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Developing the Changes in Attitude about the Relevance of Science (CARS) Questionnaire and assessing two high school science classes

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Abstract

This study has two purposes: (a) methodological—to design and test a new instrument able to reflect changes in attitudes toward science over time, and (b) investigative—to find out the effect of two similar curricular treatments on the attitudes of two classes. Items about the relevance of science to students' lives were developed, pilot-tested, and analyzed using Rasch modeling. We then divided reliable items into three equivalent questionnaire forms. The final three forms of the questionnaire were used to assess high school students' attitudes. Over 18 weeks, one class used a core curriculum (Science and Sustainability) to learn science in the context of making decisions about societal issues. A second class used the same core curriculum, but with parts replaced by computer-based activities (Convince Me) designed to enhance the coherence of students' arguments. Using traditional and Rasch modeling techniques, we assessed the degrees to which such instructional activities promoted students' beliefs that science is relevant to them. Both classes tended to agree more, over time, that science is relevant to their lives, and the increases were statistically equivalent between classes. This study suggests that, by using innovative, issue-based activities, it is possible to enhance students' attitudes about the relevance of science. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 40: 757–775, 2003

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... This article reports on a concurrent mixed-methods research design triangulated with qualitative data transformation (Creswell, Plano Clark, Guttmann, & Hanson, 2003), meaning that the design of our research collected two data sources (one qualitative and one quantitative; mixedmethods), their data were collected at the same time (concurrent), and the qualitative data were used to enrich the findings of the quantitative data (triangulation through transformation). The quantitative measure was a modified attitudinal survey, called Changes in Attitude about the Relevance of Science (CARS), originally designed by Siegel and Ranney (2003). The qualitative measure was collected in the form of two questions administered post-intervention: (a) "Some people think science is important. ...
... To explore differences in group performance on our quantitative attitudinal measure, we conducted a median split of the pre-intervention attitude survey means (these scores were collected using a modified version of the CARS survey; Siegel & Ranney, 2003). This median split data categorization disaggregated students who held lower attitudes toward the relevancy of science before our interventions and those who started perceiving science as being already relevant to them. ...
... To assess the changes in students' appreciation for the role of science in their lives, we implemented a modified version of the CARS survey developed by Siegel and Ranney (2003). We altered the instrument to ensure a fourth grade reading level, which held similar reliability as the previous instruments' reported estimates (Cronbach's α = 0.782). ...
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The development of three‐dimensional learning among all K‐12 student demographics remains a prominent goal for the field of science education. However, substantial research in science teacher education for urban populations showcases hurdles to overcome in order to achieve this goal, particularly for elementary teachers. Research shows that urban elementary teachers are often ill‐prepared to develop a type of science pedagogy responsive to students' learning needs. The fidelity of such pedagogies that these teachers adhere to when trying to implement such a requested content–relationality between these populations and how their local contexts can be used as sites to learn science in relevant ways are often not fully realized, as well. Given that science achievement gaps exhibit racial disparities starting in primary grades and attitudes toward science have been shown to affect academic achievement and motivation, we argue that one way to ameliorate, in at least an incremental way, this disparity is to design novel learning experiences to prime students to see the relevancy of science in their local contexts before such three‐dimensional designed learning is set to occur. In this research, we leveraged the immersive nature of Virtual Reality 360 videos and present a design‐based research iteration testing how this novel technologically enhanced learning experience may have influenced close to 400 urban elementary students' attitudes toward science around those attitudes labeled as “behavioral beliefs” by the field. Using a concurrent, convergent mixed‐methods design with a two‐way multivariate analysis of covariance quantitative data set triangulated with students' qualitative self‐reports that were transformed into quantitative preponderances in graphic form, the data support that our design iteration emphasizing the importance of context as a design focus can prime students who struggle to see science as relevant to change their attitudes. Implications are discussed around relationality, novel technological affordances, and the use of local contexts as learning resources.
... and study 4. Study 1 and study 2 measured stable inter-individual differences in students' value perceptions of science for different contexts on four dimensions. These dimensions included "general value of science", "personal value of science", "topic-related value of science (for environmental issues)", "action-related value of science (for decision-making)" (Frey et al., 2006;Siegel & Ranney, 2003). Study 3 and study 4 measured stable pre-existing differences in individual interest in the topic of energy supply. ...
... As an indication for the effectiveness of the intervention a pre-post self-report survey was employed. The questionnaire survey consisted of selected items from established instruments (Siegel & Ranney, 2003;Frey et al., 2006) and included four different value dimensions of science (general-, personal-, topic-related-, and action-related value of science). The prototype intervention consisted of two consecutive elements, blending a five-lesson direct instruction element with an eight-lesson PBL element. ...
Thesis
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This dissertation investigates motivation in the context of problem-based learning. It seeks to align the agenda of advancing motivational theories with using research to make a difference in classrooms. Specifically, its two major aims are (1) to investigate and improve the motivating potential of problem-based learning (PBL) environments in K-12 settings and (2) to empirically advance interest theory in the context of PBL. The dissertation includes five empirical studies which are guided by a design-based research approach. The approach blends a theory-driven design process of a particular intervention with empirical educational research. For this research, teachers and researchers cooperated in the iterative development of a PBL intervention around the topic of energy supply. Together the studies of the dissertation provide an in-depth analysis of how students' interest and their perception of value emerge and change in relation to the PBL intervention. Data are derived from student self-reports during three implementations of different version of the intervention in K-12 classrooms. The statistical analyses rely on multiple analyses of variance as well as on longitudinal structural equation modeling. Additional qualitative data are analyzed using content analysis. The dissertation comprises three individual manuscripts. In manuscript I a prototype version of the intervention is compared to an improved redesign version in a quasi-experimental study. Pre-post assessment results show that a clear alignment of the intervention design with a standardized PBL model is important for fostering students' appreciation of the value of science. Drawing on interest theory, manuscript II further investigated the individual activities of the redesign version. Results show that students' situational interest to a large extent contains the influence of individual activities. Drawing on an integrated framework of interest theory and self-determination theory, manuscript III further shows that the influence of individual activities on situational interest is mediated by students' satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. Together, the findings cumulated in this dissertation demonstrate the influence of individual PBL activities on student's interest and value. They also highlight the dynamics of motivation-in-context experiences for the motivational frameworks considered. Besides, the research identifies specific affordances of these activities which foster students' interest thereby extending the empirical basis for the motivational design of PBL environments. 3 Acknowledgements I want to thank the following people for playing a great part
... The post-test was completed only days after the final session. The questions were based on selections of existing questionnaires about motivation and attitudes towards science (Siegel, 2003;Rebello, 2011) and the nature of science (Liang, 2009). ...
... Attitudes towards science are difficult to change during short interventions, in our case, five lessons. Even with longer interventions of several months, positive progress remains small (improvements in the order of 10%) on a quantitative scale (Siegel, 2003). However, more promising results are seen concerning the pupils' ability to cope with uncertainty. ...
Chapter
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To improve pupils' motivation for and attitude towards sciences as well as their inquiry skills, we introduced P4C in Flemish science classes using a design-based research paradigm. 12 to 14 year-olds participated in several P4C sessions, focusing on the nature of science and scientific concepts. Based on both qualitative and quantitative research data, landmarks on the conditions of a successful introduction of P4C in the science class were pinned. The quantitative data show an increase in pupils' abilities to cope with uncertainty. The qualitative data suggest that participants show an increase in the ability to ask creative questions and problematize scientific concepts. P4C sessions with a mix of both thinking and scientific experiments appeared most successful. We observed that the use of philosophical dialogues may positively influence the inquiry skills of pupils as long as there is a good classroom atmosphere.
... For the development of this new instrument existing measures were selected for review based on a history of repeated use or modification, evidence of an exemplary characteristic or performance (Blalock et al., 2008), and/or evidence of continued use (e.g., numerous translations; Navarro, Gonz alez, & Gonz alez-Pose, et al., 2016). The instruments analyzed during this process included the Attitudes toward Science Protocol (Wareing, 1982), Attitude toward Science in School Assessment (Germann, 1988), Attitudes Toward Science Inventory-Modified (Weinburgh & Steele, 2000), Changes in Attitude about the Relevance of Science (Siegel & Ranney, 2003), Science Attitude Inventory: Modified (Nagy, 1978), Science Attitude Inventory: Revised (Moore & Hill Foy, 1997), Science Attitude Scale (Misiti, Shrigley, & Hanson, 1991), Science Opinion Survey (Gibson & Chase, 2002), Simpson-Troost Attitude Questionnaire: Revised (Owen et al., 2007), Students' Motivation toward Science Learning Questionnaire (Tuan, Chin, & Shieh, 2005), Test of Science Related Attitudes (Fraser, 1978), and Views about Science Survey (Halloun, 1997(Halloun, , 2001. During this analysis the core TRAPB constructs were used to guide the identification items from extant instruments suitable for an initial pool. ...
... I cannot understand science even if I try hard 0.69 6. I usually give up when I do not understand a science concept Item(s) source: a From Owen et al. (2007).Modifiedfrom Fraser (1978).FromFraser (1978).Modified fromGibson and Chase (2002).Modified fromSiegel and Ranney (2003).Modified fromMoore and Hill Foy (1997).FromTuan, Chin and Shieh (2005). ...
Article
The aim of the present study is to enable future studies into students' attitudes toward science, and related constructs, by developing and validating an instrument suitable for cross-sectional designs. Following a thorough review of the literature it was determined that many extant instruments included design aspects that appeared to be limited in some way. The BRAINS (Behaviors, Related Attitudes, and Intentions toward Science) Survey was designed to address core criticisms that have been leveled against many existing instruments. BRAINS was rooted in a theoretical framework drawn from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRAPB). Initial development involved review by an expert panel, adaptation for online delivery and a pilot on this platform. To establish the psychometric validity of the 59-item instrument it was administered to a representative, random sample of 1,291 Illinois students in grades 5 through 10. Confirmatory factor analysis and subsequent refinement yielded a 30-item instrument with five factors and a good statistical fit including a RMSEA of 0.04 and a CFI of 0.95. The five factors, or constructs, of the final instrument model reflect the underlying TRAPB framework: attitudes toward science, behavioral beliefs about science, intentions to engage in science, normative beliefs, and control beliefs.
... The first survey utilized in the study was the Changes in Attitudes about the Relevancy of Science (CARS) survey designed to measure the shift in student perceptions of science relevancy. The survey's internal consistency was determined to be greater than 0.8 (Cronbach' alpha) for each version (Siegel and Ranney, 2003). This 25-item instrument measures both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for students who take science courses using a 5-point Likert scale, which allows the respondents to convey their perceptions on the indicator being assessed. ...
... To provide more details regarding the changes observed in the initial examination, an item analysis was performed for each pair of surveys, pre-intermediate, intermediate-post, and pre-post surveys, to see which individual question scores particularly varied with statistical significance after each intervention. As recommended by the survey developers (Siegel and Ranney, 2003), three different versions of this survey were administered over the course of the study. Although the full survey includes 25 questions in total, it is important to note that only the 12 questions identical across all 3 versions were used for item analysis to help evaluate which aspects of the interventions were effective and which parts needed improvements. ...
Article
Making science relevant to students' lives, future careers, or societies by introducing controversial socio-scientific issues in classrooms motivates students to take more active roles in learning science. This study explored the influence of integrating two sustainability-oriented socio-scientific issues (SOS2Is) - alternative energies and nanotechnology-into the General Chemistry curriculum on 743 students' career aspirations and perceptions of science relevancy. For the presentation of topics, two learning environments on Prezi were prepared. The participants were guided to explore these learning environments that focused on pros and cons of each topic, including environmental and health hazards of technological developments. In addition, students were encouraged to link these discussions to sustainability issues in the context of the UN SDGs. The analysis of Changes in Attitude Towards the Relevancy of Science and Career Aspirations surveys indicated that the interventions improved students' perception of science relevancy and altered their career aspirations in many areas, regardless of their socioeconomic status and ethnic background. This study provides empirical evidence for the effectiveness of discussions around socio-scientific issues in changing students’ perceptions of science and career aspirations and recommends practical methods to encourage students to become global and scientifically literate citizens. Free Access Link Until February 2022: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1eAJY8MwAmidm-
... На пример, ученици већину школских предмета посматрају као незанимљиве због обимног садржаја, превише понављања и недостатка изазова и у њима би желели већи лични ангажман, тематска истраживања и више практичних активности. Неке студије износе исказе ученика да су школски предмети нерелевантни и некорисни за живот (Siegel & Ranney, 2003). Између значаја науке у друштву и науке у школи постоји велика неусклађеност (Badri, Alnuaimi, Mohaidat, Al Rashedi, Yuang & Al Mazroui, 2016). ...
... They would prefer more personal engagement, topic research and practical activities. Some studies report that students stated that school subjects are irrelevant and therefore not useful in everyday life (Siegel & Ranney, 2003). There is a considerable mismatch between science-in-society and science-in-school (Badri, Alnuaimi, Mohaidat, Al Rashedi, Yuang & Al Mazroui, 2016). ...
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Abstract. The paper presents the results of a study of the opinion of the fourth grade primary school students (N=60) from Sombor, Serbia, about the role of the textbook Nature and Society in the adoption of social contents. The aim of the study is to determine students’ opinions about how the textbook assists them in adopting social contents and how this knowledge can be useful in the real life context, which can be a relevant starting point for improving the quality of textbooks. Qualitative methodology was used to analyse the obtained data. Focus group discussions pointed to problems about the presentation of social contents in the textbooks: extensive texts that must be memorised; the lack of explanations in the text; insufficient coherence of the text, which is the reason why the adoption of social contents require assistance in the interpretation of the text. Moreover, there is a problem in the relation between the text and visual displays; the examples given do not sound familiar to students, the text is not related to the real life context, which limits the usability of social knowledge adopted from the textbook. The students’ answers refer to key standards of the textbook quality (the quality of the contents, the quality of the didactic design, the quality of the language used in the textbook), and indicate that the textbook that students use does not contribute to the process of learning complex social phenomena. Key words: social phenomena, fourth-grade students, focus-group interviews, textbook of Nature and Society.
... To assess the changes in students' appreciation for the role of science in their lives, we implemented a modified version of the Changes in Attitudes about the Relevance of Science (CARS) survey developed by Siegel and Ranney (2003). The same version of this survey was used pre-/post-intervention. ...
... The same version of this survey was used pre-/post-intervention. This nine-item instrument uses a 5-point Likert scale to explore changes in students' science related attitudes over time and assess the effect of curriculum to impact students' attitudes (Siegel and Ranney 2003). We altered the instruments to ensure a 4th grade reading level, which after data collection held sufficient reliability as the previous instruments' reported estimates (Cronbach's Alpha > .80). ...
Article
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Although the population of science teachers in the US lacks diversity, the technology used to teach science should be diverse and culturally connected. Culturally relevant frameworks for science call for science teaching to be situated in meaningful contexts. This study calls for the integration of CRP and situated cognition perspectives as a means of designing pedagogically effective virtual reality. This mixed-methods study explored N = 444 students changes in attitudes after experiencing VR lessons on an attitude survey and qualitative short answers. We found that all students who used the VR improved their attitudes towards science. We also found that students who used the CRP designed VR developed a conscious and politically aware application of science. The results suggest that educational technology should carefully consider how using CRP-based approaches can have both cognitive and cultural implications of students’ learning.
... On this basis, it is ascertained that the guided inquiry also can improve other aspects of attitudes include social attitudes of students. This is supported by research findings by Siegel and Ranney (2003) [46] : Chang and Tsai (2005) [51] : Taraban et al. (2007) [50] : and Bilgin (2009) [8] that found the guided inquiry could increase the positive attitude of students. Caliskan and Turan (2010) [13] reported that the inquiry learning proved able to give a more positive effect on the students' attitudes. ...
... On this basis, it is ascertained that the guided inquiry also can improve other aspects of attitudes include social attitudes of students. This is supported by research findings by Siegel and Ranney (2003) [46] : Chang and Tsai (2005) [51] : Taraban et al. (2007) [50] : and Bilgin (2009) [8] that found the guided inquiry could increase the positive attitude of students. Caliskan and Turan (2010) [13] reported that the inquiry learning proved able to give a more positive effect on the students' attitudes. ...
Article
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In generally, teaching and learning processes more focused on improving students' cognitive learning outcomes, while the development of social attitudes tends to be ignored. The development of social attitudes can be done with habituation through the implementation of cooperative learning model. This study was a quasi-experimental to determine differences of social attitudes of students taught by jigsaw and guided inquiry learning model. The research sample was the students of second year of Natural Science class in Senior High School in Palu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia as many as 70 students. Social attitudes were measured using a questionnaire given at the beginning and at the end of the study. The result showed that there was no differences between the social attitudes of students taught by jigsaw and guided inquiry. This might be caused by these models have the same potency in developing social attitudes. Combination of these models to optimize the potency of both in developing social attituderevealed at further research. Another possibility, the use of a questionnaire to measure social attitude was less accurate. Based on the fact, the future studies should consider an observation sheets to measure students' social attitudes.
... La mayor parte de los estudios sobre la actitud hacia las ciencias emplean cuestionarios como herramienta para su valoración (Rubba, & Harkness, 1993;Manassero-Mas, Vázquez-Alonso, & Acevedo-Díaz, 2001;Manassero, Vázquez, & Acevedo, 2003;Siegel, & Ranney, 2003;Chen, 2006;Vázquez Alonso, Acevedo Díaz, Manassero Mas, & Acevedo Romero, 2006;Vázquez Marbà-Tallada, & Márquez Bargalló, 2010;de Pro Bueno & Pérez Manzano, 2014;Kennedy, Quinn & Taylor, 2016). La relación entre la información obtenida y el tiempo empleado se optimiza con estos instrumentos, como se reporta en los trabajos de Vázquez, Manassero y Acevedo (2006), y más recientemente en el Kennedy, Quinn y Taylor (2016). ...
... The majority of studies on the attitude towards science use questionnaires as instruments (Rubba, & Harkness, 1993;Manassero-Mas, Vázquez-Alonso, & Acevedo-Díaz, 2001;Manassero, Vázquez, & Acevedo, 2003;Siegel, & Ranney, 2003;Chen, 2006;Vázquez Alonso, Acevedo Díaz, Manassero Mas, & Acevedo Romero, 2006;Vázquez Marbà-Tallada, & Márquez Bargalló, 2010;de Pro Bueno & Pérez Manzano, 2014;Kennedy, Quinn & Taylor, 2016). The time-information relationship is optimized with these instruments, as Vázquez, Manassero and Acevedo (2006), and more recently Kennedy, Quinn and Taylor (2016) report. ...
Article
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Existe un interés creciente por el dominio afectivo en la didáctica de las ciencias, y en concreto por la actitud hacia las clases de ciencias como posible acción contra el declive de vocaciones científicas que se viene observando en los últimos años. Por ello, este trabajo valora el efecto de un programa divulgativo basado en la experimentación sobre la actitud hacia las clases de ciencias. En dicha valoración se tienen en cuenta factores como la etapa educativa, el sexo y el entorno del centro (rural o urbano). La metodología utilizada es cuantitativa, el estudio es transversal, y el instrumento para medir la actitud es un cuestionario breve que se administra como pretest y postest. La muestra está compuesta por 380 alumnos de los centros escolares no universitarios participantes en el proyecto. El análisis estadístico se realiza con el paquete informático SPSSv22. Los resultados obtenidos al comparar el pretest y el postest muestran: una actitud más positiva hacia las ciencias en la escuela en el postest (t=5.46; gl=299; p<.01), mayor en el alumnado de la etapa de educación primaria (t=-6.61; gl=210; p<.00), y en el alumnado de zonas rurales (p<.00); no se aprecia influencia del sexo en el efecto del programa sobre la actitud (p=.38 antes; p=.06 después). Se concluye que la actuación desarrollada tiene una influencia más positiva en los estudiantes de la etapa de educación primaria que en los de educación secundaria. Se propone que las acciones que pretendan actuar sobre los futuros itinerarios científicos a seguir por los estudiantes deberían iniciarse en la etapa de primaria, donde se obtiene un efecto más positivo, y prolongarse e intensificarse en educación secundaria. Es necesaria una investigación más profunda para confirmar (o no) si en las zonas rurales el alumnado presenta una actitud hacia las ciencias más positiva de forma generalizada. Abstract There is an increasing interest in the affective domain in science education, and particularly in the attitudes towards school science, as a possibility to counteract the present decline of scientific vocations observed in the last few years. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the effect of an experimental outreach program on the attitude towards school science. The possible influence of factors such as educational stage, sex and geographical context (rural or urban) is taken into account. This is a quantitative, cross-sectional study with a brief questionnaire being administered before and after the intervention to measure student attitude. The sample consists of 380 students from the pre-university schools participating in the project. Statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSSv22 computer software. The results obtained after comparing the pretest and posttest show a more positive attitude towards school science in the posttest (t=5.46; df=299; p<.01). This increase is more prevalent among elementary school students (t=-6.61; df=210; p<.00), and among students from rural areas (p<.00). No significant difference based on sex is found (p=.38 pretest; p=.06 posttest). The conclusion of our evaluation is that this outreach program has a more positive influence on elementary students than on those in secondary education. Therefore, interventions regarding the future selection of science related subjects should take place in the early stages of education, such as the elementary level, where a more positive increase is obtained, and to keep the actions in a more intense and long-term format. With regard to the increase in positive attitudes among students living in rural environments found in this study, further research is needed to confirm whether or not these results can be generalized.
... Pointing out the applicability of that knowledge leads to the students' increased level of interest, which could contribute to better effects of their learning (Demirdogen & Cakmakci, 2014). According to the study, conducted by Siegel and Ranney (2003), it is possible to improve students' attitudes on the relevance of science for their lives by employing the innovative activities. ...
Article
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The aim of this research was to examine the effects of a new platform for raising the pre-service chemistry and geography teachers’ awareness of cooperation possibilities associated with the planning relevant interdisciplinary lesson. The research featured the participation of 16 students of the Faculty of Chemistry and 28 students of the Faculty of Geography of Belgrade University. Two workshops were conducted within the research. During the first workshop the participants worked in small groups on the tasks which served to strengthen their awareness on the relevant science education. The second workshop comprised the jointly planning the interdisciplinary lessons in groups with members of the pre-service teachers of both subjects. The participants’ lesson plans contain goals that can be classified as those relevant for the individual and those relevant for society. Half of the lesson plans contained formulations of goals that can be assessed as relevant for certain professions. The activities planned for the attainment of the stated goals support an interdisciplinary approach, encompass the concepts envisaged by the chemistry and geography curricula, and the activities specific to these two subjects. Keywords: cooperative planning, interdisciplinary lesson, pre-service chemistry teachers, pre-service geography teachers, relevant science education.
... Some studies have reported that motivation, science-related interest, science-related enjoyment, and science-related self-efficacy will impact students' science achievement (Ozel, Caglak, & Erdogan, 2013;Rice, Barth, Guadagno, Smith, McCallum,, & ASERT, 2013;Woods-McConney, Oliver, McConney, Schibeci, & Maor, 2014). Other studies have also found that students' interests in science affect their science achievement (Häussler & Hoffmann, 2000;Siegel & Ranney, 2003). Interest is one of the intrinsic motivation components that determine students' enjoyment of learning. ...
Article
The 2015 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has drawn a substantial amount of attention from science educators and educational policymakers because it marked the first time that PISA assessed students' ability to evaluate and design scientific inquiry using computer‐based simulations. We undertook a secondary analysis of the PISA 2015 Taiwan dataset of 7,973 students from 214 schools to identify critical issues of student learning and potentially reshape our educational system and policies. Thus, this study sought to identify potential latent clusters of students' scientific literacy performance according to a set of focus variables selected from the PISA student questionnaires. In addition, significant determinants of students' scientific literacy and resiliency were analyzed. Cluster analysis results demonstrated the presence of four clusters of high, medium, low, and inferior scientific literacy/epistemology/affective dispositions. Specifically, students in cluster 1 compared with other clusters showed that the higher the scientific literacy scores are, the more positive epistemic beliefs about science, achievement motivation, enjoyment of science, interests in broad science, science self‐efficacy, information and communications technology (ICT) interest, ICT autonomy, more learning time, more teacher supports and teacher‐directed instructions are. Regression results indicated that the most robust predictor of students' scientific literacy performance is epistemic beliefs about science, followed by learning time, interest in broad science topics, achievement motivation, inquiry‐based science teaching and learning practice, and science self‐efficacy. Decision tree model results showed that the descending order of the variables in terms of their importance in differentiating students as high‐ versus low‐performing were epistemic beliefs about science, learning time, self‐efficacy, interest in broad science, and scientific inquiry, respectively. A similar decision tree model to determine students as resilient versus non‐resilient also was found. Various interpretations of these results are discussed, as are their implications for science education research, science teaching, and science education policy.
... In line with the questions from TIMSS and PISA, each student needs to know the scientific issues related to the subject matter, and can explain the scientific phenomenon that occurs and is capable of submitting scientific evidence. The study of Siegel and Ranney (2003) indicates that students agree that the concept of science taught can be linked to the phenomenon of the often-occurring scientific phenomena in their daily lives. ...
... However, research reveals that there is a decrease in interest in science [citation of these researches] with the passing of school years, mainly from high school. In general, children in the early grades have a greater interest in science than young people (Gouw, Mota & Bizzo, 2013;Siegel & Ranney, 2003). The motivation of the students and lack of interest in scientific studies has now been one of the major concerns of all those who are directly connected with education, especially when it comes to the young people. ...
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Each year there is increasing the behavior of dependence on individuals in relation to the use of technologies, especially among the young people of Z Generation, born after the year 2000 and currently attending high school. Despite this, the relationship of science with these technologies seems not to be observed, since in several countries there is a decrease in the interest of young people for science. In view of this, aiming to investigate the interest of the young people of Z Generation by school science, this article wants to give the students of Canoas/RS a voice about this theme. The methodology adopted involved the application of a questionnaire called "Barometer: young people and science", belonging to the Project Sapiens that investigates nationwide the opinions, attitudes and interests of young people in relation to science and technology. The data presented here were collected in 19 schools, with the participation of 1.331 young people. The results show that they have more interest in other areas of science, such as health sciences, for example, than in relation to technological science. Being this low interest more evidenced in the girls than in the boys. This fact leads to the conclusion that young Z are effective in making use of technologies, however, do not reveal an interest in understanding it. In view of this, it is up to reflection on the need for educational actions that can make science teaching, especially that which involves the most interesting technologies, since the perception of students about science is certainly Influence on your academic and professional choices.
... Students answered an online survey (Table 1) containing open-ended, multiple-choice, and multiple-answer questions gathered from validated instruments to assess students' self-efficacy in science and engineering and their attitudes toward STEM (Siegel & Ranney, 2003;Wang & Berlin, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
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Research established that most learners perceive STEM learning environments as settings that exclude diverse ways of thinking. We investigate factors behind this trend in two sites that recently implemented fully-equipped makerspaces, but have deeply different socioeconomic contexts. We identify factors associated with increased self-efficacy and attitudes toward STEM among male and female students.
... Hitherto, the research has shown that students' attitudes may be fundamental to the understanding of the taught subjects (Siegel & Ranney 2003). Successful learning occurs when the content delivered is expressed as interesting information from students (Callison, Bundy & Thomes, 2005). ...
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This study examined the impact of robotics on the attitudes of primary school students towards science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Two teaching approaches, one with and another without robotics, were designed for a teaching class module in the field of Science Education. Students completed pre-and post-tests on STEM attitudes and future career choices regarding the STEM professions. The results showed that the robotic approach led to a significantly greater impact on STEM attitudes and motivation than with the control group. In addition, results indicated that there is a slight significant change on students" future careers choices after participating in a 10-hours Science" module.
... The key scientific principles learned from each activity are summarized in Table 1, and full copies of all handouts are included in the Electronic Supporting Information. The evaluations for this program were done by asking the participants to complete a survey, adapted from the literature, 59 about attitudes towards science. The survey was completed once in the morning, before the participants began the program, and again at the end of the day after the program was completed. ...
Article
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Reported herein is the design, implementation, and evaluation of a full-day outreach program for high school girls that focuses entirely on sugar-related activities. The program, which we ran in February 2016 and February 2017, included multiple hands-on sugar-based experiments to increase the participants’ interest in and enthusiasm for science. The success of the program was quantitatively evaluated through the administration of precamp and postcamp surveys. Overall, the survey results indicated a statistically significant improvement in responses in one of the two program years, which corresponds to success in changing the participants’ attitudes regarding the practical applicability of science and in increasing their interest in pursuing scientific careers.
... Les auteurs estiment qu'il n'est pas déraisonnable de prétendre que les TIC ont le potentiel d'améliorer l'intérêt des jeunes envers la science et la technologie. Des gains ont en effet été documentés par plusieurs auteurs, et ce, via l'utilisation de différentes technologies, dont, par exemple, des logiciels éducatifs (Kara et Yesilyurt, 2007), des activités d'apprentissage assistées par ordinateur (Park et coll., 2009), des ressources web(Koszalka, 2002), des caméras photo(Tatar et Robinson, 2003)et des capteurs(Carvalho-Knighton et Smoak, 2009).Cette conclusion est toutefois atténuée par le fait que, somme toute, peu d'articles scientifiques se sont intéressés à ce sujet et que, dans quelques cas, aucun gain n'était observé(Siegel et Ranney, 2003). Potvin et Hasni (2014) encouragent d'ailleurs les chercheurs à continuer d'investiguer les bienfaits des TIC en termes d'intérêt généré chez les élèves pour la science et la technologie. ...
... Moreover, when elementary teachers consider their ability to teach science to be low, their resulting dislike for teaching science translates into avoidance of teaching science (Avery and Meyer 2012). Kazempour (2014) writes that in order to disrupt the cycle of, Ba student population that fears and dislikes science, in part, due to their teachers' negative attitudes and teaching practices (Siegel and Ranney 2003), considerable effort must be invested in preparing a teaching workforce that possesses positive attitudes toward science that will be reflected in their teaching^(p. 80). ...
Article
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3D printing technology is a powerful educational tool that can promote integrative STEM education by connecting engineering, technology, and applications of science concepts. Yet, research on the integration of 3D printing technology in formal educational contexts is extremely limited. This study engaged preservice elementary teachers (N = 42) in a 3D Printing Science Project that modeled a science experiment in the elementary classroom on why things float or sink using 3D printed boats. The goal was to explore how collaborative 3D printing inquiry-based learning experiences affected preservice teachers' science teaching self-efficacy beliefs, anxiety toward teaching science, interest in science, perceived competence in K-3 technology and engineering science standards, and science content knowledge. The 3D printing project intervention significantly decreased participants' science teaching anxiety and improved their science teaching efficacy, science interest, and perceived competence in K-3 technological and engineering design science standards. Moreover, an analysis of students' project reflections and boat designs provided an insight into their collaborative 3D modeling design experiences. The study makes a contribution to the scarce body of knowledge on how teacher preparation EFFECTS OF A 3D PRINTING PROJECT 2 programs can utilize 3D printing technology as a means of preparing prospective teachers to implement the recently adopted engineering and technology standards in K-12 science education.
... There are numerous examples of specific curricula, projects and approaches that engage students in connecting science learning to real-world contexts and applications. However, the majority of these examples involve the use of specific curriculum resource materials or activities (eg, Ramsden 1997;Rutledge 2005;Siegel and Ranney 2003) or are primarily opinion pieces with teaching advice for teaching relevant science (eg, Hobson 2001;Van Aalsvoort 2004). What is lacking from the literature are detailed explorations of what teaching for relevance in science can look like in typical classroom settings. ...
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In this article we present a discussion designed to help educators consider the value of a strategy to enhance secondary students’ science knowledge and a teaching approach that introduces students to primary scientific research. The article is based on research recently conducted during a professional development program designed to introduce secondary science teachers to a new teaching strategy that involved the introduction of adapted primary literature (APL) as a teaching tool (Schaeffer 2016). We introduce the article by first reviewing current thinking about the meaning and importance of developing scientific literacy in secondary classrooms, then present an argument for the consideration of APL as a potentially valuable approach.
... Finally, 'C' for cognitive involves a person's belief/knowledge about an attitude object. For example: 'I believe spiders are dangerous' (McLeod, 2009 Students' interest, enjoyment of leaning subjects and perceived value of the subjects are all found to play important roles in students' academic achievement (Fortier, Vallerand, & Guay, 1995;Hacieminoglu, 2016;Häussler & Hoffmann, 2000;Ratelle, Guay, Vallerand, Larose, & Senécal, 2007;Schibeci & Riley, 1986;Siegel & Ranney, 2003;Tosto, Asbury, Mazzocco, Petrill, & Kovas, 2016;Vallerand, Fortier, & Guay, 1997) as well as their course and career choices (Dawson, 2000). Interest and enjoyment are often found to have significant and positive correlation with related academic achievement (Dev, 2016;Güzeller, Eser, & Aksu, 2016;Pinxten, Marsh, De Fraine, Van Den Noortgate, & Van Damme, 2014). ...
Article
This study investigated the associations among students’ attitudes towards science, students’ perceived difficulty of learning science, gender, parents’ occupations and their scientific competencies. A sample of 1591 (720 males and 871 females) ninth-grade students from 29 junior high schools in Shanghai completed a scientific competency test and a Likert scale questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed that students’ general interest of science, their parents’ occupations and perceived difficulty of science significantly associated with their scientific competencies. However, there was no gender gap in terms of scientific competencies.
... A 50-item (25 positive, 25 negative) scale with 4-point response format was prepared according to the related research (Cheung, 2009;George, 2006;Germann, 1988;Prokop et al., 2007;Salta and Tzougraki, 2004;& Siegel and Ranney, 2003) to represent the full range of attitude toward school science. ...
Article
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The present study aimed at constructing an attitude scale toward school science using the generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM). A 47-item scale (24 positive, 23 negative) with 4-point response format was used to measure attitudes toward science among 9th (n=424) and 10th (n=420) grade students in 38 sections distributed randomly over 22 schools in Irbid district. Respondents selected one of four options to represent their level of agreement with each item. The findings support the hypothesis that the data form a single unidimensional unfolding model. Furthermore, the findings showed that the GGUM didn’t fit the data of 7 items, leaving the final scale with 40 items, where accurate estimates of these item parameters were derived and the GGUM was appropriate. Cronbach's alpha for the internal consistency, and the test retest reliability coefficients of the final scale were 0.932 and 0.875, respectively.
... Similarly, simply enjoying doing science in or outside of school may not be sufficient to develop a higher science identity (Archer et al. 2010(Archer et al. , 2012Diamond et al. 1987). Considering science as important and relevant to their lives and aspirations is also associated with higher science identities, but might not result in high science identities if youth do not feel competent in their ability to do science (Bennett and Hogarth 2009;Carlone et al. 2014;Siegel and Ranney 2003). Therefore, it likely takes a combination of social and psychological factors to turn science interest, perceived competence, and importance into a science identity. ...
Article
Why are some youth more likely to think of themselves as a science kind of person than others? In this paper, we use a cognitive social-theoretical framework to assess disparities in science identity among middle school–age youth in the United States. We investigate how discovery orientation is associated with science interest, perceived ability, importance, and reflected appraisal, and how they are related to whether youth see themselves, and perceive that others see them, as a science kind of person. We surveyed 441 students in an ethnically diverse, low-income middle school. Gender and race/ethnicity are associated with science identity but not with discovery orientation. Structural equation model results show that the positive association between discovery orientation and science identity is mediated by science interest, importance, and reflected appraisal. These findings advance understanding of how science attitudes and recognition may contribute to the underrepresentation of girls and/or minorities in science.
... Indeed, previous researchers pointed out that males are more passionate and enthusiastic about science learning than females (Craker, 2006;DeWitt & Archer, 2015;Toma et al., 2019;Wan & Lee, 2017). The male students show good proficiency in mathematics, science, and social studies, while females show proficiency in arts and language (Siegel & Ranney, 2003). By contrast, some studies have reported that female students show a preference for science compared to males (Greenfield, 1997;Hong & Lin, 2011;Jerrim & Schoon, 2014). ...
Article
p style="text-align: justify;">It should be noted that learning outcomes are not students’ only achievement; attitude is also the main output in learning. This research explores students’ attitudes toward science learning based on gender and the grade level of schools in Aceh, Indonesia. The participants are 1,023 students from the sixth grade of primary schools and the eighth grade of secondary schools. The total sample includes 16 schools spread across the province. The data have been collected using TOSRA. By using the Likert scale, this questionnaire is useful for obtaining descriptions of the students’ attitudes and assigning scores for a certain group of participants. Based on gender, the results show females reflect more positive attitudes toward science than male students do. According to the grade level of the schools, the data reflect the equality of students’ attitudes toward science between primary and secondary schools. Nevertheless, when primary school students enter secondary school, the majority of students enjoy learning science less. This fact is meaningful feedback for science teachers. This result supports the scholars seeking ways to avoid the gender gap in learning activities. Pedagogical implications are also discussed.</p
... All in all we must say that Hungarian science education seems to be rather passive, focusing on subject contents and is practically teacher and course book-centred, just as it was decades ago and for the time being there is hardly any effort towards involving students in active learning. 3 We must point out the fact regarding these sweeping statements though that certain inner diversity does exist in the school system. It means that the "top" of science education, that is secondary grammar school courses (specialized classes, optionally chosen subjects) and the subject-specific segments of secondary technical education (e.g. ...
... Conscious efforts to develop characters need innovative learning [22]. It raises the enthusiasm and passion for students' learning, which many schools have not done in Indonesia. ...
... Again, studies have revealed that teaching methods do have influence on students attitude towards science (Adesoji, 2008;Cracker, 2006).In other words, the way and manner, scientific content is presented could influence attitude and possibly, predict achievement (Siegel and Ranney 2003). In this wise, many instructional strategies have been tried out to address the above challenges but the problems have continued unabated. ...
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The study investigated the effect of peer-assisted learning (PAL) as an instructional strategy on secondary school students' attitude towards physics. The design adopted 1r ne study was quasi experimental in nature. Simple random sampling was used to select two senior secondary schools out of the ten that met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Eighty senior secondary II students served as the sample size. The instrument used was the Physics Attitude Scale (PAS). The data collected were analyzed using frequency counts, mean and standard deviation while the hypotheses were tested using t-test statistic. The result of the analysis showed that there was significant difference between the mean attitude scores of the experimental group exposed to PAL and their counterparts in the control group. Again, there was no significant difference between the mean attitude score of male and female students in the experimental group exposed to PAL. Based on the findings, it was recommended that: Physics teachers should adopt Peer-Assisted Learning as an effective learning strategy in order to enhance students attitude towards the Physics; Besides, Seminars, workshops and conferences should be organized for physics teachers to sensitize them on the use of peer assisted learning in their various schools.
... ً ‫ِٓطمرال‬ ‫جٌّطٛلؼ١ٓ‬ ‫ٚجٌّٕٟٙ‬ ‫جٌىٌجْٟ‬ ‫ٌٍّٓحٌ٠ٓ‬ ‫جٌالَِس‬ ‫ٚجٌهرٍجش‬ ‫جٌّٙحٌجش‬ ‫جٌطٟ‬ ‫جالْطمٛحت١س،‬ ‫جٌّٕٙ١س‬ ‫جٌر١ثس‬ ‫ئٌٝ‬ ‫جٌؼٍّ١س‬ ‫جٌّٕٙ١س‬ ‫جٌّ١ٛي‬ ‫أٚكحخ‬ ً١ّ٠ٚ ‫ج‬ ‫ٚجألوٚجش‬ ‫ٚجٌّؼحوالش‬ ‫جألٌلحَ‬ ‫ِغ‬ ‫جٌطؼحًِ‬ ِٓ ‫ّىُٕٙ‬ ُ ‫ض‬ ‫جٌر١ثس‬ ًٖ٘ ‫ٚضططٍد‬ ‫ٌىل١مس،‬ ‫جٌىٌجْٟ‬ ‫جٌطكٛ١ً‬ ‫ئٌٝ‬ ‫أٚكحذٙح‬ ً١ّ٠ٚ ‫ِٕٚطم١س،‬ ‫ٚضكٍ١ٍ١س‬ ‫جذطىحٌ٠س‬ ‫لىٌجش‬ ‫(جٌهط١د،‬ ‫ٚجٌطر١س‬ ‫ٚجٌطىٌٕٛٛؾ١س‬ ‫ٚجٌٍ٠حٞ١س‬ ‫جٌؼٍّ١س‬ ‫ٚجٌّٙٓ‬ ‫ٚجٌّػحذٍز‬ ‫ٚجالْطمالٌ١س‬ ٕٓٓ٘ ‫جٌطؿحٌخ‬ ‫ٚأوجء‬ ‫ٚجٌرٍجِؽ‬ ‫جٌّٗىالش‬ ‫ٚقً‬ ‫جٌؼٍّ١س‬ ‫جٌكمحتك‬ ‫ٚجوطٗحف‬ ،) ‫ٚجالوطٗحفح‬ ‫ٚجٌركٛظ‬ ‫(ػ١حو،‬ ‫جٌؼٍَٛ‬ ‫ِطحقف‬ ‫َٚ٠حٌز‬ ‫جٌؼٍّ١س‬ ‫ش‬ ٕٓٔٔ .) ‫جٌّؼٍف١س‬ ‫جٌؼٍّ١حش‬ ِٓ ‫ِطٕٛػس‬ ‫ِؿّٛػس‬ ‫ضفحػً‬ ‫جٌّٕٙ١س‬ ‫جٌّ١ٛي‬ ‫ٚضطّٟٓ‬ - ‫جٌٍٓٛو١س‬ behavioral Processes) - (Cognitive :ٟ٘ ‫أٌذؼس؛‬ ‫أذؼحو‬ ‫ضٗطًّ‬ ‫جٌطٟ‬ ، ‫جٌّؼٍفس‬ (Awareness) ‫جًٌجض١س‬ ‫ٚجٌىفحءز‬ ، efficacy - Self ‫ٚجالٔهٍج٠‬ ‫ٚجالٌضرح٠‬ ، agement) ( (Siegel and Ranney, 2003) .‫ضمٛو‬ ‫جٌطٟ‬ ‫جٌٍٓٛو١س‬ ‫جٌّؼٍف١س‬ ‫جٌؼٍّ١حش‬ ‫ػٕحٍٚ‬ ‫جٌّٕٙ١س‬ ‫ٌٍّ١ٛي‬ ‫جٌٓحذمس‬ ‫جألذؼحو‬ ‫ّػً‬ ُ ‫ٚض‬ ‫جٌّٕٙس‬ ‫جنط١حٌ‬ ‫ئٌٝ‬ (Career choice) ‫أْ‬ ‫٠ّىٕٗ‬ ‫ِٕٙح‬ ّ ‫ُؼى‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ٚوً‬ ‫جٌرؼٝ،‬ ‫ذؼٟٙح‬ ‫ِغ‬ ‫ٍِضرطس‬ ، ‫٠ّىٓ‬ ‫جٌّػحي‬ ‫ْر١ً‬ ‫فؼٍٝ‬ ‫ح.‬ ‫ذؼًٟ‬ ‫ذؼٟٙح‬ ‫ُؼَُ‬ ٠ ‫ذّح‬ ‫ًح،‬ ‫ضُجِٕ١‬ ‫ِطؼىوز،‬ ‫ذحضؿح٘حش‬ ‫٠ؼًّ‬ ‫ُإوٞ‬ ٠ ‫أْ‬ ‫جٌٛػٟ‬ ‫َ٠حوز‬ ‫ئٌٝ‬ ‫٠إوٞ‬ ‫لى‬ ‫ذّح‬ ‫ف١ٙح؛‬ ‫جًٌجض١س‬ ‫جٌىفحءز‬ ‫َ٠حوز‬ ‫ئٌٝ‬ ‫جٌّٕٙس‬ ‫فٟ‬ ‫جالٔهٍج٠‬ ّ ‫ُؼى‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ػٍٝ‬ ‫ٗؿغ‬ ُ ‫ض‬ ‫أْ‬ ‫٠ّىٓ‬ ‫ذحٌٕؿحـ‬ ‫جٌّؼَُز‬ ‫جًٌجض١س‬ ‫جٌىفحءز‬ ‫أْ‬ ‫ق١ٓ‬ ‫فٟ‬ ‫جٌؼٍَٛ،‬ ‫ذأّ٘١س‬ ‫ٚجإلقٓحِ‬ ٚ ‫جٌّطؼٍُ،‬ ‫ق١حز‬ ‫فٟ‬ ‫جٌؼٍَٛ‬ ‫أّ٘١س‬ ‫ػٍٝ‬ ‫ّو‬ ‫ٗى‬ ُ ‫ٚض‬ ‫جٌؼٍّ١س،‬ ‫جٌّٛٞٛػحش‬ ‫جْطىٗحف‬ ِٓ ‫ُِ٠ى‬ ‫ضٗؿغ‬ ‫ضؼٍّٙح‬ ‫فٟ‬ ‫جالٔهٍج٠‬ ِٓ ‫ُِ٠ى‬ ‫ػٍٝ‬ (Kovarik D. N. et al., 2013). ...
... We designed the knowledge assessment and attitude surveys for the CRESCENDO project based on review of published evaluation approaches and instruments (Dunlap et al., 2000;Siegel and Ranney, 2003;Bramston et al., 2011;Larson et al., 2011;Dijkstra and Goedhart, 2012;Bergman, 2016) and in consideration of our specific research questions. While informative, no single model for instrument development was directly applicable to our project goals; therefore, we used an iterative approach of feedback and review of questions within our investigator team to develop and deploy our own survey and assessment. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Next Generation Science Standards call for students to “investigate the natural world through the processes of scientific inquiry.” Yet, it is rare for secondary students in the U.S. to engage in authentic scientific investigations of natural phenomena. The Columbia River Estuary Science Education and Outreach (CRESCENDO) Project was a 2-year (2016–2018) university-high school partnership between scientists and science education researchers from Washington State University (WSU) and science teachers and students from five public high schools located adjacent to the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). The teachers and students collaborated with WSU scientists on a rigorous ecological study of the CRE, which provided an opportunity to study how engaging students in authentic scientific research would impact their ecological knowledge and their attitudes toward environmental stewardship. Our study methods included online attitude surveys and knowledge assessments for all participating students, classroom observations, and semi-structured small group interviews with 3–5 students from each school at the end of each year of the project. We found that many students made significant gains in their ecological knowledge and understanding of scientific inquiry practices, demonstrating deeper understanding of the connections between local land use and water quality in the CRE, as well how nutrient concentrations vary seasonally and along the axis of the estuary. Students also showed enthusiasm for taking part in a “real” scientific research project, collaborating with university scientists, contributing “their” data to an investigative effort that extended beyond their own school, and the opportunity to get outdoors during science class. We identified five “key elements” of the CRESCENDO project that contributed to its success, and which would allow our model of a consistent, long-term (months) and immersive research experience for high school students to be transferrable to university-school partnerships across a range of size, location, research mission, and resource availability. Finally, this project also provided more evidence in support of place-based approaches for student learning, and the importance of immersing students in their environments where they can study the natural world by asking relevant questions and generating novel data about the science topics that matter to them.
... Scientific attitudes such as the objective, open, resilient, and can work together with others to become the nation's character that is expected to appear in science learning. The scientific attitude becomes fundamental to understanding Science (Siegel, M.A., & Ranney, 2003). Learning Science starts with observation and requires that you practice scientific attitudes throughout the process (Suciati, Vincentrisia, & Ismiyatin, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
A study about scientific literacy profile of student teachers had been conducted on Science for all context. Respondent were 384 student teachers from five faculties that involved in general education program. They were students on Technological Cultural Social and Environmental Education. The investigation was carrie out in General Education Department. The research method used a mixed-method with sequential explanatory design. Data were collected by: 1) test of scientific literacy; 2) attitude scale; and 3) interview. Analysis of data was conducted by descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis. Research identified that student teachers had low competency (39,41%-49,36%) in scientific literacy. Using scientific evidence competency was higher than identifying scientific issues and explaining scientific phenomena. Although student teachers had low to high scientific attitude competency (1.51-3.5) in support scientific inquiry, believe they can succees in science, interested in science, and feel responsible toward resources and the environtment. Result indicated that student teachers had moderate to high motivation in science.
... To enhance elementary students' positive attitudes towards science, it is important to first perform an assessment of it. Several methods have been used to assess attitudes towards science (Osborne et al., 2003), among which a Likert-type attitudinal scale is considered to be the most common, convenient, and reliable; it can be used to obtain information from a large sample and provide a quantitative comparison (Oon & Fan, 2017;Potvin & Hasni, 2014;Siegel & Ranney, 2003). However, although many scales have been developed to measure students' attitudes towards science, studies have pointed out several issues ingrained in existing instruments Summers & Abd-El-Khalick, 2018), which makes the likelihood of finding a satisfactory scale for upperlevel elementary students even less. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure upper-level Chinese elementary students’ attitudes towards science by addressing problems with existing ones, as highlighted in the literature. The theoretical framework was drawn from the ABC model, which defines attitudes towards science as consisting of affective, behavioural, and cognitive domains in the study. Instrument development was performed through expert review, small-scale pilot tests and student interviews, large-scale field tests and validation. Factor analysis and Rasch analysis provided reliability and validity evidence. According to the results of the first round of the field test, changes were made to the items and the response category in the second round of the development procedure. The final instrument demonstrated good psychometric properties and consisted of four dimensions: enjoyment of science learning, self-efficacy in science learning, value of science learning and intention to learn and do science.
... We included CES questions on community mindedness (questions 1, 2, and 6), but excluded questions on volunteering as volunteering was not a focus of any of our courses. To test civic responsibility, we chose the Civic Attitudes about the Relevance of Science (CARS) survey (Siegel and Ranney, 2003) in order to question students' perceptions of how science shapes attitudes on i) the environment (questions 5 and 42), ii) waste from factories, a specific focus of our courses (question 28), and iii) using evidence to make decisions (question 38). We used questions from the Persistence In The Sciences (PITS) Instrument (Hanauer et al., 2016) to assess Project Ownership Content and Emotion (PITS subsection question 1, abbreviated henceforth as "POCE"); Self-Efficacy (PITS subsection questions 1-5, abbreviated as "SE"), Science Identity (PITS subsection questions 1-4 abbreviated as "SI") and Scientific Community Values (PITS subsection questions 3 and 4, abbreviated as "SCV"). ...
Article
Full-text available
Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) often involve a component where the outcomes of student research are broadly relevant to outside stakeholders. We wanted to see if building courses around an environmental justice issue relevant to the local community would impact students’ sense of civic engagement and appreciation of the relevance of scientific research to the community. In this quasi-experimental study, we assessed civic engagement and scientific identity gains (N = 98) using pre- and post-semester surveys and open-ended interview responses in three different CUREs taught simultaneously at three different universities. All three CURES were focused on an environmental heavy metal pollution issue predominantly affecting African–Americans in Birmingham, Alabama. While we found increases in students’ sense of science efficacy and identity, our team was unable to detect meaningful changes in civic engagement levels, all of which were initially quite high. However, interviews suggested that students were motivated to do well in their research because the project was of interest to outside stakeholders. Our observations suggest that rather than directly influencing students’ civic engagement, the “broadly relevant” component of our CUREs engaged their pre-existing high levels of engagement to increase their engagement with the material, possibly influencing gains in science efficacy and science identity. Our observations are consistent with broader community relevance being an important component of CURE success, but do not support our initial hypothesis that CURE participation would influence students’ attitudes toward the civic importance of science.
... Similarly, teachers' attitudes toward science have been shown to affect their teaching practices (Siegel & Ranney, 2003). Consequently, students' learning experiences, attitude toward science, and achievement in science, are all impacted by teachers' instructional practices, beliefs, as well as attitudes (positive or negative) toward science and teaching science (Bittner & Pajares, 2006;Simpson & Oliver, 1990). ...
... Changes in Attitudes about the Relevance of Science (CARS) (Siegel & Ranney, 2003) This instrument measures changes in students' science-related attitudes; it also measures the effect of similar curricula on the attitudes of different classes. ...
Article
Full-text available
This is a report of a project titled ‘The Contribution of Natural History Museums to Science Education’, funded by the Wellcome Trust and ESRC with a Phase 1 grant from the Science Learning+ initiative. The project explored how Natural History Museums (NHMs) and schools can complement one another to maximise learning among school-age learners, and researched the long-term benefits to learning and engagement with science that NHMs can provide. During the course of our work, our team, which consisted of museum professionals and academics in the UK and the US, worked in the UK and the US with practitioners in NHMs and with school teachers and students. Our conclusions, as summarised in this Executive Summary, fall into two areas, one to do with the provision by museums of learning experiences for students, the other to do with how NHMs assess the effects of their provision. While our focus is on NHMs, a number of our conclusions apply more generally.
... A similar application is found in previous studies. For example, Siegel and Ranney (2003) used Rasch modeling (Masters, 1982) when they assessed changes in students' attitudes toward science. In their study, Rasch modeling provided precise estimates of individual changes by separating individual traits from test traits. ...
Article
This study investigates two latent constructs (Engagement and Value) of dialogic interaction to examine the epistemic climate. Since the new reform movement emphasizes creating generative learning environments, it is important to examine whether a classroom promotes students’ knowledge generation or limit students’ epistemic growth through rote memorization. At this point, it is inevitable to focus on dialogic interaction (one of the epistemic practices), because how students engage with and view dialogic interaction provides meaningful information about the epistemic climate. By employing Rasch modeling, this study tested a statistical validity of two latent constructs of dialogic interaction. The findings in this study highlight that the two latent constructs are theoretically and statistically valid and can be used to gauge the epistemic climate through students’ engagement with and value of dialogic interaction. While understanding the epistemic climate cannot solely occur through a single perspective, this study plays a significant role in adding a valid instrument. Such instruments help researchers comprehend the epistemic features of learning environments and provide a practical way to reflect students' lived experiences to learn about the overall atmosphere of the learning environment.
... To assess the changes in students' appreciation for the role of science in their lives, we implemented a modified version of the Changes in Attitudes about the Relevance of Science (CARS) survey developed by Siegel and Ranney (2003). We altered the instrument to ensure a 4th grade reading level, which held similar reliability as the previous instruments' reported estimates (Cronbach's alpha = 0.78). ...
Article
Full-text available
Science achievement gaps exhibit racial disparities starting in primary grades and have been shown to persist through middle and high school. In turn, increasing positive attitudes toward science have been shown as one factor that affects academic achievement and motivation among K-12 students. Exploring novel ways that technology can influence diverse students’ attitudes toward science, and the design elements pertinent therein, is thus one prominent goal toward achieving science education for all. Leveraging the immersive nature of Virtual Reality 360 videos, we present a design-based research iteration testing how a novel technology-enhanced learning experience influenced close to 400 urban elementary students’ attitudes toward science. Using a two-way MANCOVA analysis, the data support that our design iteration emphasizing context-specific learning can prime students that do not see science as relevant to them to change these attitudes in significantly positive ways. Implications are discussed around relationality, technology use in urban schools, and local contexts as learning resources.
... Responses were analyzed in search of patterns that help explain variances (and lack thereof) in those attributes across genders in students. (Siegel & Ranney, 2003;Wang & Berlin, 2010). It contained open-ended, multiple-choice, and multiple-answer questions, and also collected students' names. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Maker education stands out as an approach to STEM learning that has several benefits. However, despite the recent rise in its popularity, making in education may be excluding some groups of learners. In this poster, we report partial findings of a mixed-methods research project carried out in two high schools serving blue-collar, working-class families in Southern Brazil. We find that factors associated with shifts in self-reported attitude towards STEM and self-efficacy in engineering differ across genders.
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Argumentieren ist zentraler Bestandteil naturwissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisgewinnung. Dennoch gibt es bisher nur wenige Arbeiten, die untersuchen, wie Lernende auf der Grundlage selbstständig durchgeführter Experimente für bzw. gegen eine eigene Hypothese argumentieren. Vor diesem Hintergrund untersucht diese Arbeit, welchen Einfluss personale Faktoren (u. a. das Fachwissen und das situationale Interesse) und die Art der Lernumgebung (Realexperiment vs. Computersimulation) darauf nehmen, welche Typen von Argumenten verwendet werden. Ferner wird in dieser Arbeit untersucht, inwiefern die Verwendung dieser Argumentkategorien den Lernerfolg beeinflusst. Auf der Basis von Interviewdaten konnten zunächst für die vorgebrachten Argumente beim Wechseln bzw. Beibehalten eigener Hypothesen beim Experimentieren zehn Kategorien identifiziert werden (u. a. „Intuition“, „Expertenwissen“, „Messunsicherheiten“ sowie „Daten als Evidenz“). Zur quantitativen Erfassung wurde dann für die vier o. g. Argumentkategorien ein Likert-skaliertes Instrument entwickelt. Die aufgeführten Fragestellungen wurden schließlich in einer randomisierten Studie mit 938 Schülerinnen und Schülern untersucht. Bei der Untersuchung des Einflusses personaler Faktoren zeigt sich u. a., dass Lernende in einer Argumentation umso eher Daten als Evidenz heranziehen, je höher das fachliche Vorwissen ist. Die Verwendung dieser Argumentkategorie erhöht wiederum die Wahrscheinlichkeit dafür, dass Lernende nach dem Experimentieren eine fachlich adäquate Hypothese aufstellen. Dies impliziert, dass der Umgang mit experimentellen Daten und Beobachtungen im Physikunterricht stärker als bisher berücksichtigt werden muss, z. B. durch eine explizitere Förderung von Fähigkeiten zum Umgang mit experimentellen Daten. Bis auf einen gut erklärbaren Unterschied können grundlegende Unterschiede beim Experimentieren zwischen Gruppen, die mit einem Real- bzw. Computerexperiment gearbeitet haben, nicht belegt werden.
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Se han realizado diversos estudios sobre la percepción infantil de la ciencia y de el/la científico/a en países desarrollados, tanto en Europa como en Norteamérica. Sin embargo, aún falta conocimiento empírico sobre dicha materia en países en vías de desarrollo como es el caso de Chile. La presente experiencia aborda el análisis de la percepción de la ciencia de el/la científico/a en niños entre once y trece años con talento académico de la Región de Antofagasta, Chile. Se escogió esta zona por ser una región con alto desarrollo científico en las áreas de la astronomía, acuicultura, biotecnología y minería, entre otras. El estudio se realizó a modo de seguimiento en el marco de un curso sobre periodismo científico del Programa DELTA (Desarrollando y Liderando Talentos Académicos) de la Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN). La modalidad de seguimiento permitió constatar cambios de percepciones a medida que el curso se iba desarrollando, es decir, un contacto directo con científicos/as cambió las percepciones que los niños tenían de éstos. Asimismo un acercamiento como el que ofrece el periodismo científico produjo cambios en la percepción sobre la ciencia y una valorización hacia las potencialidades científicas de la región. There have been executed several studies on infant perception of science and the scientist in developed countries, both in Europe and in North America. However, there is still a lack of empirical knowledge about this subject in developing countries such as Chile. This experience is intended to address the analysis of the perception of science of the scientist in children between eleven and thirteen years old with academic talent in the Region of Antofagasta, Chile. This area was chosen because is a region with high scientific development in the areas of astronomy, aquaculture, biotechnology and mining, among others. The study was conducted as a follow up as part of a course on science journalism DELTA Program (Developing and Lea- ding Academic Talents) of the Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN). The tracking mode perceptions helped to con rm changes as the course was developing, i.e. direct contact with scientists changed the perceptions that these children had. Also an approach such as that offered by science journalism produced changes in the perception of science and an appreciation to the scientific potential of the region.
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Abstract Local assessment moderation, a scorer-calibration process for alternative assessments, is the central component of an integrated assessment system, which serves as a medium for science teacher change. This paper describes the assessment system and provides a summary of the literature about organizational factors that mediate teacher professional development. The qualitative methods and analysis of features used to measure differences across Assessment Development Centers is presented. The findings suggest that leadership, institutional support, and teacher proximity and collaboration were the significant features that contributed to between-Center differences on teacher change in their level of success with implementing,the integrated assessment system. Integrated Assessment System as a Medium for Teacher Change
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Investigated 168 8th graders' views of science and showed them how to become more sophisticated as a result of a 1-semester course featuring integrated understanding of science. Ss' views were characterized concerning (1) how scientists explain phenomena and determine which theory is best, (2) whether scientists prefer parsimonious or descriptive explanations, (3) whether science knowledge applies to everyday problems, and (4) whether science can be learned by memorization or by understanding principles. The relations between these views and learning thermodynamics (TH) were studied by evaluating isolated TH information, abstract understanding of thermal events, and principled understanding applicable to everyday problems. Sophisticated beliefs about science were found to accompany integrated understanding of TH. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The determinants of fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth graders' intentions to perform science learning activities were investigated. Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action was used to assess students (n = 254) on their laboratory and nonlaboratory behavioral intentions, which required using the two determinants included in the theory (attitude toward the behavior and subjective norm) as well as five external variables identified by the researcher. The five external variables were gender, grade, race! ethnicity, socioeconomic status as determined by the range of the family's annual income, and attitude toward science. Two models were tested. The first model included the two determinants as predictor variables and behavioral intention as the criterion. The second model involved the analysis of the two determinants as they were considered in subgroups according to the five external variables. This model also included interaction terms. For laboratory learning activities, the two determinants (attitude toward behavior and subjective norm) were found to contribute collectively to the prediction of behavioral intention, accounting for almost a fourth of the variance. For nonlaboratory learning activities, the two determinants accounted for over a fourth of the variance in behavioral intention. Testing of the second model revealed that for both laboratory and nonlaboratory behavioral intentions, no interaction terms were significant. The results of post hoc tests on significant predictors of behavioral intentions for laboratory and nonlaboratory activities are reported. Implications of this study on future research are also discussed. (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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The Science Education for Public Understanding Project (SEPUP) has developed an issue-oriented science curriculum for the middle/junior high school entitled Course I: Issues, Evidence, and You. This paper reports an evaluation of its initial implementation year. The evaluation used a traditional pretest-posttest design to compare change over the year between students in SEPUP classes and a group of comparison classes on the "Evidence and Trade-offs" variable. The quantitative comparison is augmented by a qualitative map of the map which allows one to make educational interpretations of the quantitative results. The SEPUP students were found to have made gains which are both statistically and educationally significant. Although the comparison students made gains during the year, these were not statistically significant.
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The determinants of fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth graders' intentions to perform science learning activities were investigated. Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action was used to assess students (n = 254) on their laboratory and nonlaboratory behavioral intentions, which required using the two determinants included in the theory (attitude toward the behavior and subjective norm) as well as five external variables identified by the researcher. The five external variables were gender, grade, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status as determined by the range of the family's annual income, and attitude toward science. Two models were tested. The first model included the two determinants as predictor variables and behavioral intention as the criterion. The second model involved the analysis of the two determinants as they were considered in subgroups according to the five external variables. This model also included interaction terms. For laboratory learning activities, the two determinants (attitude toward behavior and subjective norm) were found to contribute collectively to the prediction of behavioral intention, accounting for almost a fourth of the variance. For nonlaboratory learning activities, the two determinants accounted for over a fourth of the variance in behavioral intention. Testing of the second model revealed that for both laboratory and nonlaboratory behavioral intentions, no interaction terms were significant. The results of post hoc tests on significant predictors of behavioral intentions for laboratory and nonlaboratory activities are reported. Implications of this study on future research are also discussed. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 36: 455–473, 1999
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This study investigated five different aspects (mental image, physical image, source of the image, 'scientists around us', and 'my favourite scientist') of Korean students' images of the scientists. The data, quantitative and qualitative, from the responses of a total of 1137 students from three different groups (age 11, 13and 15) were analysed to calculate the relative frequencies of some identified patterns of responses and to make comparisons between different genders and different age groups. Korean students generally showed, but to a slightly lesser extent, some stereotypical images of the scientist which were revealed in previous studies. These were influenced more by affective and ethical personal characteristics of the scientist than by their cognitive and gifted abilities. Some noticeable age-related and gender-related differences were also found and discussed.
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The purpose of this paper is to consider a number of issues relating to research in the area of high school pupils’ attitudes to science. Teachers appear to consider that pupils’ attitudes to science, and to what is being studied in science lessons, exert a profound influence on levels of engagement with the subject. Yet, perhaps because of the difficulties which appear to be associated with such work, studies of attitudes to science appear far less frequently in the literature than was the case 10 or 15 years ago. This paper attempts to map out the area of interest more clearly by considering issues to do with the meanings of key terms, methodology and the purpose of research into pupils’ attitudes to science. A number of key questions emerge from the discussion, and possible answers are used to argue a case for looking again at attitudes to science and to sketch an agenda for future work.
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Theoretical models posit that self-concept as well as prior accomplishments influence choice behavior. Structural equation models were used to examine the paths from school grades and self-concept to subsequent coursework selection (N = 246). Paths from self-concept to wanting to take a particular subject and, to a lesser extent, actually taking it were significant, but school grades did not contribute consistently beyond the effects of self-concept. When general academic self-concept (GASC) was added to these models, paths from GASC to coursework selection were negative, and paths from the specific components of self-concept increased; a positive self-concept in a specific school subject contributes even more to selection of that subject if self-concepts in other school subjects are lower. The major results were consistent across Years 8 and 10 and reasonably consistent across nine school subjects. The finding that specific components of self-concept are more strongly related to subsequent course selection than are school grades is substantively important and provides further support for the need to consider multiple dimensions of academic self-concept.
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This is a guide to using Quest. Quest offers a comprehensive test and questionnaire analysis environment by providing a data analyst with access to the most recent developments in Rasch measurement theory, as well as a range of traditional analysis procedures. It includes an easy to use control language with flexible and informative output. Quest can be used to construct and validate variables based on both dichotomous and polychotomous observations. It scores and analyses such instruments as multiple choice tests, Likert type rating scales, short answer items, and partial credit items.
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When surprising events occur, people naturally try to generate explanations of them. Such explanations usually involve hypothesizing causes that have the events as effects. Reasoning from effects to prior causes is found in many domains, including: Social reasoning: when friends are acting strange, we conjecture about what might be bothering them. Legal reasoning: when a crime has been committed, jurors must decide whether the prosecution's case gives a convincing explanation of the evidence. Medical diagnosis: given a set of symptoms, a physician tries to decide what disease or diseases produced them. Fault diagnosis in manufacturing: when a piece of equipment breaks down, a trouble shooter must try to determine the cause of the breakdown. Scientific theory evaluation: scientists seek an acceptable theory to explain experimental evidence. What is the nature of such reasoning?
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Students of reasoning have long tried to understand how people revise systems of beliefs. We maintain that people often change their beliefs in ways driven by considerations of explanatory coherence. This report describes computational model of how experimental subjects revise their naive beliefs about physical motion. First, instances are presented in which subjects changed their beliefs while learning elementary physics. Each of these cases involved an individual's attempt to explain a surprising observation. Next, we show how their belief revisions can be modeled using ECHO, a connectionist computer program that uses constraint satisfaction techniques to implement a theory of explanatory coherence. The resulting simulations even captured temporal characteristics of the observed changes in beliefs. Finally, the model's representational sensitivity and procedural robustness are discussed and one can show how ECHO can be used to generate empirical predictions about subjects' current beliefs. Keywords: Explanatory coherence; Belief revision; Naive physics; Connectionism.
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Assessment moderation is a procedure in which scorers or raters meet to achieve a consensus on scores assigned to student work. In the Science Education for Public Understanding Program (SEPUP), local teams of teachers met regularly at six sites nationwide to score student work, review methods of assigning scores, discuss and resolve discrepancies in scoring, and reach consensus on exemplars of work for each score level. The sites were called Assessment Development Centers and were located in Alaska, California, Colorado, Kentucky, Louisiana, and Oklahoma. Moderation sessions thus served purposes related to technical aspects of assessment, although SEPUP moderation sessions served additional purposes and provide additional benefits for teachers. Because moderation was part of a field test, teachers in the local group shared common concerns and experiences. As they field-tested a new approach to middle school science instruction, they were learning a new approach to assessing student performance. The moderation process went beyond its traditional purposes to purposes of professional development and teacher collegiality. This discussion of SEPUP local assessment moderation explores the way moderation meetings were intended to function and the ways they did function in reality. Preliminary insights into factors influencing successful implementation are proposed, and issues in the role of local moderation in assessment and professional development are discussed. An appendix summarizes the moderation process. (Contains 2 figures and 42 references.) (Author/SLD)
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Studied the impact of explanatory coherence on the evaluation of explanations. Tested were 4 principles of P. Thagard's (see record 1990-06642-001) model for evaluating the coherence of explanations. Study 1 showed that Ss preferred explanations that accounted for more data (breadth) and that were simpler (simplicity or parsimony). Study 2 demonstrated that Ss thought an explanation was stronger when it could, in turn, be explained. Study 3 showed that the evaluation of explanations is comparative, affected by the availability of good alternatives. Results were then successfuly simulated using Thagard's connectionist implementation of his model of explanatory coherence. The data and the simulation, taken together, strongly support the model. Two issues are then discussed: (1) the role of explanatory coherence in social explanation and (2) the relevance of parallel constraint satisfaction processes to social reasoning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study investigated the use of a hands-on laboratory program as a means of improving student attitude toward science and increasing student achievement levels in science knowledge. Using a posttest-only control group design, curriculum referenced objective examinations were used to measure student achievement in science knowledge, and a posttest Q-sort survey was used to measure student attitude toward science. A one-way analysis of variance compared the groups' differences in achievement and attitude toward science. Analysis of covariance was used to determine the effect of the laboratory treatment on the dependent achievement variable with attitude toward science as the covariable. The findings showed that students who had regular laboratory instruction (a) scored significantly higher (p < .01) on the objective examination of achievement in science knowledge than those who had no laboratory experiences; (b) exhibited a moderate, positive correlation (r = .406) between their attitude toward science and their achievement; and (c) scored significantly higher (p < .01) on achievement in science knowledge after these scores were adjusted on the attitude toward science covariable. There were no significant differences in achievement or attitude toward science for the limited English proficiency groups. It was concluded that laboratory instruction influenced, in a positive direction, the students' attitude toward science, and influenced their achievement in science knowledge. It was recommended that science instruction include a regular laboratory experience as a demonstrated viable and effective instructional method for science teachers. This model of science instruction has been shown to be effective with students of diverse backgrounds who live within large urban centers. J Res Sci Teach 34: 343–357, 1997.
Article
The impact of two science enrichment programs on the science attitudes of 330 gifted high school students was evaluated using a multimethod, multiperspective approach that provided a more comprehensive evaluation of program impact on science attitudes than did previous assessments of science programs. Although pre–post comparisons did not indicate positive impact on science attitudes, other measures provided strong evidence of program effectiveness. Program benefits were greater among girls, those who had more supportive families and teachers, and those who entered the programs with greater general confidence in their abilities. Implications for science enrichment programs and their evaluation are discussed. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 38: 1065–1088, 2001
Article
An analysis of the 1976-1977 NAEP survey of science attitudes showed that, by age nine, females, although expressing similar or greater desires to participate in science activities, had consistently fewer experiences in science than boys of the same age. Science activities surveyed included use of common experimental materials and instruments, observation of scientific phenomena, and field trips. At ages 13 and 17, girls again reported fewer classroom and extracurricular science activities than boys. Their responses indicated narrow perceptions of science and of the usefulness of scientific research. In addition, they displayed generally negative attitudes toward science classes and careers. Suggestions to eliminate the inequalities found are offered.
Article
The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of students' background and perceptions on science attitude and achievement. The data analysed came from Booklet 4 given to 17-year-olds during the 1976–1977 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) survey. Causal modeling procedures were used to analyze the data. In particular, the LISREL method which underlies the LISREL IV computer program, (Jöreskog and Sörbom, 1978) was employed. The influence of five background variables (sex, race, home environment, amount of homework, and parents' education) on three dependent variables (student perception of science instruction, student attitudes, and student achievement) was examined. Sex, race, and the home environment were shown to have substantial influence on student achievement in science. Further, two different models were tested: a model in which attitudes influence achievement and its converse (achievement influences attitudes). The data supported the first model, that is, attitudes influence achievement.
Article
Iowa students and parents completed related attitude and belief questionnaires about school subjects. Grade K–3 students received simpler questionnaires than did Grade 4–6 students or parents. Among Grade 4–6 children, girls perceived higher competence in reading than did boys, but boys perceived higher competence in physical science. All children perceived physical science competence lower than reading or math competence. Parents perceived boys as more competent in science. Girls like reading more than boys did; boys and girls did not differ in liking of science. Grade 4–6 children also expected lower grades in and attached lower importance to physical science than to reading. Parents perceived science as more important for boys and expected higher performance of boys. Jobs related to math or science were seen as more male dominated. These results provided a more comprehensive picture of attitudes and beliefs about science in the elementary school than had existed and suggested that attitudinal gender differences related to physical science begin to develop by the earliest elementary school years. Policy implications are that intervention programs designed to promote gender equity should be extended to the early elementary school years and also should address parental attitudes. Additional implications for policy and research are discussed. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 36: 719–747, 1999
Article
The problem of evaluating explanatory hypotheses is to choose the hypothesis or theory that best accounts for, or explains, the given evidence. Thagard (e.g., 1989) and Ranney (in press; Ranney & Thagard, 1988) describe a the-ory of explanatory coherence intended to account for a va-riety of explanatory evaluations; this theory has been im-plemented in a connectionist computer model, ECHO. In this study, we examine three questions regarding the rela-tionship between human explanatory reasoning and ECHO's explanatory evaluations: Does ECHO predict sub-jects' evaluations of interrelated propositions? Are local temporal order differences (not explicitly modeled by ECHO) important to the subjects? Does ECHO predict sub-jects' inflectional reasoning? We found that subjects often entertain competing hypotheses as nonexclusive and pre-sume an implied backing for certain (superordinate) hy-potheses. These tendencies were modeled in ECHO by as-signing a fraction of data priority (usually reserved for evi-dence) to the superordinate hypotheses. In sum, the ECHO model helps to interpret subjects' reasoning patterns, and shows continued potential for simulating explanatory co-herence processes.
Article
1 In an earlier study, we modeled subjects' beliefs in textu-ally embedded propositions with ECHO, a computa-tional system for simulating explanatory evaluations (Schank & Ranney, 1991). We both presumed and found that subjects' representations of the texts were not com-pletely captured by the (a priori) representations gener-ated and encoded into ECHO; extraneous knowledge likely contributed to subjects' biases toward certain hy-potheses. This study builds on previous work via two questions: First, how well can ECHO predict subjects' belief evaluations when a priori representations are not used? To assess this, we asked subjects to predict (and explain, with alternatives) an endpoint pendular-release trajectory, while collecting believability ratings for their on-line beliefs; subjects' protocols were then "blindly" encoded and simulated with ECHO, and their ratings were compared to ECHO's resulting activations. Second, how similar are different coders' encodings of the same reasoning episode? To assess intercoder agreement, we examined the fit between ECHO's activations for coders' encodings of the same protocols. We found that inter-coder correlations were acceptable, and ECHO predicted subjects' ratings well––almost as well as those from the more diminutive, constrained situations modeled by Schank and Ranney (1991).
Article
The Scientific Attitude Inventory (SAI) was developed and field tested 25 years ago. It has been used extensively throughout the world, and it continues to be used. Reports of its use and sugges-tions for revision provide impetus for revision. The revision retains the original position statements of at-titudes assessed and the original attitude statements with changes made only to improve readability and to eliminate gender-biased language. Also, in response to critical analysis, the SAI II uses a five-response Likert Scale. The new version is shorter, 40 items instead of 60 in the original. The SAI II was field test-ed with 557 students in Grades 6, 9, and 12. The top and bottom 27% of scorers for the total inventory were compared for the subscales. A statistically significant difference was obtained for each t-test com-parison. Face validity for the SAI II is claimed on the basis of the original judgments of a panel of judges regarding the attitude position statements which have not been altered. A split-half reliability coefficient of .805 was computed for the entire group of 557 respondents. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient is .781.