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Abstract

This review of the UK's landfill tax generates two main contributions to our understanding of waste management in the UK. First, the review identifies areas in which the tax is least effective and considers policy implications associated with this. In particular, the tax has failed to significantly change the behaviour of domestic waste producers and SMEs. Second, it identifies continued information gaps that might be addressed. In particular, the landfill tax is intended to contribute to a transition away from landfilling of waste, towards recovery, recycling, re-use and waste minimization. This review of available evidence finds that there is reasonable data to monitor progress towards recycling, but not for re-use or waste minimization.

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... Both ban on landfill of the reusable and recyclable material (e.g. in Netherland and Belgium) and higher landfill charge level for mixed CDW (e.g. in Hong Kong, UK and Germany) have been employed to drive the sorting and raise the recycling level of CDW (European Commission, 2015a, 2015b, 2015c, 2015dLu & Tam, 2013). The latter approach gets more popularity because economic instruments have been regarded to be more efficient than coercive instruments (Martin & Scott, 2003). In UK, the standard landfill tax is £82.6 (about US$ 107.50) per ton, while a low rate landfill tax of £2.6 (about US$ 3.38) per ton is applied to the sorted inert waste (e.g. ...
... In other words, the value they attempted to calculate is the price that should be paid for CDW in term of their environmental impact. This approach has once been applied in setting original rate of UK landfill tax in 1996, although there was controversy over the methods and scope of social cost (Martin & Scott, 2003). This paper aims to set a reasonable landfill charge level instead of a theoretically ideal one. ...
... This paper aims to set a reasonable landfill charge level instead of a theoretically ideal one. The landfill charge rate depending on social cost may be not enough to serve the goal of reducing disposal of waste to landfill (Martin & Scott, 2003). The landfill fee should be escalated to the tipping point that "it started to do its job". ...
Article
To promote the sorting and recycling rate of construction and demolition waste (CDW), economically incentive policy has been widely adopted by developed economies. Referring to the successful landfill charge scheme in Hong Kong, a renewal CDW landfill charge scheme was assumed to be implemented in Shenzhen. Instead of thumb rules, this study employed contingent valuation method (CVM) to evaluate the local stakeholders’ willingness to pay (WTP) for disposal of CDW. This study aims to set a reasonable landfill charge level instead of a theoretically ideal one in order to facilitate industry’s behavioral change. In essence, this study attempts to find the tipping point that the stakeholders will change their waste handling behavior. The construction industry of Shenzhen was surveyed and a total of 106 valid questionnaires were collected. Results show the mean WTPs for disposal of Inert CDW, Half mixed CDW and Mixed CDW were RMB¥6.1, 24.0 and 33.6 (about US$ 0.89, 3.53 and 4.94) per ton respectively. Through regression analysis, firm size, ownership, position, environmental concern, perceived benefit and effectiveness were found to have significant effect on stakeholders’ WTP for the disposal of CDW. These results provide useful references for improving the current CDW landfill charge scheme in Shenzhen.
... Taxes on emissions to air, land (Bosquet, 2000) UK Landfill Tax (Martin and Scott, 2003) Subsidies to support renewable energy ...
... A useful example is that of UK waste policy, which includes a complex mix of instruments of different types targeted at businesses, households and waste disposal operators (Braathen, 2007). UK waste strategy is often described in terms of a 'waste hierarchy': reduce, reuse and recycle (Martin and Scott, 2003). Interventions are targeted at reducing the amount of waste produced, reusing material where possible, and recycling what remains, so that disposal is minimized. ...
... The UK Landfill Tax was introduced in 1996 to discourage the use of landfill for waste disposal, as land for this purpose was becoming increasingly scarce and there was concern about the damaging impact of landfill on groundwater, amenity for local residents, methane emissions and human health impacts (Martin and Scott, 2003). The Landfill Tax is payable by landfill operators and acts to increase the cost of landfill to discourage its use, and was established as an escalating fee so that incentives become stronger over time. ...
Article
There is a lack of evidence on regulatory effectiveness available to support policy makers with the selection of appropriate instruments to deliver better environmental regulation. We identify the types of evidence required to enable regulatory reform, characterize evidence gaps, and explore how these may be filled through future research. A typology of regulatory instruments is presented, and evidence of what has worked when and why is examined, drawing on international experience and recent cases from the United Kingdom (UK). Evidence of the capabilities of good environmental regulators for regulatory effectiveness is lacking, and it is proposed that ethnographic research that captures the nuances of regulatory practice will prove necessary to address this. This paper is of value to policy makers and regulators around the world considering the selection and deployment of the full range of environmental regulatory instruments to respond to environmental risks and in support of economic growth. It can inform the selection of suitable approaches and the design of institutions capable of delivering them. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
... The financial competitiveness of secondary materials can be enhanced through taxation on competing virgin materials or on waste disposal, where Solderholm (2011) argues that the latter can be more effective due to low administration costs and increased policy acceptance. However, Martin and Scott (2003) found that while the United Kingdom (UK) LFT had increased landfill diversion, it had been less successful in promoting the top waste hierarchy priorities. Likewise, in an EU-wide study, Mazzanti and Zoboli (2008) concluded that while LFTs can lead to the management of waste being promoted up the waste hierarchy (to recovery or recycling), they do not create a backwards incentive to reduce waste generation. ...
... When first introduced, the LFT rates were £2/tonne for inert waste and £7/tonne for active waste, thus with gate fees of around £5-£15 (ENDS, 1994) total disposal costs remained relatively low. As such, the LFT provided little financial incentive for diversion and had minimal effect on the amount of waste being disposed to landfill (Martin and Scott, 2003). To address this legislative failure, the LFT escalator was introduced (HM Treasury, 1999; Martin and Scott, 2003), where the price of landfilling active waste increased by a fixed amount each year from 2000 to 2014. ...
... As such, the LFT provided little financial incentive for diversion and had minimal effect on the amount of waste being disposed to landfill (Martin and Scott, 2003). To address this legislative failure, the LFT escalator was introduced (HM Treasury, 1999; Martin and Scott, 2003), where the price of landfilling active waste increased by a fixed amount each year from 2000 to 2014. Since 2015, both the active and inert tax rates have been index linked (HMRC, 2016b), standing at £84.40/tonne for active waste and £2.65/tonne for inert waste in 2016/17 (HMRC, 2016a). ...
Article
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Increasing attention is being paid to the use of policy instruments in promoting progressive waste management and supporting the transition to a circular economy. To be effective in this context, instruments must be balanced , providing the correct amount of sanction and incentive to ensure environmental protection, enhance resource recovery, and promote innovation and investment in beneficial technologies. Focusing on the UK landfill tax, and adopting a stakeholder-oriented approach, this paper presents a case study illustrating how the ineffective implementation of secondary legislation can have unintended consequences on the aims of primary legislation. Specifically, it examines the Landfill Tax (Qualifying Fines) Order 2015 (QFO), which introduced a Loss On Ignition (LOI) test regime to classify fines for tax purposes. Results from a stakeholder survey (n = 44) revealed that the introduction of the QFO has dis-incentivised material recovery and discouraged investment in separation technologies, thereby creating a perverse incentive to landfill waste. Major weaknesses identified include the poorly defined LOI test regime, the timing of and responsibility for conducting LOI testing, the lack of compliance checks, and the marked discontinuity in tax rates at the somewhat arbitrary 10% LOI threshold. Furthermore, the system was widely viewed to be open to abuse by unscrupulous traders. A set of recommendations are made to address these shortcomings, where it is proposed that the LOI threshold should be replaced by multiple tax bands or a sliding scale and ideally combined with a direct incentive for investment such as an enhanced capital allowance for resource efficient technologies.
... For the past few decades, critical success factors which explore the impact of system development have received special and continuous attention globally (Wang et al., 2017;Bakaret al., 2010) for this reason, CSFs have always been the focus of researchers on the promotion and development of green building, for instance, Morris et al., (1998) and Martin and Scott, (2003) identified legislation policies and regulation as the critical success factors for implementing new system. The policies and regulations for promoting GBs have actually been proposed, and outstanding achievements have been made in some countries (Wang et al., 2019). ...
... The summary of success factors identified from literature review is as listed in Table 1. Legislation Policy, and Regulations Morris et al., 1998;Martin and Scott, 2003) 2 ...
Article
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Climate change resulting from global warming is fast becoming an important issue globally. Although there have been numerous empirical studies that have identified critical success factors for green building development. However, there is dearth of studies on success factors for the adoption of Green Building Technologies (GBT) as an integral part of green building development. This study is set to examine the success factors affecting the adoption of GBT as a component of green building development. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify success factors affecting GBT. This was followed by administration of questionnaires to industry practitioners engaged in the design and construction of buildings. The mean score (ms) and ranking of the success factors revealed five (5) most important factors as social awareness of GBT benefits (ms 4.0133), availability of social and natural environment condition to adopt GBT (ms 3.9867), availability of stable economic condition (ms 3.8933), demand and competitive advantage (ms 3.8533), and team members" technical background (ms 3.8533). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to investigate the level of agreement in the perception of industry practitioners based on type of organisations, years of industry experience, academic qualification and professional background. ANOVA results shows that there is no general agreement in the perception of industry practitioners on the ranking of the success factors. In order to ensure adoption of green building technologies, industry stakeholders must ensure that there is incentive for clients to include cost of GBT in the project budget. Additionally, design professionals must be mandated to always incorporate same at the early stage of building projects. This study has contributed to the existing body of knowledge regarding success factors for the adoption of GBT which could guide in formulating policies for its implementation.
... Burnley (2001) linked the EU directive to national UK implementation. Another interesting assessment, which is quite pessimistic in its conclusions, was provided by Martin and Scott (2003), who stressed that tax has failed to significantly change the behavior of domestic waste producers. ...
... The Italian landfill tax is an important case study at international level. It is first of all an 'old' tax that was implemented back in 1996, even before the famous UK tax (Martin and Scott, 2003;EEA, 2009;Pearce, 2004;DEFRA, 2004). Differently from the UK tax which is defined and administered by the Treasury HM, landfill taxes in Italy are delegated to and defined by Regions (20 in Italy). ...
Article
We analyze the process of landfill diversion and its main determinants, by embedding the dynamics in a frame where economic, geographical and policy variables come into play. In addition to structural and economic drivers, we primarily investigate whether the Italian tax has been effective in supporting landfill diversion. Although the Italian landfill tax dates back to 1996, the oldest in the EU, its effectiveness in terms of landfill diversion has not been assessed yet. The complexity primarily derives from the decentralized regional implementation and the absence of a full coherent dataset covering all regions. We merge this new and original data on taxes to an integrated dataset which includes economic, waste and policy variables at regional level over the period 1999-2008. Panel regressions show that the effect of tax is significant, even when taking into account for its possible endogeneity. Regions that have increased such taxes have improved waste disposal performances over time. Landfill taxes are surely not the only instrument policy makers might introduce, but they seem to play a relevant role in the evolution of Italian waste disposal performances.
... The Aggregate Levy since 1 April 2009 is £2/tonne for primary production of sand, gravel and crushed rock for construction purposes. It increases average prices in real terms, affecting production from land-based quarries, marine dredging and imports, and has no effect on UK exported products and recycled aggregate (Böhmer et al., 2008;Martin and Scott, 2003). Nevertheless the Levy generated less than the Landfill Tax (Fig. 6), which is relatively high for active waste (e.g. ...
... In the UK, environmental taxes are also used to avoid undesirable impacts on the environment, linking to a physical unit or a suitable proxy. However, Martin and Scott (2003) stated such taxes can be seen to be more concerned with revenue-raising purposes than addressing particular environmental objectives. Revenues raised in Great Britain provide some reduction in employers' National Insurance contributions, and fund environmental projects that deliver benefits to local communities via environmental funds. ...
Article
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Rapid urbanisation, with associated housing and infrastructure demands, leads to increased mining and use of non-renewable mineral raw materials needed for the construction industry including concrete and cement. In an emerging economy, like Thailand, which is part of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), current environmental management policies are insufficient to reduce raw material requirements or waste from demolition by generating inputs to construction through reuse or recycling. As part of the European Union (EU), Great Britain has successfully implemented integrated policies and achieved high rates of recycled aggregates in construction (29%) and a 70% reuse and recycling target for construction and demolition (C&D) waste. In this paper, Material Flow Analysis (MFA) of cement/concrete materials is combined with an interpretation of related policies to provide a deeper understanding how to achieve more sustainable management of natural resources. A comparative MFA for the construction industry in Great Britain and Thailand (representing an ASEAN country) has been developed that quantifies raw material inputs, buildings and infrastructure outputs, so that the practices in the two countries can be contrasted. We report domestic cement production and import/export data, and calculate the raw materials needed for cement and its calcination process for concrete production. Considering the most relevant policies and taxation in Great Britain, we identify possible ways forward for Thailand by introducing new policies and taxation that will have positive effects on raw material extraction, processing, construction and disposal practices and disposal behaviors. Following the MFA and policy analysis, we believe that similar benefits apply to other emerging economies.
... Nevertheless, it seems that governmental interventions only emerge when disposal sites begin to fill up. This presumably was the primary reason for the introduction of a landfill tax in the UK [7] Denmark [8] and Israel [9] . A primary concern mentioned in the EU Land-fill Directive [10], which sets parameters for European landfill policies, is "to safeguard natural resources and obviate wasteful use of land." ...
... Few comprehensive ex-post evaluations of landfill taxes have been conducted. In two cases, Andersen's evaluation of the Danish landfill tax [8] and Martin and Scott's evaluation of the UK tax [7], the study identified only a limited response to the incentive. Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes appear to have been affected in both cases, and garden waste was reduced in Denmark. ...
Article
What factors influence the waste policy of local authorities? While central governments make efforts to promote recycling, the major players in municipal waste management are local authorities. This paper explores the factors influencing waste policies of local authorities in Israel in light of the new landfill tax legislated in 2007. Based on interviews with officials overseeing waste management and other stakeholders, a model of waste policy making in local authorities is proposed. A survey among waste officials of local authorities then evaluates the influence of general and specific factors on associated municipal policies. Cost of landfilling and a new landfill tax, is reported as highly influential on waste policies. Other factors, such as the Mayor's motivation, managerial capacity in the municipality, and recycling markets are also highly influential. While the cost of landfilling is easily targeted by the central government, the latter factors are seldom addressed.
... It is also important to promote the use of eco-packaging, which will reduce the use of plastics to a great extent [367]. • Landfill tax is profitable for all the landfill operators, as it incentivizes landfill operators and controllers to enact better diversion habits [368,369]. Therefore, an alternative could be EPR, which has emerged through the Green Dots program in Germany [360][361][362][363][364][365][366][367][368][369][370][371][372]. EPR helps encourage the producers to confront and handle the cost of "end of life" disposal of the plastic products produced; hence, it provides incentives for producers to take account of these costs in designing their products [373][374][375]. ...
... • Landfill tax is profitable for all the landfill operators, as it incentivizes landfill operators and controllers to enact better diversion habits [368,369]. Therefore, an alternative could be EPR, which has emerged through the Green Dots program in Germany [360][361][362][363][364][365][366][367][368][369][370][371][372]. EPR helps encourage the producers to confront and handle the cost of "end of life" disposal of the plastic products produced; hence, it provides incentives for producers to take account of these costs in designing their products [373][374][375]. ...
Article
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Plastic pollution is ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Plastic waste exposed to the environment creates problems and is of significant concern for all life forms. Plastic production and accumulation in the natural environment are occurring at an unprecedented rate due to indiscriminate use, inadequate recycling, and deposits in landfills. In 2019, the global production of plastic was at 370 million tons, with only 9% of it being recycled, 12% being incinerated, and the remaining left in the environment or landfills. The leakage of plastic wastes into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is occurring at an unprecedented rate. The management of plastic waste is a challenging problem for researchers, policymakers, citizens, and other stakeholders. Therefore, here, we summarize the current understanding and concerns of plastics pollution (microplastics or nanoplastics) on natural ecosystems. The overall goal of this review is to provide background assessment on the adverse effects of plastic pollution on natural ecosystems; interlink the management of plastic pollution with sustainable development goals; address the policy initiatives under transdisciplinary approaches through life cycle assessment, circular economy, and sustainability; identify the knowledge gaps; and provide current policy recommendations. Plastic waste management through community involvement and socio-economic inputs in different countries are presented and discussed. Plastic ban policies and public awareness are likely the major mitigation interventions. The need for life cycle assessment and circularity to assess the potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout a plastic product’s life span is emphasized. Innovations are needed to reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover plastics and find eco-friendly replacements for plastics. Empowering and educating communities and citizens to act collectively to minimize plastic pollution and use alternative options for plastics must be promoted and enforced. Plastic pollution is a global concern that must be addressed collectively with the utmost priority.
... It makes a good business sense. Martin and Scott [32] similarly commented that current landfill taxes have failed to significantly influence small business waste management strategies. Currently, the local authority charged businesses either by the bag or by the bin. ...
Conference Paper
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Landfill dominates Welsh solid waste management (SWM) strategies despite harmful impacts on the environment. Reducing solid waste for landfill is therefore an imperative. Although small hotels individually produce small quantities of solid waste, collectively the volume is significant with much going to landfill although the waste hierarchy offers more sustainable alternatives that small hotels could use. Small hotels are businesses and legally required to make appropriate arrangements for SWM – either through the public or private sector. Earlier research in Wales emphasises economic forces in motivating small hotels SWM practices. Welsh local authorities play a major role in SWM. They are more committed to sustainable SWM practices as they are under pressure to meet the recycling and composting targets in Wales’ Waste Strategy 2002. The private sector also plays a significant role in SWM but is not under pressure to meet targets and is more concerned with waste collection and landfilling. Both the public and private sector are critical to offering more sustainable SWM strategies for small hotels. This paper explores the support available to small hotels for SWM. A qualitative approach is used to develop a rich picture of the issues being investigated. Semi-structured interviews with waste management officers and private waste companies within a Welsh local authority show that neither provides appropriate support to commercial businesses, particularly towards waste minimisation and composting. The research concludes a fundamental review of SWM practices is needed to offer more sustainable SWM strategies to small hotels. Key words: solid waste, disposal, landfill, recycling, composting, sustainable, landfill tax, partnership, public sector, private sector.
... The construction business in the UK is responsible for nearly a third of all industry-related pollution incidents. Construction and demolition waste alone represented 72.5 million tonnes of total UK waste of 177 million tonnes (40.9 per cent) in 2000 (Martin and Scott, 2003). ...
... authors have stressed and provided evidence of a negligible cost of waste disposal, on average less than 1% of turnover. Nevertheless, the disposal (expected) costs have strongly increased over the very recent years, and most businesses now believe that waste minimization could save money, mainly by reducing material inputs (Martin and Scott, 2003; Gibson, 2001). The waste/material issue is one of the hottest, given no evidence exist of an inverted U-shape EKC curve for waste and material in general terms. ...
Article
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Technological innovation is a key factor for achieving a better environmental performance of firms and the economy as a whole, to the extent that helps increasing the material/energy efficiency of production processes and reducing emission/effluents associated to outputs. Environmental innovation may spur from exogenous driving forces, like policy intervention, and/or from endogenous factors associated to firm market and management strategies. Despite the crucial importance of research in this field, empirical evidence at firm microeconomic level, for various reasons, is still scarce. Microeconomic-based analysis is needed in order to assess what forces are lying behind environmental innovation at the level of the firm, where innovative practices emerge and are adopted. The paper exploits information deriving from two surveys conducted on a sample of manufacturing firms in the Emilia Romagna region -Northern Italy- in 2002 and 2004, located in a district-intense local production system. New evidence on the driving forces of environmental-related innovation is provided by testing a set of hypothesis, concerning the influence of: (i) firm structural variables; (ii) environmental R&D; (iii) environmental policy pressure and regulatory costs; (iv) past firm performances; (v) networking activities, (vi) other non-environmental techno-organizational innovations and (vii) quality/nature of industrial relations. We estimate various input and output-based environmental innovation reduced form specifications in order to test the set of hypothesis. The applied investigation shows that environmental innovation drivers, both at input and output level, are found within exogenous factors and endogenous elements concerning the firm and its activities/strategies within and outside its natural boundaries. In the present case study, usual structural characteristics of the firm and performances appear to matter less than R&D, induced costs networking, organisational flatness and innovative oriented industrial relations. Environmental Policies and environmental voluntary auditing schemes exert some relevant direct and indirect effects on innovation, although evidence is mixed and further research is particularly needed. Although this new empirical evidence is focusing on a specific industrial territory, results concern a large set of hypothesis on potential driving forces of innovation. We thus provide food for discussion on firm environmental innovation strategies, and research suggestions for further empirical works.
... This reduces the environmental effectiveness of the instrument dramatically, due to the high organic composition of household waste. Waste to landfill from construction industry however, decreased dramatically upon the instruments introduction (from 51.2% in 1996 to 24% in 2000) (Martin & Scott, 2003), with material re-use and recycling increasing (48.8% in 1996 to 58% in 2000) in response to this price signal. Since these reviews took place, the rate levied has more than doubled. ...
... Nevertheless, even in the EU leading countries, such as the UK, some authors are doubtful about the effectiveness of this instrument (Martin and Scott, 2003). Policy effectiveness in the environmental and even more in the waste area, depends on the structure of the policy package rather than on the individual instrument (EEA, 2009). ...
Article
This paper provides analyses of municipal waste generation and landfill diversion dynamics based on an 8-year panel dataset for Italy covering 103 provinces. Although absolute declining for waste generation is a long way off, there are some first signals of increasing relative delinking and robust average landfill diversion. Spatial effects seem to be negligible, probably due to the strong decentralisation of waste management and policies: local, economic, policy and structural factors contribute to explaining the waste dynamics. Though North-South waste performances are showing some signals of convergence, greater efforts towards convergence of waste performances in a decentralised policy scenario are needed.
... However, such procedures and policies should also address behavioural changes at the construction site level (Lingard et al., 1997). Researchers have argued that it is necessary to increase landfill charges to discourage dumping and landfilling of construction and demolition waste, as most of the time waste is disposed with little or no attempts at early recovery (Jaillon et al., 2009;Martin and Scott, 2003;Merino et al., 2010). A study conducted in Hong Kong related to the impacts of the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) on construction work practices revealed that the amount of landfill was substantially reduced during the first three years of implementing the CWDCS. ...
Article
Construction waste generation has been identified as one of the major issues in the construction industry due to its direct impacts on the environment as well as the efficiency of the construction industry. As the industry cannot continue to practice if the environmental resources on which it depends are depleted, the significance of waste management needs to be understood in order to encourage stakeholders to achieve related goals. Therefore, this research aims to determine effective approaches to eliminate and/or minimise waste generation in construction projects. Mixed methods were adopted by combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Interviews and a questionnaire survey were conducted as the primary data collection methods. The findings reveal twenty six critical solutions for waste management. Five factors of solutions for waste management were extracted from the exploratory factor analysis. These factors were: team building and supervision; strategic guidelines in waste management; proper design and documentation; innovation in waste management decisions; and lifecycle management. The evidence from this study suggests that both technologies and attitudinal approaches require improvement to eliminate/minimise waste generation in construction projects. Similarly, attention should be paid to being mindful of the environmental effects of waste generation and avoiding waste generation as early as possible in construction projects.
... In general, in the EU landfill tax comprises the major share of environmental taxes. One famous example is the UK landfill tax introduced in 1999 (Morris et al., [55]; Martin and Scott, [47]). oriented production, but this variable is not significant. ...
Article
We empirically test delinking of waste dynamics with regard to economic growth and the effectiveness of environmental and specific waste-related policies, by exploiting a newly constructed, integrated waste-economic-policy dataset based on official data for the EU15 for 1995-2007. We find that absolute delinking for waste generation is far from being achieved in the EU despite fairly stringent and longstanding policy commitment that goes back to the mid 1990s, but which however is biased towards waste management and waste disposal rather than waste prevention. Policy as well as country structural factors seem to impact instead on landfill diversion. Nevertheless, country heterogeneity matters: SURE based analyses show that EU average figures often hide high variance. Their results provide food for thought for a future most comprehensive EU waste policy strategy, which is now aimed mainly at landfill diversion, within a framework strongly oriented to allowing countries to decide about the implementation of EU directives.
... The current rate (since April 2006) is £21 per tonne, three times the starting value.Table 5.7 summarises the history of landfill tax rates since the tax was introduced. Early reports on the effects of the landfill tax (see, for example, House of Commons Environment, Transport and Regional Affairs Committee (1999) and Martin and Scott (2003)) suggested that at initial rates, the tax was making very little difference to the behaviour of firms and local authorities. However, this need not be a cause for concern – recall that the rates were based on best estimates of the marginal externality and so the lack of response merely suggests that the elasticity of waste disposal is quite low. ...
Article
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Recent surveys on the labor-supply responses of men document a divergence in the estimates of substitution and income effects obtained using various estimation approaches. Generally, studies accounting for nonlinear tax schedules in a static setting via a piecewise-linear approach produce estimates that typically imply higher substitution and lower income responses than are suggested by empirical work applying other approaches. This paper demonstrates that maximum likelihood estimation of a consumer-choice problem with nonlinear budget sets implicitly relies on the satisfaction of inequality constraints that translate into behaviorally meaningful restrictions. These constraints arise not as a consequence of economic theory, but instead as a requirement to create a properly defined statistical model. In the analysis of piecewise-linear budget sets, the implicit constraints required by maximum likelihood in estimation amount to imposition of Slutsky conditions at all wage-income combinations associated with kink points. In the analysis of differentiable budget sets, the tacit constraints invoked by maximum likelihood also involve inequality restrictions on Slutsky terms. The empirical work presented in this study supports the contention that these implicit constraints play a major role in explaining the discrepancies in estimates found in the literature on men's labor supply.
... Taxes alone can result in decreased landfill, as in the UK where their landfill tax resulted in a decrease of construction waste entering landfill sites (Martin & Scott 2003). There is certainly a role for governments to regulate waste in a way that is designed for more than simply setting limits. ...
... 5 There are also some studies on specific evaluations of the Landfill Directive—the main driver of regulatory actions in the EU, and the UK landfill tax—introduced in 1996 and one of the few cases of a real environmental tax based on evaluation of the marginal external costs. They include, among others, work by Martin and Scott (2003), which stresses that tax aimed at reducing landfilling of waste in favour of recovery, recycling, re-use and waste minimisation has failed to significantly change the behaviour of domestic waste producers. For countries outside the EU, analyses are rare. ...
Article
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Waste generation and waste disposal are becoming increasingly prominent in the environmental arena, from a policy perspective and in the context of delinking analysis. In general, waste generation is still increasing proportionally with income, and economic and environmental costs associated to landfilling are also increasing. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of waste generation, incineration and landfill dynamics based on panel data for the EU25, to assess the effects of different drivers (economic, structural, policy) and the eventual differences between Western and Eastern EU countries. We show that for waste generation there is still no Waste Kuznets Curve (WKC) trend, although elasticity to income drivers appears lower than in the past. Landfill and other policy effects do not seem to provide backward incentives for waste prevention, and in terms of landfill and incineration, as expected, they are respectively decreasing and increasing, with policy acting as a strong driver. Eastern countries appear to be performing generally quite well, thus benefiting from EU membership and related policies in terms of environmental performance. We can conclude that although absolute delinking is far from being achieved for waste generation, there are some first positive signs of an increasing relative delinking for waste generation and robust landfill diversion, and varying evidence of a significant role of the EU waste policies implemented in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Our evidence suggests that if while landfill diversion is currently associated to a delinking partly explained by EU policies, waste prevention must be the next objective of waste regulation efforts.
... 18 If WASTETAX is not found to be significant this may also be because dumpsites do not do a good enough job of passing on taxes to the waste-generating industries, fearing that they would then choose different dumps (Sasao, 2014b). 19 The truth is that the result obtained comes as no surprise, given that the effect attributed to these taxes in the literature is quantitatively scanty or null (e.g., Sigman, 1996, andSasao, 2014b, for industrial waste; Martin & Scott, 2003;Mazzanti et al., 2012, andMazzanti, 2013, for urban waste;or even Im &Wonhyuk, 2010, andLoganathan et al., 2014, for emissions). ...
Article
This paper analyses the effectiveness of regional governments’ environmental taxes and policies in reducing industrial waste. We propose a spatial and dynamic model for the Spanish regions during the period 1999–2017. The results suggest that there are spatial and dynamic components in the generation of industrial waste; and that the specific environmental tax policy applied to industrial waste is not very effective, although the induced effect of these taxes and other environmental policies reduces the waste generation. Our model also suggests a relative decoupling between growth and waste, although many regions are still far from the waste Kuznets curve (WKC) turning point.
... For example, Yuan et al. (2011) used simulation to investigate the effectiveness of high and low disposal charges, while Nunes et al. (2007) investigated the financial performance of recycling centres in order to establish an appropriate disposal charge. However, as Martin and Scott (2003) pointed out, the current disposal charges are ineffective at changing the behaviour of the main waste producers. These disposal charges are mostly related to municipal solid waste instead of CDW and may be too low to force a change towards recycling and reusing. ...
Article
Construction and demolition waste is one of the largest contributors to solid waste generation. Recycling is considered an effective strategy to manage construction and demolition waste; however, the environmental costs and benefits of recycling, compared with a traditional landfill strategy, have not been fully investigated. This study uses a life cycle assessment and willingness-to-pay methodology to investigate the environmental impacts of recycling 1 tonne of demolition waste in Shenzhen. The environmental impacts are global warming, ozone depletion, acidification, eutrophication, suspended particulate matter, solid waste, and land consumption. The results show that recycling can bring an environmental benefit of ¥1.21 per tonne while direct landfill leads to an environmental cost of ¥12.04 per tonne. The environmental costs and benefits of recycling concrete, brick, steel, and mortar, which are the most commonly seen types of component from demolition waste, are also investigated. The results can be used by regulatory authorities to establish strategies and policies, such as the provision of monetary incentives, in order to encourage recycling activities. The results can also be used to establish appropriate landfill charges.
... Some of the rates shown represent sharp increases over recent years and the NSW administration, in particular, appears to be using the price mechanism to drive increased reuse and recycling. This is despite evidence from the UK Landfill Tax indicating that levies on waste sent to landfill have been largely ineffective in driving changes in waste management behaviour in construction (Martin and Scott, 2003). ...
Article
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Renovation and refurbishment of the existing commercial building stock is a growing area of total construction activity and a significant generator of waste sent to landfill in Australia. A written waste management plan (WMP) is a widespread regulatory requirement for commercial office redevelopment projects. There is little evidence, however, that WMPs actually increase the quantity of waste that is ultimately diverted from landfill. Some reports indicate an absence of any formal verification or monitoring process by regulators to assess the efficacy of the plans. In order to gauge the extent of the problem a survey was conducted of twenty four consultants and practitioners involved in commercial office building refurbishment projects to determine the state of current practice with regard to WMPs and to elicit suggestions with regard to ways of making the process more effective. Considerable variation in commitment to recycling policies was encountered indicating a need to revisit waste minimisation practices if the environmental performance of refurbishment projects is to be improved.
... For company D, about 0.5% of construction turnover is spent on waste and this high cost serves as a driver to put in place strategies to manage waste. Similar issues were identified for Company C. Martin and Scott (2003) previously reported that the Landfill Tax (cost of disposing waste) is an important driver for WM in the UK. ...
Conference Paper
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The need for sustainable management of construction, demolition and excavation (CD&E) waste has for some years been considered a very important requirement in the construction industry. Construction industries in many countries have responded to the calls for waste management (WM) by instituting measures towards sustainably managing their designs, processes, materials and waste to reduce the negative burden of the industry on the environment. Today, almost all main contractor organizations in the UK have sustainability policies which cover the management of waste. These policies have led to the setting up of sustainable goals and requirements as part of the management of construction projects. Research on the drivers for sustainable WM in the construction industry suggest that, legislation and economic concerns are the key drivers for efforts by construction companies in this regard. Considering the project based nature of the industry, it is argued that drivers at the corporate level may not be the same as drivers at the project level. Through a multiple case study involving 4 construction companies and 8 construction projects in England, the different factors that drive WM in the construction industry at the corporate and project level are investigated. The results provide new evidence which suggest that the drivers for WM differ between the project level and the corporate level. Whereas economic consideration, company image, company sustainability agenda, client demands, government legislation, moral and social imperatives to manage waste, benchmarking and environmental concerns drive WM at the corporate level, at the project level, health and safety, the assurance of repeat jobs, charging schemes for subcontractors and changing nature of the industry are extra factors that drive WM. This research concludes that, a better approach to sustainable CD&E WM should consider the project based factors together with the corporate or firm level factors in designing strategies towards sustainable WM.
... Faktor lain di sini adalah adanya regulasi yang diterbitkan terkait kebijakan penggunaan kemasan produk. Selain itu Martin and Scott (2003) memperkuat bukti bahwa landfill tax tidak mempengaruhi jumlah sampah rumah tangga, karena seiring naiknya PDB maka naik juga aktivitas ekonomi dan konsumsi yang menghasilkan sampah. Hal ini diperkuat penelitian Khabibi and Safitra (2020) pada negara-negara Eropa dan Asia Pasifik di mana ada hubungan signifikan positif antara pertumbuhan ekonomi dengan jumlah sampah padat.. ...
Article
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Before the Covid 19 pandemic occurred, the scarcity of landfills was a problem that continues to be the subject of discussion. Although economic activity slows down during a pandemic and has positive impacts such as reduced air pollution, this does not apply to solid waste. This research uses the qualitative method to review the effectiveness of the imposition of landfill tax to overcome the scarcity of landfills. The results show that other policy instruments are needed in order to achieve the ultimate goal. In Indonesia, the concept of landfill tax is in the form of retribution which application differs in each region. it is necessary to adopt success factors from several countries that have implemented landfill taxes such as campaigns and education to increase awareness of the environment and develop integrated waste management policies. ABSTRAK Walaupun aktivitas ekonomi melambat di masa pandemik dan memberikan dampak positif seperti berkurangnya polusi udara, namun tidak berlaku untuk sampah padat. Penelitian ini dengan metode kualitatif meninjau efektivitas pengenaan landfill tax dalam upaya mengatasi kelangkaan Tempat Pembuangan Akhir. Hasilnya diketahui bahwa perlu instrumen kebijakan lain agar tujuan akhir tercapai. Di Indonesia, konsep landfill tax berbentuk retribusi yang penerapannya berbeda di setiap daerah. Untuk mendorong agar retribusi dapat berfungsi seperti landfill tax maka perlu mengadopsi faktor sukses dari beberapa negara yang telah menerapkan landfill tax seperti kampanye dan edukasi untuk meningkatkan kepedulian terhadap lingkungan serta membangun kebijakan pengelolaan sampah yang terintegrasi.
... Morris and Read (2001) and Burnley (2001) consequently update the analysis highlighting some operational weaknesses and debating some preliminary assessments. ThenMartin and Scott (2003)stress that tax intended to contribute to a transition away from landfilling of waste, towards recovery, recycling, re-use and waste minimization has failed to significantly change the behavior of domestic waste producers. They affirm that available evidence finds that there is reasonable data to monitor progress towards recycling, but not for re-use or waste minimization. ...
Article
Waste generation and waste disposal are issues that are becoming increasingly prominent in the environmental arena both from a policy perspective and in the context of delinking analysis. Waste generation is still increasing proportionally with income, and economic and environmental costs associated to landfilling are also increasing. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of waste generation, incineration, recycling and landfill dynamics based on panel data for the EU25, to assess the effects of different drivers (economic, structural, policy) and the eventual differences between western and eastern EU countries. We show that for waste generation there is still no Waste Kuznets Curve (WKC) trend, although elasticity to income drivers appear lower than in the past. Landfill and other policy effects do not seem to provide backward incentives for waste prevention. Regarding landfill and incineration, the two trends, as expected, are respectively decreasing and increasing, with policy providing a strong driver. It demonstrates the effectiveness of policy even in this early stage of policy implementation. This is essential for an ex post evaluation of existing landfill and incineration directives. Eastern countries appear to perform generally quite well, thus benefiting from their EU membership and related policies in terms of environmental performances. We may conclude that although absolute delinking is far from being achieved for waste generation, there are first positive signals in favour of an increasing relative delinking for waste generation and average robust landfill diversion, and various evidence of a significant role of the EU waste policies implemented in the late 1990s and early 2000s on landfill diversion. Waste prevention is nevertheless the next necessary target of waste regulatory efforts.
... The latter author links the Eu directive with national Uk implementation. Another interesting assessment, quite pessimistic in its conclusion, is offered by Martin and Scott (2003), who stress that tax has failed to significantly change the behavior of domestic waste producers. The landfill tax is intended to contribute to a transition away from landfilling of waste, towards recovery, recycling, re-use and waste minimization. ...
Article
This paper analyses the process of delinking for landfilling trends embedding the dynamics in a frame where economic, geographical and policy variables enter the arena We aim at investigating in depth what main drivers may be responsible for such a phenomenon, and whether differences may be observed focusing the lens on a decentralised provincial based setting. We exploit a rich panel dataset stemming from Official sources (APAT, Italian environmental agency) merged with other provincial and regional based information, covering all the 103 Italian provinces over 1999-2005. The case study on Italy is worth being considered given that Italy is a main country in the EU. Thus it offers important pieces on information on the evaluation of policies. Evidence shows that the observed decoupling between economic growth and landfilling is driven by a mix of structural factors, as population density and other waste management opportunity: local opportunity costs and landfill externalities matter in shaping waste policies and local commitment to landfill diversion. But not only structural factors are relevant. If on the one hand landfill taxation is a significant driver of the phenomenon, even at the more coherent regional level, where the tax is implemented, waste management instruments, when we exploit the provincial dataset, are associated to high significant negative effect on landfilled waste. A good performance on managing waste according to economic rationales helps reducing the amount that is landfilled. In association to the features of the tariff system, we also underline the key role played by the share of separated collection. Both the evolution of collection and tariff system are joint factors that may drive a wedge between the comparative waste performances of northern and southern regions. We finally note that lock in effects linked to the intensity of incinerator sites in the area are relevant for landfilling: past investments in incineration lock in the region in this technological path, which may be associated to less opportunity cost and lower external effects. Summing up, landfill diversion is stronger where the economic cost deriving from high population density, a structural factor, are higher, and waste management collection systems and economic instruments are associated with higher performances.
... Seit Mitte der 1990er Jahre konnte in Großbritannien eine deutliche Entkopplung von Primärbaustoffproduktion und Bauoutput verzeichnet werden, welche 2002 mit der Einführung der Primärbaustoffabgabe zusätzlich verstärkt worden sei. Dabei wird der Primärbaustoffabgabe eine wesentliche Rolle dabei zugesprochen, die Nachfrage nach gebrochenen Natursteinen zu verringern und die Nachfrage nach Sekundärbaustoffen zu erhöhen (EEA 2008;Söderholm 2011 (Martin und Scott 2003). Insbesondere Siedlungsabfälle seien nach der Einführung der Deponiesteuer im Verhältnis zum Wirtschaftswachstum überproportional weitergewachsen. ...
Technical Report
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Veröffentlichungen aus PolRess I und II Hier finden Sie Publikationen zur Ressourcenpolitik, die im Forschungsprojekt PolRess II und in dessen Vorgänger-Projekt PolRess I (Laufzeit 2012-2015) erarbeitet wurden. Sie können Ihre Suche in der Spalte auf der rechten Seite eingrenzen. 28/06/2019 Postpischil, Rafael; Klaus Jacob (2019): E-Commerce vs. stationärer Handel. Die Umwelt- und Ressourcenwirkungen im Vergleich Vor dem Hintergrund des stetig wachsenden Anteils des E-Commerce am gesamten Business-To-Consumer Handelsaufkommen wird die Frage untersucht, wie die Umwelt- und Ressourcenwirkungen im Vergleich zum stationären Handel zu bewerten sind. Dazu werden die in der wissenschaftlichen Literatur zur Verfügung stehenden Studien ausgewertet, verglichen und eingeordnet. Entsprechend der Studienlage liegt der Fokus dabei auf den Umweltwirkungen des entstehenden Verkehrsaufkommens, der Verpackung, der Retouren, der Liegenschaften (Ladengeschäfte und Logistikzentren) sowie potenziellen Wachstums- und indirekten Reboundeffekten. Insgesamt zeigt sich, dass entgegen der weitläufigen Einschätzung, die Umweltwirkungen des E-Commerce gegenüber dem stationären Handel nicht notwendigerweise größer sind. Studien, welche den Handelszyklus gesamtheitlich betrachten, zeigen jedoch, dass die Umweltwirkungen des Onlinehandels in der Mehrzahl der Szenarien negativer ausfallen als im stationären Handel. Insbesondere ausschlaggebend dafür ist die Warenkorbgröße des Einkaufs, gefolgt von der gewählten Fortbewegungsart im stationären Handel bzw. der Lieferungsart sowie der Verpackungsmenge und -art. Außerdem relevant ist die Energieeffizienz der Ladengeschäfte bzw. Logistikzentren. Studien, die über den üblichen Fokus auf transportbedingte Umweltwirkungen hinaus auch indirekte Effekte betrachten, zeigen, dass erhebliche Umweltwirkungen auch aus der gewonnen Zeit durch E-Commerce Bestellungen entstehen können. Aus diesen Erkenntnissen werden komplementäre Ansätze für Konsumierende, Handel sowie Politik herausgearbeitet, welche die Umweltwirkungen der beiden Handelswege verbessern können. Die Analyse können Sie hier lesen. 28/06/2019 Hinzmann, Mandy; Araujo Sosa, Ariel; Martin Hirschnitz-Garbers (2019): Stärkung der Kreislaufführung von mineralischen Baustoffen mittels freiwilliger Selbstverpflichtung: Akteursperspektiven auf Bedarfe und Optionen Dieses Papier diskutiert mögliche Inhalte einer freiwilligen Selbstverpflichtung des Bausektors, die zum Ziel hat, das Baustoffrecycling und den Einsatz von Sekundärbaustoffen zu stärken. In Deutschland werden jährlich Sande, Kiese und Natursteine in einer Größenordnung von etwa 500 Mio. Tonnen für heimische Bauaktivitäten verwendet. Gleichzeitig bilden mineralische Bauabfälle den größten Abfallstrom. Sekundärbaustoffe werden bislang überwiegend im Rahmen eines Downcyclings eingesetzt, beispielsweise als Straßenuntergrund, Tragschicht unter Gebäuden oder Verfüllung von Baugruben. Vor diesem Hintergrund untersucht die Analyse erstens, wie das Baustoffrecycling in Deutschland weiter ausgebaut und professionalisiert werden kann. Zweitens gehen wir der Frage nach, was geändert werden muss, damit insbesondere im Hochbau mehr hochwertige Sekundärbaustoffe eingesetzt werden. Die Analyse basiert auf Interviews mit Akteuren aus den Bereichen Recycling und Entsorgung von Bauabfällen, Zertifizierung von Baustoffen, sowie aus der Baustoffindustrie, dem Baustoffgewerbe und der öffentlichen Hand. Neben konkreten Vorschlägen für eine freiwillige Selbstverpflichtung des Bausektors werden weitere Maßnahmen aufgezeigt, die als Teil eines Politikmixes die Kreislaufführung von mineralischen Baustoffen stärken können. Die Akteursanalyse steht hier zur Verfügung. 28/06/2019 Postpischil, Rafael; Klaus Jacob (2018): Evaluationen von Abgaben auf Primärbaustoffe und wechselwirkenden Instrumenten. Eine Auswertung von Evaluationen aus GB, SE, DK und EE hinsichtlich ökologischer Lenkungswirkung, Effizienz und weiterer Effekte In der Kurzanalyse werden bestehende ex-post Evaluationen von Abgaben auf Primärbaustoffe in Großbritannien, Schweden, Dänemark sowie Estland ausgewertet. Die ersten drei Länderbeispiele zeigen, dass diese Abgaben insbesondere im Zusammenspiel mit weiteren Politikinstrumenten ökologische Lenkungswirkung entfalten können. Diese weiteren wechselwirkenden Politikinstrumente umfassen Deponieabgaben, Steuerung von Abbaugenehmigungen, gesetzlichen Vorgaben an Materialrückgewinnung und Substitutionsmaterial sowie öffentlicher Beschaffung. Auf diesem Weg kann der ressourcenschonendere Umgang mit Primärbaustoffen substanziell gefördert werden. Der Fall Estland zeigt hingegen, dass aufgrund mangelnder Transparenz des Abgabenanstiegs, fehlender F&E Anreize für die Baustoffindustrie und mutmaßlich auch fehlender komplementärer Instrumente keine ökologische Lenkungswirkung erzielt werden konnte. Hinsichtlich der ökonomischen Kosten-Effektivität und Effizienz der Abgaben finden sich wenige Auswertungen für die vier betrachteten Fälle. Die bestehenden Befunde hierzu sind durchwachsen und es wird an mehreren Stellen deutlich, dass Effizienzeinbußen zu Gunsten von Administrierbarkeit hingenommen wurden. Regressive Wirkungen der Abgaben wurden nicht verzeichnet, in erster Linie aufgrund der geringen Volumina der Abgaben gemessen an den Gesamtkosten eines Bauvorhabens. Es ist weiterhin anzumerken, dass die bestehenden Evaluationen auf einem eher basalen methodischen Niveau durchgeführt wurden und die Datenlage bei der Erzeugung und Verwendung von Recyclingbaustoffen im Ländervergleich Uneindeutigkeiten aufweist. Dennoch zeigt der Anteil von lediglich 12% Sekundärbaustoffen an allen verwendeten Baustoffen in Deutschland 2014 insbesondere im Vergleich mit Großbritannien (21%) Verbesserungspotenziale auf. Des Weiteren wurden von den insgesamt recycelten Baustoffen in Deutschland 2014 lediglich knapp 21% hochwertig in der Asphalt- und Betonherstellung eingesetzt. Der Rest wurde vornehmlich im Straßenbau sowie im Erd- und Deponiebau niedrigeren Verwertungszwecken zugeführt. Hier bestehen weitere Potenziale, Recyclingbaustoffe höherwertig einzusetzen.
... The reasons for this may include (1) mechanical migration deeper in the profile (maximum carbonate occurs in the upper 1 m of soil; Washbourne et al., 2015), or (2) older sites, for which the history is less well known, may have been less suitable for C formation than the younger ones sampled, in some unmeasured property. Interestingly, the difference in carbonate contents of sites older than 15 years (Fig. 2) may reflect introduction of the UK's Landfill Tax in 1996 and Aggregate Levy in 2002 (Martin and Scott, 2003). This led to increased recycling of construction materials (Tangtinthai et al., 2019) and it is possible that the associated widespread use of on-site crushing equipment may have led to more finegrained crushed concrete entering the soils present at a site. ...
Article
Full-text available
Management of urban brownfield land can contribute to significant removal of atmospheric CO2 through the development of soil carbonate minerals. However, the potential magnitude and stability of this carbon sink is poorly quantified as previous studies address a limited range of conditions and short durations. Furthermore, the suitability of carbonate-sequestering soils for construction has not been investigated. To address these issues we measured total inorganic carbon, permeability and ground strength in the top 20 cm of soil at 20 brownfield sites in northern England, between 2015 and 2017. Across all sites accumulation occurred at a rate of 1-16 t C ha-1 yr-1, as calcite (CaCO3), corresponding to removal of approximately 4-59 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1, with the highest rate in the first 15 years after demolition. C and O stable isotope analysis of calcite confirms the atmospheric origin of the measured inorganic carbon. Statistical modelling found that pH and the content of fine materials (combined silt and clay content) were the best predictors of the total inorganic carbon content of the samples. Measurement of permeability shows that sites with carbonated soils possess a similar risk of run-off or flooding to sandy soils. Soil strength, measured as in-situ bearing capacity, increased with carbonation. These results demonstrate that the management of urban brownfield land to retain fine material derived from concrete crushing on site following demolition will promote calcite precipitation in soils, and so offers an additional CO2 removal mechanism, with no detrimental effect on drainage and possible improvements in strength. Given the large area of brownfield land that is available for development, the contribution of this process to CO2 removal by urban soils needs to be recognised in CO2 mitigation policies.
... The UK Landfill Tax was effective in reducing landfilling rates, however it was less efficient in promoting priorities from higher up the waste hierarchy, primarily the reduction of waste production in the first instance (Martin and Scott, 2003). A movement to disincentivise landfill disposal while also incentivising preferred environmental options is an ongoing research topic (Fletcher et al., 2018). ...
Thesis
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The current linear economy has been, and continues to, have serious detrimental impacts to both the natural environment and social wellbeing. Reliance on a primarily ‘take, make, dispose’ system puts enormous strain on natural resources and waste disposal facilities. Since the beginning of the 21st century much attention has been brought to these issues, with escalating legislative policies and targets being set to mitigate against the detrimental practices in a largely consumerism world. Change is required from every level; from an individual lifestyle response to a complete redesign of business as usual. Large industries must drive this change, pushing past environmental compliance and striving for sustainable practices throughout the supply chain. Employing industrial symbiosis, technological advances, culture change and engineering innovation are paramount to the success of a circular economy. Scottish Power are a prime example of a large industry with considerable scope to improve waste management practices to incorporate sustainability, with substantial potential benefits.
... Sasao (2014) found that industrial waste treatment taxes only have minimal significant effects on waste disposal. Other studies, such as the study of Martin and Scott (2003) found that a landfill tax in the UK failed to change SMEs' as well as household waste generation. Similar results are found in Bartelings et al. (2005) and Mazzanti et al. (2012). ...
Article
We conduct different types of econometrical panel analyzes and provide statistical evidence that firms show lagged behavior, which means that the previous year's waste generation partly determines the current year's. The dynamic panel estimations show robust results, indicating that a growth of incineration taxes exert significant negative effects on the growth of industrial plastic waste generation. This result offers no argument to iteratively raise incineration taxes. We conclude that incineration taxation is meaningful if tax rates are set according to the prevailing market conditions, i.e. taking into account the marginal costs of alternatives for incineration. In the short run, the effectiveness of taxation will quickly diminish due to the rapidly rising marginal costs of waste reduction. In the long run, extra recycling capacity is needed to recycle the minimized waste fraction. The role of taxation in the long run is to maintain an equilibrium in which recycling is preferred by the market.
Article
In this paper we test an adapted EKC hypothesis to verify the relationship between ‘environmental efficiency’ (namely emissions per unit of value added) and labour productivity (value added per employee). We exploit NAMEA data on Italy for 29 sector branches and 6 categories of air emissions for the period 1991–2001. We employ data on capital stock and trade openness to test the robustness of our results.On the basis of the theoretical and empirical analyses focusing on innovation, firm performances and environmental externalities, we would expect a positive correlation between environmental efficiency and labour productivity — a negative correlation between the emissions intensity of value added and labour productivity — which departs from the conventional mainstream view. The hypothesis tested is a critical one within the longstanding debate on the potential trade-off or complementarity between environmental preservation and economic performance, which is strictly associated with the role of technological innovation. We find that for most air emission categories there is a positive relationship between labour productivity and environmental efficiency. Labour productivity dynamics, then, seem to be complementary to a decreasing emissions intensity in the production process. Taking a disaggregate sector perspective, we show that the macro-aggregate evidence is driven by sector dynamics in a non-homogenous way across pollutants. Services tend always to show a ‘complementary’ relationship, while industry seems to be associated with inverted U-shape dynamics for greenhouse gases and nitrogen oxides. This is in line with our expectations. In any case, EKC shapes appear to drive such productivity links towards complementarity. The extent to which this evidence derives from endogenous market forces, industrial and structural change, and policy effects is discussed by taking an evolutionary perspective to innovation and by referring to impure public goods arguments.
Article
Waste generation and waste disposal are issues that are becoming increasingly prominent in the environmental arena both from a policy perspective and in the context of delinking analysis. Waste generation is still increasing proportionally with income, and economic and environmental costs associated to landfilling are also increasing. Thus, the need of accelerating the eventual delinking process by the introduction of policies at all stages of waste production and disposal.This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of waste generation, incineration, recycling and landfill dynamics based on panel data for the EU25, to assess the effects of different drivers (economic, structural, policies) and the eventual heterogeneity on such evidence between western and eastern EU countries.We show that for waste generation there is still no absolute delinking trend, although elasticity to income drivers appears lower than in the past. Landfill and other policy effects do not seem to provide backward incentives for waste prevention. Regarding landfill and incineration, the two trends, as expected, are respectively decreasing and increasing, with policy effects providing a strong driver. It demonstrates the effectiveness of policy even in this early stage of policy implementation. This is essential for an ex post evaluation of existing landfill and incineration directives. Nevertheless, it signals the risk of widening gaps between early adopters and countries which postpone ratification and implementation.It is also worth noting that EU15 and EU10 groups of countries show some different waste trends and driving forces of waste generation and landfill diversion hen analysed separately. We may conclude that although complete delinking is far from being achieved – especially for waste generation, there are some positive signals, and signs of a quite significant role of the EU waste policies implemented in the late 1990s and early 2000s.
Article
Waste disposal is an issue that is becoming increasingly important in policy terms in the European Union, and in Italy, a country showing strong geographical heterogeneity in waste management. This paper analyses the process of decoupling/delinking between economic growth and landfilling trends in a framework where economic, policy, geographical elements and spatial issues are all considered as drivers behind the phenomenon. We exploit an original and very rich provincial panel dataset over 1999–2005 for the 103 Italian provinces. Evidence shows that the observed ‘absolute’ decoupling between economic growth and landfilling is driven by a mix of structural factors. Among the main factors, population density, more than the provincial income level, emerges as a crucial driver: local opportunity costs and landfill externalities matter in shaping waste policies and local commitment to a transition away from landfilling of waste (landfill diversion). However, not only structural factors are relevant. If on the one hand landfill taxes are not a significant driver of the phenomenon, waste management tools, such as separated collection for recycling, and the tariff system connected to waste services, bring about significant effect on the amount of landfilled waste. Moreover, regarding the analysis of spatial interrelations across provinces, we note that the presence of incinerators in nearby provinces increases landfill diversion, due probably to free riding behaviour or intra-provinces ‘agreements’ on waste management; this is not true for nearby landfill sites, that cause for a given province a strong lock in effect. Future research could strengthen the analysis of policy effectiveness at regional level, focusing on policy endogeneity, and the full investigation of spatial correlations in waste disposal performances.
Article
Taking an economic-geographical perspective, through a panel analysis of Italian municipal solid waste (MSW) data, we show that although decoupling for waste generation from income is absent, there are some signs of absolute decoupling for landfilled waste. Within this general picture, geographical and socio-economic differentiation across Italian provinces seems to matter. Spatial effects at the level of provinces -- the institutions that primarily manage waste regulations -- seem to be negligible, especially for landfilled waste. This is consistent with the fact that the definition and implementation of landfill policy effectively happened at sub-provincial (even municipal) levels; as a result, the recent waste policy decentralisation process has been characterised by fragmented actions. In light of this fragmentation, we note that although North-South waste performances show some signs of convergence, greater co-ordination aimed at complete convergence in waste performance, in a decentralised policy scenario, will be needed for the effective achievement of EU national based targets by a federal country.
Technical Report
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In recent years, the interest in the use of economic instruments in environmental policy has been growing, reflecting increasing awareness of their potential cost-effectiveness as well as the need to diversify the ‘policy toolbox’. Waste policy is no exception to this tendency. The present study explores the opportunities for extended use of economic instruments for waste policy in the Netherlands, focusing on waste from households and the trade, services and government sector
Chapter
Humanity and planet Earth have no long-term future unless there is a commitment to respect and to live within its ecological boundaries, which demands a transition from the prevailing economic system, the linear economic system, to another that is circular. The construction sector is one that requires high resources in terms of energy, water, and raw materials, generating waste and harmful atmospheric emissions. This chapter aims to analyse consumers, architects, and construction companies' awareness, challenges, and enablers in the implementation of circular economy (CE). Secondary data as well as primary data in the form of interviews and questionnaires were applied in a building construction sector in Panama. Six hundred and fifty valid questionnaires were collected. The results show that respondents are aware of the circular economy concept, but not of all circular economy principles. Few would be willing to pay for its implementation. Several challenges were also highlighted, bringing to light the importance of policymakers' roles for CE implementation.
Article
The waste disposal charging fee (WDCF) has long been adopted for stimulating major project stakeholders’ (particularly project clients and contractors) incentives to minimize solid waste and increase the recovery of wasted materials in the construction industry. However, the present WDCFs applied in many regions of China are mostly determined based on a rule of thumb. Consequently the effectiveness of implementing these WDCFs is very limited. This study aims at addressing this research gap through developing a system dynamics based model to determine an appropriate WDCF in the construction sector. The data used to test and validate the model was collected from Shenzhen of south China. By using the model established, two types of simulations were carried out. One is the base run simulation to investigate the status quo of waste generation in Shenzhen; the other is policy analysis simulation, with which an appropriate WDCF could be determined to reduce waste generation and landfilling, maximize waste recycling, and minimize the waste dumped inappropriately. The model developed can function as a tool to effectively determine an appropriate WDCF in Shenzhen. Further, it can also be used by other regions intending to stimulate construction waste minimization and recycling through implementing an optimal WDCF.
Article
We analyse the process of landfill diversion embedding the dynamics in a frame where economic, geographical and policy variables enter the arena. We aim at investigating in depth what main drivers may be responsible for such a phenomenon. We exploit a rich panel dataset covering all the 103 Italian provinces. The case study on Italy is worth being considered provided that Italy is a main country in the EU, thus offering important pieces of information on the evaluation of policies. Evidence shows that the observed decoupling between economic growth and landfilling is driven by a mix of structural factors, as population density and waste management strategies. If on the one hand, the landfill tax is not arising as a significant driver of the phenomenon, other waste management instruments are associated with high significant negative effect on landfilled waste. In association to the features of the tariff system, we also underline the key role played by the share of separated collection in driving down landfilling of waste. Both the evolution of collection and tariff system are joint factors that may drive a wedge between the comparative waste performances of northern and southern regions.
Article
To alleviate the generation of grave construction waste, it is imperative for China to minimize its construction waste; however, critical measures that are effective in managing construction waste have yet to be fully explored and understood. Through a literature review, semistructured interviews, questionnaire, and statistical analysis, this study investigates critical measures for the effective management of construction waste in China. The study identifies 16 critical management measures and further categorizes them into five components, including “ameliorate major stakeholders' awareness and behavior,” “improve regulatory environment,” “enhance onsite construction waste management,” “promote construction material use efficiency,” and “measures related to design‐out waste and recycling.”
Thesis
Scholars have highlighted the role of income distribution as a fundamental factor to understand consumption, health, adoption of technologies, social cohesion, democratic stability, and long term economic performance, among other phenomena. Moreover, reducing income inequality was included in the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. However, less attention has been put on the link between differences in household incomes and other pressing sustainability challenges, such as those that depend on massive adoption of new technologies within network industry sectors: telecommunications, waste management, transport, energy and water. Does existent income inequality translate into adoption gaps within these sectors? Is inequality an obstacle for advancing the vision of an inter-connected and more sustainable world? This research explores these questions through seven stand-alone papers, which focus on adoption of broadband internet, municipal recycling and railway passenger transport. Part I of the thesis includes four papers based on publicly available data from traditional mainstream sources. Chapter 1 provides a systematic map of the peer-reviewed literature on the link between income inequality and adoption of the three selected network technologies. Chapter 2 looks at country-level panel data from OECD countries. Chapter 3 analyses cross-sectional data in a broader world-wide sample. Chapter 4 compares borough-level recycling and income distribution in two European cities: London (United Kingdom) and Barcelona (Spain). Part II provides an in-depth analysis of two South American metropolitan areas: Santiago (Chile) and Medellín (Colombia). This part includes three papers (chapters 5, 6 and 7), each one focusing on a specific sector, that employ mixed-methods based on fieldwork conducted in both cities. The main contributions of the thesis are new evidence on the negative effect of income inequality on network technology adoption, and a discussion of the role of formal and informal institutions in this relationship.
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This report presents the findings of an evidence gap map that assesses the evidence available on the effects of land-use change and forestry programmes on greenhouse gas emissions and human welfare outcomes. Our clearest finding is that there is a major gap in the evidence addressing effects on both emissions and human welfare outcomes, including food security. Moreover, few studies measured greenhouse gas emissions or food security directly. Available Online: http://www.3ieimpact.org/en/publications/3ie-evidence-gap-map-report-series/3ie-evidence-gap-map-report-3/
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Smallholder-dominated agricultural mosaic landscapes are highlighted as model production systems that deliver both economic and ecological goods in tropical agricultural landscapes, but trade-offs underlying current land-use dynamics are poorly known. Here, using the most comprehensive quan-tification of land-use change and associated bundles of ecosystem functions, services and economic benefits to date, we show that Indonesian smallholders predominantly choose farm portfolios with high economic productivity but low ecological value. The more profitable oil palm and rubber monocultures replace forests and agroforests critical for maintaining above-and below-ground ecological functions and the diversity of most taxa. Between the monocultures, the higher economic performance of oil palm over rubber comes with the reliance on fertilizer inputs and with increased nutrient leaching losses. Strategies to achieve an ecological-economic balance and a sustainable management of tropical smallholder landscapes must be prioritized to avoid further environmental degradation.
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There is an ongoing debate on what constitutes sustainable intensification of agriculture (SIA). In this paper, we propose that a paradigm for sustainable intensification can be defined and translated into an operational framework for agricultural development. We argue that this paradigm must now be defined-at all scales-in the context of rapidly rising global environmental changes in the Anthropocene, while focusing on eradicating poverty and hunger and contributing to human wellbeing. The criteria and approach we propose, for a paradigm shift towards sustainable intensification of agriculture, integrates the dual and interdependent goals of using sustainable practices to meet rising human needs while contributing to resilience and sustainability of landscapes, the biosphere, and the Earth system. Both of these, in turn, are required to sustain the future viability of agriculture. This paradigm shift aims at repositioning world agriculture from its current role as the world's single largest driver of global environmental change, to becoming a key contributor of a global transition to a sustainable world within a safe operating space on Earth.
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Research into land and social-ecological systems science could benefit from improved clarity in the terminology used for causal analysis and a structured way to make causal inferences. Here I identify two aspects of causality, i.e. causal effects and causal mechanisms, and discuss explanation in historical sciences. I then propose definitions for the major terms used for causal relations, including driver, (spatial) determinant, location and contextual factor, proximate and underlying factors. Finally, I discuss the contribution of various operational approaches, including time series and counterfactual approaches for assessing causal effects and process-tracing approaches for establishing causal mechanisms. Having a coherent concept of causality, agreeing on a precise vocabulary and harnessing our tools with the clear purpose of establishing both causal effects and causal mechanisms should strengthen causal explanations for single cases, for drawing policy-relevant lessons and for theoretical development in relation to land and, more broadly, social-ecological systems processes.
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Green Revolution policies are again being pursued to drive agricultural growth and reduce poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. However conditions have changed since the well-documented successes of the 1960s and 1970s benefitted smallholders in southern Asia and beyond. We argue that under contemporary constraints the mechanisms for achieving improvements in the lives of smallholder farmers through such policies are unclear and that both policy rationale and means of governing agricultural innovation are crucial for pro-poor impacts. To critically analyze Rwanda's Green Revolution policies and impacts from a local perspective, a mixed methods, multidimensional wellbeing approach is applied in rural areas in mountainous western Rwanda. Here Malthusian policy framing has been used to justify imposed rather than ''induced innovation ". The policies involve a substantial transformation for rural farmers from a traditional polyculture system supporting subsistence and local trade to the adoption of modern seed varieties, inputs, and credit in order to specialize in marketable crops and achieve increased production and income. Although policies have been deemed successful in raising yields and conventionally measured poverty rates have fallen over the same period, such trends were found to be quite incongruous with local experiences. Disaggregated results reveal that only a relatively wealthy minority were able to adhere to the enforced modernization and policies appear to be exacerbating landlessness and inequality for poorer rural inhabitants. Negative impacts were evident for the majority of households as subsistence practices were disrupted, poverty exacerbated, local systems of knowledge, trade, and labor were impaired, and land tenure security and autonomy were curtailed. In order to mitigate the effects we recommend that inventive pro-poor forms of tenure and cooperation (none of which preclude improvements to input availability, market linkages, and infrastructure) may provide positive outcomes for rural people, and importantly in Rwanda, for those who have become landless in recent years. We conclude that policies promoting a Green Revolution in Sub-Saharan Africa should not all be considered to be pro-poor or even to be of a similar type, but rather should be the subject of rigorous impact assessment. Such assessment should be based not only on consistent, objective indicators but pay attention to localized impacts on land tenure, agricultural practices, and the wellbeing of socially differentiated people.
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As a creeping process, salinisation represents a significant long-term environmental risk in coastal and deltaic environments. Excess soil salinity may exacerbate existing risks of food insecurity in densely populated tropical deltas, which is likely to have a negative effect on human and ecological sustainability of these regions and beyond. This study focuses on the coastal regions of the Ganges–Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh, and uses data from the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey and the Soil Resource Development Institute to investigate the effect of soil salinity and wealth on household food security. The outcome variables are two widely used measures of food security: calorie availability and household expenditure on food items. The main explanatory variables tested include indicators of soil salinity and household-level socio-economic characteristics. The results of logistic regression show that in unadjusted models, soil salinisation has a significant negative effect on household food security. However, this impact becomes statistically insignificant when households’ wealth is taken into account. The results further suggest that education and remittance flows, but not gender or working status of the household head, are significant predictors of food insecurity in the study area. The findings indicate the need to focus scholarly and policy attention on reducing wealth inequalities in tropical deltas in the context of the global sustainable deltas initiative and the proposed Sustainable Development Goals.
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We present the results of a review of the empirical evidence and of the state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms linking ecosystem services and poverty alleviation. The review was undertaken to determine the state of current knowledge about the scale and nature of these linkages, and focus the future research agenda. Research has, to date, focussed largely on provisioning services, and on just two poverty dimensions concerning income and assets, and food security and nutrition. While many papers describe links between ecosystem services and dimensions of poverty, few provide sufficient context to enable a thorough understanding of the poverty alleviation impacts (positive or negative), if any. These papers contribute to the accumulating evidence that ecosystem services support well-being, and perhaps prevent people becoming poorer, but provide little evidence of their contribution to poverty alleviation, let alone poverty elimination. A considerable gap remains in understanding the links between ecosystem services and poverty, how change occurs, and how pathways out of poverty may be achieved based on the sustainable utilisation of ecosystem services.
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Forest loss in the tropics is one of the most critical contemporary environmental problems. Understanding the complex sociopolitical and ecological forces operative in producing this problem has thus become an important scientific mandate. Some recent literature has suggested that modern market economy trends in Latin America—namely, rural out-migration and policies strongly favoring high-input, industry-based agriculture—have helped curtail and sometimes revert the net loss of tropical forests, mainly through afforestation of land abandoned by smallholders. Government in Mexico, a megadiverse country with one of the biggest out-migration and remittance economies in the world, has excelled in applying free-market policies and in discouraging historical smallholder agriculture. Our analysis of Mexico's development path and of recent deforestation and reforestation trends at the national, regional, and local levels shows that, contrary to expectations, net deforestation is still occurring, and that other development, agricultural, and reforestation strategies are needed.
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Ethiopia has embarked upon a rapid growth and development trajectory aiming to become a middle-income country by 2025. To achieve this goal, an agricultural development led industrialization strategy is being implemented which aims to intensify and transform agriculture, thereby boosting yields and, subsequently, economic returns. At the same time, the energy use which currently consists of more than 90% traditional biomass use is shifting towards increasing electricity production predominantly from large-scale hydropower plants, with the aim to improve access to modern energy sources. While the targets are commendable it is not clear that either all direct impacts or potential conflicts between goals have been considered. In this paper we evaluate and compare the impacts of alternative development trajectories pertaining to agriculture, energy and environment for a case-study location, the Lake Tana Subbasin, with a focus on current national plans and accounting for cross-sector interlinkages and competing resource use: the food-energy-environment nexus. Applying a nexus toolkit (WEAP and LEAP) in participatory scenario development we compare and evaluate three different future scenarios. We conclude that the two processes – agricultural transformation and energy transition – are interdependent and could be partly competitive. As agriculture becomes increasingly intensified, it relies on more energy. At the same time, the energy system will, at least in the foreseeable future, continue to be largely supported by biomass, partly originating from croplands. Two outstanding dilemmas pertaining to resources scarcity were identified. Water needed for energy and agricultural production, and to sustain ecosystem services, sometimes exceeds water availability. Moreover, the region seems to be hitting a biomass ceiling where the annual increments in biomass from all terrestrial ecosystems are in the same order of magnitude as biomass needs for food, fodder and fuel. We propose that a stakeholder-driven nexus approach, underpinned by quantitative and spatially explicit scenario and planning tools, can help to resolve these outstanding dilemmas and can support more consistent policy and decision making, towards improved resource productivities, lower environmental pressures and enhanced human securities.
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A comparison of agricultural practices, with a specific focus on pesticide use, between rice and rice-fish farmers in the Cần Thơ and Tiền Giang provinces of the Mekong Delta in 2007, shows that integrated rice-fish farming can provide a competitive alternative to intensive rice mono-cropping, if the farmer restricts the use of pesticides and takes full advantage of the ecosystem services provided by the rice-field ecosystem. In Cần Thơ, rice-fish farmers had significantly higher income (43.6 million dong ha−1 year−1) than other farmer groups, while this was not seen among rice-fish famers in Tiền Giang (32.4 million dong ha−1 year−1), which partly could be due to a high use of insecticides (0.9 kg active ingredient ha−1 crop−1) and comparatively low fish yield among these farmers. The study emphasizes the need to rethink current agricultural systems and to provide opportunities for more diverse systems that maintain and enhance a range of ecosystem services and protect human health. Future production systems should not be optimized to only provide a single ecosystem service, such as rice, but designed to deliver a variety of interlinked ecosystem service such as rice, fish, pest control, and nutrient recycling.
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This paper presents the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), a measure of acute poverty, understood as a person’s inability to meet simultaneously minimum international standards in indicators related to the millennium Development Goals and to core functionings. It constitutes the first implementation of the direct method to measure poverty for over 100 developing countries. After presenting the MPI, we analyse its scope and robustness, with a focus on the data challenges and methodological issues involved in constructing and estimating it. A range of robustness tests indicate that the MPI offers a reliable framework that can complement global income poverty estimates.
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Poverty alleviation linked to agricultural intensification has been achieved in many regions but there is often only limited understanding of the impacts on ecological dynamics. A central need is to observe long term changes in regulating and supporting services as the basis for assessing the likelihood of sustainable agriculture or ecological collapse. We show how the analyses of 55 time-series of social, economic and ecological conditions can provide an evolutionary perspective for the modern Lower Yangtze River Basin region since the 1950s with powerful insights about the sustainability of modern ecosystem services. Increasing trends in provisioning ecosystem services within the region over the past 60 years reflect economic growth and successful poverty alleviation but are paralleled by steep losses in a range of regulating ecosystem services mainly since the 1980s. Increasing connectedness across the social and ecological domains after 1985 points to a greater uniformity in the drivers of the rural economy. Regime shifts and heightened levels of variability since the 1970s in local ecosystem services indicate progressive loss of resilience across the region. Of special concern are water quality services that have already passed critical transitions in several areas. Viewed collectively, our results suggest that the regional social-ecological system passed a tipping point in the late 1970s and is now in a transient phase heading towards a new steady state. However, the long-term relationship between economic growth and ecological degradation shows no sign of decoupling as demanded by the need to reverse an unsustainable trajectory. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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