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Parenting Self‐Efficacy Among Mothers of School‐Age Children: Conceptualization, Measurement, and Correlates*

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Abstract

Relationships among parenting self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, child and maternal characteristics, and parenting satisfaction in 145 mothers of school-aged children were examined. Higher parenting self-efficacy was observed in mothers of less emotional and more sociable children, and among mothers who were better educated, had higher family incomes, and reported more previous experience with children. Higher parenting self-efficacy and several mother and child variables predicted greater satisfaction with parenting. Influences of mothers' experience with children other than their own and maternal education on parenting satisfaction were mediated by parenting self-efficacy. Suggestions concerning the conceptualization and measurement of parenting self-efficacy are provided.
Parenting Self-Efficacy among Mothers of School-Age Children:
Conceptualization, Measurement, and Correlates
Priscilla K. Coleman; Katherine Hildebrandt Karraker
Family Relations, Vol. 49, No. 1. (Jan., 2000), pp. 13-24.
Stable URL:
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0197-6664%28200001%2949%3A1%3C13%3APSAMOS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-H
Family Relations is currently published by National Council on Family Relations.
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You have printed the following article:
Parenting Self-Efficacy among Mothers of School-Age Children: Conceptualization,
Measurement, and Correlates
Priscilla K. Coleman; Katherine Hildebrandt Karraker
Family Relations, Vol. 49, No. 1. (Jan., 2000), pp. 13-24.
Stable URL:
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0197-6664%28200001%2949%3A1%3C13%3APSAMOS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-H
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... Therefore, we present below a brief review of studies reporting associations between general parenting self-efficacy and factors that were examined in the current study. Higher levels of general parenting self-efficacy were reported by mothers rather than fathers (Pećnik, 2013;Šepčević Sudar, 2014), parents who had completed higher levels of education than those with a lower level of education (Aydoğdu, Aysu, Aral, & Gürsoy, 2021;Coleman & Karraker, 2000), as well as parents of typically developing children than parents of children with developmental disabilities (Aydoğdu et al., 2021;Fulgosi-Masnjak, Gustović-Ercegovac & Igrić, 1998;Pećnik & Tokić, 2011). In addition, compared to adolescents with low academic self-efficacy, those who believe that they are capable of doing school errands have parents who are more satisfied and feel more competent in their parental roles (Reić Ercegovac & Koludrović, 2010). ...
... There is also a possibility that, in families with more children, the older children take some responsibility for the care for their younger siblings, making the demands of parenting somewhat easier, which results in an increase in self-efficacy in a parental role. However, empirical studies have either found no relationship (Coleman & Karraker, 2000) or reported a negative relationship (Hong & Liu, 2021) between the number of children and parenting self-efficacy. ...
... The number of children in a household was not expected to predict parenting self-efficacy due to inconclusive findings from previous research (Coleman & Karraker, 2000;Hong & Liu, 2021). However, our findings indicate that parents with more children felt more effective in a parental role, which is consistent with theoretical expectations (Coleman & Karraker, 2000;Jones & Prinz, 2005). ...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, remote schooling was conducted on several occasions in the Republic of Croatia. The aim of this study is to compare the remote schooling experiences of parents of elementary school children with hearing and/or speech and language disorders and those of parents of typically developing children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parental time involvement and predictors of general parenting self-efficacy were examined using two online surveys based on the same questionnaire. The first survey involved 267 parents of typically developing children, while the second involved 109 parents of children with hearing and/or speech and language disorders. Data were analysed using chi-square tests and hierarchical regression analysis. Our results show that, on working days and on weekends, parents of children with developmental disorders invested significantly more time in their child’s remote schooling than parents of typically developing children. Furthermore, higher general parenting self-efficacy was reported by parents who had more children, those whose children were more independent regarding remote schooling, those whose children did not suffer from developmental disorders, as well as those who experienced less stress due to their child’s remote schooling. Our study highlights the importance of adapting the remote schooling model based on the different needs and abilities of students, as well as the requirements of their families in order to prevent low parenting self-efficacy and improve students’ educational achievements.
... Thereby, those parents who feel competent in their parenting may experience more positive affect, whereas it can be more difficult to experience confidence if one does not receive positive feedback through a child's positive behaviors (Ardelt & Eccles, 2001;Coleman & Karraker, 1998, 2000. Coleman and Karraker (2000) established that mothers with higher PSE perceived their school-aged children to be more sociable. A child's challengingly experienced behavior, then again, can undermine a parent's confidence in their own parenting abilities (Ardelt & Eccles, 2001;Jones & Prinz, 2005). ...
... We applied a modified and translated version of the Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Index (SEPTI) (Coleman & Karraker, 2000), validated for Finnish parents of fourth graders by Junttila et al. (2007), to examine parental selfefficacy. The modified scale comprises 21 items, divided into four subscales: (1) nurturance (e.g., "I know I'm not there enough emotionally for my child"); (2) discipline (e.g., "I have more difficulties with discipline than other aspects of parenting"); (3) recreation (e.g., "I know I should care more about my child's social life"); and (4) participation (e.g., "I am not as involved in my child's school work as I think I should be"). ...
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Relationships are at the heart of well-being. Parental self-efficacy emerges as a powerful construct for understanding parenting and parent-child relationships. However, person-centered approaches that allow identification of different family-specific configurations of mothers' and fathers' parental self-efficacy and potential within-family discrepancies remain scarce. Families are more than the sums of their parts, and holistic approaches are needed to deepen our understanding of potential family-level accumulation of relationship well-being and vulnerability. A latent profile analysis of 249 families of preadolescents identified four family profiles of parental self-efficacy: (1) low-low, (2) low-average, (3) high-average, and (4) high-high (a mother's-a father's parental self-efficacy within the family). We further applied the Mplus auxiliary function to explore what characterizes mothers', fathers', and their preadolescents' intra-and extra-familial relationships within these profiles. Belonging to the balanced low parental self-efficacy family profile was associated with intra-and extra-familial relationship vulnerability: mothers, fathers, and preadolescents reported the highest social and emotional loneliness, parents perceived their family communication as less open, and preadolescents were evaluated as the least prosocial (in parent, teacher, and peer evaluations) and as the most antisocial (in parent evaluations). Mothers', fathers', and preadolescents' intra-and extra-familial relationship well-being was the strongest in high parental self-efficacy family profiles. Promoting parental self-efficacy can be a promising way to enhance all family members' relationship well-being. Moreover, as loneliness experiences accumulated in the balanced low parental self-efficacy family profile, efforts to tackle preadolescents' loneliness should acknowledge the well-being of all family members.
... Parental pleasure was predicted by higher parenting self-efficacy and various mother and child characteristics. Parenting selfefficacy moderated the effects of mothers' experience with children other than their own and maternal education on parenting pleasure (Coleman, et.al., 2018) [32] Sharing godly messages to strengthen their faith (3.66) and correcting negative attitudes in dealing with the pandemic (3.56) have been highly practiced by the single mothers. Proverbs 22:6 says, -Train up a child in the way he should go: and when he is old, he will not depart from it‖ Likewise, negating tantrums of children (3.53) has also been highly practiced by the single mothers. ...
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Single parenthood equates persistent responsibility and fervor. The holistic phases of child management direct efficient guidance and careful time handling. Hence, this study explored the child-rearing practices of single mothers during the Covid-19 pandemic along with caretaking, connectedness, control and child behavior management and examined their encountered problems and identified their profile variables in terms of their age, monthly family income, highest educational attainment, religion and number of children. Participants were 73 single mothers of Villasis, Pangasinan. Results showed that majority of the single mothers in Villasis, Pangasinan are 18-34 years, Roman Catholic believers, high school graduate, having a monthly income of 11,690.00 and below with 1-2 children. Their child-rearing practices during covid-19 pandemic are highly demonstrated. Their age, highest educational attainment, and religion of the respondents had an effect to the practices. As well, being alone and interrupted sleep have been the major problems being met. Notwithstanding, results suggested that various government agencies may offer job opportunities for single mothers that are suited to their conditions and educational attainment. Additionally, may conduct seminars and educational colloquia along child-rearing practices to give more valuable insights and additional understandings among single mothers in the Municipality.
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