude that male and female victims’ reporting behaviors were most consistent with gender norms that encourage the use of self-help violence and discourage police reporting in intragender assaults. Consistent with this explanation, self-help violence was negatively related to crime reporting in assaults. Victims were more likely to use self-help violence and avoid reporting to the police against a same-sex offender than an opposite-sex offender. Finally, the offender’s gender had a relatively stronger influence on assault victims’ decisions to use self-help violence than on victims’ decisions to take no action against the offender (i.e., not reporting to the police or using self-help violence).
... Geocoded police-recorded crimes constitute the basis for all of these. Yet, certain social groups are more likely to report crimes to the police than others, and police forces are more effective in recording crimes in certain areas (Baumer 2002;Hart and Rennison 2003;Goudriaan et al. 2006). The dark figure of police statistics is thus likely to be unequally distributed across geographic areas. ...
... Victims from suburban areas report crimes less often than urban and rural citizens (Hart and Rennison 2003;Langton et al. 2012), and residents from deprived neighbourhoods are less likely to report certain crime types (Goudriaan et al. 2006;Slocum et al. 2010;Xie and Lauritsen 2012;Berg et al. 2013). Baumer (2002) shows that citizens living in deprived neighbourhoods, but also those living in wealthy areas, are less likely to inform the police. Although public reporting is not the unique pathway through which the police become aware of crimes (police can witness crimes, observe cues of crimes and be informed by private law enforcers, and offenders may surrender), it is arguably the main source of data for most crime types and has large impacts on crime rates (Mawby 1979;Brantingham 2018). ...
... Berg et al. (2013) argue that normative constraints on crime reporting may not exist in middle-class areas where antipolice views play a less important role. Baumer (2002) shows that socio-economic disadvantage affects the likelihood of crime reporting in the case of crime indices dominated by simple assaults, but it does not affect reporting rates for serious crimes (e.g. robbery and aggravated assault). ...
Article
For decades, criminologists have been aware of the severe consequences of the dark figure of police records for crime prevention strategies. Crime surveys are developed to address the limitations of police statistics as crime data sources, and estimates produced from surveys can mitigate biases in police data. This paper produces small area estimates of crimes unknown to the police at local and neighbourhood levels from the Crime Survey for England and Wales to explore the geographical inequality of the dark figure of crime. The dark figure of crime is larger not only in small cities that are deprived but also in wealthy municipalities. The dark figure is also larger in suburban, low-housing neighbourhoods with large concentrations of unqualified citizens, immigrants and non-Asian minorities.
... This study used BPD incident-level call data (2014)(2015)(2016)(2017) concerning non-criminal caretaking matters (N=237,657 , 1997). It is reasonable to expect that these attitudes affect an individual's willingness to seek police assistance (Bennett, 2004;Baumer, 2002). To that extent, highly publicized negative policecitizen interactions may decrease community willingness to report criminal activity to the police (Desmond, Papachristos, & Kirk, 2016) or may have no effect (Zoorob, 2019). ...
... To that extent, the decision to report a crime to the police is the product of individual-level, incident-level, and community-level factors (Schnebly, 2008). As a general matter, urban residents and individuals of low socio-economic status may be especially likely to call the police when they have been crime victims (Avakame, Fyfe, & McCoy, 1999;Baumer, 2002). It is possible that low socio-economic status crime victims rely on the police because they lack alternatives that may be available to wealthier people such as private security or family members who can intervene. ...
... Prior literature has suggested that distrust of the police may render citizens less willing to seek police assistance (Bennett, 2004;Baumer, 2002;Desmond, Papachristos, & Kirk, 2016). Thus, willingness to seek police assistance provides, albeit indirectly, some measure of public trust in the police. ...
Article
Comprised of three papers, this dissertation examines how changes within the urban environment affect crime and the criminal justice system. Collectively, these three papers address policy-relevant issues for urban communities that include police-community relations, the caretaking role of the police, firearm-related violence, blighted and vacant land, the opioid epidemic, and access to treatment for opioid use disorder. The first paper assesses the place-based effects of outpatient methadone maintenance treatment facilities on crime in Philadelphia. The analysis in this paper uses spatial and temporal variation in OMMT facility presence during an eleven-year period (2007-2017) to determine these effects. Within a 200-meter radius, the presence of an OMMT facility caused a significant decrease in property and total crime but a significant increase in drug and violent crime. There were no significant effects on crime outside of the 200-meter radius. The second paper evaluates the effect of randomized vacant lot remediation on the frequency of shootings that result in serious injury or death. The analysis in this paper uses data from a 2013 randomized controlled trial was conducted in Philadelphia involving 541 vacant lots. Some vacant lots were remediated, other vacant lots received a lesser level of remediation, and the remainder received no remediation. Over a 60-month period, remediating lots significantly reduced shooting incidents; there was no evidence that the interventions displaced shootings into adjacent areas. The third paper tests whether a high-profile death-in-police-custody incident in Baltimore affected community reliance on the police, as measured through citizen calls requesting police assistance for non-criminal caretaking matters. This paper presents a Negative Community-Police Relationship Index Score that operationalizes the risk of a negative community-police relationship for a given location within Baltimore based on factors such as the percentage of residents living in poverty and the percentage of vacant residential housing units. Even in high-risk sections, the death-in-police-custody incident did not significantly affect community reliance on the police for non-criminal caretaking matters.
... On an individual level, females are more likely to report violent victimization to the police or to have someone report on their behalf (Baumer, 2002;Hart & Rennison, 2003). Interestingly, this relationship appears to hold even after controlling for the seriousness of the offense. ...
... However, the literature also includes studies suggesting otherwise that men are more likely to underreport their victimization if the offender is known (Felson & Paré, 2005). A victim's age has also been found to be positively associated with a decision on crime reporting (Baumer, 2002;Finkelhor & Ormrod, 2001;Hart & Rennison, 2003). Another demographic feature potentially affecting the decision on crime reporting is employment status. ...
... Writing on Azerbaijan, Sadigov and Guliyev (2018) note potential reliability issues with attitudes to government policy because of the fear and self-censorship prevalent among respondents. Methodologically, the exclusion of community-level measures is acknowledged as a weakness, for the literature provides several mechanisms through which area-level disadvantage might influence victim reporting (for a detailed discussion, see Baumer (2002). In a similar vein, this survey did not ask for the respondents' educational attainment level. ...
Article
Relatively limited attention has been paid by scholars to explore the crime reporting behavior of white-collar crime victims, especially in developing countries, such as Azerbaijan, where some forms of white-collar crimes are widespread. Using the dataset of the first nationwide victimization survey (n = 1,214) in Azerbaijan, the current paper attempts to explore the determinants of crime reporting among 4 specific white-collar offense (fraud, request for bribery, sale of unsafe good and sale of unsafe food for consumption) among randomly selected, yet unrepresentative subsample of victims (n = 186). Offenses were categorized in two groups for analysis—financial/economic offenses and non-financial/economic offenses, hence two models in a binary logistic regression analysis. The results indicate that the extent of financial loss predicts the crime reporting behavior for victims of financial offenses. Those with a higher level of the perceived probability of being victimized by a violent crime were more likely to have notified the authorities of their victimization. Applicable for non-financial crimes only, the level of income has an inverse association with a decision to invoke the law. The relationship of a victim to an offender predicted a decision to contact the authorities—cases in which the offender was identified as a stranger were less likely to be reported to the law enforcement authorities than cases in which the offender had not been identified. No socio-demographic variable has a predictive capacity for either crime category. In addition, as the main motives for not mobilizing the law, almost half of the cases have been resolved in between the offender and victims, such as through compensation. The findings have several theoretical implications for white-collar crime literature. Suggestions for further research, as well as the limitations, are discussed toward the end of the paper.
... Since some of these resident characteristics concentrate in particular areas, we also expect crime reporting rates to vary across areas. Generally, deprived neighborhoods and areas with large concentrations of immigrants have lower D. Buil-Gil et al. crime reporting rates than middle-class areas (Baumer 2002;Xie and Baumer 2019a;Goudriaan et al. 2006), and crimes that take place in cohesive areas have a higher chance of being known to the police (Goudriaan et al. 2006;Jackson et al. 2013). Moreover, residents from rural areas are generally more willing to cooperate with police services than urban citizens (Hart and Rennison 2003). ...
... Moreover, residents from rural areas are generally more willing to cooperate with police services than urban citizens (Hart and Rennison 2003). Research has also found that the incident seriousness and harm are very strongly linked to the reporting decision (Baumer 2002;Xie and Baumer 2019b). ...
... In order to simulate the number of crimes faced by each individual unit within our synthetic population of Manchester residents, we first estimate negative binomial regression models of crime victimization from CSEW data and then use the model parameter estimates to predict crime incidence within our simulated population. Given that different crime types are known to be associated with different social and contextual variables (Andresen and Linning 2012;Quick et al. 2018), and the variables associated with crime reporting to the police also vary according to crime type (Baumer 2002;Hart and Rennison 2003;Tarling and Morris 2010), we estimate one negative binomial regression model by each of four groups of crime types: ...
Article
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Objectives: Police-recorded crimes are used by police forces to document community differences in crime and design spatially targeted strategies. Nevertheless, crimes known to police are affected by selection biases driven by underreporting. This paper presents a simulation study to analyze if crime statistics aggregated at small spatial scales are affected by larger bias than maps produced for larger geographies. Methods: Based on parameters obtained from the UK Census, we simulate a synthetic population consistent with the characteristics of Manchester. Then, based on parameters derived from the Crime Survey for England and Wales, we simulate crimes suffered by individuals, and their likelihood to be known to police. This allows comparing the difference between all crimes and police-recorded incidents at different scales. Results: Measures of dispersion of the relative difference between all crimes and police-recorded crimes are larger when incidents are aggregated to small geographies. The percentage of crimes unknown to police varies widely across small areas, underestimating crime in certain places while overestimating it in others. Conclusions: Micro-level crime analysis is affected by a larger risk of bias than crimes aggregated at larger scales. These results raise awareness about an important shortcoming of micro-level mapping, and further efforts are needed to improve crime estimates.
... Explanations of crime reporting behavior have traditionally been derived from one of three theories: rational choice (Bowles et al., 2009;Kury et al., 1999;Skogan, 1984), institutional legitimacy theory (Bennett and Wiegand, 1994;Boateng, 2018;Jackson et al., 2012;Kääriäinen and Sirén, 2011;Tankebe, 2013;Tyler and Fagan, 2008;Tyler and Jackson, 2014), and variations on Black's theory of the stratification of law (Baumer, 2002;Bennett and Wiegand, 1994;Black, 1979;Gottfredson and Hindelang, 1979;Goudriaan et al., 2006;Kuo et al., 2012). ...
... Scholars have principally focused on factors related to the incident itself-the type of crime, whether or not violence was used, the relative importance of the crime, and whether or not the perpetrator was known to the victim as factors affecting this cost-benefit calculation. Studies show that crimes are more likely to be reported when perpetrators are unknown to the victim (Felson et al., 2002;Gottfredson and Gottfredson, 1988;Landau, 2006;Spalek, 2006), crimes are more severe or violent (Baumer, 2002;Benavente and Cortés, 2006;Goudriaan et al., 2006;Kääriäinen and Sirén, 2011)-even if weapons were only used as a threat (Baumer and Lauritsen, 2010;Tarling and Morris, 2010), and when individuals expect financial and/or psychological benefits, such as gratification in seeing the perpetrator punished (Tarling and Morris, 2010;Ungar, 2011;Zweig and Yahner, 2013). ...
... Few scholars have relied upon a sociological understanding of the law in explaining citizen-initiated police contact. Those that have (Baumer, 2002;Bennett and Wiegand, 1994;Gottfredson and Hindelang, 1979;Goudriaan et al., 2006;Kuo et al., 2012;Zhang et al., 2007) test theories outlined in Black's Behavior of Law, which argues that social-structural characteristics determine when, how much, and what style of law is used and in what contexts (Black, 1979). In other words, individuals who report crimes do so because of the stratification of law, in which "people of higher rank have more law than those of lower rank" as they "are afforded better protection of the law, have greater access to law, and presumably are more willing to mobilize it" (Avakame et al., 1999: 768). ...
Article
Most empirical studies that examine why individuals report property crimes to the police have focused on Global North countries where crime rates are low. This study is situated in the most violent area of the world, Latin America, and examines Peru, which has the highest robbery victimization rate in the Americas. This article examines the applicability of theories of crime reporting in this Global South context using a large sample and multilevel modeling. We find that trust in the police has no impact on the reporting of the robbery of one’s cellphone, purse or wallet. The theories of rational choice and Black’s stratification of law provide strong explanations for the reporting of robbery of these personal items. Individuals of higher social status and those who reside in districts with low levels of social disadvantage are more likely to report, as well as those who have experienced violent victimization.
... While community trust may increase cooperation with the police (Tyler, 2005), it is apparently not essential for it. As discussed by Baumer (2002), individuals who mistrust the police may still turn to them for help if they lack other viable alternatives for responding to crime and disorder (see also Anderson, 1999;Black, 1976;Kääriäinen & Sirén, 2011;Rosenfeld, Jacobs, & Wright, 2003). ...
... Police presence may be perceived as desirable, unwanted, or neutral by the community. Calls-for-service in the community may occur at a baseline rate consistent with general community attitudes (but see Baumer, 2002). The socially intensive policing process following a homicide may have a neutral effect, build or erode trust, with a corresponding neutral, positive or negative effect on calls-for-service. ...
... The observed patterns in calls-for-service conditioned by the raceethnicity of the homicide victim aligns with research from crime victimization surveys. Numerous studies have shown that African Americans tend to report crime at higher rates than Latino victims, and Latino victims at rates higher than White victims (Bachman, 1998;Baumer, 2002;Felson, Messner, & Hoskin, 1999;Langton et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Calls-for-service represent the most basic form of public cooperation with the police. How cooperation varies as a function of instances of police activity remains an open question. The great situational diversity of police activity in the field, matching the situational diversity of crime and disorder, makes it challenging to estimate causal effects. Here we use homicides as an indicator for the occurrence of a standardized set of highly visible, socially-intensive, acute police investigative activities and examine whether police calls-for-service change in response. We adopt a place-based difference-in-differences approach that controls for local fixed affects and common temporal trends. Estimates of the model using data from Los Angeles in 2019 shows that calls-for-service increase significantly in the week following a homicide. The effect pertains to both violent crime and quality of life calls for service. Partitioning the data by race-ethnicity shows that calls-for-service increase most when the homicide victim is Black. Partitioning the data by race-ethnicity and type of homicide shows that some types of calls are suppressed when the homicide is gang-related. The results point to opportunities for police to build trust in the immediate aftermath of homicides, when the public is reaching out for greater assistance.
... The likelihood that a crime is reported to police has been found to be greater for older victims [3,7,26,49] and when the victim is a woman [4]. It is also greater if a third party is present [4], if a weapon is present or the victim is injured [4,54]. ...
... In other words, while some might expect reporting rates to be lowest in predominantly black communities, this does not appear to be borne out by the data. Furthermore, the degree of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is not consistently associated with the likelihood of crime reporting [3]. An association has been observed for simple assaults, but not for robbery or aggravated assault. ...
... 27,45], and contextual factors such as neighborhood characteristics [e.g. 3,46,55]. While we lack information on victim and crime characteristics in the survey data, we are able to speak to a number of socio-technical implications of our results. ...
Preprint
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Police departments around the world have been experimenting with forms of place-based data-driven proactive policing for over two decades. Modern incarnations of such systems are commonly known as hot spot predictive policing. These systems predict where future crime is likely to concentrate such that police can allocate patrols to these areas and deter crime before it occurs. Previous research on fairness in predictive policing has concentrated on the feedback loops which occur when models are trained on discovered crime data, but has limited implications for models trained on victim crime reporting data. We demonstrate how differential victim crime reporting rates across geographical areas can lead to outcome disparities in common crime hot spot prediction models. Our analysis is based on a simulation patterned after district-level victimization and crime reporting survey data for Bogot\'a, Colombia. Our results suggest that differential crime reporting rates can lead to a displacement of predicted hotspots from high crime but low reporting areas to high or medium crime and high reporting areas. This may lead to misallocations both in the form of over-policing and under-policing.
... A large body of evidence demonstrates that incident-and individual-level characteristics consistently shape decisions to report crime victimization to the police (Baumer and Lauritsen 2010;Felson et al. 2002;Gottfredson and Hindelang 1979;Skogan 1984;Xie and Baumer 2019a). Fewer studies directly assess how socio-environmental conditions structure crime-reporting behavior (but see Baumer 2002;Desmond et al. 2016;Gutierrez and Kirk 2017;Xie and Baumer 2019a), which has led to calls for greater attention to the macro-level contexts within which victimization occurs (Goudriaan and Nieuwbeerta 2007;Xie and Baumer 2019b). We contribute to this line of investigation by demonstrating how social policy contexts can interact with victims' personal characteristics to structure help-seeking behavior. ...
... Black's (1976) theory of law offers greater insights on why and how immigrant community members may or may not mobilize the law by notifying the police about crime victimization experiences, particularly across different immigrant policy contexts. Indeed, Black's (1976) theoretical approach has guided several studies of victims' decisions to call the police (Avakame, Fyfe, and McCoy 1999;Baumer 2002;Copes et al. 2001;Gottfredson and Hindelang 1979;, but it has not yet been explicitly applied to the case of immigrant communities. According to Black (1976:2), "law," broadly defined as "governmental social control," is a quantifiable characteristic of societies that can be captured by a number of measures, including the rate by which victims notify law enforcement that a crime has occurred. ...
... Finally, external environments refer to the characteristics of the broader social contexts within which victimization occurs, including victims' social networks, local community/ neighborhood of residence, or larger macrolevel units such as cities, counties, MSAs, or states. Notwithstanding a few notable studies (Baumer 2002;Desmond et al. 2016;Gutierrez and Kirk 2017;Xie and Baumer 2019b), the external environmental correlates of police notification remain understudied (Xie and Baumer 2019a). ...
Article
Sanctuary jurisdictions have existed in the United States since the 1980s. They have recently reentered U.S. politics and engendered contentious debates regarding their legality and influence on public safety. Critics argue that sanctuary jurisdictions create conditions that threaten local communities by impeding federal immigration enforcement efforts. Proponents maintain that the policies improve public safety by fostering institutional trust among immigrant communities and by increasing the willingness of immigrant community members to notify the police after they are victimized. In this study, we situate expectations from the immigrant sanctuary literature within a multilevel, contextualized help-seeking framework to assess how crime-reporting behavior varies across immigrant sanctuary contexts. We find that Latinos are more likely to report violent crime victimization to law enforcement after sanctuary policies have been adopted within their metropolitan areas of residence. We argue that social policy contexts can shift the nature of help-seeking experiences and eliminate barriers that undermine crime victims’ willingness to mobilize the law. Overall, this study highlights the unique role social policy contexts can serve in structuring victims’ help-seeking decisions.
... As a general matter, urban residents and individuals of low socio-economic status may be especially likely to call the police when they have been crime victims (Avakame et al. 1999;Baumer 2002). It is possible that low socio-economic status crime victims rely on the police because they lack alternatives that may be available to wealthier people such as private security or family members who can intervene. ...
... Prior literature has suggested that distrust of the police may render citizens less willing to seek police assistance (Bennett 2004;Baumer 2002;Desmond et al. 2016). Thus, willingness to seek police assistance provides, albeit indirectly, some measure of public trust in the police. ...
Article
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Objectives Examine whether a death-in-police-custody incident affected community reliance on the police, as measured through citizen calls requesting police assistance for non-criminal caretaking matters. Methods This study used Baltimore Police Department (BPD) incident-level call data (2014–2017) concerning non-criminal caretaking matters (N = 234,781). Counts of non-criminal caretaking calls were aggregated by week for each of 279 unique sections derived from census-tract and police district boundaries. This study devised a Negative Community–Police Relationship Index Score that operationalized the expected risk of a negative community–police relationship for each of the sections. In April 2015, a Baltimore resident, Freddie Gray, died while in BPD custody. A Poisson regression model assessed whether this high-profile death-in-police-custody incident adversely affected the volume of non-criminal caretaking calls to the police and whether that effect was strongest in sections at a high risk of a negative community–police relationship. A falsification test used pocket-dialed emergency calls to verify that any observed trends were not the result of overall telephone usage. Results There was no statistical evidence that the death-in-police-custody incident produced any changes in community reliance on the police for non-criminal caretaking matters, even in high-risk sections. A supplemental analysis using calls for criminal matters yielded similar results. As the falsification test demonstrated, the observed trends were not the result of overall telephone usage. Conclusions Despite a divisive death-in-police-custody incident, citizens were still willing to enlist police assistance. More broadly, the caretaking role of the police may be an important mechanism to strengthen community–police relations, particularly in marginalized neighborhoods vulnerable to strained community–police relations.
... When people withhold such information, the actual extent of offending is masked (i.e., the dark figure of crime increases), which impedes optimal allocation of police resources. Most research on mobilization is quantitative and focuses on victims' characteristics, their relationship to offenders, or differences across countries (Avakame et al. 1999;Baumer 2002;Felson et al. 1999Felson et al. , 2002Goudriaan et al. 2004). Research less often looks at rationality through a qualitative lens. ...
... Tied to that, most anyone will consider whether the police are unwilling or unable to pursue the matter and accordingly adjust the utility of involving them. Relevant evaluations in that regard are the crime's seriousness and a victim's self-blaming (Baumer 2002;Gottfredson and Hindelang 1979;Goudriaan et al. 2004). ...
Article
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Police mobilization is a first step in the judicial process and an important source of information on offending. Whether victims mobilize police is affected by their assessment of its utility. Victims who are criminals, such as drug dealers, are known to face a different cost-benefit scenario than law-abiding persons. Dutch ‘coffeeshops’ are a unique type of dealer. They operate in a grey area, allowed by the government to sell a prohibited drug, cannabis, so long as they comply with a set of regulations. Little is known about their mobilization of police in response to victimization, including how it is affected by the rules governing their business. We explore this issue with qualitative data collected from personnel of 50 coffeeshops in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We analyze how they think about the potential benefits and costs of asking the police for help post victimization. In many ways, their thought process is similar to that of most any victim, but they also consider the potential negative ramifications of inviting police to their door. We conclude by discussing the implications for future research, regulation and drug control broadly, and coffeeshops specifically.
... Günümüzde şiddeti suç sayan daha fazla yasalar kabul edilip yürürlüğe girmesine rağmen, daha önce yapılmış çalışmalara göre, hala gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerde bireyler maruz kaldığı tüm şiddetin yalnızca küçük bir yüzdesini polise ve diğer yasal kurumlara bildirmektedirler (Akers & Kaukinen, 2009;Baumer, 2002). Örneğin, 2000 yılında ABD Ulusal Suç Mağduriyeti Araştırması'nda ortaya çıkan 6 milyonu aşkın şiddet suçunun sadece %48'i polise bildirilmiştir (Baumer, 2002;Rennison, 2001). ...
... Günümüzde şiddeti suç sayan daha fazla yasalar kabul edilip yürürlüğe girmesine rağmen, daha önce yapılmış çalışmalara göre, hala gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerde bireyler maruz kaldığı tüm şiddetin yalnızca küçük bir yüzdesini polise ve diğer yasal kurumlara bildirmektedirler (Akers & Kaukinen, 2009;Baumer, 2002). Örneğin, 2000 yılında ABD Ulusal Suç Mağduriyeti Araştırması'nda ortaya çıkan 6 milyonu aşkın şiddet suçunun sadece %48'i polise bildirilmiştir (Baumer, 2002;Rennison, 2001). Buna paralel olarak yakın eş şiddeti normal olarak kabul edildiğinde rapor edilen mağduriyet sayısı da azalmaktadır (Wilke & Vinton, 2005). ...
Chapter
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Dijital oyunun sosyolojik bir olgu olarak ele alındığı çalışma, dijital oyun kavramı, dijital oyun ve postmodernizm ilişkisi, dijital oyun ve postmodernizm ilişkisi başlıkları altında kavramsallaştırılmıştır.
... Negative perceptions of the police make it harder for officers to engage with community members for the co-production of public safety. For example, Black individuals who perceive the police as unfair are more suspicious of police interactions with other Black residents (Hurwitz & Peffley, 2005) and thus may be less willing to ask the police for help for themselves or others (Baumer, 2002). Therefore, mending police-community relationships requires a detailed understanding of what influences perceptions of police fairness and how this can, in turn, influence the willingness to contact police for help. ...
... Similarly, research finds that the factors influencing the willingness to contact the police for help include demographic characteristics (Baumer, 2002;Bennett & Wiegand, 1994) and personal or vicarious prior experiences with the police (Brunson, 2007;Rosenbaum et al., 2005). Furthermore, perceptions of police fairness likely play some role in the willingness to call police for help. ...
Article
Police leaders strive to improve interactions and practices relating to residents’ perceptions of police fairness and their willingness to report crimes. Research suggests that strengthening community perceptions of police fairness may increase residents’ willingness to contact the police for help. This study uses a nationally representative public opinion survey to examine the factors that influence perceptions of police fairness and the willingness to call police for help. In doing so, we examine a variety of demographic factors, prior experiences with the police, and perceptions about whether the local police agency is racially representative of the community. We find that very few factors influence both perceptions of police fairness and the willingness to call police for help. Specifically, perceptions of police fairness depend on age, education, and political leanings, whereas willingness to call police for help depends on perceptions of police fairness, political leanings, perceptions of police representativeness, and prior proactive police contact. Notably, we found no differences in perceptions of fairness based on respondent race after controlling for other demographics, perceptions, and experiences. These results indicate that symbolic representation in police departments is not enough on its own to support positive perceptions of police fairness and willingness to call the police for help.
... However, there is good reason to anticipate that it will not hold when measurement error in police recorded crime is considered. For example, there is abundant research pointing at individual characteristics associated with victims' willingness to report an incident to the police, with reporting rates differing systematically based on victims' sex (females report more often than males) but also based on victims' age, ethnicity and income (Baumer, 2002;Hart & Rennison, 2003). This is consistent across various countries and across time. ...
... Prior research has identified moderate associations between reporting rates and variables commonly considered as either causes or consequences of crime, suggesting that the assumption of non-differentiality (e.g., no association between the measurement error and key predictors of interest) is unlikely to hold in many instances. Above we highlighted how crime reporting rates differ systematically based on victims' sex, age, ethnicity and income (Baumer, 2002;Hart & Rennison, 2003), but determining plausible values for a specific study is not always straightforward. One approach would be to use victim survey data to estimate the correlations between reporting and key explanatory variables of interest. ...
Preprint
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It has been long known that police recorded crime data is susceptible to substantial measurement error. However, despite its limitations, police data is widely used in regression models exploring the causes and effects of crime. Furthermore, because of the complex error mechanisms affecting police data, attempts to adjust for their impact are rare and tailored to specific settings (crime types, measurement models, outcome models, and precursors or consequences of crime). Here we introduce rcme: Recounting Crime with Measurement error, a new R package to enable sensitivity assessments of the impact of measurement error in analyses using police recorded crime rates across a wide range of settings. Using two real world examples – i) the link from violent crime to disorder, and ii) the role of collective efficacy in mitigating criminal damage – we demonstrate how rcme can be used to summarise the impacts of measurement error in empirical models used in research and practice.
... However, there have been discrepancies in the data concerning age and crime reporting. For example, while Acierno et al. (2001) and Heath et al. (2013) found that older persons are less likely to report a crime to the police, Baumer (2002) and Watkins (2005) found that adults are more likely to report a crime than children. According to these experts, most of the crimes suffered by adolescents are less likely to be reported to the police. ...
... Affirming the findings of Boateng (2018), Baumer (2002), and Watkins (2005), the current study has found that grownups have the higher tendency of reporting the incident of crime to the police as compared to the younger ones. This could be that the older people, unlike younger ones, are more likely to have accumulated more wealth and mostly be target of robbery. ...
... Finally, it is possible that the ANROC measure appears to be less impactful in disorganized environments because the dependent variable of gun-involved crime is drawn from official police report data. Prior research suggests that reporting of offenses varies across neighborhoods with elements of social disorganization being negatively associated with police notification and the intent to report (Baumer, 2002;Goudriaan, Wittebrood, & Nieuwbeerta, 2006;Slocum, Taylor, Brick, & Esbensen, 2010), possibly as a result of elevated levels of distrust and legal cynicism in disorganized neighborhoods (Hagan, McCarthy, Herda, & Chandrasekher, 2018;Soller, Jackson, & Coleman, 2017). To the extent that structural disadvantage and racial heterogeneity are systematically associated with an attenuation in the likelihood that gun-related offenses will be reported to the police, we would expect that the predictive utility of the ANROC measure would be reduced in such neighborhoods. ...
Article
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Amidst the more than 38,000 firearm related deaths in the United States annually, academic researchers, policy makers, and the general public often lack a basic understanding as to how elements of the physical environment work alongside socio-demographic characteristics of neighborhoods to influence the occurrence, prevalence, and spatial patterns in gun crime. Drawing on criminal justice, public health, and business databases in 2015-2018, we examine whether, and how, aggregate risk from the physical/built environment works independently and in conjunction with socio-structural features of neighborhoods to predict gun-related criminal incidents. Our results suggest: (1) a neighborhood-level measure of risk based on elements of the physical or built environment is associated with exacerbated levels of neighborhood gun crime; (2) racial heterogeneity/diversity and the concentration of disadvantage increase the risk of gun crime, as well; (3) both racial diversity and concentrated disadvantage condition the impact of the neighborhood built environment such that risk associated with the physical landscape is more strongly associated with gun crimes in racially homogenous and more affluent locales; and (4) the influence of the physical environment on risk of gun-involved criminal incidents is non-linear with a positive yet decelerating slope. Implications for gun violence stakeholders and the further development of research on neighborhood-level measures of risk from the physical built environment are discussed.
... Model stratification by race and ethnicity, while addressing violations of positivity caused by the outsize burden of police-reported crime exposure among Black and Latinx Americans, adds an additional layer of complexity to public health research utilizing reported crime data: the question of what exposure, exactly, policereported crime actually measures. While police-reported crime may be statistically correlated with true rates of crime (particularly for more serious violent offenses such as robbery, aggravated assault, and homicide) [41], it is also, by definition, highly correlated with police presence in a neighborhood or area. Due to the long and ongoing history of punitive policing in Black, Latinx, and other minority communities in the United States [25], policereported crime exposure represents a distinct set of psychosocial and physical stressors in a neighborhood based on the neighborhood's ethnoracial composition. ...
Article
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Background Police-reported crime data (hereafter “crime”) is routinely used as a psychosocial stressor in public health research, yet few studies have jointly examined (a) differences in crime exposure based on participant race and ethnicity, (b) differences in measures of crime exposure, and (c) considerations for how exposure to police is captured in police-recorded crime data. We estimate neighborhood exposure to crime and discuss the implications of structural differences in exposure to crime and police based on race and ethnicity. Methods Using GPS coordinates from 1188 participants in the Newborn Epigenetics Study, we estimated gestational exposure to crime provided by the Durham, North Carolina, Police Department within (a) 800 m and (b) the Census block group of residence. We controlled for non-overlapping spatial boundaries in crime, Census, residential, and police data to report crime spatial (crime per km ² ) and population (crime per 1000 people per km ² ) density. Results We demonstrate dramatic disparities in exposure to crime based on participant race and ethnicity and highlight variability in these disparities based on the type of crime and crime measurement method chosen. Conclusions Public health researchers should give thoughtful consideration when using police-reported crime data to measure and model exposure to crime in the United States, as police-reported data encompasses joint exposure to police and crime in the neighborhood setting.
... As a general approach to examine the above effects, five research hypotheses were developed. consistent with prior research (baumer, 2002;frank et al., 2005;Goudriaan, Wittebrood, & Nieuwbeerta, 2006;Skogan, 1996), the results of this study show that if we want citizens to display more favorable attitudes toward the police, it is suggestive that the police be respectful, be polite, and control their tendency to use force against citizens since police behavior in this study was one of the strongest predictors, and an influential variable of citizens' attitudes toward the police. ...
Article
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The purpose of this research article is to determine the extent to which police behavior affects citizens’ attitudes toward the police. Additionally, this study attempts to determine whether or not citizen interaction with the police and citizens’ demographic characteristics have a significant effect on attitudes toward the police – after introducing police behavior into the model. The findings of this research study are based on the analyses of the data collected through a self-administered survey questionnaire distributed to 304 undergraduate students as part of a larger study on crime-reporting behavior. The ordinary least square regression analyses suggest that police behavior is the strongest determinant of citizens’ attitudes toward the police, followed by citizens’ demographic characteristics.
... Finally, we acknowledge that official crime data are not absent of measurement error given that not all crime incidents are reported by civilians and not all are recorded by law enforcement. However, we have no reason to suspect that using official crime data is any less valid than employing alternative strategies for measuring crime (Baumer 2002). ...
Article
The current study examines seasonality by modelling crime in small spatial units while accounting for numerous land uses (e.g. hotel, store, school and industrial) and sociodemographic characteristics. We estimate logistic regression models that predict the probability of a crime occurring in our sample of blocks in Orlando, FL over the 52 weeks of the year (i.e. block-weeks). In addition, we examined interaction terms between each land use measure and a set of measures for weeks of the year to assess seasonal effects on neighbourhood crime. Our findings reveal a (nonlinear) seasonal effect in which the risk of neighborhood crime peaks during the summer weeks and the effect of certain land uses systematically varies across weeks of the year.
... Researchers have documented variation in crime reporting patterns over space and time; the results are mixed and vary by crime type, but there is emerging evidence to suggest that individuals living in areas with high levels of concentrated disadvantage ß 2020 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences CONTACT Beth M. Huebner huebnerb@umsl.edu are less likely to call the police (Baumer, 2002;Baumer & Lauritsen, 2010). The mechanisms underlying the decision to report a crime are less understood, but research suggests that residents may be reluctant to call on police because they do not trust the police response or feel that the criminal justice system is inadequate to address public safety needs (Kirk & Matsuda, 2011;Sampson, 2012;Weitzer & Tuch, 2002). ...
Article
Many crimes go unreported, making the true scope of crime unknown, and criminal justice reform based on potentially limited data. An acoustic gunfire detection system (AGDS) broadens the data available and provides a unique picture of gun use and violence in communities, separate from crime reported by victims. Using data from an AGDS in the City of St. Louis, this study models variation in community rates of calls to the police for gunshots detected. The results provide new insights into the prevalence of gunfire in a high crime community. We find that community residents are more likely to call the police when the incident was a homicide, and communities with a higher proportion of Black residents are less likely to call 911, net of community disadvantage and violent crime. Policies that encourage community building and improved access to the police and technology are discussed.
... Recently, Pina-Sánchez et al. (2021) have demonstrated that both the random noise and the systematic underrecording observed in police data are corrected when crime rates are specified using a logtransformation such as the negative binomial models employed here. However, reporting rates can also vary systematically across areas, with deprivation identified as a factor leading to further under-reporting of crime (Baumer, 2002;. Should this be the case, the estimates we generate here with respect to the effect of deprivation are likely to be underestimates; with the 'true' impact of deprivation on violence in fact likely to be larger than what was reported here. ...
Article
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It is well known that both deprivation and alcohol availability are associated with violent crime. However, less is known about whether the former moderate the latter. Pioneering the linkage of novel alcohol availability measures derived from consumer data with police data and an index of deprivation, we examine inequalities in violent crime across small level geography (LSOAs) for the whole of England. Our findings confirmed a recent upward trend in recorded violent crime in England between 2011 and 2018 and substantial between area variability in recorded violent crime, as well as an increase in violent crime inequality across LSOAs during the period of analysis. Violent crime was higher in areas with increased deprivation and alcohol availability, especially in the form of on-licensed premises. On-licence availability, in the form of pubs, bars and nightclubs explained variability in recorded violent crime more so when compared with off-licence availability. A positive interaction effect between alcohol availability (in the form of on-licensed premises) and deprivation, showed how deprivation amplified the impact of alcohol availability; with more deprived areas having a stronger impact of on-licence availability on violent crime. Deprivation is thus an important contextual factor when considering rates and the social ecology of violence. Our findings suggest a need to respond to the disproportionate impact of violence on areas with higher levels of deprivation and availability of on-licensed premises.
... Police do not know about all crime, in the UK it is estimated that only around 40% of crime is reported to the police (Tarling and Morris, 2010). The single biggest factor for reporting crime is the seriousness of the offence and in other research (Baumer, 2002) the level of disadvantage in a neighbourhood has correlated with lower reporting rates. This lack of coverage could lead to biases in areas where reporting of crime to the police is lower than in other areas (similar problems already exist when analysing structured police data). ...
... However, this result could maybe be explained when looking at who reports to the police. As put forth in prior research (e.g., Baumer 2002 ;Goudriaan, Wittebrood, and Nieuwbeerta 2006 ), the more disadvantaged the neighbourhood, the lower the chances of reporting. Residents of wealthier areas would then be more prone to call the police. ...
Article
Despite extensive research, measurable benefits of predictive policing are scarce. We argue that powerful models might not always help the work of officers. Furthermore, developed models are often unexplainable, leading to trust issues between police intuition and machine-made prediction. We use a joint approach, mixing criminology and data science knowledge, to design an explainable predictive policing model. The proposed model (a set of explainable decision trees) can predict police resource requirement across the city and explain this prediction based on human-understandable cues (i.e., past event information, weather, and socio-demographic information). The explainable decision tree is then compared to a non-explainable model (i.e., a neural network) to compare performance. Analyzing the decision tree behaviour revealed multiple relations with established criminology knowledge. Weather and recent event distribution were found to be the most useful predictors of police workforce resource. Despite wide research showing relationships between socio-demographic information and police activity, socio-demographic information did not contribute much to the model’s performance. Though there is a lack of research on measurable effects of predictive policing applications, we argue that combining human instinct with machine prediction reduces risks of human knowledge loss, machine bias, and lack of confidence in the system.
... The impact of victimization is relevant because a number of studies have shown that the financial or physical severity of the crime is positively related to reporting levels (Baumer, 2002;Baumer and Lauritsen, 2010;Bowles et al., 2009;Copes et al., 2001;Isenring et al., 2016;Tarling and Morris, 2010). In fact, some authors have found the severity of the crime to be the strongest predictor of whether or not a victim reports (Goudriaan et al., 2006;Gutierrez and Kirk, 2017;Robert et al., 2010). ...
Article
Fraud has been identified as one of the most prevalent property crimes in the Internet era and underreporting represents one of the most pressing challenges to prevention and policing. Like fraud itself, the issue is not new and therefore traditional findings and approaches designed to foster reporting may also be applicable to online fraud. This study performs a series of regression models to analyse data on fraud victims from two editions of the representative Catalan Public Security Survey. The aim is to identify and compare socio-demographic, context and crime event determinants of online and offline fraud reporting, as well as the reasons for not reporting. Thus, the article contributes to the literature regarding cybercrime and traditional crime a/symmetries. The findings show that, surprisingly, online fraud is reported at a higher rate than offline fraud, mainly owing to the greater odds of being considered a crime by the victim. In general, fraud reporting appears to involve a rational component because financial and non-financial harms and the expected utility of reporting are more relevant to the decision than socio-demographic factors. In addition, the most common reasons for not reporting refer to the opportunity costs of doing so. The demographic predictors of online reporters show only slight differences from their offline counterparts, but more associations are found regarding the reasons for not reporting. Finally, the implications for policy are discussed.
... Of course, these data also are subject to the issues of official police data with not all crimes being reported or recorded (Lynch and Addington 2007;MacDonald 2001). Yet, Baumer (2002) noted that these reporting practices are not related systematically to neighborhood characteristics, therefore suggesting that the coefficients are unbiased. We also do not focus on rape or sexual assault given wellknown issues with this crime type. ...
Article
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Objectives Over the last 40 years, considerable changes have occurred in both education and crime, and in this study, we examine the longer-term consequences of education for violence in communities. We argue that the impact of education on crime depends on the temporal and spatial context of educational levels. Specifically, we focus on whether the type of educational attainment matters and the broader historical context. We also examine whether these patterns are robust for different regions of the city and racial/ethnic compositions of neighborhoods.Methods Using longitudinal neighborhood data over 40 years in St. Louis, Missouri, we test whether education has consequences for violent crime with a series of two-way fixed effects models.ResultsNeighborhoods with more college degrees in more recent time periods are generally associated with reductions in violent crime, especially in the white, southern region of the city. In contrast, neighborhoods with greater reliance on high school degrees were associated with violence reduction in the past, especially in the Black, northern part of the city, but the relationship no longer holds in the modern era. Both time and place therefore matter for education’s association with crime in neighborhoods.Conclusion The findings provide evidence that educational attainment has important consequences for neighborhood crime, but this relationship depends on the kind of education, historical temporal period, and region of the city. Overall, communities with more college degrees are consistently associated with reductions in violence in more recent decades.
... Further, as prior work has indicated racial/ethnic differences in reporting victimization (e.g., Baumer, 2002), future research should examine the impact that the pandemic has had on the likelihood and/or willingness to report crimes in general, and DV-related victimization specifically, in addition to the work that has been accumulating on incidents of arrest. Again, however, crime reporting work indicates Black victims are less likely to report to the police, meaning reporting by the victims may not be a viable explanation of our findings (though data limitations prohibit ruling out calls from neighbors and the race/ethnicity of those neighbors). ...
Article
The current study castssome of the first light into the initial impacts of the largest global health crisis in a generation on family and domestic violence, the long-term repercussions of which may take decades to unpack. Statewide trends in juvenile arrests for domestic violence (DV)-related offending are examined, taking into account school closures for in-person learning in March 2020 and the subsequent mandate for an in-person learning option in Florida in August 2020. Additionally, trends by sex, race/ethnicity, and severity of the offense are examined. Contrasting with growing studies demonstrating an increase in DV-related arrests among adults, we find a significant decrease upon school closures then subsequent increase when schools reopened with an in-person option. Results held across examined subgroups, yet the extent of increase following mandatory in-person learning availability was not as uniform, with Hispanic youth showing the smallest increase and Black youth the largest. Implications are discussed.
... Algunos estudios han encontrado que, a mayor edad de la víctima, mayor es la probabilidad de buscar ayuda. Las víctimas con mayor edad son las que más reportan su victimización (Baumer, 2002;Rennison, 2007;Skogan, 1984). De acuerdo con Paul (2016), esto obedecería a que la madurez de las víctimas influye en que busquen algún tipo de ayuda. ...
Chapter
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El capítulo se plantea dos preguntas de investigación: (i) ¿qué factores determinan que una víctima busque ayuda? y (ii) ¿qué factores influyen en que una víctima denuncie ante la Policía, busque apoyo familiar o amigos, o recurra a ambas opciones? Para ello, se emplea información de la Endes sobre mujeres que sufrieron violencia física o sexual de parte ¿Por qué las mujeres víctimas de violencia de pareja en el Perú no buscan ayuda? de su pareja o compañero y se analizan estos datos a la luz de la teoría propuesta por Liang, Goodman, Tummala-narra y Weintraub (2005).
... When individuals do not view the state as legitimate or effective in controlling crime, and when distributive justice is flouted and laws are not applied consistently across groups, citizens are less likely to fear sanctions, less likely to obey the law, and more likely to handle disputes themselves through retaliatory violence (Anderson, 1999;Black, 1983;Hobbes, 1668;Leovy, 2015;Tankebe, 2009;Tyler, 2006;Tyler & Fagan, 2008;Weber, 1919). Poor treatment of victims lowers the likelihood of invoking the criminal justice system in the future and cooperating during investigations, perpetuating cycles of neglect (Baumer, 2002;Clampet-Lundquist et al., 2015;Gau & Brunson, 2010;Hart & Rennison, 2003;Hipple et al., 2019;Kaiser et al., 2017). There may also be macro-level effects of victim neglect. ...
... Tyler 2004). Moreover, legal cynicism, or the perception of agents as unresponsive or ill-equipped, significantly reduces reporting likelihood (Baumer 2002;Desmond et al. 2016). As such, when taken together, these results suggest that hate crime victims in the United Kingdom may have significantly more trust in the police than victims in the United States and that they may be more likely to view the police as procedurally just and legitimate (Tankebe 2013). ...
Article
Hate is a global phenomenon as evidenced by recent increases in hate crimes in both the United States and the United Kingdom; unfortunately, these crimes are also substantially underreported in both nations. Following this, this research presents an examination of racially motivated hate crimes and victim reporting to the police in both nations using data from the National Crime Victimization Survey and the Crime Survey of England and Wales from 2003 to 2015. Results indicate that, overall, victim reporting has been increasing in the United Kingdom and decreasing in the United States. Disaggregating by victim and offender race, however, reveals divergent trends such that anti-black hate crime victim reporting is increasing in the United States and decreasing in the United Kingdom. Policy and research implications are discussed.
... The dependent variables are the number of violent (aggravated assault and robbery) and property (burglary, motor vehicle theft, and larceny) crime incidents. We chose these five crime types because they are Part 1 UCR (Uniform Crime Reports) crime types that are considered to be serious crimes with relatively fewer reporting issues (Baumer 2002) than other crimes such as drug offenses, disorderly conduct, etc. Although we do not anticipate any differences in the effects of our boundary measures across these five crime types, testing across these types of crime assesses the generality of the boundary measures. ...
Article
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Objectives Although previous studies have theorized the importance of physical and social boundaries (edges) in understanding crime in place, the relationship between edges and the level of crime has been less studied empirically. The current study examines the effects of physical and social boundaries on crime in street segments. Methods To empirically measure boundaries, we introduce an approach of looking at the differences of land use (physical boundary), socioeconomic status, or racial composition (social boundaries) on both sides of a street segment. We estimated a series of negative binomial regression models in which measures of the physical and social boundaries are included while controlling for the effects of structural characteristic and the conventional physical boundary measures of highways, parks, and rivers. Results We observed that there are positive relationships between all three of these boundary measures and violent and property crimes. The results indicated that physical and social boundaries are important to consider in understanding the spatial patterns of crime. Moreover, the current study confirmed the moderating effects between social and physical boundaries. Conclusions Our results indicate that although much empirical research focuses solely on physical boundaries, our measures of social and physical boundaries have important consequences for the spatial location of crime, and therefore are worthy of further research.
Article
Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization data. Using calls-for-service (CFS) data from a Pacific Northwest city, this study assesses the degree to which neighborhood block groups (N = 164) vary in incidents reported to police overall and subsequent to the elimination of a major nonemergency-reporting mechanism. Two hypotheses are assessed: First, CFS rates will vary inversely with neighborhood disadvantage, net of the effect of objective levels of crime and other control variables; second, CFS originating in affluent neighborhoods will exhibit greater year-to-year decreases relative to disadvantaged neighborhoods following reduction of local reporting services in 2004. Findings from spatial analyses indicate that residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods tend to rely on police for assistance as much as, if not more than, people elsewhere.
Article
High-profile cases of police violence—disproportionately experienced by black men—may present a serious threat to public safety if they lower citizen crime reporting. Using an interrupted time series design, this study analyzes how one of Milwaukee’s most publicized cases of police violence against an unarmed black man, the beating of Frank Jude, affected police-related 911 calls. Controlling for crime, prior call patterns, and several neighborhood characteristics, we find that residents of Milwaukee’s neighborhoods, especially residents of black neighborhoods, were far less likely to report crime after Jude’s beating was broadcast. The effect lasted for over a year and resulted in a total net loss of approximately 22,200 calls for service. Other local and national cases of police violence against unarmed black men also had a significant impact on citizen crime reporting in Milwaukee. Police misconduct can powerfully suppress one of the most basic forms of civic engagement: calling 911 for matters of personal and public safety.
Article
Research findings show that legal cynicism—a cultural frame in which skepticism about laws, the legal system, and police is expressed—is important in understanding neighborhood variation in engagement with the police, particularly in racially isolated African American communities. We argue that legal cynicism is also useful for understanding neighborhood variation in complaints about police misconduct. Using data on complaints filed in Chicago between 2012 and 2014, we show that grievances disproportionately came from racially segregated neighborhoods and that a measure of legal cynicism from the mid‐1990s predicts complaints about abuse of police power two decades later. The association between legal cynicism and complaints is net of prior complaints, reported crime, imprisonment, and other structural factors that contribute to the frequency and nature of interactions involving police and residents. Legal cynicism also mediates the influence of racially isolated neighborhoods on complaints. The mid‐1990s is the approximate midpoint of a half‐century of police scandals in Chicago. Our research findings suggest that contemporary complaints about police misconduct in highly segregated Chicago neighborhoods are grounded in collectively shared historical memories of police malfeasance. They also suggest that persistent complaints about police misconduct may represent officially memorialized expressions of enduring racial protest against police abuse of power.
Article
This article sets forth four modalities of the relationship between members of marginalized communities and the criminal justice system: subordination, consumption, resistance, and transformation . These modalities attempt to break out of traditional ways of thinking about community members’ formal roles in the system—defendants, witnesses, victims, judges, prosecutors, police officers, correctional officers, and the indeterminate but oft-invoked “community.” Instead, these modalities are fluid and situational. This article also calls for new research, scholarship, and advocacy that takes seriously how members of communities that the criminal legal system most deeply and directly affects engage in these fluid and situational modalities. Attention to the complexity of “community” is essential to creating lasting change in social systems of blame and punishment.
Article
Extant research has provided support for the micro‐level predictions of rational choice models of crime. Yet, a central feature of the rational choice perspective in the broader social sciences—that it is multilevel in focus, situating individuals within broader community social structures—has been neglected within criminology. In this article, we discuss and test a model that links community structural characteristics to several individual expectations and preferences relevant to crime. Using data from the Pathways to Desistance study, we find that objective levels of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage influence individuals’ perceptions of, and preferences for, the risks, costs, and rewards associated with offending indirectly by affecting perceived disorder and perceived opportunities for legitimate avenues of success within one's neighborhood. The implications of a multilevel rational choice model of offending are discussed.
Article
While some research suggests perceptions of social cohesion and confidence in police effectiveness influence reporting decisions among victims of crime, no study has examined whether these influences predict reporting among third parties. This paper investigates reporting behaviors of third parties using survey data from Kentucky. Results indicate higher perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion are associated with a decreased likelihood of third-party crime reporting, but that confidence in police effectiveness is a non-significant predictor. These relationships stand partially in contrast to findings from the victim reporting literature, which has shown a positive relationship between perceptions of social cohesion and reporting. These results also challenge the argument that confidence in police effectiveness plays a central role in peoples’ crime reporting decisions.
Article
Our knowledge about crime, and the ability to help victims, is only as good as the information that is shared with us. However, crime reporting is known to be variable, and much research has been done to look at factors that influence the decision to report. Few studies, though, have looked at whether, and how, the country context impacts a victim’s decision to report crime. Using data from the International Crime Victims Survey and available data on corruption, income inequality, development, and democracy, this article explores that relationship for burglary reporting in 35 different countries through multilevel models. The results confirm that there is significant variation among countries in terms of burglary reporting. In addition, models that take into account both micro- and macro-level predictors show that country-level crime prevalence, democracy, corruption, and income inequality significantly predict burglary reporting and provide support for using Freda Adler’s conception of “synnomie” and anomie as a theoretical framework for understanding the crime reporting decision internationally. Future research should continue to examine crime reporting decisions cross-nationally, as this research has shown the importance of sample composition and crime type on findings, and test the influence of macro-level factors, especially relating to “synnomie,” over time.
Article
In the current study, we theorized that businesses in place are subject to two processes: a crime generator effect in which they heighten crime due to increased opportunities and a crime inhibition effect in which certain types of businesses can increase guardianship capability. We explicitly compare the different effects of local vs. non-local and small vs. large businesses on crime in street segments using the data in cities across the Los Angeles metropolitan region by estimating a set of negative binomial regression models for small local, large local, small non-local, and large non-local consumer facing businesses (Retail, Restaurants, Food/Drug Stores, and Services) for violent and property crime. Although we found that most of the business coefficients were positive, local businesses, and particularly small local businesses, have considerably smaller crime-enhancing effects for both violent and property crime.
Article
Few studies have investigated how features of the land surface and the street network affect spatial crime patterns. Accordingly, for the current study, we estimated negative binomial regression models to test for main and moderating effects of elevation, slope, and betweenness on crime across San Francisco street segments. While significant effects were observed for all topography measures assessed, we found that elevation differences in the surrounding ¼ mile (i.e., hilliness) reduces the risk for crime more so than the elevation and slope of the segment itself. In comparison, betweenness based on the street network produced a higher risk for crime. We also determined a conditional effect between elevation differences in the surrounding ¼ mile and betweenness. To supplement the regression analysis, we produce maps that show the predicted values of the different crime outcomes for each segment in our sample, thereby underscoring certain policy and practical implications of our findings.
Article
Anti-Asian hate crimes have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, no research has considered whether crime reporting patterns are different among Asian hate crime victims, relative to other victims. Following this, this research presents an examination of differences in reporting victimization to the police between Asian and non-Asian victims using information from 997 respondents who experienced a hate crime in the first 1 to 2 months of the pandemic. Results indicate that Asian victims are significantly and substantially less likely to report victimization to the police than other victims. Taken together, these results suggest that current estimates of increases in anti-Asian hate crime based on official crime statistics—although high—may actually be an under-estimation of the true extent of the problem.
Article
Sexual assault (SA) decision-making literature primarily focuses on criminal-legal actors and often overlooks victim decision making. This relative dearth in research is problematic, as victims are principal gatekeepers of the criminal-legal process who influence whether perpetrators are arrested and prosecuted. Subsequent victim support is also contingent on the reporting decision. Overall, this body of research would benefit from a better understanding of how victims activate and participate with the criminal-legal system and the potential impact of these decisions on criminal-legal processes. Moreover, victim decision making is often situated in a theoretical analyses. Victim decision making is complex and should be studied within a criminological decision-making framework. Therefore, the current study relies on National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) data and applies a focal concerns perspective (FCP), informed by rape culture concepts, to examine why victims of sexual violence may or may not choose to report to legal authorities. The current study offers initial support for the application of FCP to victim reporting decisions. We found that victims consider each of the focal concerns (FC). Victims were more likely to report when offenders threatened them with harm (i.e., suspect blameworthiness), when the offense occurred in a private location (i.e., protection of the community), and when they sought help from victim support agencies or medical treatment (i.e., practical considerations). Additionally, we found that Black victims were more likely to report than other racial-ethnic groups (i.e., perceptual shorthand). These findings highlight a nexus between reporting to police and help-seeking via support agencies. Importantly, the results emphasize the importance for police to implement cultural competence and antiracist training to better support Black victims.
Article
This paper assesses the relevance of social disorganization and collective efficacy in accounting for neighbourhood inequalities in the exposure to crime. Specifically, it questions the potential of community and voluntary organizations to enhance informal social control and reduce exposure to crime. It utilizes calls-for-service (incident) data for Greater Manchester (UK) and a Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling approach. Contrary to expectations, the research finds that measures of social disorganization (concentrated disadvantage aside) and collective efficacy hold a limited effect on neighbourhood exposure to crime. We discuss the implications of these findings for criminological inquiry and theoretical development, highlighting the necessity of such endeavour to account for the national political-economy and welfare regime of research settings
Article
Mobile phones have evolved to allow individuals to easily access and disclose the private information of others to a seemingly infinite network. Notably, the permanent nature of mobile data has aided its path between individuals and the police, storing integral evidence for criminal investigations in the palms of peoples' hands. Understanding cognitive factors that predict when an individual would choose to report mobile data to the police is integral, particularly in a time of heightened controversy over data access limits and ubiquitous surveillance. This study extends Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) through incorporating the watchful eye effect and the theory of contextual integrity to analyze predictors of intention to share data with the police. The results of a 2 (Situational severity: high or low) x 2 (Surveillance: present or absent) between-subjects factorial vignette methodology (N = 222) revealed that participants behaved independently of feeling watched, but that such sharing can be causally attributed to situational severity. Further, we found PMT variables—including perceived severity, response-efficacy, self-efficacy, and response cost—as well as perception of the police to serve as predictors of intentions to share with the police, with some of these factors mediating the effects of situational severity and surveillance. This study not only provides a theoretical contribution to PMT but also practical recommendations for mobile design that considers surveillance normalization and prioritizes data autonomy.
Article
This study examines the relationships between racial heterogeneity and crime across blocks ( N = 103,168) located in the greater Southern California region. We estimate negative binomial regression models that test for the effects of racial heterogeneity in conjunction with different functional form and spatial scaling considerations. Racial diversity in the block has a crime-reducing effect, whereas racial diversity in the area surrounding the block generally has crime-producing capabilities, although at very high levels of diversity, the effect reverses and becomes crime-reducing. We also illustrate an interaction effect between racial heterogeneity in the block and racial heterogeneity in the surrounding area. The pattern of results provides a nuanced understanding of how the racial composition of an area has consequences for crime.
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This research brief summarizes a study that investigated whether the diverse cultural makeup of many communities requires the criminal justice system to modify its approach, particularly in handling immigrants. The study examined whether immigrant victims have more difficulty than other victims in dealing with the police and courts because of differences in language, expectations, and treatment by officials. Researchers surveyed police chiefs, prosecutors, court administrators, and victims from diverse immigrant neighborhoods. According to the results, many recent immigrants fail to report crimes. Most participants saw this failure to report crimes as a serious problem which allowed criminals to go free and eroded the ability of the criminal justice system to function effectively. Domestic violence was the least reported crime. Sexual assault and gang violence were also underreported. Most incidents described by respondents involved perpetrators from the same ethnic group as the victim. Officials believed that immigrants faced great hardships when reporting crimes to police or appearing in court, including language barriers, cultural differences, and ignorance of the U.S. justice system. Immigrants who reported crimes and appeared in court mostly reported positive experiences. Two sidebars present innovative programs serving immigrant victims and promising findings. (SM)
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The study of decisions in the criminal justice process provides a useful focus for the examination of many fundamental aspects of criminal jus­ tice. These decisions are not always highly visible. They are made, or­ dinarily, within wide areas of discretion. The aims of the decisions are not always clear, and, indeed, the principal objectives of these decisions are often the subject of much debate. Usually they are not guided by explicit decision policies. Often the participants are unable to verbalize the basis for the selection of decision alternatives. Adequate information for the decisions is usually unavailable. Rarely can the decisions be demonstrated to be rational. By a rationaldecision we mean "that decision among those possible for the decisionmaker which, in the light of the information available, maximizes the probability of the achievement of the purpose of the decisionmaker in that specific and particular case" (Wilkins, 1974a: 70; also 1969). This definition, which stems from statistical decision theory, points to three fundamental characteristics of decisions. First, it is as­ sumed that a choice of possible decisions (or, more precisely, of possible alternatives) is available. If only one choice is possible, there is no de­ cision problem, and the question of rationality does not arise. Usually, of course, there will be a choice, even if the alternative is to decide not to decide-a choice that, of course, often has profound consequences.
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Chapter 1 Table of Contents Chapter 2 Preface Chapter 3 1 Basic Issues Chapter 4 2 The Criminal Behavior of Neighborhood Residents Chapter 5 3 Neighborhood Opportunities for Criminal Behavior Chapter 6 4 Neighborhood Dynamics and the Fear of Crime Chapter 7 5 The Neighborhood Context of Gang Behavior Chapter 8 6 Neighborhood-Based Responses to Crime: Policy Issues Chapter 9 Epilogue Chapter 10 Notes Chapter 11 References Chapter 12 Acknowledgments Chapter 13 Index Chapter 14 About the Author
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We advance here a neighborhood-level perspective on racial differences in legal cynicism, dissatisfaction with police, and the tolerance of various forms of deviance. Our basic premise is that structural characteristics of neighbor-hoods explain variations in normative orientations about law, criminal justice, and deviance that are often confounded with the demographic characteristics of individuals. Using a multilevel approach that permits the decomposition of variance within and between neighborhoods, we tested hypotheses on a recently completed study of 8,782 residents of 343 neighborhoods in Chicago. Contrary to received wisdom, we find that African Americans and Latinos are less tolerant of deviance--including violence--than whites. At the same time, neighborhoods of concentrated disadvantage display elevated levels of legal cynicism, dissatisfaction with police, and tolerance of deviance unaccounted for by sociodemographic composition and crime-rate differences. Concentrated disadvantage also helps explain why African Americans are more cynical about law and dissatisfied with the police. Neighborhood context is thus important for resolving the seeming paradox that estrangement from legal norms and agencies of criminal justice, especially by blacks, is compatible with the personal condemnation of deviance.
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Multi-level research has shown that individual and community factors are important predictors of the risk for violent victimization. However, previous analyses have drawn different conclusions about the role of any given factor. These differences likely are related to variations in how violence is measured and to the fact that the data are drawn from different locales. The research presented here uses the 1995 National Crime Victimization Survey and tract-level census data to examine (1) how the risk of violence is distributed across persons and places in the United States and (2) whether empirical findings are sensitive to the operationalization of violence. Results show that some individual-level predictors (e.g., gender and race) are sensitive to the operationalization of violence, whereas others (e.g., age and marital status) are not. In addition, the impact of community characteristics on violence depends on central-city residence. In central cities, persons most at risk are in disadvantaged tracts, with lower proportions of immigrants. Outside central cities, the proportion of immigrants in an area increases risk, while community disadvantage has no independent influence. The importance of an empirical foundation for the development of theories of risk is discussed.
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Since the mid-1960s there has been a great deal of interest around the world in the use of sample surveys of the general population to study crime. The advantages of doing so have been discussed in detail many times (National Research Council, 1976; Biderman, 1967). Crime surveys have been conducted in many nations, a practice that is continuing despite their heavy cost. Large-scale national surveys have been conducted in the United States, the Netherlands, Australia, Great Britain, and Sweden. Smaller but regular national studies have been carried out in the rest of Scandinavia, and there has been a national survey in Spain. There have been large surveys of victimization in individual cities in Germany, Switzerland, and England. Statistics Canada has completed very large studies of seven major cities, including two surveys of Vancouver, and the Israeli Census Bureau has added victimization questions to a national survey. In addition, small but useful city studies have been conducted in Mexico, Colombia, Israel, and Belgium. The four islands that make up the Dutch Antilles also have been surveyed. The findings of these surveys have accumulated to the point where it is possible to perceive cross-national regularities—or clear inconsistencies—in what they reveal.
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Using recently released data from the redesigned National Crime Victimization Survey from 1992 to 1994, this article examines those factors related to the probability of a rape victimization being reported to police and the subsequent probability of an arrest being made. The contextual characteristics examined were the victim-offender relationship, injuries sustained by victims, weapon use by offenders, marital status and age of victim, and location of occurrence. Analyses focused exclusively on one-on-one incidents of rape against adult women perpetrated by males. The only factors that appeared to significantly increase the likelihood of a rape victimization being reported to police was if the victim sustained physical injuries in addition to the rape and if the offender used a weapon. None of the contextual factors were significant in predicting the probability of police making an arrest. Implications for policy and the effectiveness of rape law reforms are discussed.
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Past efforts to conceptualize the effects of welfare on work have failed to consider the full range of incentives and disincentives that low-skill single mothers perceive and act upon when making the choice between welfare and work. They also have neglected the fundamental economic reality of these mothers' lives - neither welfare nor low-wage work gives single mothers enough income to meet their families' expenses. In-depth interviews with 379 low-income single mothers in four U.S. cities show that welfare recipients and low-wage workers employ a set of survival strategies to make ends meet. The range of strategies available to mothers is shaped by the social-structural characteristics of the cities in which they live and by the quality of their private social safety nets. We argue that because some survival strategies are more compatible with work than others, the strategies a mother employs may affect her ability to move from welfare to work. Most welfare recipients want to leave welfare for work. However, most also believe that unless they can lower the costs associated with work or increase their earning power through investments in further education, they will be unable to meet their expenses by working.
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This paper explores the maintenance of tolerance in relationships between community residents and violent gang members. How can parents and other non-gang residents experience their neighborhood as orderly and remain tolerant of violence when approximately five gang members are killed in their community each year? In the Chicano community I studied, gang members are not outsiders but are members of family networks in which they behave appropriately. I show that tolerance varies in degree and may be fragile, but that it is generally maintained through active negotiation between community residents and gang members. Locally, the meaning of gang violence is articulated within the cultural framework of honor which allows residents to understand, if not approve of gang violence. However, I also examine how this precarious negotiated order collapses and intolerance results when violent confrontations disrupt community affairs, such as dances or weddings, or when families become implicated in their sons' violent activities.
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A great deal of criminal activity in America goes unrecorded, largely because it is not reported to the police. This pool of unrecorded crime has several consequences: it limits the deterrent capability of the criminal justice system, it contributes to the misallocation of police resources, it renders victims ineligible for public and private benefits, it affects insurance costs, and it helps shape the police role in society. This report examines these problems in light of new crime-victim data gathered in a national sample of the general population. The data suggest that, compared with those incidents which were reported to the police, the reservoir of unreported crime contains a disproportionate number of less serious incidents involving small financial loss, little serious injury, and less use of weapons. Race, in particular, was unrelated to the reporting of crime in the United States in 1973.
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More than one-third of the robberies reported in the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) involve people who are acquainted with each other in some way. Why do offenders so frequently target someone who can identify them to the police? This issue is explored by comparing acquaintance robberies with the typical robbery involving strangers using NCVS data. The authors find that people who are Black, poor, young, and single are particularly vulnerable to acquaintance robbery. Their vulnerability is attributed to opportunity factors, and for youth, a reluctance to report incidents to the police. Evidence suggests that some acquaintance robberies are expressions of grievances, whereas others involve inside information about what the victim is carrying.
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The social disorganization perspective assumes that social interaction among neighbors is a central element in the control of community crime. Moreover, social interaction among neighbors that occurs frequently, such as every day, is assumed to be most effective. This analysis tests that assumption by exploring the consequences of frequent and infrequent interaction. I construct 10 alternative measures of social interaction and separately examine the effect of each on the rates of three serious crimes across 60 urban neighborhoods. Findings suggest that type of interaction matters. Getting together once a year or more with neighbors has the most consistent and generally strongest effect on burglary, motor vehicle theft, and robbery. Further this form of interaction mediates a significant proportion of the effect of ecological characteristics on community crime. Implications for community crime research are discussed.
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The results of two research literatures, one dealing with criminal sentencing and the other with public ranking of crime seriousness, have raised doubts that conflict exists in American society about issues of criminal justice. This paper offers a different and more direct approach to this issue by analyzing public perceptions of criminal injustice and by assessing the capacity of conflict theory to explain them. Our analysis is based on a national survey, and it focuses on the race, class, and status positions of the respondents, with class position measured in neo-Marxian terms. Three major findings are (i) that black Americans are considerably more likely than white Americans to perceive criminal injustice; (ii) that regardless of race, members of the surplus population are significantly more likely than members of other classes to perceive criminal injustice; and (iii) that class position conditions the relationship of race to the perception of criminal injustice, with the division between the races in these perceptions being most acute in the professional managerial class. These findings constitute substantial evidence that race and class conflict exist with regard to issues of criminal injustice, and that neither kind of conflict can properly be understood without consideration of the other. Implications for Marxist and non-Marxist criminologies are indicated.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Most major population surveys used by social scientists are based on complex sampling designs where sampling units have different probabilities of being selected. Although sampling weights must generally be used to derive unbiased estimates of univariate population characteristics, the decision about their use in regression analysis is more complicated. Where sampling weights are solely a function of independent variables included in the model, unweighted OLS estimates are preferred because they are unbiased, consistent, and have smaller standard errors than weighted OLS estimates. Where sampling weights are a function of the dependent variable (and thus of the error term), we recommend first attempting to respecify the model so that they are solely a function of the independent variables. If this can be accomplished, then unweighted OLS is again preferred. If the model cannot be respecified, then estimation of the model using sampling weights may be appropriate. In this case, however, the formula used by most computer programs for calculating standard errors will be incorrect. We recommend using the White heteroskedastic consistent estimator for the standard errors.
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Previous research demonstrates differences in the processes that generate black and white rates of criminal violence. Analyses of race-specific urban homicide offending rates for 1990 test the hypothesis that racially different effects occur because the crime-generating process itself is conditioned by the social situations of blacks and whites. Results show that when African Americans and whites have similar low levels of concentrated disadvantage, the effects of disadvantage and homeownership are relatively comparable.
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There is consistent evidence from a variety of sources that crime victims' reporting decisions are influenced by others. The present studies extended this prior work by surveying two statewide stratified random samples (ns = 817 and 832). In Study 1, of 148 respondents who said a family member had been a victim of sexual assault, domestic assault, or robbery, only 65% said that they had advised the victims to report the crime, and women were significantly more likely to advise reporting domestic assault than were men. In both Study 1 and Study 2, respondents were asked about the appropriateness of reporting specific crimes to the police. Based on both within-and between-respondent questions, it appears that reporting advice is contingent on several factors: the seriousness of the offense, the gender of the victim, the victim-offender relationship, and the gender of the respondent.
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Bachman (1993) concluded that the prior relationship between the rapist and the victim does not affect the victim's decision to report the crime to the police. The present commentary argues that, for both conceptual and statistical reasons, this conclusion is too strong, although it may simply be premature. Conceptually, the victim-offender relationship is important because it helps both the victim and others define whether or not an action is rape and whether or not reporting the crime to the police would be worthwhile. Statistically, in light of prior findings, Bachman could justifiably have used a one-tailed test of significance. In any case, her results are not significantly different from those of a comparable prior study, which found that the victim-offender relationship was important. Furthermore, Bachman's argument of changing societal standards over time calls for a time-series analysis of victim survey data. A table of reporting percentages for victims of stranger and nonstranger rapists over the past 19 years indicates an increase in reporting of nonstranger rapes over time, although over the entire time period, rapes by strangers were more likely to be reported to the police than were rapes by nonstrangers.
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Introduction Interactions between Qualitative Predictors Interactions between Qualitative and Quantitative/Continuous Predictors Interactions between Quantitative/Continuous Predictors Multicategory Models Additional Considerations
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Why are the social problems of ghettos so bad? This article proposes that ghettos are communities that have experienced epidemics of social problems. One important implication of this theory is that the pattern of neighborhood effects on social problems should be nonlinear in large cities. As neighborhood quality decreases, there should be a sharp increase in the probability that an individual will develop a social problem. The jump should occur somewhere near the bottom of the distribution of neighborhood quality. This hypothesis is tested by analyzing the pattern of neighborhood effects on dropping out and teenage childbearing. The analysis strongly supports the hypothesis, with exceptions for certain subgroups. Even after controlling for individual characteristics, black and white adolescents are exposed to sharp increases in the risk of dropping out and having a child in the worst neighborhoods in large cities.
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Renowned American sociologist William Julius Wilson takes a look at the social transformation of inner city ghettos, offering a sharp evaluation of the convergence of race and poverty. Rejecting both conservative and liberal interpretations of life in the inner city, Wilson offers essential information and a number of solutions to policymakers. The Truly Disadvantaged is a wide-ranging examination, looking at the relationship between race, employment, and education from the 1950s onwards, with surprising and provocative findings. This second edition also includes a new afterword from Wilson himself that brings the book up to date and offers fresh insight into its findings. “ The Truly Disadvantaged should spur critical thinking in many quarters about the causes and possible remedies for inner city poverty. As policymakers grapple with the problems of an enlarged underclass they—as well as community leaders and all concerned Americans of all races—would be advised to examine Mr. Wilson's incisive analysis.”—Robert Greenstein, New York Times Book Review