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Nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen, and canned fruits and vegetables II. Vitamin A and carotenoids, vitamin E, minerals and fiber

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Abstract

In this second part of our review, we examine the literature for changes in carotenoids, vitamin E, minerals, and fiber due to processing, storage, and cooking of fresh, frozen, and canned fruits and vegetables. While inconsistencies in methodology and reporting methods complicate interpretation of the data, the results show that these nutrients are generally similar in comparable fresh and processed products. The higher levels of carotenoids typically found in canned as compared to fresh products may be attributed to either reporting results on a wet rather than dry weight basis, greater extractability, or differences in cultivars. There are relatively few studies on processing, storage, and cooking effects on vitamin E in fruits and vegetables. Further research is needed to understand nutritional changes in those few fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin E, such as tomatoes. Minerals and fiber are generally stable to processing, storage, and cooking, but may be lost in peeling and other removal steps during processing. Mineral uptake (e.g., calcium) or addition (e.g., sodium) during processing can change the natural mineral composition of a product. Sodium concerns in canned food can be addressed by choosing products with no salt added. Since nutrient content varies considerably by commodity, cultivar, and postharvest treatments, inclusion of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables in the diet is encouraged. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry

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... Since the frequency of grocery shopping has decreased since the pandemic's start, canned foods have the benefit of low perishability. Canned fruits and vegetables are typically less expensive than both fresh and frozen produce, and frequently have similar nutritional value, allowing for food-insecure households to meet dietary fruit and vegetable recommendations in a more cost-effective way [49][50][51]. Since canned vegetables can contain high levels of sodium and canned fruits can contain added sugar, no-salt-added canned vegetables and canned fruit packed in juice should be recommended [49,50]. ...
... Canned fruits and vegetables are typically less expensive than both fresh and frozen produce, and frequently have similar nutritional value, allowing for food-insecure households to meet dietary fruit and vegetable recommendations in a more cost-effective way [49][50][51]. Since canned vegetables can contain high levels of sodium and canned fruits can contain added sugar, no-salt-added canned vegetables and canned fruit packed in juice should be recommended [49,50]. ...
... Reducing the frequency of grocery store trips to avoid COVID-19 exposure was also a commonly reported reason to reduce fresh produce purchase due to its high perishability. Alternatively, frozen and canned fruits and vegetables are nutritionally similar to fresh produce, but without the problem of high perishability [49][50][51]. Lastly, some participants bought less fresh produce due to concerns over contamination with coronavirus. Other studies in the U.S and beyond have also found concern over food contamination to be common [35,54]. ...
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has drastically altered food shopping behaviors, and the resulting economic recession has caused a spike in food insecurity. Since food insecurity is associated with poor diet, especially low intake of fruits and vegetables, food-insecure individuals may disproportionately experience negative health impacts related to poor diet during the pandemic. To assess the relationship between food security status and fruit and vegetable intake during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted an online survey of adult residents of the US state of Michigan in June of 2020. Among the 484 survey respondents, 36.2% were classified as food-insecure. Food-insecure respondents consumed fruits and vegetables fewer times per day than food-secure respondents and were more likely to report decreasing their consumption of any type of fruits and vegetables (total, fresh, frozen, and canned) since the pandemic started. For those who reduced their purchase of fresh fruit and vegetable, reasons included poor quality, poor availability, high price, reduced store trips, and concerns of contamination. These findings highlight the need for adequate food assistance during the COVID-19 pandemic and in future pandemics, as well as public health messages that promote healthy eating.
... No tocotrienols were found. References for tocols in the investigated species are in accordance with those reported by different authors, for Sonchus [8,30] and for other green vegetables [32][33][34]. ...
... intybus) to about 75% (S. asper). Results on the effects of domestic cooking on the investigated liposoluble compounds are controversial [11][12][13][14][15]33,34]. Some authors reported losses of carotenoids and tocols after cooking, some others did not observe significant changes, some concluded that thermal processing increases compound concentrations. ...
... The overall results are variable, since the compounds behavior during cooking could depend on the part of the cooked vegetable, the particle size of the vegetable, its shape and tissue structure and, as a consequence, on the plant under investigation [12][13][14]. There are relatively few studies on the processing, storage and cooking effects on vitamin E in fruits and vegetables, with controversial results, depending on the type of food and cooking time [11,[32][33][34]. As already observed for carotenoids, some of these studies found, on average, higher levels of α-tocopherol than in the fresh products, which was suggested to be due to the increment of the chemical extractability of lipidic molecules through heat treatment [11,33,34]. ...
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Lipophilic antioxidants are essential components, which have been pointed as bioactive beneficial for human health. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of domestic cooking (boiling, steaming) on the main carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) and tocols in four different green leafy vegetables: Sonchus asper L. Hill, Sonchus oleraceus L., Spinacia oleracea L. and Cichorium intybus L. The total content of the analyzed compounds was determined following the method of alkaline hydrolysis of the matrix and solvent extraction. The leaching of soluble solids after domestic cooking was found to determine a gain in the investigated bioactive compounds in the cooked vegetables, so to cause an apparent content increase in all leafy vegetables, when expressed as mg/100 g dry matter. Considering solid losses, all lipophilic compounds were not affected by boiling; on the contrary, steaming slightly significantly decreased the contents of lutein and β-carotene (on average 20 and 15%, respectively).
... However, the tomato sauce used to prepare canned fish does. Nevertheless, no dietary fibre was observed in our canned fish products in tomato sauce, which might have been lost during processing (Rickman et al., 2007). In this study, canned baked beans in tomato sauce (CB) had a total dietary fibre of 5.60 g/100 g which is similar to the total dietary fibre of baked beans in tomato sauce reported by Aldwairji et al. (2014) which is approximately 5.96 g/100 g. Results also indicated that storage time did not affect the total dietary fibre content of CB. ...
... From Figure 1, canned mackerel (CM) and canned sardines (CS) showed significantly (approximately 10-15-fold) higher calcium content compared to their fresh and home-cooked counterparts. This might be due to the effects of heating during the retort process that caused the fish bones to soften, which broke down the complex organic molecules in the fish bones and released the mineral elements (Rickman et al., 2007). Our results are in consistent with Heaney et al. (1990), where higher calcium contents were only noticed in canned seafood with bones. ...
... No significant changes in calcium content were noticed in all canned tuna in mayonnaise (CTM), canned tuna flakes (CTF), and canned baked beans during the storage period. These results are in agreement with Bushway et al. (1985), Elkins (1979), and Rickman et al. (2007) who reported that minerals (except for iron and copper) in canned foods were unaffected during storage. Vafaei et al. (2019) also reported that no changes in the calcium content of canned silver carp after one year of storage as compared to fresh cans. ...
Article
Thermal preservation using the canning method is a promising alternative for retaining the maximum quality of the foods. Recently, the rising awareness of the nutritional value of canned products has received the attention of various researchers, as canned food can offer both healthy and convenient solutions to consumers. The present study reported the nutritional values and presence of food additives and preservatives in different Ayam BrandTM canned foods in tomato sauce namely sardines (CS), mackerel (CM) and baked beans (CB), canned tuna flakes in water (CTF) and canned tuna in mayonnaise (CTM) compared to the fresh and home-cooked food samples. The canned products, CS and CM contain significantly higher (p<0.05) amounts of Omega-3 but are lower in protein compared to their fresh counterparts. The calcium compositions of canned sardines and mackerels are 10-fold higher than fresh and home-cooked, contributed by the soft and brittles bones which enriched with calcium. The nutritional values of canned products were maintained throughout the storage period throughout the span of 3 years, with insignificant changes (p>0.05). Regardless of canned or fresh food samples, there was no total dietary fiber, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and sulfur dioxide detected in all samples except for the dietary fiber in the baked beans. CS and CTM contained significantly (p<0.05) higher amounts of glutamic acid than their fresh counterparts and the glutamic acid in all canned products ranging from 0.001-0.37 mg/g which is within the acceptable daily intake of 13 g/day. The natural glutamic acid was contributed by the raw materials of fish and tomato sauces themselves. No MSG was detected in all canned products. Therefore, it is safe to consume canned food products that greatly representing fresh and home-cooked foods without compromising with the nutritional values
... Other prospective studies have shown that consumption of a larger variety of fruits and vegetables reduced the risk of type-2 diabetes and some cancers, independent of the quantity of intake (56,57). The nutritional content of a fruit or vegetable is dependent on a number of factors involved in their processing including time/duration, level of heat involved in cooking (e.g., blanching before freezing), amount of food additives like sugar or salt, or long-term storage conditions (i.e., frozen, refrigerated, or room temperature) (58,59). Variations in the method of cooking, processing, and storing, compounded by individual differences in the fruit or vegetable, can influence the availability and overall content of nutritional components like vitamins (A, B, C, and E), minerals, fibers, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds (58,59). ...
... The nutritional content of a fruit or vegetable is dependent on a number of factors involved in their processing including time/duration, level of heat involved in cooking (e.g., blanching before freezing), amount of food additives like sugar or salt, or long-term storage conditions (i.e., frozen, refrigerated, or room temperature) (58,59). Variations in the method of cooking, processing, and storing, compounded by individual differences in the fruit or vegetable, can influence the availability and overall content of nutritional components like vitamins (A, B, C, and E), minerals, fibers, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds (58,59). The results of these studies highlight the importance of understanding FVC at a more granular level and how households switch between various forms of FVC (fresh, frozen, canned, dried), and whether SES plays a role. ...
Article
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Vegetable consumption remains consistently low despite supportive policy and investments across the world. Vegetables are available in great variety, ranging in their processing level, availability, cost, and arguably, nutritional value. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted in Quebec, Canada to explore pathways of socioeconomic inequity in vegetable expenditure. Data was obtained for consumers who participated in a grocery loyalty program from 2015 to 2017 and linked to the 2016 Canadian census. Vegetable expenditure share (%) was examined as a fraction of the overall food basket and segmented by processing level. Panel random effects and tobit models were used overall and to estimate the stratified analysis by median income split. Consumers allocated 8.35% of their total food expenditure to vegetables, which was mostly allocated to non-processed fresh (6.88%). Vegetable expenditure share was the highest in early winter and lowest in late summer. In the stratified analysis, the low-income group exhibited less seasonal variation, allocated less to fresh vegetables, and spent more on canned and frozen compared to the high-income group. Measures of socioeconomic status were all significant drivers of overall vegetable consumption. Consumers with high post-secondary education in the low-income group spent 2% more on vegetables than those with low education. The complexity of observed expenditure patterns points to a need for more specific vegetable consumption guidelines that include provisions by processing level. Implications for education, marketing, intersectional policies, and the role of government are discussed. Governments can scale present efforts and catalyze health-promoting investments across local, state, national, and global food systems.
... The produce box will contain a combination of fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables, providing participants with food preparation options. Participants will not be deterred from consuming canned produce, since research indicates canned and frozen fruits and vegetables are nutritionally sound alternatives to fresh produce [21][22][23]. The content of weekly boxes will be modified based on availability and study participant allergies. ...
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Background Laboratory studies indicate that chemicals in fruits and vegetables have anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities that can lower breast cancer risk. However, epidemiologic studies of the association between fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk have produced mixed results. Measurement error, confounding, and an emphasis on diet in later adulthood may contribute to weak associations. This paper describes a randomized controlled diet intervention trial in breastfeeding women to examine the effect of high fruit and vegetable intake on breast cancer risk factors, including weight, DNA methylation and inflammatory markers. Methods Eligible breastfeeding women who reside within a 35-mile radius of Amherst, MA are enrolled at five to six weeks postpartum and randomly assigned to a Fruit and Vegetable Intervention Arm (target n = 200) or to a USDA MyPlate Control Arm (target n = 200). The Fruit and Vegetable Intervention group receives weekly telephone or video-based counseling to encourage intake of at least eight to ten daily servings of fruits and vegetables and a weekly delivery of a supplemental box of fruits and vegetables for 20 weeks, and less intensive counseling for up to one year. Breastmilk and infant fecal specimens are collected at baseline, 10 and 20 weeks. Anthropometric measurements are obtained at these timepoints and at the 1-year follow-up. The primary outcomes are change in DNA methylation in breast epithelial cells and change in inflammatory markers in breastmilk from randomization to 20 weeks; and change in weight, waist circumference, and fruit and vegetable intake for the period from randomization to 20 weeks and 1 year. Discussion This 1-year randomized diet intervention trial in breastfeeding women will assess whether intake of at least eight to ten daily servings of fruits and vegetables per day improves biomarkers of breast cancer risk directly in the breast (i.e., DNA methylation and inflammatory markers) and helps women maintain a healthy weight. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04374747. Registered May 5, 2020. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04374747.
... Micronutrients, such as carotenoids, are prone to be damaged by the feed manufacturing process (Rickman et al., 2007). Carotenoids are sensitive organic compounds that can be impaired by water, oxygen, heat, among others (Jintasataporn and Yuangsoi, 2012). ...
Article
Sea urchin gonads are considered a prized seafood product. Their market price depends on quality and appearance, mainly evaluated through colour. The desirable yellow-orange colour is determined by carotenoids deposition in the gonads, mainly the accumulation of echinenone, which depends on availability, uptake and bioconversion of β-carotene from dietary sources. Two β-carotene sources, a synthetic (SYN) and a natural (paprika, PAP) source, were tested at low (L) and high (H) incorporation target levels (100 and 250 mg β-carotene kg⁻¹ feed) in diets for Paracentrotus lividus. A non-supplemented diet was used as a control (CTRL) diet. After eight weeks of feeding, all diets effectively increased gonad weight and somatic index in both sexes, without significant differences between treatments. Total carotenoid content and profile, lightness (L*) and texture of gonads did not vary significantly among dietary treatments. However, gonad redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values were significantly higher in urchins fed the L_SYN diet than in those fed either with the CTRL or L_PAP diets; female displayed higher values than male. L_SYN also showed higher consumers´ acceptance when compared to the other diets and female displayed higher acceptance rates than male, probably due to the fact that females were more orange, appealing and pleasant compared with the yellow, grainy and not appealing males. Male fed L_SYN diet exhibited similar colour and carotenoid content compared to wild animals in the same stage of gonad maturation (stage III), but female differed significantly; however, neither of the sex demonstrated acceptance differences in relation to their wild counterparts. Diets with the lower β-carotene inclusion induced changes in gonad colour but not in carotenoid pigments. This suggests that gonad colour is not exclusively modulated by dietary carotenoid supplementation and that it may be affected by other sex-dependent nutritional or metabolic factors.
... However, the quality of the products decreases after harvest due to the continuation of biological processes (Caprioli et al., 2016;Romanazzi, Feliziani, Baños, & Sivakumar, 2016) such as respiration and internal water evaporation (Yan et al., 2010). This has led to the development of treatments to preserve and store them (Rickman, Bruhn, & Barrett, 2007). Examples of these treatments include ultraviolet light, controlled and modified atmospheres, edible coatings, heat treatments, and the application of natural or chemical compounds (Gonzalez-Aguilar, Villa-Rodriguez, Ayala-Zavala, & Yahia, 2010; Villa-Rodriguez, Palafox-Carlos, Yahia, Ayala-Zavala, & Gonzalez-Aguilar, 2015). ...
Chapter
Annually roughly one-third — 1.9 billion tons — of the total food produced for human consumption gets lost or wasted worldwide. It food waste is arisen by different factors that jeopardize the social welfare and therefore hamper the pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The objective of this research is to highlight the cutting-edge knowledge regarding the advantages and drawbacks of the use of nanoscience and nanotechnology in food packaging or in applications to extending the postharvest life of fruit and vegetables. These technologies maintaining optimal product quality and innocuity, and increase the shelf life to alleviate global food supply issues. Besides, human and environmental safety concerns are emphasized due to the risks of exposure that these nanomaterials could cause through transferring elements, ions, or by-products to the food.
... Controversies in the reported results regarding dietary polyphenols association with chronic disease risk among countries may be explained by differences in the methods for measuring polyphenols and probable problems in measurements [42]. Also, the variations in polyphenol contents upon processing such as storing, cooking, freezing, and canning could be another reason [43]. Furthermore, large differences in the bioavailability and absorption of subgroups of polyphenols may explain their different bioactivity and contrasting results among studies [44]. ...
Article
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Polyphenol Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD s u m m a r y Objectives: Few epidemiological data are available regarding the associations of dietary intakes of polyphenols with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We sought to examine the associations of dietary intake of polyphenols with the prevalence of NAFLD. Methods: We analyzed data from a case-control study of 225 patients with NAFLD cases and 450 controls. All participants completed a validated 168-item food frequency questionnaire, the results of which were subsequently used to calculate dietary polyphenol. Results: Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for age and sex, it was shown that participants who were in the highest tertile of total flavonoids (OR ¼ 0.65, 95% CI ¼ 0.44e0.98) and total phenolic acids (OR ¼ 0.63, 95% CI ¼ 0.42e0.94) were associated with a lower odds of NAFLD compared with the lowest tertile. Although the association of total flavonoids and the odds of NAFLD disappeared after additional adjustment for BMI, physical activity, smoking, SES, dietary fat, and energy intake (OR ¼ 0.67, 95% CI ¼ 0.38e1.19). The odds of NAFLD was 66% lower (OR ¼ 0.44, CI ¼ 0.24e0.78, p for trend ¼ 0.006) among participants who were in the highest tertile of lignans intake compared with the lowest tertile. Conclusion: Our study showed that a high intake of lignans lowers the odds of NAFLD. We strongly recommend that the concepts proposed in this study must be tested in future longitudinal researches, to determine the association of total and subgroup of polyphenol intake with different stages of fatty liver diseases.
... It is evident from the table-3 that lemon has highest ascorbic acid content and lowest microbial load. The high microbial count present on fruits is a direct correlation with the quality of the cultivation, water, harvesting, transportation, storage ( Figure-4) and processing [20,21,22]. Hence, individual fruit growers and sellers should take precautions to maintain quality of fruits such as nutritional value and microbial load. ...
Article
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Fresh produce available in an area is the major source of phytonutrients for healthy life. Decrease in the concentration of phytonutrients is directly linked to a range of health issues in terms of increase in the rate of infections. This study conducted on fresh produce available in Delhi and National Capital Region (NCR) on microbiological and nutritional analysis showed a significant increase in microbial load in fruits as they stay over the period of a week to fortnight at room temperature. A total of seven different types of fresh produce were procured for analysis. Out of them, lemon showed the lowest microbial count and sugar content and grapes showed highest microbial count and sugar content. Results were also compared with refrigerated and room temperature stored fruits. It was concluded that fresh fruits have more nutritive value than stored fruits (room and refrigerated). In this study, glucose content was determined by Fehling's titration and Ascorbic Acid by Dichlorophenolindophenol method. The microbial biota was assessed by serial dilution method for determining microbial load of different types of bacteria. Some of the fruits showed decrease in the nutritive value and correspondingly increase in the load of antibiotic resistant microbes during storage rendering them unfit for human consumption.
... Furthermore, freezing process might have resulted in a decrease in moisture content (Scott and Eldridge, 2005) which may be the result of recorded increase in vitamins at freezing temperature. Generally, in comparison to canned products, frozen products usually contained slightly higher levels vitamins than canned on a wet weight basis (Rickman et al., 2007). ...
Article
Decreasing quality of semi-dry dates due to infestation during storage is recorded by many researchers. Low γ irradiation doses could be considered safe alternative of human toxic chemicals and pesticides. In the present work, semi-dry dates were irradiated with different doses (1.0, 3.0, 5.0 kGy) besides unirradiated samples were stored at 20 0 C and at-18 0 C for nine months. Vitamins E, A and trace elements were determined besides check the genotoxicity effect of irradiated samples at high doses (1.0, 3.0, 5.0, 20.0 and 30.0 kGy). Results of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis proved that semi dry dates contain vitamins A (ß-carotene) and E (α-tocopherol) in amounts of 98.78 μg /100g and 1.818 mg/100g respectively in raw unirradiated fruits. Degradation of vitamins either naturally during storage or by irradiation was manifested. However, the lowest losses of vitamins were detected at low doses of irradiation (1.0-3.0 kGy). Also, trace elements and metals were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) technique. Six trace elements (selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), cupper (Cu), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni)) which are responsible for immunity system were detected in dates with considerable concentrations. In addition, besides two contaminants heavy metals, lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). All the trace elements were in safe levels and have negligible changes under stress of irradiation and during long storage conditions. The genotoxicity test proved that the increased toxicity of irradiated dates was dose dependant. Therefore, the irradiated samples at 1.0 kGy were safe (near control samples). Consequently; the irradiation at 1.0kGy has the preferability to be used as an alternative of pesticides in spite of some losses in some bioactive content.
... It is an essential vitamin, which is highly unstable, sensitive to oxygen and temperature and must be ingested because it cannot be synthetized by human metabolism. It is vital for the growth and maintenance of healthy bones, teeth, gums and blood vessels [6]. The phenolic compounds present in the strawberry fruit, and their biological properties, have been well described in previous works [7,8]. ...
Article
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The natural antioxidant hydroxytyrosol (HT) was used to functionalize a strawberry puree. The effect of the antioxidant on the stability of the two bioactive forms of vitamin C (ascorbic acid-AA and dehydroascorbic acid-DHAA) in strawberry puree stored at 4 °C, compared with the effect on a model system of AA in water, was investigated. In the absence of HT, the concentration of vitamin C in strawberry puree decreased but not in the model system. Low concentrations of HT in strawberry puree (0.05 and 0.1 mg HT/g puree) stabilized vitamin C and improved its antioxidant activity. However, at high concentrations of HT (from 0.5 mg HT/g puree), although the antioxidant activity improved, degradation of vitamin C occurred. Therefore, the concentration of HT used to obtain a functionalized strawberry puree it is very important. An adequate concentration increases the antioxidant activity and protects vitamin C from degradation, developing a functional food. However, an inadequate concentration of HT affects the vitamin C content, which is essential for the human diet because it cannot be biosynthetized by the organism.
... Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3217 ...
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The aim of our study was to analyse vegetables, potatoes and their products as sources of energy and nutrients in the average diet in Poland. Representative data of the 2016 Household Budget Survey from 36,886 households were used. This is the largest study sample in Poland, so we generalized the conclusions to the whole population using the statement ‘average diet’. We analysed three main product groups: vegetables, vegetable products, and potatoes and potatoes products, dividing them into 14 subgroups (e.g., tomatoes, cabbage, carrots, other vegetables, and mushrooms). The percentages of energy, protein, carbohydrates, total fat, nine vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin E), seven minerals (calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iron, magnesium and zinc), and fibre from the analysed food subgroups are presented. Additionally, the influence of household characteristics on the supply of energy and nutrients from each subgroup of vegetables, potatoes, and their products was evaluated using cluster analysis. In the analysis, R programme and Kohonen neural networks were applied. Our study showed that vegetables, potatoes, and their products provide 7.3% of daily dietary energy supply. Vegetables contribute more than 20% of the supply of six nutrients: vitamin C (51.8%), potassium (32.5%), folate (31.0%), vitamin A (30.6%), vitamin B6 (27.8%), and magnesium (20.2%), as well as fibre (31.8%). Cluster analysis distinguished three clusters that differed in nutritional supply from vegetables, potatoes, and their products. Educational level, income measured by quintile groups, village size, socio-economic characteristics, urbanization degree, and land use were the most important factors determining differences between clusters.
... According to Peri (2006), this value can also be affected by the food handling and storage, soil and growing conditions and processing. Rickman, Bruhn and Barrett (2007) stated that nutritive value of food purely means the quality energy (calories), quantity and range, mineral, vitamins and phytochemicals that are found in food consumption. They also mentioned that protein, fat and carbohydrates are the sources of energy; and vitamins came from micronutrient; while minerals were from water, air or soil. ...
... Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is, by far, the most commonly assayed nutrient in blanching probably because its high solubility and heat susceptibility make it a conservative indicator of nutrient retention [16]. But, in some vegetables like green beans, it was also investigated that vitamin C (ascorbic acid) may retain more than even the fresh stuff [17][18][19]. ...
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The effects of blanching on the yard long beans were investigated to examine the nutritional quality and shelf life of the frozen products during storage in deep freeze for four months. The experiment was carried out Completely Randomized Design and there were eleven treatments using five different blanching times and two temperatures. The data were analyzed under computerized statistical methods of M-stat and Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used to compare the means. The chemical compositions were analyzed and the following results were investigated: the moisture contents were gradually decreased, acidity contents of blanched bean were decreased and pH contents were increased during prolonged storage. The changes of β-carotene contents were decreased but the vitamin C contents were increased after increasing the blanching time and temperature. On the other hand, the total soluble solid (TSS) contents were decreased on blanching with different time and temperatures. Peroxidase and catalase inactivation time of enzyme for water bath blanching of the beans represents that most enzymes are inactivated rapidly as temperature rises to 95 °C using 2 min blanching time. Therefore, the investigation results showed that the frozen yard long beans were stored well in deep freeze up to two months using blanching temperature of 95 °C and duration of 2 min.
... Despite the lower percentage of pulp in the low-calorie formulation, there was no significant difference (p≥0.05) between the candies until the last storage period. The content of phenolic compounds is highly dependent on the type of food and the processing conditions (Rickman et al., 2007). A possible explanation for the content of phenolic compounds in low-calorie candy is that the temperature and longer processing time concentrated the compounds or made them more available (Cruxen et al., 2017). ...
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Abstract The use of red pitanga pulp in the manufacture of candies is an alternative to the use of artificial colors and flavorings. This study aimed to evaluate the content of potentially bioactive compounds, microbiological quality, and sensory characteristics of conventional and low-calorie chewable candies formulated with red pitanga pulp and stored for 180 days under environmental conditions. Physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory analyses were performed. The storage of these products for 180 days influenced the contents of phenolic compounds and monomeric anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity was null at the end of the storage period. Conventional candy had the highest content of bioactive compounds. Contamination by thermotolerant coliforms and Salmonella spp. was not observed. Sensory evaluation showed an acceptability index greater than 70%, indicating that the products in this study have good potential for consumption and insertion in the market.
... The reduction in vitamin C after boiling and soaking was also reported in bamboo species of D. giganteus, D. latiflorus and D. sikkimensis ( Rawat et al., 2016 ). The heat-sensitive and watersoluble nature of ascorbic acid might be the result for the reduction of vitamin C after boiling and soaking ( Rickman et al., 2007 ). Due to the water-soluble nature of ascorbic acid, the retention of vitamin C was maximum in the boiled shoot samples as the exposure of plant tissue to water was for a short 20 min duration whereas in soaked shoot samples, the soaking duration was 24 hrs. ...
Article
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With growing health consciousness, food fortification has gained immense importance globally and there is a growing demand to produce and monitor the standard of fortified food to ensure that a fortified product contains an adequate amount of nutrients and bioactive compounds. Food fortification using natural sources of antioxidants and bioactive compounds are of great interest in recent years. Bamboo shoot is known for being a rich source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds with several health benefits. The current study is aimed at preparing and evaluating the functional properties of bamboo shoot fortified crispy salted snacks commonly known as namkeen. It was observed that the antioxidant activity of bamboo shoot fortified namkeen (2100.95 μg/ml, IC50 of DPPH) was significantly improved as compared to the control (2828.24 μg/ml, IC50 of DPPH). The results also revealed a significant increase in dietary fiber, phenol (0.20 g/100g) and phytosterol content (0.22 g/100g) in all fortified snacks. Sensory attribute was maximum in namkeen fortified with 20-minute boiled shoots. Thus, bamboo shoots have enormous potential of being used as a fortificant and could play an important role in enhancing the health-promoting properties and palatability of fortified products.
... The highest carotenoid contents were found in yellow-skinned cactus pear fruit (23.7 mg/g) (Diaz Medina et al., 2007). It has been reported that processed products often contain similar amounts of carotenoids than the fresh counterparts (Rickman et al., 2007). Carotenoid values were higher in marmalade than in the fresh fruit, especially the β-carotene and lutein (Leopoldo et al., 2012). ...
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During processing, the peels and seeds from cactus pear fruits are usually discarded. These “waste” products contain valuable bioactive compounds. This study investigated the antioxidant content and antioxidant potential of fresh and processed (juiced, dried, preserved, and chutney) cactus pear fruit peels from different fruit-colored cactus pear cultivars. Cactus pear peels contained high levels of antioxidants and demonstrated high antioxidant activity. The highest contents were found in dried peels, while the preserves had the lowest contents. Products on the positive side of Factor 1 of the PCA plot are mostly associated with the antioxidants PCA analysis showed that products, rather than cultivars, seem to cluster together, e.g., juices and fresh peels, chutneys, preserves and dried peels. Robusta and its products cluster together, as well as with betalains. The % DPPH, carotenoids and phenolics are grouped together, with % chelating activity closely correlated with ascorbic acid. Dried products from all cultivars correlated closely with % DPPH, carotenoids and phenolics, especially dried peel from Gymno-Carpo (orange), Ofer (orange), Meyers (red), and Nepgen (green). Red and orange preserves formed a cluster, while green preserves and chutney from all cultivars clustered together, as did fresh peels and juices. Purple fruit peel products had the highest % DPPH, % chelating activity, betalains, phenolic compounds and carotenes. Ascorbic acid dominated in orange and red fruit peels. Purple and orange were the colors of cactus pear fruit cultivars that might be the best choice in terms of antioxidant content. The cultivar that presented the best fruit peel from an antioxidant point of view for preservation was Robusta. Cactus pear fruit peels should be included in processed products such as juice, dried fruit and chutneys. These processed products are multi-component food ingredients and are therefore multi-component nutraceuticals which retained their antioxidant properties.
... difference. Rickman et al. [28] reported that because carotenoids are lipid-soluble, they may not be significantly lost to leaching into water-soluble medium during soaking and wet sieving. They are rather heat sensitive and get lost to oxidation. ...
Article
Ogi is a fermented cereal porridge usually made from single cereals such as maize (Zea mays). In traditional production, it is sometimes combined with other cereals such as sorghum or millet. It is usually in semi-solid form after production and has low shelf stability. This study was carried out to produce and evaluate the quality of ogi powder from mixtures of selected cereals (maize and sorghum), with soybean inclusion as advancement for improving the nutritive value of the product. Ogi flour was obtained from grains of maize and sorghum by weighing, sorting, soaking (for 72 hours), wet milling, sieving, dewatering, oven-drying, pulverizing and sieving through muslin cloth with maximum pore size of 20 mm. Optimal blend (70:30) for maize - sorghum ogi cumulating to 100% maize - sorghum mixture was obtained from a preliminary study; and fortified with soybean in the ratios of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 100:0. The samples were analyzed for functional, proximate and micronutrient properties using standard methods. Results of water absorption and swelling capacity showed significant (p<0.05) differences among the samples. Proximate composition results showed significant (p<0.05) differences in all samples and ranged as follows: moisture (5.39 - 7.72%), protein (6.22 - 21. 46%), ash (2.66 - 3.64%), crude fibre (2.22 - 2.65%), crude fat (4.22 - 10.22%) and carbohydrate (51.31 - 79.14%). The micronutrient levels were improved and ranged from 166 - 360 mg/100g calcium, 1.15 - 3.22 mg/100g iron, 24.3 - 47.6 IU ß-carotene and 0.59 - 0.89 mg/100g thiamine. Soybean addition generally improved the quality of the samples. Protein increase was observed from 20% inclusion of soybean. The maximum inclusion level of 50% increased the protein content of the sample to 21.5%. Despite adding value and variety to ogi meal due to its powdered form, fortifying maize-sorghum ogi with soybean would reduce the problem of malnutrition especially among children who are usually fed ogi as infant formulae in developing countries.
... For these reasons, we recommend that you keep beet steaming times to 15 minutes or less, and roasting times under an hour. In recent lab studies on human tumor cells, betanin pigments from beets have been shown to lessen tumor cell growth through a number of mechanisms, including inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes (specifically, cyclooxygenase enzymes) [17][18][19]. The tumor cell types tested in these studies include tumor cells from colon, stomach, nerve, lung, breast, prostate and testicular tissue. ...
... Because this study takes the satisfaction of daily nutrient requirements as basis, the reduced nutrient content of preserved food needs to be accounted for by producing more fresh crops during the growing season. In addition to the initial nutrient loss from preservation (for example, blanching or shock freezing, around 24% as an average for the vegetable basket), the subsequent storage loss in freezers or cans was determined as 0.1% per day as an average of reported figures from Drew and Khee 36 and Rickmann et al. 91 . The total nutrient storage loss, and thus the need to overproduce, was dependent on the length of the growing period. ...
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Modern greenhouses and vertical farming projects promise increased food output per unit area relative to open-field farming. However, their high energy consumption calls for a low-carbon power supply such as solar photovoltaic and wind, which adds to cost and overall land footprint. Here we use geospatial and mathematical modelling to compare open-field and two indoor farming methods for vegetable production in nine city-regions chosen globally with varying land availability, climatic conditions and population density. We find that renewable electricity supply is more costly for greenhouses per unit energy demand satisfied, which is due to the greater fluctuation in their energy demand profile. However, greenhouses have a lower energy demand per unit food output, which makes them the least land-intensive option in most of the analysed regions. Our results challenge the land-savings claims of vertical farming compared with open-field production. We also show that regionalizing vegetable supply is feasible in most regions and give recommendations based on the regional context.
... Most of the examined cultivars displayed non-significant variation between fresh and preserved fruit (canned in either packing medium), except for 'Ferlate' and 'VLG', which demonstrated significant concentration increases in the canned products (Fig. 1). Relatively few studies have dealt with the fate of ATOC in canned peach fruit (Rickman et al., 2007); possibly due to the fact that peach is not considered a significant source of this compound. The increase in ATOC content of the canned peaches is consistent with the findings for other canned vegetables (Abushita et al., 2000). ...
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Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is widely consumed both fresh and processed. Scarce information exists regarding the fate of phytochemicals after the peach canning process. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the compositional variability and impact of processing on the bioactive compounds profile of eight non-melting peach cultivars, both in fresh and canned forms, thermally processed with either light syrup (LS) or grape juice (GJ) as the packing medium. LC–MS analysis demonstrated that the phytochemical profile is primarily genotype dependent. Prediction profile statistics revealed that cv. ‘Andross’, a predominant clingstone peach cultivar, possessed the highest desirability score among all the examined cultivars. Free zeaxanthin and lutein remained relatively unaffected by the canning process compared to free β-carotene, whereas soluble phenolic compounds, such as neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1 and catechin, showed a large decrease following canning. Using GJ, an additional source of polyphenols, as packing medium led to a reduction of losses for the bioactive compounds. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that, besides the thermal degradation of some sensitive to heating compounds, there is a bidirectional flow of the bioactive compounds between the fruit tissue and the liquid matrix, as balanced out by diffusion processes.
... Children better to consume complementary foods of semisolid consistency with adequate energy and nutrient densities to supplement breast milk. Breast milk alone is no longer sufficient to meet the nutritional requirement of the children from 6 months onward [26]. The calculated energy values of the porridges of the present study range from (398 kcal/100 g to 412 kcal/100 g), which was found to be above the minimum recommended level. ...
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In sub-Saharan African specifically in Ethiopia malnutrition is a great challenge. Protein-energy malnutrition, in children associated with poor nutritional knowledge resulting in early weaning, delayed the introduction of complementary foods, low protein diet and severe or frequent infection. In Ethiopia the intake of vitamin A is inadequate; especially provision of the vitamin through dietary improvement, food fortification, and supplementation is less. The consumption of vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables and foods made from roots and tubers about 24%-25%. Boricha Woreda was selected because of its potential for growing kocho, haricot beans, Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP) and the exposure to food insecurity with a high number of malnourished children. The purpose of this study was to assess nutritional, microbial and sensory properties of complimentary food developed from kocho, orange-fleshed sweet potato and haricot beans for less than five years children. Porridge was developed with different proportion of kocho to haricot bean flour: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 100:0 (control) and constant amount of OFSP (15%). The proximate composition analyses of porridge were done by AOAC. The beta carotene/Vitamin A was determined by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The total mold and yeast counts and total plate count for safety were carried out by using the standard procedure for examining microbial load on the food products. Sensory acceptability of the porridge was evaluated with 30 panelists comprising of mother-children in pairs using 5 points hedonic scale. The result of the study showed that the proximate composition (moisture content, crude protein, crude fat, and total ash) fulfills the minimum Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for children aged between 6-23 months. OFSP incorporated porridge was rich in Vitamin A content and fulfills 65.14% daily RSI (RDA) of vitamin A. The microbial analyses of the developed porridge were within the microbiologically accepted limit. All porridges were accepted and liked by the consumers. Thus, based on the finding of this study it was suggested that mothers/caregivers should feed their children haricot bean and OFSP incorporated porridge.
... During the nutritional trial, it was observed a significant decrease in gonad CC with increasing gonad size, most probably due to the low CC of experimental diets. The lowerthan-expected CC in the diets could be the result of carotenoids degradation (estimated between 56 and 75% loss) during the pellet manufacturing process and storage, due to temperature increase, light intensity, and acidity (Rickman et al., 2007;Jintasataporn and Yuangsoi, 2012). Previous studies using both natural and synthetic forms of β-carotene supplementation also observed identical levels of carotenoid degradation. ...
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The market value of sea urchin roe (female and male gonads) depends on several quality criteria, such as size, color, texture, and flavor. Sea urchins given dry pellet feed often produce large gonads, but the preferred bright orange color has been difficult to achieve without the inclusion of supplementary dietary carotenoids. Gonad color depends on carotenoid concentrations (CC), and is influenced by several factors, including diet and sea urchin sex. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of sea urchin sex, gonad size, and maturation level on gonad color and CC. Small Paracentrotus lividus urchins (18 mm test diameter) were fed every 48 h with three diets of similar proximate composition (protein: 31–33% dry matter DM, fat: 9–10% DM; carbohydrates: 45–46% DM). The diets were formulated with fishmeal, algae, and plant-based ingredients and supplemented with β-carotene (100 mg Kg⁻¹). The nutritional trial was conducted in three recirculatory aquatic systems equipped with 40 L glass tanks guaranteeing triplicates by diet with an initial biomass of 5 g L⁻¹. The gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonad maturity and color of 15 urchins per replica were analyzed at mid-trial (103 days, T1) and at the end of the trial (173 days, T2), and compare with initial condition (baseline). At each sampling event, the color of female (F) and male (M) gonads was analyzed using qualitative (four-level visual scale) and quantitative methods (Commission Internationale de l’ Eclairage CIE L*, a* and b* color parameters). Additionally, CC was determined by spectrophotometry in pooled samples freeze-dried gonads per replica and sex and compared with baseline. At T1, 59 females and 71 males were analyzed, and results showed that females presented larger (GSI = 7.50) gonads with higher CC (117.5 μg g⁻¹ DM) than males (GSI = 5.16 and CC = 76 μg g⁻¹). Female gonads also presented a more intense color (a* = 8.8, b* = 17.13) than males (a* = 5.1, b* = 12.49). At T2, 61 females and 62 males were analyzed and, except for a high percentage of female gonads classified as color grade I (57%), the differences on gonad color and CC between sexes identified in T1 became non-significant. In general, the gonad color tended to become lighter (L*, baseline: 34.8 and T2: 47.2) and yellower (b*, baseline: 12.5 and T2: 17.50), and CC decreased (baseline: 201.8 μg g⁻¹ DM and T2: 31.6 μg g⁻¹ DM) with increasing gonad weight (baseline: 0.16 g and T2: 0.77 g) and GSI (baseline: 3.0% and T2: 9.9%). In conclusion, this study shows that the carotenoid concentration and color attributes of sea urchin gonads are influenced by sea urchin sex and gonad size. The different diets and the carotene supplementation had little or no effect on the gonad CC and color attributes, indicating that the sources and concentrations of carotenoids in the diets were not sufficient to allow the accumulation of pigments in the gonads needed to enhance the color of P. lividus urchins.
... Vitamin E can be found in large quantities in legume seeds, almond, butter, tomato, and leafy vegetables (e.g., beet greens, collard greens, spinach) [85]. It also can be found in oils such as sunflower, safflower, soybean oil, and the germ oil of cereal grains [160,161]. Concerning the daily requirements of vitamin E among both sexes and at different life stages, it has been summarized in Table 2 and explained below. ...
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Age and Gender are vital determinants for the micronutrient demands of normal indviduals. Among these micronutrients are vitamins that are required in small amounts for optimum metabolism, homeostasis, and a healthy lifestyle, acting as coenzymes in several biochemical reactions. The majority of previous studies have examined such issues that relates to a specific vitamin or life stage, with the majority merely reporting the effect of either excess or deficiency. Vitamins are classified into water-soluble and fat-soluble components. The fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins (A, D, E, and K). Fat-soluble vitamins were found to have an indisputable role in an array of physiological processes such as immune regulation, vision, bone and mental health. Nonetheless, the fat-soluble vitamins are now considered a prophylactic measurement for a multitude of diseases such as autism, rickets disease, gestational diabetes, and asthma. Herein, in this review, a deep insight into the orchestration of the four different fat-soluble vitamins requirements is presented for the first time across the human life cycle beginning from fertility, pregnancy, adulthood, and senility with an extensive assessment ofthe interactions among them and their underlying mechanistic actions. The influence of sex for each vitamin is also presented at each life stage to highlight the different daily requirements and effects.
... According to latest data reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Italy ranks 4th in world production of tomato and its products, with an annual production of 6,248 million tons, 27.4% of overall European amount in the year 2020. Although it is commonly consumed as fresh, more than 80% of its consumption derives from processed products (1,2). The Italian consumption of preserved whole tomatoes or in pieces corresponds to 34 g per capita/day (3). ...
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Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most consumed vegetables in the world; it contains high amounts of antioxidant phytochemicals and essential nutrients. Although it is commonly consumed fresh, more than 80% of its consumption derives from processed products. Since limited information on changes in the bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds during gastrointestinal digestion was reported, this current study aimed to monitor the antioxidant activity, total polyphenolic and carotenoid content, and bioaccessibility during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of different typologies (n = 7) of canned tomatoes. A comprehensive evaluation of the polyphenolic profile of digested and not digested samples was ascertained by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The results highlighted a considerable content of rutin (1.191-9.516 mg/100 g), naringenin (0.359-1.452 mg/100 g), chlorogenic acid (1.857-11.236 mg/100 g), and lycopene (50.894-222.061 mg/kg) in the analyzed matrices. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, large variability, losses and low recovery were recorded. An appreciable percentage of rutin (30.7%), naringenin (29.6%), chlorogenic acid (25.8%), and lycopene (varied between 9.3 and 20%) remained bioaccessible after the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Our study could be a valid support to evaluate which content of bioactive compounds could be really bioaccessible to exercise beneficial effects on human health.
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Developing more nutrient‐rich, sustainable food supply chains aligns with the co‐benefits of tackling malnutrition and minimizing food loss and waste. While food waste and nutrient loss as a function of food waste and processing have separately been a topic of much previous research, nutrient loss as a function of both processing and food waste from farm to fork has not been addressed. This critical analysis was motivated by the: challenge of nourishing a growing population, the economic impact of food waste, the societal costs of malnutrition, and the overall need to extend produce shelf life sustainably. Both food and nutrient loss and waste can occur simultaneously at various levels throughout the value chain as a function of different processing methods. Combined effects of food waste and nutrient availability/losses were determined through a systematic analysis of the available peer‐reviewed research data during thermal, nonthermal, and minimal processing for tomatoes, spinach, and kidney beans. The waste and loss datasets were derived from the USDA, the FAO, and the US EPA databases. This work presents a justification for more research to reduce nutrient loss and food waste to obtain a more sustainable supply of nutrients in the food industry. Practical Applications This analysis serves as a guide for food industry stakeholders concerned with nutrient retention as a result of processing and food waste in the food value chain. It also assesses the combined impact of processing and food waste on nutrient loss from farm to fork. Available nutrient retention data as a function of retort, microwave, high pressure, aseptic and fresh processing, and food waste were employed. To our knowledge, there has not been a study on food waste as a function of processing that considers nutrient retention and loss as a function of food waste within the entire value chain. A summary of specific research needs for a holistic view on nutrient retention affecting product, process, and package conditions through the value chain was presented.
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The process of biofortification is increasing the density of vitamins and minerals in a crop through, transgenic techniques, plant breeding or agronomic practices. Globally the deficiencies of micronutrient affect more than two billion individuals, or one in three people, there are 3 most common micronutrient deficiencies in the world i.e. Iron, zinc and vitamin A. In developing countries harvest plus seeks to develop and distribute varieties of food staples (rice, wheat, maize, cassava, pearl millet, beans, and sweet potato) that are high in iron, zinc, and provitamin A through an global alliance of scientific institutions, interdisciplinary and implementing agencies.
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Current nutrition trends such as the “raw food diet” may lead consumers to believe that raw leafy vegetables are more nutritious than cooked vegetables, despite research showing that cooked vegetables make important nutritional contributions. This publication describes the nutrient retention and quality of cooked vegetables, explains why cooking vegetables is appropriate for consumers with food safety concerns, and provides tips for preparing cooked vegetables. This 4-page fact sheet was written by Morgan Dehnard, Amy Simonne, and Gail P. A. Kauwell, and published by the UF Department of Family Youth and Community Sciences, October 2013. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fy1395
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A large body of literature on child-focused research regarding healthy eating within the family context has focused on behavioral management strategies, such as reinforcement, or parental modeling through personal intake or encouragement. However, food preparation behaviors among mothers have been understudied. Also unknown is how maternal food preparations behaviors vary across population subgroups and contexts. The study objective was to elucidate momentary characteristics (i.e., time of day, weekday, and family meals) and personal characteristics (i.e., ethnicity, working status, household characteristics, body mass index, income, and child's age) associated with maternal fruit and vegetable (F/V) preparation through ecological momentary assessment (EMA). 186 mothers (Mage = 40.81) of children (Mage = 9.61, 49.5% female) completed six semi-annual waves, each lasting seven days. Mothers completed up to eight EMA surveys a day, which assessed family meals and F/V preparation, and reported personal characteristics through paper questionnaires. Multilevel generalized estimating equations examined the likelihood of F/V preparation. Momentary, within-day characteristics (i.e., occurrence of family meals, weekdays, afternoons) were associated with greater likelihood of mothers' fresh F/V preparation (ps < 0.05). Additionally, personal characteristics such as non-Hispanic ethnicity, not working full-time, having a child aged six months to five years in the household, and lower child BMI-z were associated with greater fresh F/V preparation among mothers (ps < 0.05). Findings may inform family-based obesity and nutrition intervention programs by understanding which families and in what contexts mothers are more likely to prepare F/Vs.
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One of the most abundant wastes from all around the world is nutrient resources. Among them, fruits, their extracts, and residues comprise a major portion, which contain many valuable components that get lost during disposal or become burden on the shrinking landfills. These concerns are addressed by seeking sustainable processing methods that would have a minimal environmental impact. The crops contain renewable chemicals which are useful for catalysis, wastewater treatment, or preparation of nanomaterials; there has been an upsurge for the industrial applications of (nano)materials as their environmental and catalytic appliances is a fascinating subject to design cheaper and safer catalytic systems. Due to the excellent chemical properties of the fruit extracts, they have garnered attention as cost-effective catalysts and support materials. This review focuses on the preparation of (nano)materials and their catalytic and environmental applications and highlights the potential appliances and industrial benefits derived from these low-cost renewable and sustainable greener sources thus essentially converting waste into wealth.
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Summary Objectives A few epidemiological data are available assessing the associations of dietary intakes of polyphenols with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to examine the associations of dietary intake of polyphenols with the prevalence of NAFLD. Methods We analyzed data from a case–control study of 225 patients with NAFLD cases and 450 controls. All participants completed a validated 168‐item food frequency questionnaire, the results of which were subsequently used to calculate dietary polyphenol. Results Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age and sex it has been shown that participants who were in the highest tertile of total flavonoids (OR=0.65, 95% CI= 0.44 – 0.98) and total phenolic acids (OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.42 – 0.94) were associated with lower risk of NAFLD compared with the lowest tertile. Although the association of total flavonoids and the risk of NAFLD disappeared after additional adjustment for BMI, physical activity, smoking, SES, dietary fat and energy intake (OR= 0.67, 95% CI =0.38 – 1.19). The risk of NAFLD was 66% lower (OR=0.44, CI=0.24 – 0.78, p for trend= 0.006) among participants who were in the highest tertile of lignans intake comared with the lowest tertile. Conclusion our study showed that, high intake of lignans lowers the odds of NAFLD. We strongly recommend that the concepts proposed in this study must be tested in future longitudinal researches, in order to determine the association of total and subgroup of polyphenol intake with different stages of fatty liver diseases. Keywords polyphenol non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD
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Milk products, fruits and vegetables intake are the main components of a healthy diet and have vitamins, proteins, minerals, fats and many more which help in fulfillment of daily energy need and protection from many diseases and disorders. Milk products, fruits and vegetables intake index decide the true development of any country, because healthy people can live happy and longer life and can play inportant role in the development of society and country. Wavelet transforms is a powerful and efficient tool which captures the localized time frequency information of the signal and suitable for analysing non-stationary and transient signals. The approximation represents average behaviour or trend of the signal, while detail represents differential behaviour of the signal corresponding to each level of decomposition. Milk products, fruits and vegetables data of India from Jan. 2013 to Aug. 2021 are taken as raw data. Wavelet transforms of this data is performed by software dyadwaves using Haar wavelet, decomposition level-5. Approximation is the slowest part of data and corresponds to the maximum scale value describes the trend of the signal. The statistical analysis of given data is also performed through skewness, kurtosis, standard deviation and correlation coefficients. The wavelet analytical results are strongly consistent with statistical analytical results of the milk products, fruits and vegetables intake.
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The antioxidant activities of extracts of purple, yellow and orange carrot varieties were evaluated by in vitro methods i.e. DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and CUPRAC. The total polyphenols concentration was evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu technique. The content of anthocyanins, chlorophylls and carotenoids was evaluated in fresh and frozen carrots. The anthocyanin concentration was also determined in carrot extracts. The effect of certain parameters of ultrasound-assisted extraction, i.e. extraction time, concentration and acidifying of extractant, as well as the type of raw material (fresh or frozen) was analyzed. The antioxidant potential as well as content of polyphenols and plant pigments were the highest in purple carrot extracts. The most effective extractant seems to be 70% (v/v) ethanol. The extension of the extraction time, in majority of cases, led to an increase of antioxidant activity of extracts, whereas the freezing of raw material generally decreased the above-mentioned activities. The effect of acidification of extractant is ambiguous and depends on the method applied to evaluate antioxidant activity.
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This study aimed to examine the effect of canning and storage on physicochemical, mineral, and antioxidant properties and phenolic composition of apricot wholes, halves, and pulp. The findings for physicochemical properties revealed that the total soluble solids, titratable acidity, total sugars, and ascorbic acid were found higher in apricot pulp (37.15, 1.39, and 20.74% and 7.21 mg/100 g FW, respectively) followed by apricot wholes and halves throughout the storage period. The remarkable contents of potassium, phosphorous, zinc, copper, iron, and manganese were found in the apricot pulp which revealed that canning and storage slightly affected the mineral composition. Bioactive substances were identified and quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, which indicated a higher presence of chlorogenic acid (34.45 mg/kg FW), quercitin-3-glucoside (16.78 mg/kg FW), neochlorogenic acid (26.52 mg/kg FW), gallic acid (5.37 mg/kg FW), kaempferol (14.22 mg/kg FW), ellagic acid (6.02 mg/kg FW), procyanidin B2 (8.80 mg/kg FW), and epicatechin (9.87 mg/kg FW) in apricot pulp followed by apricot wholes and halves throughout the storage period. The total phenolic content was found highest in apricot pulp (13.76 GAE mg/100 g FW) followed by wholes (8.09 GAE mg/100 g FW) and halves (6.48 GAE mg/100 g FW) which decreased significantly throughout the storage period. Antioxidant properties were assessed by DPPH, ABTS+, MCA, and BCBA, which were found higher in the apricot pulp (92.23 TEAC μg/g DW, 92.33 TEAC μg/g DW, 33.80 TEAC μg/g DW, and 68.40 TEAC μg/g DW, respectively) that is correlated with the higher presence of bioactive compounds. Thus, apricot pulp containing excellent sources of nutrients, minerals, phytochemicals, and antioxidant components could be used for consumption purposes that provide nutraceuticals and antioxidants globally.
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This study evaluated the effect of argon-enriched modified atmosphere on the storage extension of ready-to-use broccoli rabe in leaf. Broccoli rabe samples ( Brassica rapa sylvestris L. var. esculenta) were packaged in 90% argon and 10% O 2 (modified atmosphere packaging 1); 80% argon, 10% CO 2 and 10% O 2 (modified atmosphere packaging 2) and evaluated for the physicochemical characteristics, microbiological parameters and bioactive compounds (glucosinolates) during the cold storage for 9 days. Results showed significant maintenance of colour, chlorophyll, phenols content and antioxidant activity in modified atmosphere packaging packages with respect to air control ones. An increasing biosynthesis of glucosinolates was observed in all packages to the inductive effect of CO 2 produced; the amount of minerals unchanged during the storage. Overall appearance and odour evaluation pointed out a positive effect of argon atmospheres, in particular modified atmosphere packaging 1, for the keeping of the sensory attributes compared to those evaluated in air packaging.
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La piña (Ananas Comosus) es uno de los cultivos comerciales de frutas más importantes del mundo, es conocida como la reina de las frutas por su excelente sabor. La piña es la tercera fruta tropical más importante del mundo después del banano y los cítricos. Es una fruta muy consumida y apreciada que ha adquirido popularidad con los años debido en parte a su contenido en compuestos con aporte benéfico para la salud humana. La piña es una rica fuente de vitaminas, minerales, fibra dietética y otros compuestos importantes. El grupo de compuestos bioactivos consiste en compuestos fenólicos, que incluyen antocianinas, ácidos fenólicos, estilbenos, taninos y carotenoides, entre otros como la bromelina reconocida como el ingrediente bioactivo más valioso y estudiado de la fruta, estos compuestos pueden ser considerados como nutracéuticos debido al efecto preventivo contra el estrés oxidativo, las enfermedades cardiovasculares y el cáncer. Es importante resaltar que la piña contiene compuestos característicos de alto valor, de modo que constituye un reservorio y patrimonio genético por explorar. Esta revisión describe a los principales fitoquímicos asociados a la piña y además presenta las propiedades nutracéuticas y su implicación en la alimentación y la salud.
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Opuntia cacti are ideal crops for arid regions since they can generate biomass under water-stress conditions. Opuntia spp. are important as food and feed resources, with the young cladodes being harvested as a vegetable crop (nopalitos). Consumers are nowadays more health conscious and as a result, the food industry produce new food types based on nopalitos. Cladodes have a high nutritional value due to its contents of minerals, proteins, dietary fibre and phytochemicals. The chemical composition depends on the type of specie, environmental conditions, maturity stage, harvest season and post-harvest treatment. The soluble dietary fibre may help reduce body weight and calcium contents improves bone density. The beneficial properties are related to the mineral, phenolics, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids. The medicinal properties of cladodes include prevention of chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, cholesterol, diabetes, cancer, obesity and metabolic syndrome as they have anti-atherogenic, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperinsulinemic properties. Wound healing properties of cladode extracts was also reported. This chapter deals with the chemistry, composition and functionality of both mature cladodes and nopalitos from different Opuntia spp.
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Tomato fruits are one of the most commonly consumed vegetables worldwide for their health as well as nutritional benefits. However, the fruits contain a lot of water which predisposes them to spoilage by microorganisms that makes its storage and transportation difficult. In the present study, the work was carried out to determine the proximate and minerals composition of three tomato fruits cultivars namely: DanEka, Bahaushe and UTC grown in Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria. Tomato samples were collected from different sales outlets (Kasuwar DanKure and Kasuwar Daji) in Sokoto metropolis and were analyzed for proximate and mineral contents using standard laboratory procedures. Results showed that UTC had highest proteins (1.68%), carbohydrates (91.52%), magnesium (3.6 ppm), sodium (14.0 ppm) and potassium (0.994 ppm) contents but was the least in moisture (90.2%), crude fat (0.2%) and calcium (1.5 ppm). On the other hand, DanEka was observed to have least protein (0.70%), carbohydrates (89.08%), ash (0.02%), magnesium (2.7 ppm) and phosphorus (0.795 ppm) but had the highest moisture (95.2%) and calcium (1.6 ppm) contents. Conversely, the highest crude fat (4.0%) and least sodium (8 ppm) contents were recorded in Bahaushe. It was however moderate in moisture, carbohydrates, protein, magnesium and phosphorous. The proximate compositions have shown that the cultivars were of high nutritional quality and UTC could stand longer postharvest storage period considering its lower moisture content.
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Value-added products can generate farm income and improve community food access, yet lack of available kitchen infrastructure and labor can limit farm production capacity. This project explored how community-based culinary schools might fill the gap. A unique “product share” model was identified and piloted, meeting the collective needs of farmers, a culinary school, and urban consumers. By researching farmer crop availability and business model preferences, and aligning value-added production with community food preferences, we demonstrate a successful pilot indicative that similar initiatives can be replicated in other metropolitan areas, with potential to engage cross-disciplinary extension professionals.
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Tomatoes are the second most consumed vegetable in the United States. In 2017, American people consumed 9.2 kg of tomatoes from a fresh market and 33.2 kg of processed tomato products per capita. One commonly asked question by consumers and the nutrition community is “Are processed tomato products as nutritious as fresh tomatoes?” This review addresses this question by summarizing the current understandings on the effects of industrial processing on the nutrients and bioactive compounds of tomatoes. Twelve original research papers were found to study the effects of different industrial processing methods on the nutrients and/or bioactive compounds in tomato products. The data suggested that different processing methods had different effects on different compounds in tomatoes. However, currently available data are still limited, and the existing data are often inconsistent. The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Legacy was utilized to estimate nutrient contents from raw tomatoes and processed tomato products. In addition, several other important factors specifically related to the industrial processing of tomatoes were also discussed. To conclude, there is no simple “yes” or “no” answer to the question “Are processed tomato products as nutritious as fresh tomatoes?” Many factors must be considered when comparing the nutritious value between fresh tomatoes and processed tomato products. At this point, we do not have sufficient data to fully understand all of the factors and their impacts.
Article
Taste and nutritional value make sweet corn a valued plant and an important component of the human diet worldwide. Kernel nutritive composition of sweet corn has been reported in various papers, but a description of carotenoid and tocopherols profile, especially after cooking is scarce. Therefore, the present study was carried out to compare the carotenoid and tocopherol content in sweet corn before and after cooking. Contents of β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin and tocopherols (δ-T, β+γ-T, α-T) in the kernels of twelve sweet corn hybrids were determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and were expressed as the mean value of three independent measurements. Both genotype and cooking affected the content of the carotenoids and tocopherols in the kernel. The highest content of total carotenoids before and after cooking was found in hybrid ZP486/1su (27.77/45.28 µg/g) whereas the lowest content was in hybrid ZP 355su (10.27 µg/g) before cooking i.e. in hybrid ZP 347su (24.55 µg/g) after cooking. The cooking resulted in a significant increase in the content of total carotenoids and tocopherols, lutein+zeaxanthin, and β-carotene in all hybrids, except the ZP504su in which the β-carotene content decreased. An increase in α-tocopherol after cooking was observed in hybrids ZP485/1su and ZP484/1su, while a decrease was in hybrids ZP481/1su, ZP486/1su and ZP477/2su. The results showed that increasing micronutrient content is genotype-dependent. This study confirmed that cooking increases the nutritional value of sweet corn and gives it additional value in terms of functional food.
Article
A water-soluble polysaccharide (HUP-2) was isolated from H. ulmarius using hot water extraction and purified using ion exchange chromatography (DEAE cellulose-52) and gel filtration (Sepharose-6B). The structure characteristics of HUP-2 were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and XRD analysis revealed that it formed a semi-crystalline structure. HUP-2 is a monosaccharide with a molecular weight of 25.296 kDa. The HUP-2 is assemble with 1.96% rhamnose, 16.51% mannose, 22.76% galactose, and 19.43% glucose. It could be found that the main backbone chain of HUP-2 consisted N-acetylglycosidic. The polysaccharide's DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 17.08 to 56.90%. The radical scavenging activity of ABTS varied from 8.02 to 71.44% at 0.5–2.5 mg/ml, whereas superoxide radical scavenging activity was 8.02–63.03%. The results of HUP-2 demonstrated an extension (p < 0.01) of APTT relative to the saline sample at concentrations more than 5 mg/mL. It exhibited a high antioxidant capacity as well. HUP-2 had significant inhibitory and cytotoxic effects in PC3 cells. HUP-2 arrested the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase over all cells except PC3 cells. HUP-2 appears to have a wide range of biological applications, making it a good candidate for usage in functional foods, according to these studies.
Article
Purpose This study aims to examine the relationship between cash value benefit (CVB) redemption outcomes in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) across food processing types and socio-demographics. Design Cross-sectional and panel analyses. Setting Virginia. Subjects 98,067 Virginia WIC households. Measures CVB redemption rate. Results The predominant share of CVB redemption was for fresh produce (77.3%). Non-Hispanic whites and blacks redeemed a smaller share of fresh produce than Hispanic participants ( P < .001). Non-Hispanic black WIC households have a significantly lower CVB redemption rate than non-Hispanic white WIC households (β = −.008, P < .001). Households with a child participant tend to have a higher redemption rate (β = .01, P < .001). The redemption rates of fruits and of vegetables were positively correlated with household size. Conclusions Minority status and household size were significantly related to CVB redemptions among Virginia WIC participants.
Article
Dry beans are a nutrient dense food that generally require long cooking times. Canned beans provide consumers safe and convenient access to this nutritious food. Canning quality is a measure of how well beans withstand the canning process and is affected by many factors including bean genotype, growing conditions, and post‐harvest seed handling. The evaluation of canning quality has long been an important consideration for variety improvement in bean breeding programs. This pilot‐scale dry bean canning and evaluation protocol provides a detailed step by step method of canning and quality evaluation for major US dry bean market classes. The post‐canning process evaluation includes appearance rating by a trained sensory panel and objective measures of water uptake, color and texture. In addition, a virtual canning quality training and evaluation methods have been implemented for enhanced data quality, flexibility and engagement of the process.
Article
Full-text available
Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread and is linked with diets low in fruit and vegetables. However, during the twentieth century, declines in essential minerals in fruits and vegetables were reported in the UK and elsewhere. A new analysis of long-term trends of the mineral content of fruits and vegetables from three editions of the UK’s Composition of Foods Tables (1940, 1991 and 2019) was undertaken. All elements except P declined in concentrations between 1940 and 2019 – the greatest overall reductions during this 80-year period were Na (52%), Fe (50%), Cu (49%) and Mg (10%); water content increased (1%). There could be many reasons for these reductions, including changes in crop varieties and agronomic factors associated with the industrialisation of agriculture. Increases in carbon dioxide could also play a role. We call for a thorough investigation of these reductions and steps to be taken to address the causes that could contribute to global malnutrition.
Article
Full-text available
The first of a two-part review of the recent and classical literature reveals that loss of nutrients in fresh products during storage and cooking may be more substantial than commonly perceived. Depending on the commodity, freezing and canning processes may preserve nutrient value. The initial thermal treatment of processed products can cause loss of water-soluble and oxygen-labile nutrients such as vitamin C and the B vitamins. However, these nutrients are relatively stable during subsequent canned storage owing to the lack of oxygen. Frozen products lose fewer nutrients initially because of the short heating time in blanching, but they lose more nutrients during storage owing to oxidation. Phenolic compounds are also water-soluble and oxygen-labile, but changes during processing, storage and cooking appear to be highly variable by commodity. Further studies would facilitate the understanding of the changes in these phytochemicals. Changes in moisture content during storage, cooking and processing can misrepresent changes in nutrient content. These findings indicate that exclusive recommendations of fresh produce ignore the nutrient benefits of canned and frozen products. Nutritional comparison would be facilitated if future research would express nutrient data on a dry weight basis to account for changes in moisture. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry
Book
For more than two decades, this work has remained the leading advanced textbook and easy-to-use reference on food chemistry and technology. Its fourth edition has been extensively re-written and enlarged, now also covering topics such as BSE detection or acrylamide. Food allergies, alcoholic drinks, or phystosterols are now treated more extensively. Proven features of the prior editions are maintained: Contains more than 600 tables, almost 500 figures, and about 1100 structural formulae of food components - Logically organized according to food constituents and commodities - Comprehensive subject index. These features provide students and researchers in food science, food technology, agricultural chemistry and nutrition with in-depth insight into food chemistry and technology. They also make the book a valuable on-the-job reference for chemists, food chemists, food technologists, engineers, biochemists, nutritionists, and analytical chemists in food and agricultural research, food industry, nutrition, food control, and service laboratories. From reviews of the first edition "Few books on food chemistry treat the subject as exhaustively-researchers will find it to be a useful source of information. It is easy to read and the material is systematically presented." JACS.
Article
Consumption of tomatoes and tomato products has been shown to provide nutritional and health benefits.
Article
Canned whole tomatoes and beets were collected from three canning plants in the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas, 3 times during the canning period and stored for 1 yr. Nutrient analyses revealed that fat, fiber, protein, iron, riboflavin, niacin, carbohydrate and caloric values of the tomatoes and ash, fat, fiber, calcium, iron, protein, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin of the beets were not changed by canning plant procedures, time of harvest during the canning period, or during 1 yr of storage. Tomatoes canned in plant C were consistently higher in total dry solids than those canned in plants A and B. The total dry solids in beets decreased slightly in the late harvest. Vitamin C decreased in tomatoes from each canning plant during storage. The ash content of tomatoes canned in plant A was lower than ash in tomatoes from plants B and C. Vitamin A in tomatoes increased in late harvest but decreased during storage. Beets canned in plants A and B decreased in carbohydrate and caloric values during the canning period. Canning plant operators in this subtropical area might expect values for fat and Vitamin A in tomatoes and of fat, calcium, iron, thiamine and riboflavin in beets to differ from the corresponding values listed in USDA Handbook No. 8.
Article
Physicochemical changes of dietary fibre in the presence of NaCl or CaCl2 (0, 100 or 400 mM) during boiling (4 or 25 min) of blanched/frozen carrots were investigated. Addition of NaCl (100 mM) to the boiling water reduced total dietary fibre (TDF) content, due to a reduction of insoluble polymers. Higher concentrations had no further effects. NaCl showed minor effects on molecular weight distribution as well as on viscosity of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) isolated. The low concentration of CaCl2 did not affect TDF content, but there was a redistribution of soluble (SDF) to insoluble dietary fibre (IDF), mainly uronic acids but to some extent also arabinose and galactose. The higher concentration of CaCl2 caused a significant loss of TDF (∼18%), both soluble (uronic acids ∼9%, galactose ∼2% and arabinose ∼2%) and insoluble polymers (glucose ∼4%). Reduced amounts of the various WSP fractions were isolated (60–70%) in the presence of CaCl2. The viscosities of these fractions were comparatively lower, which may be explained by the proportionally lower amounts of arabinose and galactose in the high molecular weight fraction. All low molecular weight fractions isolated (not quantified in the dietary fibre analyses) contained high proportions of non-starch glucose. It is concluded that CaCl2 and NaCl modify physicochemical properties of dietary fibre to a great extent and, as a consequence, also nutritional effects.
Article
A polymeric 5 μm C30 stationary phase for reversed phase HPLC was used to separate and quantitate geometric isomers of provitamin A carotenoids in fresh and processed fruits and vegetables. β-Carotene isomers (all-trans, 9-cis, 13-cis, and 15-cis), α-carotene isomers (all-trans, 9-cis, 13-cis, and 13‘-cis), and β-cryptoxanthin isomers (all-trans, 13 and 13‘-cis, and 15-cis) were resolved isocratically using the C30 stationary phase with 89:11 methanol/methyl tert-butyl ether as mobile phase. The percent of cis isomers increased 10−39% with canning. The total provitamin A carotenoid content (in micrograms per gram of dry weight of tissue) ranged from 3.5 to 907 in fresh samples and from 1.8 to 1055 in canned samples. In several fruits and vegetables, processing produced an increase of 16−50% of total measured provitamin A carotenoids relative to the fresh samples. These increases were most likely a result of increased extraction efficiency, inactivation of enzymes capable of degrading carotenoids, and/or loss of soluble solids into the liquid canning medium. Keywords: β-Carotene; α-carotene; β-cryptoxanthin; C30 reversed phase HPLC; isomers
Article
An evaluation was made of the degree of toughening of asparagus during its storage through a study of the morphological and cellular differences of the xylem vascular bundles as a function of the variety, thickness and portion of the asparagus spear. Light microscopic examinations were carried out to determine the thickness of the cell wall to quantify the extent of the toughening. At the same time a study was made of the fractions of dietary fibre of the asparagus spear by means of chemical extraction techniques. Statistically significant differences were observed in both methods between varieties, thicknesses and portions of the asparagus spear. Different factors such as variety, degree of maturing, portion of spear, moment of harvesting, and type and time of storage have an influence on the toughening of white asparagus that should be taken into account in order to standardise its quality.
Article
The effect of processing method (freezing vs canning) and storage time (day 1 or 10 months) on the proximate composition and the vitamin and mineral content of fiddlehead greens was examined. Comparisons were made between the nutrient composition of raw and processed fiddlehead greens. The protein, ash and water soluble vitamin (niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C) content of the fiddle-heads decreased with processing. These losses were most likely the result of leaching and heat processing. Losses of water soluble vitamins, particularly niacin, was the greatest in canned fiddlehead greens. The mineral content (K, Mg, P) was substantially reduced by processing. Storage for up to 10 months resulted in a significant decrease in the moisture, crude fiber, and α-carotene content of frozen and canned fiddlehead greens.
Article
The dietary fiber contents of 19 different forms of seven fruits were analyzed by two methods and compared. Fiber content measured by the AOAC method was always greater than that obtained by the Uppsala method; the two sets of fiber data were significantly different (P < 0.002). Fiber contents of different forms of oranges, peaches and plums were similar. Fiber contents of four berries (blackberries, cranberries, red respberries, strawberries) ranged from 1.0 to 7.0% fresh weight. Peeling or canning changed the uronic acid and neutral sugar contents of the soluble and insoluble fiber fractions of several fruits. Measurement of more fiber in fruits by the AOAC versus the Uppsala method is similar to the results obtained when grain products and legumes, but not vegetables, were analyzed.
Article
Broccoli, carrots, and green beans (grown in 2 consecutive years) were randomly divided into 3 treatments: fresh-refrigerated (F-R), frozen (FZ) or canned (C) (carrots only). FZ or C vegetables were processed within 24 h and stored for up to 1 yr. F-R vegetables were held at 4 °C for 3 wk (broccoli and green beans) or 6 mo (carrots). Trans b-carotene (Tb-C) and total ascorbic acid (AA) were determined at specified times, before and after microwave cooking. Vitamin content differed between years due to environmental conditions. Blanching resulted in AA loss, but retention remained stable after freezing broccoli and green beans. F-R green beans lost >90% AA after 16 d storage. Linear decreases in AAwere found in most F-R or FZ vegetables. Tb-C decreased slightly during freezer storage. Reductions in Tb-C occurred in canned carrots. Microwave cooking had minimal effects on AA or Tb-C.
Article
We evaluated the ability of fresh tomatoes and processed tomato products (whole, diced, sauce, puree, and juice) to inhibit in vitro the formation of N-Nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), under conditions similar to the human stomach. The amount of NMOR that was formed averaged 23% to 82% that of the controls, on an equal wet weight basis, with paste being the most inhibitory. On an equal soluble solids basis, the amount of NMOR formed in the presence of products averaged 82% to 88% of that formed in the distilled water control. Fresh tomatoes showed greatest inhibition of nitrosation (NMOR formation averaged 80% of control), and processed tomatoes showed similar inhibition (NMOR 82% to 88% of the control). Ascorbic acid content was the strongest predictor of ability to inhibit NMOR formation. Processed tomato products inhibited nitrosation to a similar extent as had been reported for fresh tomatoes.
Article
ABSTRACT The combined effect of salt, acetic acid, and pasteurization temperature on the retention of carotenoids in canned pickled carrots and green jalapeño peppers was studied by a central composite design. The results were analyzed by response surface methodology. The carotenoid standards were obtained by open column chromatography and the quantitation was done by HPLC. Only the main carotenoids were quantified: α- and β-carotene in carrots and α-, β-carotene, lutein, and violaxanthin in peppers. After analyzing the experimental results and the restrictions of the Mexican Regulations, 2% NaCl and 2% acetic acid concentrations were recommended. The optimal pasteurization conditions were 70 °C/12.45 min for carrots and 83 °C/5.2 min for peppers.
Article
The proximate composition, and mineral and vitamin contents of canned white asparagus, whole peeled tomatoes, mushrooms and lentils were studied. The composition of the canned products did not vary during the harvest season, but calcium, sodium and potassium contents depended on the hardness of the water, added sodium chloride, and, in the case of lentils and mushrooms, the use of potassium metabisulfite or sulfur dioxide during soaking. After the canning process, the studied vegetables retained at least 89% protein, 65% carbohydrate and between 47% and 95% of the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C (dry weight basis, DW) versus the respective raw materials. The canned mushrooms and lentils did not lose crude fiber and whole peeled tomatoes and white asparagus retained 73% (DW) crude fiber.
Article
 Foods can be regarded as complex, dispersed systems which are normally metastable. Food processing causes state transitions (second-order transitions) when raw materials, food components or food systems are subjected to external stresses. The state transitions occurring during processing are detectable as changes in structure and properties of the investigated systems. The processing of fruits and vegetables is often connected with changes in cell walls. Cell wall materials in dispersed fruit and vegetable systems can be regarded as a model substrate of the dispersed phase. During processing, cell walls undergo modifications in terms of their physical state, macrostructure, microstructure, and composition, as well as structure-dependent changes in their functional and material properties. The interactions and connections (dependencies) between state transitions, and various changes in structure and properties, are very complex and multivariate and are not well understood as yet. For the evaluation of changing material properties during processing, examination of hydration, rheological (external mechanical stress) and thermal (external thermal stress) characteristics is important. The changes occurring during the processing of fruits and vegetables are determined by external factors (especially various mechanical and thermal stresses) and by internal factors. External stress in many cases causes solubilisation of the cell wall, loss of firmness and favours cell separation. Thermal processing increases pectin degradation by β-elimination. Internal factors such as pH and modified ionic strength, e.g. by applying soak solutions, can have an important influence on the changes in the cell wall during processing. So, calcium ions on the one hand can favour cell wall degradation by β-elimination and, on the other hand, after low temperature blanching and de-esterification of the pectin by activated pectin methyl esterase, can contribute to stabilisation of the texture by formation of a calcium-pectin complex. Knowledge about cell wall degradation mechanisms can be markedly improved by studies using model substrates such as pectin, or cell wall materials like the alcohol-insoluble residue and materials with cellular structure. This knowledge has been used to improve the technology used to process fruits and vegetables and to produce products with better properties. Moreover, testing and applying cell wall materials as ingredients for the production of textured foods and potential health-related foods is suggested.
Article
The antioxidative capacity of methanol/water and hexane extracts of five tomato juices, four canned tomatoes and four tomato pastes was measured using two test systems: with 2,2''-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS+) and with linoleic acid emulsion. In both the ABTS assay and the linoleic acid system, most of the antioxidative capacity of analysed products was from the methanol-water fraction, which contained polyphenols and ascorbic acid. On the basis of the wet weight of the tomato products, tomato pastes had the highest activity towards ABTS+ (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by tomato juices, and canned tomatoes. The inhibition of formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the linoleic acid emulsion was strongly dependent on antioxidant concentration. The results suggest that tomato products, in addition to fresh tomatoes, may also be important in supplying dietary antioxidant, especially polyphenols and carotenoids.
Article
A three-year study was conducted to assess some nutrient contents of beans, sweet corn and peas (raw, canned and frozen) produced by four processing plants in the province of Québec. Nutritional analysis were conducted on vitamin C, riboflavin, thiamin, minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe) and fibers (solubles, insolubles and total). Results showed that the nutrient contents of raw and processed vegetables were quite different from those reported in the USDA Handbook no. 8–11. The differences were mainly due to vitamin C and mineral contents. Results also showed that raw vegetables when boiled under optimal conditions have nutrient contents similar to frozen vegetables and superior to canned vegetables. Among minerals Na was the most variable, probably due to variation in recipes from one processing plant to another. Na contents of canned vegetables were lower than the average values in the USDA tables. The study also provides new information on nutritive values of canned corn-on-the-cob which was not listed in USDA tables, and generates new nutrient data such as fibers (solubles, insolubles and total contents) to update the present food composition tables.
Article
The carotenoid content of fresh, commercially canned and frozen samples of two cultivars, White Shoepeg (WS) and Golden Whole Kernel (GWK) corn (Zea mays), from the same production field was studied. WS and GWK corn samples were harvested daily over a five-day-period and randomly selected for analysis as fresh, frozen or canned. Major carotenoids detected were lutein and zeaxanthin, and to a lesser extent, α-, β-cryptoxanthin, α-, and β-carotene. Fresh GWK corn contained higher amounts of lutein, zeaxanthin and total carotenoids (330, 209 and 702 μg/100 g fresh weight) versus fresh WS corn (5.5, 28.5, and 35.5 μg/100 g fresh weight). In both canned WS and GWK corn, levels of lutein, zeaxanthin, and total carotenoids were similar to their respective fresh counterparts. Detectable levels of zeaxanthin in WS corn increased 67.4% (P=0.042) and total carotenoids in both WS and GWK corn were increased after freezing by 63.3% (P=0.002) and 5.3% (P=0.003), respectively. This work indicates that canning does not decrease carotenoid content in corn and that freezing may increase carotenoid content in WS corn which can further influence bioavailability and health benefits.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of tomato processing on contents of lycopene, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol. Samples of tomato sauce, tomato soup, baked tomato slices, and tomato juice were taken at different times of heating, respectively, after each step of production. HPLC was used to analyze contents of carotenoids and vitamin E. Due to the loss of water during thermal processing, contents of lycopene, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol on a wet weight basis increased. On a dry weight basis, contents of lycopene increased or decreased depending on the origin of the tomatoes used, whereas the beta-carotene contents decreased or were quite stable. In contrast to lycopene, beta-carotene isomerized due to thermal processing. The alpha-tocopherol contents significantly rose during short-term heating. The increase was not caused by release of alpha-tocopherol from the seeds containing predominantly gamma-tocopherol and accounting for 2% of total alpha-tocopherol content only.
Article
Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. Various dietary factors have an effect on the bioavailability of carotenoids. The type of food matrix in which carotenoids are located is a major factor. The bioavailability of beta-carotene from vegetables in particular has been shown to be low (14% from mixed vegetables) compared with that of purified beta-carotene added to a simple matrix (e.g., salad dressing), whereas for lutein, the difference is much smaller (relative bioavailability of 67% from mixed vegetables). Processing, such as mechanical homogenization or heat treatment, has the potential to enhance the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables (from 18% to a sixfold increase). The amount of dietary fat required to ensure carotenoid absorption seems low (approximately 3-5 g per meal), although it depends on the physicochemical characteristics of the carotenoids ingested. Unabsorbable, fat-soluble compounds reduce carotenoid absorption, and interaction among carotenoids may also result in a reduced carotenoid bioavailability. Research into the functional benefits of carotenoids should consider the fact that the bioavailability of beta-carotene in particular is one order of magnitude higher when provided as a pure compound added to foods than when it is present naturally in foods.
Article
The change in the carotenoid and bioantioxidant content of tomato as a function of varietal and technological factors was investigated in the present work. No great differences were found between cultivars for fresh consumption (salad tomatoes) and those for processing in ascorbic acid content. The concentration of ascorbic acid ranged between 14.6 and 21.7 mg/100 g fresh weight of ripe tomato fruit. Processing cultivars contained higher amounts of tocopherols, particularly alpha-tocopherol than tomatoes for fresh consumption. Significant differences could be obtained between the examined varieties with regard to carotenoid concentration. The different tomatoes varied not only in the total carotenoid content but also in the qualitative distribution of some pigments such as lycopene, beta-carotene and lutein. During heat-based processing, ascorbic acid, tocopherols, and carotenoids showed different role and response. Ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol quinone, and beta-carotene were the most susceptible components toward thermal degradation.
Article
Changes in pectin composition and solubility are part of the softening process in apples during ripening and postharvest storage. Lignification may also occur with long-term storage. In the United States, apples and onions are harvested once yearly and then stored and marketed for the next 12 months. The changes that occur in the dietary fiber content and composition in Red Delicious apples and yellow Spanish onions during storage were studied, and the loss of fiber in peeled apples was determined. Dietary fiber was extracted by the enzymatic-chemical method of Theander and Westerlund. Storage had no effect on total or insoluble fiber content of apples; Klason lignin concentration was greater in samples stored for 12 months than in those stored for 0, 4, or 8 months. Peeling reduced apple fiber concentration about 25% by decreasing neutral and acidic sugars and Klason lignin in the insoluble fraction. The total fiber content of onions increased with storage, primarily by increasing the insoluble fiber content of uronic acids. The results suggest that the standardized, environmentally controlled storage of apples, as used in Washington State, has little effect on dietary fiber content. In contrast, the less rigorously controlled storage conditions for yellow Spanish onions increases the insoluble fiber fraction and uronic acid content.
Article
Processed fruits and vegetables have been long considered to have lower nutritional value than their fresh commodities due to the loss of vitamin C during processing. This research group found vitamin C in apples contributed < 0.4% of total antioxidant activity, indicating most of the activity comes from the natural combination of phytochemicals. This suggests that processed fruits and vegetables may retain their antioxidant activity despite the loss of vitamin C. Here it is shown that thermal processing elevated total antioxidant activity and bioaccessible lycopene content in tomatoes and produced no significant changes in the total phenolics and total flavonoids content, although loss of vitamin C was observed. The raw tomato had 0.76 +/- 0.03 micromol of vitamin C/g of tomato. After 2, 15, and 30 min of heating at 88 degrees C, the vitamin C content significantly dropped to 0.68 +/- 0.02, 0.64 +/- 0.01, and 0.54 +/- 0.02 micromol of vitamin C/g of tomato, respectively (p < 0.01). The raw tomato had 2.01 +/- 0.04 mg of trans-lycopene/g of tomato. After 2, 15, and 30 min of heating at 88 degrees C, the trans-lycopene content had increased to 3.11+/- 0.04, 5.45 +/- 0.02, and 5.32 +/- 0.05 mg of trans-lycopene/g of tomato (p < 0.01). The antioxidant activity of raw tomatoes was 4.13 +/- 0.36 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of tomato. With heat treatment at 88 degrees C for 2, 15, and 30 min, the total antioxidant activity significantly increased to 5.29 +/- 0.26, 5.53 +/- 0.24, and 6.70 +/- 0.25 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of tomato, respectively (p < 0.01). There were no significant changes in either total phenolics or total flavonoids. These findings indicate thermal processing enhanced the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing the bioaccessible lycopene content and total antioxidant activity and are against the notion that processed fruits and vegetables have lower nutritional value than fresh produce. This information may have a significant impact on consumers' food selection by increasing their consumption of fruits and vegetables to reduce the risks of chronic diseases.
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