Article

Consequences of Individual's Fit at Work: A Meta-Analysis of Person-Job, Person-Organization, Person-Group, and Person-Supervisor Fit

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Abstract

This meta-analysis investigated the relationships between person–job (PJ), person–organization (PO), person–group, and person–supervisor fit with preentry (applicant attraction, job acceptance, intent to hire, job offer) and postentry individual-level criteria (attitudes, performance, withdrawal behaviors, strain, tenure). A search of published articles, conference presentations, dissertations, and working papers yielded 172 usable studies with 836 effect sizes. Nearly all of the credibility intervals did not include 0, indicating the broad generalizability of the relationships across situations. Various ways in which fit was conceptualized and measured, as well as issues of study design, were examined as moderators to these relationships in studies of PJ and PO fit. Interrelationships between the various types of fit are also meta-analyzed. 25 studies using polynomial regression as an analytic technique are reviewed separately, because of their unique approach to assessing fit. Broad themes emerging from the results are discussed to generate the implications for future research on fit.

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... The match between employees and their work environments is a widely researched topic in organizational behavior (e.g., Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). The psychology and social science literature stress the importance of the interplay of personality, a stable pattern of psychological processes, characteristics (Mayer, 2005), and job characteristics (Erhart, 2006). ...
... The psychology and social science literature stress the importance of the interplay of personality, a stable pattern of psychological processes, characteristics (Mayer, 2005), and job characteristics (Erhart, 2006). According to the assumptions of the person-environment-fit theory (P-E fit) (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005), which encompasses the personjob fit (P-J fit) perspective, people seek out (work) environments that allow them to behaviorally manifest their traits (e.g., dominant individuals seek leadership positions). Furthermore, the extent to which one fits their (work) environments has significant consequences for positive work-related outcomes, such as satisfaction, performance, and productivity (e.g., Rounds & Tracey, 1990). ...
... In the context of career intervention, P-E fit is essential for career planning, decision making, and adjustment (Su et al., 2015). In addition, meta-analytic evidence has shown that fit perceptions are more predictive than objective fit assessments for almost all work-related outcomes (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). ...
Conference Paper
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Driven by dynamic competitive conditions, companies' information technology (IT) functions adopt agile practices and build ambidextrous organizational structures, which, in turn, affect the work environment of individual IT employees. Based on the fundamental assumption of person-environment fit theory that people seek out environments which allow them to behaviorally manifest their traits, this research aims to shift the focus in organizational design choices towards an individual-level perspective. We study whether and how personality traits and work environment characteristics, measured at the individual level of ambidexterity, relate and impact person-job fit (P-J fit). The results of a survey of 279 IT workers show that personality traits (operationalized by the Five Factor Model) significantly differ across exploitative and explorative work environments. Furthermore, the data suggests that the relationship between extraversion, conscientiousness and openness to experience on P-J fit is moderated by the level of ambidexterity.
... Perceived fit in recruitment contexts can be applied both to the individual's fit with a specific job, person-job fit, as well as to the individual's fit with an organization as a whole, personorganization fit (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). From an applicant's perspective, perceived person-organization fit between oneself and organization can predict the appeal of the organization and of a new job, as well as intentions of pursuing it (Dineen et al., 2002;Chapman et al., 2005). ...
... Hence, it is important that values and principles of the organization align with those of the potential employee, and that employee and job/organization do not experience a mismatch. A challenge for organizations is, thus, to communicate organizational values without excluding qualified presumptive candidates (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Klysing et al., 2021). The organizational description allows organizations to brand themselves and thereby let presumptive employees assess their person-organization fit (Carless, 2005). ...
... The organizational description can affect potential applicants' perceptions of the organization as a whole, whereas the job description only affects perceptions of the job. This, in turn, might influence perceived person-organization fit and person-job fit, respectively (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). The extent to which an applicant is attracted to an organization is the first step in the recruitment process, and here, different messaging strategies are implemented to generate the largest possible pool of qualified applicants (Dineen and Soltis, 2010). ...
Article
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Previous research has shown that language in job adverts implicitly communicates gender stereotypes, which, in turn, influence employees’ perceived fit with the job. In this way, language both reflects and maintains a gender segregated job market. The aim of this study was to test whether, and how, language in organizational descriptions reflects gender segregation in the organizations by the use of computational text analyses. We analyzed large Swedish companies’ organizational descriptions from LinkedIn (N = 409), testing whether the language in the organizational descriptions is associated with the organizations’ employee gender ratio, and how organizational descriptions for organizations with a majority of women and men employees differ. The statistical analyses showed that language in the organizational descriptions predicted the employee gender ratio in organizations well. Word clouds depicting words that differentiate between organizations with a majority of women and men employees showed that the language of organizations with a higher percentage of women employees was characterized by a local focus and emphasis on within-organizations relations, whereas the language of organizations with a higher percentage of men employees was characterized by an international focus and emphasis on sales and customer relations. These results imply that the language in organizational descriptions reflects gender segregation and stereotypes that women are associated with local and men with global workplaces. As language communicates subtle signals in regards to what potential candidate is most sought after in recruitment situations, differences in organizational descriptions can hinder underrepresented gender groups to apply to these jobs. As a consequence, such practices may contribute to gender segregation on the job market.
... Prior research expects gender dissimilarity to negatively influence the different dimensions of satisfaction (such as supervisor, coworkers, team, work, and career satisfaction) and performance of an individual dissimilar employee (Carter et al., 2014;Lawrence, 1997;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Goldberg et al., 2010;Schaffer & Riordan, 2013;Vecchio & Brazil, 2007). More specifically, due to having a different gender than the supervisor, prior research assumed that an employee could feel socially excluded and develop a bad relationship with the supervisor (Carter et al., 2014;Riordan & Schaffer, 2013). ...
... We focus on value fit, because values are central for individuals, represent principles or standards of behavior, are assumptions about what is right and wrong in life, and direct employees' feelings, thoughts, and behaviors (Graham et al., 2018;Meglino & Ravlin, 1998;Rokeach, 1973;Taras et al., 2010). Our approach is in line with person-organization fit research, which often focuses on value fit (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Van Vianen, 2018), defined "as value congruence" (Cable & DeRue, 2002: 879), meaning that an employee and a supervisor have the same values and value the same things in life. Person-supervisor fit and person-organization fit research (Edwards & Cable, 2009;Van Vianen, 2018) argues that employees have a strong need to assess whether their values are similar to their supervisor's or organization's values. ...
... Third, we integrate person-organization fit research (Edwards & Cable, 2009;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Van Vianen, 2018) into relational demography research (Guillaume et al., 2012;Riordan et al., 2005) to clarify inconsistent findings of past research. Relational demography research suffers from inconsistent results, reporting dysfunctional, beneficial, and non-significant dissimilarity effects (Adamovic, 2020;Elfenbein & O'Reilly, 2007;Guillaume et al., 2012Guillaume et al., , 2014Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Riordan et al., 2005;Schaffer, 2019). ...
Article
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In the past decades, the number of female employees and managers has strongly increased in most developed countries. This demographic development emphasizes the importance to investigate gender dissimilarity between employees and their supervisor and how it can be managed to elicit beneficial gender dissimilarity effects on employees’ attitudes and interpersonal interactions. Past gender dissimilarity research often assumes women and men to have different values. Due to these value differences, women and men should be less satisfied with a supervisor who has a different gender. However, past research reported inconsistent gender dissimilarity effects on employees’ satisfaction and other work-related satisfaction variables. To clarify gender dissimilarity effects on employees’ satisfaction with their supervisor, we analyze the moderating role of an employee’s beliefs in gender equality. We further draw on social identity theory and investigate value fit with the supervisor and identification with the supervisor as underlying mechanisms of gender dissimilarity effects. To test our research model, we conducted a three-wave survey study with 463 employees. Value fit and identification with the supervisor mediated the relationship between gender dissimilarity and employees’ satisfaction with supervisor. This indirect relationship was only significant for employees with low beliefs in gender equality. This means high beliefs in gender equality can offset dysfunctional gender dissimilarity effects.
... A large volume of published studies examining the role of P-O fit shows that employees with higher P-O fit levels perform better at work, display higher organizational commitment, present organizational citizenship behaviors more and have higher levels of job satisfaction. On the contrary, the employees with lower P-O fit levels display a number of negative work attitudes, are more prone to leave their organizations, and the possibility of an actual turnover is higher for them (Abdalla et al., 2018;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Verquer et al., 2003;Wei, 2015;Westerman & Cry, 2004). ...
... P-O fit research shows that it is related to various work attitudes and behaviors (Chen et al., 2016). In their meta-analysis Kristof-Brown et al. (2005) found that high P-O fit increases candidates' attraction to the organization, organizations' probability to make a job offer, organizations' intent to hire, and candidates' acceptance of the offer. There are relationships between high P-O fit levels and higher job satisfaction (Chen et al., 2016;Westerman & Cyr, 2004), higher commitment (Westerman & Cyr, 2004), higher work efficiency and higher work performance (Farooquia & Nagendrab, 2014), higher levels of organizational citizenship behaviors (Wei, 2013), and lower work stress (Mostafa, 2016). ...
... The existing body of research on employee turnover suggests that (e.g. Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Verquer et al., 2003) the most prominent predictor of actual turnover is turnover intention. Although turnover intention does not always end in a real act of turnover, it is related to job search behavior and bad service delivery which have the potential of harming the organizational efficiency (Takawira et al., 2014). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of teachers' P-O fit levels on their turnover intentions and the role of psychological well-being in this relationship. Data collected from 507 teachers, through the scales measuring teachers' P-O fit, well-being and intent to leave the teaching profession and intent to move to another school, was analyzed in a 3-step regression model. The analysis showed that teachers' P-O perceptions had a direct and significant effect on their intent to move to another school and intent to leave the profession. Both of these effects were partially mediated by their well-being levels.
... One of these factors (variables) is the perception of person-environment fit. Person-environment fit is a perceptual phenomenon that indicates the fit between an employee and the characteristics of the business environment (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). This perceptual phenomenon is a concept that cannot be reduced to one dimension; it should be examined in different dimensions such as person-organization, person-work, person-supervisor and person-group fit (Andela & van der Doef, 2019). ...
... This perceptual phenomenon is a concept that cannot be reduced to one dimension; it should be examined in different dimensions such as person-organization, person-work, person-supervisor and person-group fit (Andela & van der Doef, 2019). As a matter of fact, many different studies on the concept have stated that it should be addressed at the dimensional level (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;van Vianen et al., 2011;Tak, 2011;Astakhova, 2016). Several studies have even suggested that one type of fit may affect another type of fit (Astakhova, 2016;Deniz et al., 2015;Abdalla et al., 2018) or may strengthen and weaken the effect on another variable together (Hamstra et al., 2019), and that therefore, it should not be examined in a single dimension. ...
... The study has made several contributions to the literature with the created model and discussed variables. First of all, although the types of fit are discussed under the umbrella of person-environment fit (Kristof, 1996), studies have shown that these types of fit are different structures (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Tak, 2011;Astakhova, 2016), and researchers on the subject have stated that the types of fit (especially PS fit) should be evaluated simultaneously (van Vianen et al., 2011). For this reason, our study examined PS fit as an independent variable and addressed its relationship with a work-oriented variable by examining PO and PJ fit together. ...
Article
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In this study, drawing on Hobfoll’s Conservation of Resources (COR) Theory, we tested a moderated mediation model that investigates person–organization (PO) fit as the mediator and per- son–job (PJ) fit as the moderator in the relationship between person–supervisor (PS) fit and turnover intention. Data were collected from 232 bank employees in Turkey by using a survey method. Consistent with hypothesized conceptual scheme, results showed that PO fit mediated the relationship between PS fit and turnover intention. Furthermore, moderated mediation results indicate that PJ fit not only moderated the relationship between PS fit and PO fit but also reinforced the indirect effect of PS fit on turnover intention (via PO fit). We argue that indirect effect of PS fit on turnover intention through PO fit was stronger for employees with high job fit than for employees with low job fit. The theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and future research directions are also discussed.
... This study proposes that personal factors (i.e., ESE) enhances one's perception of fit with the career of entrepreneurship (supplementary fit), while the support from the family fills the gaps or covers the deficiency or vice versa (complementary fit). It further suggests that one's attitude and behavior is influenced by both internal and external factors (Saks and Ashforth, 1997;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). While taking this presumption to the P-Entrepreneurship fit framework (Markman and Baron, 2003) we assume that family support, being the external factor, will influence the relationship between ESE and P-E fit as individuals with high family support will feel confident and have high perceptions of self-fit with entrepreneurship. ...
... Considering the family role in P-Ent fit literature, this study assumes that family support can influence the relationship between ESE and P-E fit. This could be inferred because P-E fit theory assumes that one's attitude and behavior is influenced by both internal and external factors (Saks and Ashforth, 1997;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). From P-Ent fit framework (Markman and Baron, 2003) we assume that family support, being the external factor, will influence the relationship between ESE and P-E fit as individuals with high family support will feel that their psychological needs are met by the family which will result in increased entrepreneurial fitness perceptions. ...
... While looking at the P-E fit, it's considered as the perception of fit is only possible when one believes that he/she can meet the job requirements (high self-efficacy could predict that), but external support may buffer this belief (i.e., verbal persuasion, Bandura and Walters, 1977). As the family is a source of encouragement (Lotfizadeh and Heidarzadeh Hanzaee, 2014;Stamboulis and Barlas, 2014;Edelman et al., 2016) and external factor are equally valued influencing one's belief and intentions (Saks and Ashforth, 1997;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005), it's assumed that both in presence of family support the relationship of self-efficacy with outcomes will be strengthened. van Vianen (2018) work on Person-environment fit also highlighted that both environment and person predict human behavior. ...
Article
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Entrepreneurial ventures are outcomes of favorable internal and external factors. But the outcomes are always uncertain, often creating a situation of cognitive/perceptual dismay. One of such perceptual aspect of entrepreneurship that has recently emerged is person-entrepreneurship fit (P-E fit). By using this underlying aspect, this study entails investigation of its antecedents (entrepreneurial self-efficacy) and consequences (entrepreneurial intentions) in presence of boundary condition of family support. Data is collected through a structured questionnaire from 359 students enrolled in the last semester of their graduate and postgraduate programs at three large public sector universities. The findings of the study reveal that entrepreneurial self-efficacy influences perceptions of P-E fit and entrepreneurial intentions, while P-E fit works as a partial mediator. This study also found that family support is an important boundary condition that influences the relationship of self-efficacy and P-Ent fit.
... To underscore the generalizability of our assumptions, we consider both performance outcomes as well as work-related wellbeing outcomes. Indeed, both types of outcomes represent key outcomes that have been theorized in the context of P-E fit theory (e.g., Edwards & Shipp, 2007;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). ...
... First, for the two performance outcomes, social exchange theory (Blau, 1964) suggests that if employees experience poor fit with their demands and the fulfillment of their needs, their commitment to their organization is reduced. This low commitment, in turn, makes employees less willing to invest effort into high task performance and to perform at their maximum capability levels; likewise, employees' low levels of commitment will make them less likely to reciprocate by investing more time to and energy into behaviors that go beyond formal expectations, such as OCBO in the present case (Brief & Motowidlo, 1986;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;LePine et al., 2002). Second, for job satisfaction, when employees experience poor demands-abilities fit, this likely hampers their sense of competence, mastery, and adequate skill utilization (Edwards & Shipp, 2007;Feather, 1991)thus impairing their job-related wellbeing, which manifests in lower levels of job satisfaction (Edwards & Shipp, 2007;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). ...
... This low commitment, in turn, makes employees less willing to invest effort into high task performance and to perform at their maximum capability levels; likewise, employees' low levels of commitment will make them less likely to reciprocate by investing more time to and energy into behaviors that go beyond formal expectations, such as OCBO in the present case (Brief & Motowidlo, 1986;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;LePine et al., 2002). Second, for job satisfaction, when employees experience poor demands-abilities fit, this likely hampers their sense of competence, mastery, and adequate skill utilization (Edwards & Shipp, 2007;Feather, 1991)thus impairing their job-related wellbeing, which manifests in lower levels of job satisfaction (Edwards & Shipp, 2007;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). Moreover, for perceived needs-supplies fit, theorizing on job satisfaction suggests that individuals engage in a comparison process whereby they compare valued or desired amounts of job features with what they actually have (e.g., Dawis & Lofquist, 1984;Locke, 1969). ...
Article
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Thus far, research on perceived overqualification has focused on either maladaptive, strain-based versus more adaptive, self-regulatory reactions in isolation. Following person-environment fit theory, we seek to advance this one-sided focus by uniting both types of adjustment reactions and to consider their implications for perceived person-job fit, and performance and wellbeing outcomes. In line with theory, we also examine contextual boundary conditions in the form of indicators of formal work arrangements (i.e., permanent vs. temporary employment contract and job tenure). Utilizing three-wave data from 453 employees, we found that perceived overqualification indirectly and sequentially related to decreases in task performance, organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction via anger toward employment situation and lower levels of perceived person-job fit – thus reflecting the strain-based pathway. For the self-regulatory pathway, findings did not align with our initial proposition that the positive relationship between perceived overqualification and work organization (a form of structural job crafting whereby employees improve their work processes) would be weaker among temporary employees and those with longer tenure. Instead, having a temporary employment contract or having longer job tenure resulted in a negative relationship between perceived overqualification and work organization, which further contributed to a decrease in performance and satisfaction via lower levels of perceived person-job fit. Our study highlights the demotivating role of a temporary employment contract and long job tenure for overqualified employees to reorganize their work. In discussing our findings, we point to the importance of job stage and develop recommendations for managing overqualified employees.
... The current article draws from P-E fit theory (Caplan, 1987;Edwards et al., 1998;Guan et al., 2011;Kristof-Brown & Guay, 2011) to develop our hypotheses regarding antecedents and outcomes of polychronicity. P-E fit theory suggests that personal characteristics must be considered within the context of the environment, as behavior is a product of both the person and the environment (Schneider, 1987;Kristof, 1996). ...
... P-E fit theory suggests that personal characteristics must be considered within the context of the environment, as behavior is a product of both the person and the environment (Schneider, 1987;Kristof, 1996). The theory further suggests that individuals seek to match their personality, values, and other individual characteristics with salient features of their work environment (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;van Vianen, 2018). That is, individuals seek P-E fit, broadly defined as the "congruence, match, similarity, or correspondence between the person and the environment" (Edwards & Shipp, 2020, p. 534). ...
... Complementary fit thus represents the extent to which the individual and the environment each provide what the other requires, and multiple subtypes of complementary fit exist. With relevance to the current investigation, demands-abilities fit is the extent to which an individual can meet the requirements of the work environment, whereas supplies-needs fit is the extent that the environment supplies opportunities for the individual to fulfill their needs, values, and preferences (Kristof, 1996;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). People can seek fit on a wide range of dimensions for both demands-abilities and supplies-needs fit, including their preferences for how they organize and manage their time (Asghar et al., 2020(Asghar et al., , 2021Hecht & Allen, 2005). ...
Article
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We apply modern theory on multitasking and person-environment fit to holistically explain the relations of polychronicity as well as provide justifications for disparate results found in prior studies, such as undetected differences regarding task-switching and dual-tasking. We then conduct a meta-analysis of polychronicity's relations. We show that the nomological net surrounding polychronicity matches our proposed fit perspective. We likewise demonstrate that differences in task-switching and dual-tasking indeed influence the observed results of polychronicity, and the growing complexity of businesses may have caused the association of polychronicity and job performance to strengthen over time. Our discussion highlights that polychronicity plays an important role in personal well-being and employee performance, which can be understood by our person-environment fit perspective. Plain Language Summary We apply modern theory on multitasking and person-environment fit to holistically explain the relations of polychronicity as well as provide justifications for disparate results found in prior studies, such as undetected differences regarding task-switching and dual-tasking. We then conduct a meta-analysis of polychronicity's relations. We show that the nomological net surrounding polychronicity matches our proposed fit perspective. We likewise demonstrate that differences in task-switching and dual-tasking indeed influence the observed results of polychronicity, and the growing complexity of businesses may have caused the association of polychronicity and job performance to strengthen over time. Our discussion highlights that polychronicity plays an important role in personal well-being and employee performance, which can be understood by our person-environment fit perspective.
... Identifying predictors may be important for human resources managers, who in the future could primarily employ those who are likely to be satisfied with holacratic structures and might benefit from the various advantages of person-organisation fit. Companies could also use these predictors to avoid employee resignations due to a low personorganisation fit (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). In order to capture a comprehensive taxonomy of personality through a manageable number of items, this study uses the five-factor model Costa and McCrae, 1992). ...
... Based on the results of this study, human resources managers should conduct personality tests that investigate the Big Five because results suggest that agreeableness and neuroticism predict person-organisation fit, which influences job satisfaction and the intention to quit (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). Other personality traits, such as extraversion, openness to experience or conscientiousness showed no correlation with personorganisation fit, which means that they probably do not play a general role in employee satisfaction with holacracy. ...
Article
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This study compares illegitimate tasks and appreciation in traditional work organisations and holacracy work organisations based in Switzerland and Germany. In addition, the study tests whether the fit between employees and holacracy organisations depends on personality characteristics. Ninety-five employees working in holacratic companies participated in an online survey with standardised questionnaires on illegitimate tasks, Big Five personality dimensions, perceived holacracy satisfaction and person–organisation fit. For the comparison of illegitimate tasks and appreciation, a propensity-matching comparison group of people working in traditional companies was used. The results revealed significantly lower illegitimate tasks t(53) = −2.04, p < 0.05, with a lower level (2.49) in holacracy than in traditional work (2.78). Concerning appreciation, the results showed significantly higher values for holacratic (5.33) than for traditional work [4.14, t(53) = 4.86, p < 0.001]. Multiple linear regression of holacracy satisfaction on personality dimensions showed neuroticism (b = −4.72, p = 0.006) as a significant predictor. Agreeableness showed marginally significant results (b = 2.39, p = 0.06). This indicates that people scoring low on neuroticism and high in agreeableness may thrive better in holacracy organisations. Based on the results, theoretical and practical implications as for example implications for corporates hiring strategy, are discussed. Finally, this study presents numerous directions for future research.
... Work value congruence has been shown to lead to positive organizational outcomes such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, decrease employee conflict and negatively related to intentions to leave and organizational exit (Hoffman and Woehr 2006;Jehn 1994;Jehn et al. 1997Jehn et al. , 1999Kristof-Brown and Guay 2011;Subramanian et al. 2022;Verquer et al. 2003), thereby supporting SAH. Conversely, value incongruence is associated with distancing outcomes such as feelings of not belonging or being unfulfilled, and organizational exit (Edwards and Cable 2009;Edwards and Shipp 2007;Follmer et al. 2018;Kristof-Brown et al. 2005;Vogel et al. 2016) thereby supporting DRH leading Abbasi et al. (2021) to suggest that value congruence and value incongruence, and therefore SAH and DRH, are two different forces. The nonappearance of these studies in the current review appears to stem from the way these value congruence studies are theoretically justified. ...
... Alternatively, the low number of studies of organizational exit, particularly voluntary turnover, the most natural and powerful repulsion outcome in organizational settings, in this dataset constrains the appearance of the DRH. Organizational exit is a large literature and dissimilarity and misfit are known to be drivers of these actions (e.g., Doblhofer et al. 2019;Jackson et al. 1991;Kristof-Brown et al. 2005), so the suggestion is, like with value congruence, that these studies are grounded on theories other than DRH. Another interesting problem with DRH is the use of the term repulsion, which hints at "abhorrence, loathing, disgust and hatred" (Abbasi et al. 2021: 9). ...
Article
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Although the similarity-attraction hypothesis (SAH) is one of the main theoretical foundations of management and industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology research, systematic reviews of the hypothesis have not been published. An overall review of the existing body of knowledge is therefore warranted as a means of identifying what is known about the hypothesis and also identifying what future studies should investigate. The current study focuses on empirical workplace SAH studies. This systematic review surfaced and analyzed 49 studies located in 45 papers. The results demonstrate that SAH is valid in organizational settings and it is a fundamental force driving employees’ behavior. However, the force is not so strong that it cannot be overridden or moderated by other forces, which includes forces from psychological, organizational, and legal domains. This systematic review highlights a number of methodological issues in tests of SAH relating to the low number of longitudinal studies, which is important given the predictive nature of the hypotheses, and the varying conceptualizations of attraction measurement.
... Several studies have shown that there is a positive relationship between perceived supplementary fit and co-worker satisfaction, team cohesion, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviors, general satisfaction, and decrease turnover intentions (Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman, & Johnson, 2005). Despite various previous researches showing that high degrees of person-team fit predict positive work outcomes such as performance and satisfaction (Kristof-Brown & Guay, 2011), little is known on the relationship between person-team fit and employee engagement. ...
... Despite various previous researches showing that high degrees of person-team fit predict positive work outcomes such as performance and satisfaction (Kristof-Brown & Guay, 2011), little is known on the relationship between person-team fit and employee engagement. Reviews stipulate that research on one particular type of fit, which is personteam fit is underdeveloped (DeRue & Hollenbeck, 2007;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). Less attention has been given on person-team fit compared to other types of fit such as Person-Organization and Person-Job fit (Seong, Kristof-Brown, Park, Hong & Shin, 2015). ...
Article
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Various studies conducted on business sustainability have shown that organisations need to become ambidextrous in order to sustain in rapidly changing environments. A number of studies have investigated on numerous organisational ambidexterity antecedents and outcomes. However, very few studies have focused at the employee level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the variables that determine engagement and ambidexterity among engineers in the SMEs context which were predicted to be determined by person-job fit, person-team fit, and person-organisation fit. The samples were obtained from 106 graduate engineers working in SMEs Engineering Consulting Firms. Covariance-Based Structural Equation Modeling (CB-SEM) was used to test the direct and indirect effects of the variables using the Analysis of Momentum Structures (AMOS). Results indicated that only person-job fit influenced employees’ engagement, employees’ engagement influenced employees’ ambidexterity, and employees’ engagement mediated the relationship between person-job fit and employees’ ambidexterity. In summary, the findings of this study could be applied in SMEs for developing and implementing organizational strategies to improve the level of employees’ engagement and employees’ ambidexterity by focusing on person-job fit, person- team fit, and person- organisation fit. Keywords: employees’ engagement, employees’ ambidexterity, engineering
... The background of fit theory The match between individuals and the environment, or P-E fit, has long been a research topic of interest to industrial and organizational psychologists as well as recruiters, job seekers and all other people in the business world (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). Yet, the earliest theorizing about P-E fit is often credited to Parsons (1909), who proposed a model on how to make vocational choices based on the match between personal attributes and environmental characteristics. ...
... To illustrate our line of though, we took particular interest in the P-O fit approach. First, P-O fit experiences are amongst the strongest predictors of people's emotional and affective reactions, such as their multiple organizational bonds and varied attitudes, as well as career-related decisions, such as withdrawal cognition (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Van Vianen, 2000). Second, its components (the person and the organization) are the most difficult to materialize, since they are directly related to intangibles (i.e. ...
Article
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Purpose This conceptual paper seeks to bridge two existing theories in a bid to broaden our analytical scope when studying the process of onboarding, retention and exclusion of organizational members. The purpose of this paper is to address this issue. Design/methodology/approach The authors draw on the social systems theory to advance the fit theory demonstrating the pertinence of macro social factors for the determination of person–organization (P–O) fit. Findings The result of this conceptual groundwork is a framework for the creation of highly individual personal profiles that refrains from analyses of potentially discriminatory factors like age, race or gender. Originality/value The authors present an individualized, multidimensional and flexible framework for the analysis of dynamically changing constellations of P–O fit.
... P-S fit refers to the chemistry or the dyadic relationship between an individual and the supervisor (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). The main intention of P-S Fit is to match the gap between an individual to the supervisor. ...
... In the study of Pickford and Joy (2016), personal traits and organisational conditions would encourage individuals to contribute beyond their formal job requirements is much to be discussed. When subordinates' own characteristics are congruent with those of their work environment, they tend to exhibit more OCB (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). PE Fit theory has contributed to explaining behaviours, such as job performance and organisational citizenship (Giauque, Resentarra and Siggen, 2013). ...
Article
This paper presents a better understanding towards the concept of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) and Person-Supervisor Fit (P-S Fit) and its relationship at a conceptual level. Previous literature discusses the effects of OCB in positive and negative outcomes. A right level of OCB by employees should be exhibited by considering the relationship of PS Fit in the particular organisation. Using Person-Environment Fit (P-E Fit) theory, we hypothesised that PS Fit has a positive relationship towards OCB. Past literature of OCB and PS Fit and its relationship should provide a direction for additional research to be empirically validated, to be practically used and to be extended in its line of research.
... Firstly, the use of knowledge and skills, development of new knowledge and skills, involvement in important decisions, setting own goals and earning a good income predicted meaningful work. These capabilities affect meaningful work, because they promote person-job fit (see De Crom & Rothmann, 2018;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). Gürbüz et al. (2022) found that the capability to use knowledge and skills leads to person-job fit. ...
... Fourthly, using knowledge and skills, developing knowledge and skills, involvement in important decisions, meaningful relationships at work, and earning a good income predicted intentions to leave negatively. The effects of these capabilities on intentions to leave can be explained from perspectives of person-job fit (Gürbüz et al., 2022;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005), self-determination (Ryan & Deci, 2017), psychological availability (Kahn & Heaphy, 2014), and fairness and equity The results showed that the seven capabilities were moderately to strongly related to the capability set. Therefore, each capability influenced the set moderately and positively (see Abma et al., 2016;De Wet & Rothmann, 2022;Gürbüz et al., 2022). ...
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Orientation: Special schools cannot execute their mandate if teachers lack emotional well-being and meaning in their work, perform poorly and quit their jobs. Research purpose: This study aimed to investigate the work capabilities of Namibian special education teachers and the effects thereof on their functionings. Motivation for the study: The capability approach offers a framework to study employees’ capabilities. No studies have been found regarding Namibian special education teachers’ capabilities and functionings. Research approach/design and method: A convenience sample (n = 200) of Namibian special education teachers participated in the study. The Capability Set for Work Questionnaire, Work and Meaning Inventory, Negative Affect Scale, Performance at Work Questionnaire and Intention to Leave Questionnaire were administered. Main findings: A lack of the following capabilities presented the highest risk for the sustainable employability of teachers: earning a good income, involvement in important decisions, contributing to something valuable and developing new knowledge and skills. Teachers with a range of capabilities (compared with limited capabilities) found their work more meaningful, rated their performance more highly and were less inclined to think about leaving their jobs. Practical/managerial implications: Managers should focus on implementing interventions that address four capabilities: earning a good income, involvement in decision-making, contributing to the creation of something valuable, and knowledge and skills to deal with disabilities. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to knowledge regarding the capabilities of special education teachers that affect their functionings.
... Similar to the concept of sense of belonging, the definition of fitting in has also lacked of consistency, and has been subject to multiple conceptualizations (Kristof, 1996). Here, sense of fit has been defined as the compatibility between individuals and organizations (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005), associated with feelings of inclusion and compatibility with an institutional environment (Peters et al., 2012), or cultural match with the organisation (Stephens et al., 2012). For some authors, sense of fit emphasises organisational aspects rather than the interpersonal ones (Schmader & Sedikides, 2018). ...
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Sense of belonging is a fundamental human motivation and, in higher education settings, has been associated with students’ motivation and academic outcomes. However, less is known about the nuances of how students define belonging within a university context, and how their gendered and socio-economic identity-based experiences inform these definitions. Using a qualitative approach, we interviewed 36 UK university students to better understand (1) students’ definitions of belonging to university, and (2) how these conceptualizations are shaped by their experiences in terms of their gender, their socioeconomic status, and the intersection of these two identities. Interviews showed that students defined belonging in terms of social belonging. These definitions were shaped by their (a) cultural capital about university, (b) socioeconomic or gender identity experiences and (c) perceived similarity with other students. Indeed, despite the fact that students’ definitions of belonging were associated with how they have experienced belonging to university, identity-based experiences were mostly mentioned when they perceived they did not belong, which was framed as a “sense of anti-belonging”. Otherwise, students defined belonging as (a) being authentic, considering—for example—gender identity-based experiences of acceptance in university, or (b) sharing similar experiences with others, considering the importance of perceiving similarity with other students to feel they belong and, in some cases, being necessary to learn about university culture to perceive similarity with others. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in terms of how belonging conceptualisations are bound up in identity and context, opening questions about the consequences of inclusion and diversity policies in higher education.
... It can predict employee performance (Sanders, 2008; Barrick et al., 2001) and shape positive behavior (Comeau & Griffith, 2005). Suitability between personality and job will affect job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and performance (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). The personality of healthcare workers influences health service quality (Gur et al., 2020;Hajek et al., 2017). ...
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The personality of healthcare workers, including doctors, nurses, and any employee who directly provide supportive services to a patient, is vital in health service quality, contributing to the hospital’s brand image. Malaysia has successfully built that brand image attracting many Indonesians to have health treatment in this country. This study aims to examine the effect of healthcare workers’ personalities on health service quality at Malaysian hospitals. The study adopted the Big Five Traits and SERVQUAL models to measure healthcare workers’ personalities and health service quality. One hundred respondents from the families in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, who had health treatment in Malaysia, were selected to respond to the statements based on a Likert scale. The regression model was employed in data analysis in which the healthcare worker’s personality was an independent variable, and health service quality was a dependent variable. The regression test results show that agreeableness and emotional stability positively and significantly influenced health service quality at the 5% level, with each coefficient of 0.332 and 0.701. Due to less varied responses, conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness to experience did not significantly influence health service quality. That was supported by the high average index of health workers’ personalities (4.14) and hospital services (4.27), indicating that the respondents agreed with healthcare workers’ excellent personalities and health service quality in Malaysia. Each indicator in healthcare workers’ personalities also significantly correlated with each indicator in health service quality. Acknowledgment The authors thank the Faculty of Economics and Business, Tanjungpura University, for funding this study.
... However, such topdown strategies are unsuitable to keep up with the rapid pace of current changes and often fail to recognize the diversity of the workforce and growing job specialization among employees. A top-down redesign may result in a poor fit between employees' needs or abilities and the organizational environment, which poses a risk of low job satisfaction, increased turnover, and work-related illhealth among employees [2]. These negative outcomes jeopardize sustainable employment (i.e., the extent to which workers are able and willing to remain working now and in the future [3]), which is one of the main challenges in Europe [4]. ...
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Background Recent challenges in the working world that resulted from the pandemic and technological advances have underlined the importance of flexibility in how jobs are designed. Job crafting (JC) refers to self-initiated changes that employees introduce to their jobs to optimize their job design and increase the fit between the job and their needs and preferences. These behaviors can be stimulated by job crafting training interventions, which aim to change how individual employees design, organize, or manage their work. However, since the interventions are implemented in various ways, we do not know which context and intervention factors are necessary or sufficient to achieve desired outcomes. Without this knowledge, benefitting from the potential of job crafting interventions is limited. The overall aim of this project will be to investigate what combinations of context, intervention, and mechanism factors are linked with effective JC interventions. Specifically, we will detect what factors are minimally sufficient and/or necessary to produce a successful JC intervention, how they combine, as well as what are the multiple alternative paths to their success. Methods We will perform a systematic review of the JC interventions literature combined with coincidence analysis (CNA). We will search electronic databases of journals and utilize Rayyan software to make decisions regarding inclusion. Data regarding context (e.g., fit), intervention (e.g., types of activities), mechanisms (e.g., intention implementation), and outcomes (e.g., employee well-being, job performance) will be extracted using a pre-piloted form and coded into a crisp-set (factor present vs. absent). Analyses will be carried out using the CNA package in R. Discussion This review will address gaps in knowledge about the context, intervention, and mechanism-related factors that may impact the effects of JC interventions. Consequently, this review will help develop a program theory for JC interventions that explains what works, how and under which circumstances. Applying CNA to synthesize these complex solutions across multiple studies provides an innovative method that may be used in future review attempts evaluating the implementation of interventions. Finally, our synthesis will provide knowledge relevant to organizational practitioners and scholars who want to implement JC interventions. Trial registration https://osf.io/2g6yx
... According to social exchange theory, employees are more willing to put out extra effort at work in return for the employer's goodwill. Employees with high level of JEon are more comfortable in the workplace, appreciate the perks provided by their employer, and have a higher willingness to give back to their employer by continuing their employment (Kristof-Brown, et al., 2005). JEon was proven that it plays a constructive role in figuring out the voluntary turnover (Jiang et al., 2012). ...
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Employee retention (ER) among academic staff remains a major challenge for the universities and deserve more attention from researchers. Due to radical change in teaching method place additional pressure on the academic staff and lead to high turnover. Job embeddedness can be more significantly explain the variance in ER. However, little research done to examine the relationship between Off-the-job-embeddedness (JEoff) and on-the-job-embeddedness (JEon). Furthermore, due to the unclear conclusion for the impact of JEoff and JEon on ER based on past studies, this study aims to exam the relationship between JEoff and JEon as well as both impact on ER. The stratified sampling technique was used to draw 482 samples from population. The model was tested by applying The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). JEoff and JEon were found to have direct significant impact on ER. But the effect size of JEoff on ER is smaller as compared with JEon. Moreover, JEoff could be related to JEon significantly with the largest level of effect-size. ER could be increased by enhancing JEoff through JEon as mediator. This study provides additional insight for human resource practitioners from Malaysian Private Universities in designing more effective system to retain their academic staff.
... Sometimes, as their onboarding practice, companies assign a buddy to their new employees, whose task is to take care of them. Furthermore, effective onboarding should consider individual adaptation factors (or determinants) of a future employee [40][41][42][43][44][45]. ...
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The article discusses onboarding in Polish enterprises analyzed from the perspective of HR specialists. The subject of consideration in the article falls within the area of broadly understood concern for the sustainable development and well-being of employees adjusting to a new work environment during their adaptation period. Actions taken by HR specialists have a significant impact on the behavior of employees and their well-being and satisfaction in the new workplace, including commitment and care for all stakeholders involved in building a positive psychological climate at the time of starting work. The aim of the article was to identify onboarding practices implemented in selected types of Polish enterprises and selected factors determining the choice of specific practices, such as analyzing the dependencies between the type of an enterprise and the implementation of onboarding practices in it, identifying the perception of these practices by HR male and female specialists at a given age and with given seniority, and determining whether the practice of assigning a buddy to new employees depends on the type of enterprise. The study described in the article was conducted in 178 medium-sized Polish enterprises, of which, 25 were manufacturing companies, 34 were trading companies, and 119 were service companies. In each enterprise, an HR specialist completed a questionnaire on onboarding. The analysis of the dependencies between the type of company and the type of onboarding implemented in it (general, position, or team onboarding) revealed no statistically significant differences between the types of companies participating in the study and the type of onboarding implemented in them. The discrepancies between preferences for particular onboarding practices and the gender, age, and seniority of HR specialists participating in the study turned out to be statistically significant and indicate that manufacturing companies more often assign a buddy to new employees in their onboarding process than trading and service companies. The conclusions obtained from the research, apart from the cognitive value, have an application value, e.g., regarding the recruitment of HR specialists.
... We suggest that future research should employ time-lagged, longitudinal, or field experiment designs to check if they predict different findings. Furthermore, as loneliness indicates the misfit between one's existing and desired social needs, it would be interesting to view this concept through the lens of the person-environment fit theory (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Follmer et al., 2018), to explore more mediating and moderating conditions of the workplace loneliness-outcomes relations. ...
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This study investigated the effect of workplace loneliness on work-related subjective well-being by proposing work engagement as an explanatory mechanism in the workplace loneliness—job dissatisfaction relationship. Moreover, the study examines the need to belong as a coping mechanism in the relationship between workplace loneliness and work engagement. Specifically, the study posits that workplace loneliness reduces the positive and fulfilling state of work engagement that in turn increases job dissatisfaction and that this mediation depends on the employee’s level of need to belong. Data were collected from employees ( N = 274) working in diverse domestic and multinational organizations in Lahore, Pakistan. Results showed that workplace loneliness reduced the work engagement of lonely individuals that in turn increased their job dissatisfaction. However, the deleterious effect of workplace loneliness on work engagement was weaker for individuals having a higher need to belong. These findings have important implications for organizations wishing to mitigate the harmful effects of workplace loneliness on employees’ subjective well-being.
... The last practical aspect is the necessity of social responsibility value congruence between the corporation and its employees. Employees who believe their employer shares their values devote more cognitive, emotional, and physical energy to doing well on the job, according to (Gruen et al., 2000) and (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005), and so contribute to the company's overall goals. The prior research's theoretical explanation is compatible with our findings about the direct effect of EM on OCBE. ...
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Concerns about environmental protection have risen to prominence as a global issue in recent years, and leaders and intellectuals must consider how to address it, Customers, suppliers, the public, and the government all expect that Organizations take on more environmental obligations nowadays. Environmental management measures are expanding in response, Environmental concern arises from individuals' set of values of themselves, their families or communities, plants, or animals and we expect that it show to be the biggest predictor of their tendency to engage in OCBE. Individuals are worried about the environment and are more likely to engage in environmentally beneficial activity if they believe that any harm done to the environment would in turn harm them, their friends, families, or animals. As a result, customers, employees and stakeholders are compelled to be ecologically friendly due to underlying values about the impact of their actions on the environment, their family, or future generations. This study suggests that employees who engage in environmentally friendly civic activities out of a moral imperative may also engage in comparable behaviors as workers. As a result, we believe that people who are concerned about the environment are more likely to engage in OCBEs than people who are less concerned. Therefore, the moderating role of internal locus of control have been analyzed in this study in the relationship between EM and OCBE, the result show that ILC significantly and positively affect OCBE, furthermore ILC do not moderate the relationship between EM and OCBE.
... The person-job fit is crucial, as it decides whether or not an employee is a right match for the designation (Zheng et al., 2010). According to organisational behaviour philosophers, The right people in the right roles, is also important (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). Organizational success depends upon the contribution made by the engaged employees. ...
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This research attempts to investigate the relationship between different organizational, individual and demographic factors with effective faculty engagement in private higher education institutions of Bengaluru, Karnataka state, (India). Hypotheses testing included a data of (n = 302) higher education faculty members with different academic positions, using simple random sampling method. The study uses exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for testing sampling adequacy, reliability and discriminant validity and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to prove significant causal relationship between the variables. Structural equation modeling was used for detecting the direct effects of the independent variables like Personal Resilience, Individual optimism, Coworker support, Pay, Performance, Affective Commitment and Locus of control, with the dependent variable, faculty engagement. Confirmatory factor analysis measurement model revealed significant positive relationship between Pay, Performance, Coworker support, Personal Resilience and Individual Optimism with faculty engagement in higher education institutions of Bengaluru. This research study further proves the connection between demographic factors such as gender, employment status, salary and position with faculty engagement. The study provides insights for academic leaders, universities and HR professionals to improve engagement levels of teaching faculty in higher education and concludes with limitations and future research agenda.
... Huber & Loitfellner, 2017). Man spricht von "personjob fit" einerseits und "person-organisation fit" andererseits (Holland, 1997;Caldwell & O' Reilly, 1990;O' Reilly et al., 1991;Hackman & Oldham, 1980;Lauver & Kristof-Brown, 2001;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Jansen & Kristof-Brown, 2006;Edwards, 2008;Sekiguchi, 2004). Es braucht eine doppelte Passung, eine Person-Funktion-Kontext-Passung. ...
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Die Anforderungen an Schulen und deren Führung sind größer denn je, müssen sie doch auf bil­dungs­po­litische, soziale, ökonomische, ökologische und kulturelle Veränderungen und Entwicklungen rea­gie­ren, mit ihnen Schritt halten, sie auffangen und auf sie vorbereiten, sie voranbringen oder ihnen gege­be­nen­falls auch entgegenwirken. Die wachsende Multikulturalität einer pluralistischen, postmodernen und globalisierten Gesellschaft bedingt eine Komplexitätszunahme in den meisten Lebensbereichen. So kann sich Schule längst nicht mehr als Institution verstehen, die einen fest gefügten Wissenskanon ver­mittelt, und sich auf die Akzeptanz tradierter Normen verlassen. Wie gehen Schulleitungen mit diesen Anforderungen um? Sie sind keine multifunktionalen Wunder­we­sen. Sie wissen jedoch um die Aufgaben- und Rollenkomplexität und sind in der Lage, als Responsible Lea­der jeweils professionell und situationsangemessen zu agieren. Die nachfolgend präsentierten Prämissen von Schulleitung zeigen als Diskussionsgrundlage die breite Pa­let­te an Perspektiven und Möglichkeiten pädagogischer Führung auf.
... In linking work values to different types of self-employed career trajectories, we rely on the general idea of match/fit between individual characteristics and jobs that has been long discussed in sociology and psychology (Kalleberg, 2007;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). Extant literature affirms that individuals may choose jobs and a work environment that align with their personal value profiles and their accumulated work experiences may reinforce these values (Johnson, 2001;Knafo and Sagiv, 2004;Rosenberg, 1957). ...
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Current debates about the gig economy pay increasing attention to the heterogeneity of platform workers. Using a large sample of 10,574 freelancers from an international online labor market, this article investigates the association between individual work values and career trajectories, constructed as a combination of current employment status and future career intentions. The authors consider not only the pure form of freelancing but also hybrid models when people have multiple jobs, combining freelancing with a regular job as an employee (moonlighters) or starting their own business with hired employees (entrepreneurs). The findings suggest that freelancers, moonlighters, and entrepreneurs have distinct work value profiles reflecting the opportunities and constraints in gaining specific rewards from their work. In contrast to moonlighters, freelancers and entrepreneurs are similar in their relative preference for intrinsic values and ignoring security values. In contrast to freelancers, entrepreneurs and moonlighters value social recognition but do not seek a comfortable job. In contrast to entrepreneurs, freelancers and moonlighters prefer a job that meets their abilities. The authors argue that different work values must be better acknowledged when trying to reflect adequately on participation and mobility in the gig economy. The study contributes to a deeper understanding of the gig economy as well as to the general literature on the role of work values in labor markets.
... This investigation concentrated on PO fit, which is a popular and important fit type (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). Compared to other forms of fit, PO fit has been shown to have a more solid association with employee outcomes (Kristof-Brown and Jansen, 2007). ...
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In order to better understand the link between High-Performance Human Resource Practices (HPHRPs) and outcomes, this study examines the mediating roles of person–job fit (PJ fit) and person–organization fit (PO fit) using congruence theory. Through a survey questionnaire, data were gathered from 296 people who work at educational institutions in China. The results demonstrated that the association between HPHRPs and outcomes is mediated by both PJ fit and PO fit. We observed theoretical implications and discovered that HPHRPs are an important antecedent that builds congruence among employees' values and goals and organizational values and goals, as well as their job goals, which in turn prevents employees from experiencing stress and developing intentions to leave their workplace. The current study adds to extant literature on education and HPHRPs by identifying PJ fit and PO fit as mechanisms through which HPHRPs demonstrate their authority on employee outcomes. The managerial implications, limitations, and directions for future studies are included in detail at the end.
... The PE fit theory suggests that an individual's evaluations of personal needs and the external environment impact their attitudes (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). The relationship between the environment and an individual's views should be favourable if the environment allows a person to meet their fundamental psychological requirements. ...
Article
The study aims to provide insight into how online entrepreneurial education, attitude, and mindset enhance the professional growth, innovation, and success of entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire and 235 responses were analysed using the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Resultantly, online entrepreneurial education has a positive impact on the development of an entrepreneurial mindset. Entrepreneurial attitude influences the entrepreneurial mindset, which enhances professional growth. Moreover, innovation among entrepreneurs is as necessary as mindset and education. The findings revealed that professional growth formed innovation for entrepreneurial success. The study further broadens the scope of knowledge of entrepreneurs by adding pre-dictors, such as professional growth, innovation, and entrepreneurs' success, and is advanced due to the usage of innovative techniques for professional growth to promote career success.
... Le troisième facteur s'appuie sur la relation entre une efficacité personnelle élevée et la satisfaction professionnelle (Judge, Thoresen, Bono, & Patton, 2001;Judge, Erez, Bono, & Thoresen, 2003 ;Judge, Bono, Erez, & Locke, 2005). Les conditions de travail (humaines et matérielles) sont le quatrième facteur : des conditions favorables sont reliées à la satisfaction professionnelle (Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman, & Johnson, 2005 ;Lent, 2008 ;Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). Enfin, le cinquième facteur est constitué par les aides fournies pour atteindre un but (par exemple les aides fournies par la famille, les amis, les partenaires, les collègues ou le chef d'établissement). ...
Thesis
Circumstances in teacher education that allow preservice teachers to experience job satisfaction in the classroom: case study in physical educationand sportMany institutional guidelines point out that teacher education programs can be a means to enhance the job satisfaction, and thereby the health, of preservice teachers (PTs). However, few studies have actually examined this proposition. This study therefore sought to determine the training circumstances that contribute to PTs’ satisfaction with their classroom work in the context of teacher education with teams composed of cooperating teachers and university supervisors.This study is part of a research program based on epistemological principles derived from cultural anthropology, which has been much inspired by the analytical philosophy of Wittgenstein (2004). The study was conducted within the framework of an innovative teacher education program that alternates sequences of PTs’ classroom work with sequences of supervisory meetings.The results indicate three main training circumstances that facilitated the PTs’ learning of the work rules, which in turn contributed to their professional development and thereby to their satisfaction: (i) the teacher educator team needs to “de-satisfy” the PTs before engaging in the activity of teaching new work rules, (ii) the PTs need an “exemplification” of the new work rules that is rooted in their actual teaching circumstances, and (iii) the teacher education team needs to engage in a veritable work of supporting the PTs as they begin to follow the work rules that they have learned. The discussion of the results focuses on proposals for new directions in complementary research and innovative training methods.
... This is critically important for organizations that seek answers to the practical question of how employee performance can be sustained over the long term. Our study shows that we need increased awareness about the benefits of giving employees tasks that allow them to utilize their full skillset (Kristof-brown et al., 2005). Furthermore, organizations and managers need to provide employees with opportunities to learn and develop new skills in their jobs. ...
Article
Skill utilization is a critically important enacted job characteristic that is assumed to change over time. Building on work design process theory, we investigate the role of goal orientations (performance-approach, performance-avoid, and learning orientation) in gradually shaping job performance change patterns through their impact on skill utilization change trajectories. We tested our hypotheses using a 3-wave longitudinal study from 238 nurses collected over a four-year observation period. Using latent growth curve modeling, our results showed that performance-approach orientation positively predicted growth in skill utilization. In contrast, performance-avoid orientation negatively predicted skill utilization trajectories. Over time, skill utilization trajectories were also associated with job performance trajectories. Learning orientation was associated with higher initial levels of skill utilization, but unexpectedly, these high levels were not maintained over time. Our results help to provide a more nuanced understanding of the influence of goal orientations on temporal trajectories of skill utilization and performance. We discuss implications for designing effective, targeted interventions for providing opportunities to apply skills in nursing and health-related contexts.
Article
Psychological needs, uncomfortable when not met, are explained by our expectations of achievement, relationship, autonomy, and dominance. Since work life is an important determinant in meeting directly (or indirectly) the tangible and intangible needs of individuals, work-related experiences are very effective in individuals' occupational perceptions. Also, occupational preferences are based on reasons: conscious selection, environmental pressure, financial security, prestige and social benefit. In order to test this connection (and the sources of the differences), the pandemic period constitutes the justification for the sample design of the study, especially as it includes challenging working conditions for healthcare professionals. Accordingly, the main purpose of the study is to discuss the relationship between the occupational preferences of healthcare professions and their psychological needs, with the determinant of their specific working conditions. Mixed (pluralist) research method is used in the design of the study. While the perceptions of the respondents about the working conditions are determined through the socio-demographic information form and open-ended questions, the occupational preferences inventory and the new psychological needs assessment scale are used to evaluate the occupational perceptions of healthcare professions. The study sample consists of a total of 378 respondents selected from doctors, pharmacists, and nurses. The study points to important findings regarding the connection between the occupational preferences of health professionals and their psychological needs. In addition, occupational groups (doctor, pharmacist, nurse) differ from each other in terms of occupational preferences and working conditions.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of GHRM practices on employer branding among firms in developed and developing economies. Design/methodology/approach This study applied a cross-sectional survey for 234 respondents. The sample was derived from multiple databases consisting of firms in developed and developing countries. Findings The analysis indicates that green competence building practices and green performance management practices are positively related to environmental reputation and hence employer brand. Green employee involvement is exceptional because it has a more positive influence on environmental reputation in developed economies. Originality/value This study is cross-national in nature and compares GHRM practices in developed and developing economies.
Article
The Great Resignation indicates that many organizations are grappling with the human resource challenge of staff retention and turnover, in which fit plays a prominent role. Extrapolating the role of fit, this study investigates the effects of person‐organization fit, need‐supply fit, and demand‐ability fit on turnover intention. The study also investigates whether need‐supply fit and demand‐ability fit mediates the effect of person‐organization fit on turnover intention. The data gathered from 250 full‐time faculty members was analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS‐SEM) through SmartPLS. The results showed that (i) need‐supply fit and person‐organization fit had a negative and direct impact on turnover intentions, (ii) the impact of demand‐ability fit on turnover intention was insignificant, and (iii) the association between person‐organization fit and turnover intention is mediated by need‐supply fit. These findings are useful for management and practitioners in designing strategies that enhance employees’ compatibility with their workplace and help in reducing employees’ turnover intention. Noteworthily, this is one of the first research to look at the direct and indirect effects of person‐organization fit on turnover intention through need‐supply fit and demand‐ability fit.
Purpose Congruence serves as a key framework in many leader–follower dyad theories. This paper aims to introduce polynomial regression analysis with response surface methodology (PRA with RSM) as a statistical technique for investigating research questions concerning leader–follower dyadic relationships in the hospitality context. Design/methodology/approach First, this paper illustrates the necessity of applying PRA with RSM to more effectively address the research issues related to leader–follower dyadic relationships. Next, this paper presents an overview and the key concepts of PRA with RSM. Critical issues that need to be noted and two recent hospitality leadership studies that have used PRA with RSM are discussed. Third, an empirical example in the hotel context is provided to illustrate the application of PRA with RSM. Findings By applying this methodology to the study of hospitality leader–follower dyadic relationships, researchers will be able to address a range of topics related to dyadic theory, such as leader–member exchange and value congruence. Practical implications PRA with RSM reveals that congruence effects vary within leader–follower dyads. Industry professionals can promote a better leader–follower fit by incorporating dyadic surveys to understand mutual agreement and perceptions regarding same-workplace phenomena. Originality/value The paper addresses the misalignment between leader–follower dyadic theory and the methodology used in hospitality leadership studies.
Article
As an emerging topic in human resource management (HRM) research, organizational citizenship behavior for the environment (OCBE) and workgroup green advocacy (WGGA) have been studied as a proxy of the environmental performance of organizations as well as a potential way for companies to assess the impact of their environmental strategies and initiatives. Viewing OCBE and WGGA as green‐focused knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics and building on leader‐member exchange theory, we examined the effects of leaders' OCBE and WGGA, person‐supervisor fit (PSF), and person‐group fit (PGF) as well as their potential interactions on members' OCBE and WGGA. To minimize the potential impact of different company strategies, the study was conducted in one MNC using a sample of 269 members from 64 teams. The results revealed that PSF and especially PGF were associated with members' OCBE and WGGA, but leaders' OCBE was a stronger predictor of members' OCBE and WGGA than leaders' WGGA. Contrary to our prediction, no moderating effect of PSF or PGF was found for the associations between leaders' and members' WGGA and OCBE. Together, these findings shed light on the differential trickle‐down effects of leaders' perceptions and behaviors in the context of environmental management. As for the implications for HRM practitioners, our findings suggest companies may focus on leaders' OCBE and WGGA as well as on PSF and PGF independently as the means to shaping team members' OCBE and WGGA to support environmental strategies.
Article
Employee proactivity has elicited great interest among academicians and practitioners alike. However, unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms and theoretical boundaries that amplify or dampen employee proactive behaviour at work remain under researched. Thus, to accelerate the discourse on employee proactive behaviour, this study explores the relationship between empowering leadership and employee proactivity through person-job fit and person-organization fit. Drawing insights from the person-environment theory, the study further examines the moderating role of role-based self-efficacy. Data were collected from 295 employees of Indian five-star hotels through a questionnaire survey and analysed through structural equation modelling. The results of this study confirm the significant direct impacts of empowering leadership, person-job fit organization-job fit on employee proactivity behaviour in a luxury context. Moreover, the study demonstrates the partial mediating role of person-job fit and person-organization fit while also confirming the moderating influence of role breadth self-efficacy; between the relationships of empowering leadership and employee proactivity. Given that the study uncovers the positive influence of leadership on employee proactive behaviour this study has important practical implication for managers working in luxury contexts, especially, hotels.
Article
Key digested message The authors have collected information on personal values across a range of industries, enabling them to understand where the greatest individual differences exist across industries. In this article they share these insights and explore the impact for increasing cultural fit and building a high-performing culture.
Article
Work–leisure conflict (WLC) can have a series of negative effects on individuals. Against the backdrop of the rapid development of communication equipment, does individuals' use of communication equipment to handle work during nonworking hours lead to WLC? Previous studies have failed to discuss this relationship. Therefore, based on boundary theory, this study explored the possible effect of work connectivity behavior after hours (WCBAH) on WLC as well as the roles played by psychological detachment and individual segmentation preferences in this relationship. In this study, 82 employees were investigated via daily diary research for a period of 5 continuous working days, and a multilevel model was developed. The results indicated that daily WCBAH is positively related to WLC and that psychological detachment plays a mediating role in this relationship. Individual segmentation preferences can significantly moderate not only the relationship between WCBAH and psychological detachment but also the indirect effect of WCBAH on WLC via psychological detachment. This study increases our understanding of boundary theory and provides management suggestions regarding ways of reducing WLC.
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This study investigates the effects of optimal rule control on recruitment and selection practices in public organizations. Although rules are argued to constrain organizational practices and organizational performance, there is limited knowledge about the relationship of optimal rule control to recruitment and selection practices from a managerial perspective. By conducting a study with survey responses from 1,000 public frontline managers, combined with administrative data, this article investigates how optimal rule control is associated with the formation of recruitment objectives and selections based on values and cultural fit. Findings indicate a positive relationship between optimal rule control and the formation of recruitment objectives and selections based on fit. Unexpectedly, managerial tenure does not seem to moderate the association between optimal rule control and recruitment and selection practices. The study contributes to the public human resource management literature by focusing on the influence of organizational rules on human resource practices.
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Understanding how expatriates adjust to the various aspects of the host environment has been a focal point of research within international management literature for several decades. Many healthcare systems throughout the world are heavily reliant on internationally trained doctors to fill vacancies in their health services arising from the fact that significant numbers of homegrown doctors seek opportunities abroad. As self-initiated expatriates, little is known about their adjustment to working and living while in their host culture. This paper examines the cultural adjustment of internationally trained hospital doctors working in Ireland. Three hundred and sixty-nine respondents working across 34 public hospitals completed a questionnaire relating to their experience of living and working in the host culture. The results indicate that international trained doctors are somewhat adjusted to working and living in Ireland, but there is a clear lack of organizational support for these doctors while in the host culture. Health care policy makers must focus on the development and implementation of robust policies and supports to facilitate internationally trained doctors’ adjustment to their host culture.
Purpose Drawing on the person–supervisor fit theory, this study aims to adopts a dyadic and relational approach to investigate the congruence between the leader’s and the follower’s learning goal orientation (LGO) on their leader–member exchange (LMX) quality and the follower’s innovation. Design/methodology/approach The participants were 213 frontline employees and their 69 immediate supervisors from a large five-star hotel in China. The authors analyze the multiple-wave data using the cross-level polynomial regression approach. Findings The results show that when the levels of LGO between the leader and the follower are congruent, follower innovation and LMX are higher; when the levels of LGO between the leader and the follower are incongruent, it hinders LMX but benefits follower’s innovation. Research limitations/implications This study implies that personality congruence and incongruence can be equally important in creating positive work outcomes, enriching the theoretical understanding and practical implications for promoting LMX and follower innovation in hospitality industry. Originality/value Prior research has identified the importance of employees’ LGO in promoting innovation. However, the fit between employees’ and their leaders’ LGO has not been investigated.
Article
The aim of this research was to adopt Perceived Person-Environment Fit Scale (PPEFS; Chuang, Shen & Judge, 2016) into Turkish. The PPEFS consists of four measures: Person-Job Fit Scale, Person-Organization Fit Scale, Person-Group Fit Scale and Person-Supervisor Fit Scale. The research was conducted with 643 employees from various sectors and professions, and consisted of two different studies. In Study 1 (n= 325) the CFI confirmed the hypothesized factor structure of the Turkish version of the PPEFS (PPEFS-TR). For convergent validity the relationships of the PPEFS-TR’ scales with another fit scale (Cable & DeRue, 2002; PFS), and for divergent validity the relations between the PPEFS-TR and theoretically unrelated constructs (i.e., age and gender) were examined, and as expected, moderate to low level correlations were found. Moreover, the PPEFS-TR has incremental validity above and beyond the PFS on organizational outcomes (i.e., organizational citizenship behavior, job satisfaction and intention to leave). In Study 2 (n= 308), each scales of the PPEFS-TR predicted the theoretically related construct (i.e., work engagement, organizational identification, group fit, and leader-member exchange) significantly. Internal consistency reliability coefficients were found between .77 and .94 in both studies. Additionally, test-retest reliability coefficients were found between .90 and .94 (n= 55).
Article
This paper offers a detailed and systemic representation of the process of organizational identification in social enterprises, and a better understanding of how individuals position themselves in these organizations. We highlight that identification in social enterprises is the result of the interplay between the multiple identities of the individuals who take part in coalitions defending different institutional logics. Identification will depend on whether or not it is easy for the individual to find a coalition that corresponds to him or her, and on whether or not the ideas of this coalition are dominant. The relative size of the various coalitions among the staff and the way they evolve will have a clear impact on what the dominant logic of the social enterprise will be.
Article
How does boundary management (BM) preference influence the effectiveness of work–nonwork policies? Drawing on BM and person–environment fit theory, we examine the effects of off-hours work-related communication restriction on policy satisfaction, organizational commitment, emotional exhaustion, and work engagement. We suggest a moderated mediation model, assuming that the interaction between communication restriction and BM preference predicts perceived BM fit, positively affecting the outcomes. We investigated this assumption using an experimental vignette study (Study 1, N = 257) and a correlational study (Study 2, N = 239). The findings of both studies show moderated indirect effects of the work–nonwork policy on policy satisfaction, organizational commitment, emotional exhaustion, and work engagement (only investigated in Study 2) via perceived BM fit and conditional on BM preference. Specifically, restricting work-related communication only benefits employees preferring low levels of integration. Contrarily, employees who prefer high levels of integration do not benefit from the policy. Due to using two studies with different methodological approaches, these findings rest on data with high internal and external validity. In particular, the experimental method in Study 1 allows for causal inferences on the effects of communication restriction, supporting the literature on BM fit and offering practical implications.
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Bu araştırmada, kişi-örgüt uyumunun yapılan gönüllü işin anlamlılığının önemli bir öncülü olup olmadığı tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Çünkü STK’larda ücret karşılığında olmadan çalışan gönüllülerin STK-gönüllü değerlerinin uyuşması önemli bir motivasyon ve anlam kaynağı olabileceği düşünülmektedir. Bu amaçla çeşitli STK’larda aktif olarak gönüllü olan 233 kişiden anket tekniğiyle veri toplanmıştır. Anket formunda; demografik soruların yanı sıra kişi-örgüt uyumu ve işin anlamlılığı ölçeklerine yer verilmiştir. Katılımcılardan elde edilen veriler; korelasyon ve yapısal eşitlik modeliyle analiz edilmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucunda; kişi-örgüt uyumu ile işin anlamlılığı arasında önemli düzeyde pozitif bir ilişkinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca kişi-örgüt uyumunun, işin anlamlılığını pozitif şekilde etkilediği ve düzeyinin artmasında önemli bir öncül olduğu saptanmıştır. Sonuç olarak değerler, inançlar hedefler ve beklentiler açısından gönüllü-STK uyumunun, gönüllülerin işi değerli, önemli ve faydalı olarak algılamalarında rol oynadığı söylenebilir. Çünkü gönüllülerin manevi faktörlerle ve işin anlamlılığıyla motive olduğu görülmektedir. Bu durum anlamlı işin iyi bir kişi-örgüt uyumu gerektirdiğini ortaya koymaktadır.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this review is to argue that the way that perceived employee misfit (PEM) has been measured in quantitative studies does not capture the construct identified in qualitative studies. Design/methodology/approach Through reverse citation analysis, this study reveals how low levels of value congruence became the currency of PEM in quantitative studies. Findings This study finds that in the absence of alternatives, researchers have taken low scores of value congruence as a measure of misfit. However, there is limited evidence to show that PEM relates to values, supplementary conceptualization or interactions with the organization (rather than interactions with other employees, tasks, etc.). In addition, the most commonly used instruments measure degrees of similarity, not disparity, making the interpretation of PEM-related data unclear. Combined, these factors raise construct validity concerns about most quantitative studies of PEM. Research limitations/implications Given the upsurge of interest in PEM, there is an urgent need for greater clarification on the nature of the construct. From the analysis, this study identifies two key dimensions of studying PEM that create four distinctly different ways of conceptualizing the construct. Originality/value This study highlights a series of major methodological weaknesses in the study of PEM and reveal that almost all published quantitative studies of PEM are actually studying something else; something whose nature is very unclear.
Article
Questions about whether candidate perceptions of recruitment and selection practices “matter” have been raised for decades. This study tackles such questions by developing a new theoretical framework to understand the business unit-level emergence and consequences of the collective candidate experience, defined as “ Applicants’ aggregate overall cognitive and affective perceptions based on multiple interactions with a business unit over the course of the entire recruitment and selection process.” A theoretical framework is introduced that integrates signaling theory with research from marketing, recruitment, and applicant reactions to propose that the collective candidate experience construct emerges from interactions in unit-specific social, structural, and physical contexts. The construct is further expected to influence new hire outcomes and business unit outcomes. We then test the theorized consequences of the collective candidate experience in a multi-unit quick service restaurant organization. The collective candidate experience is positively associated with collective new hire engagement, which in turn is associated with collective new hire turnover intentions, collective turnover, and collective customer satisfaction. Additional supporting evidence and preliminary measures are provided in online appendices. Overall, this study complements and extends prior research and directs new research by offering a theoretical framework.
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Studies on business model innovation (BMI) have largely focused on firm performance, neglecting outcomes of BMI beyond financial performance indicators. Research lacks empirical findings from the internal organizational dynamics following the inherent transformation process induced by BMI. Rooting our analysis in configuration theory, the purpose of this paper is to shed light on the organizational impact of BMI. We employ the person‐organization fit concept and assess (unintentional) changes in the fit relationship subsequent to BMI. Our findings suggest that incremental BMI enhances fit whereas radical BMI decreases it. We further discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our study.
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The banking sector has a respectively high personnel turnover rate due to recent global financial crises and technological advances. There has been a significant increase in the number of closed bank branches and banking personnel who recently left their jobs in Turkey during the last five years. Therefore, the underlying uncertain environment has an important impact on job insecurity, intention to leave and moral disengagement perceptions of banking sector employees as well. The main purpose of this study is to explore the effect of job insecurity on intention to leave and moral disengagement. The sample of the present study involves 133 employees currently working at both public and private banks in Kars province, Turkey. The results of this study reveal that job insecurity has a positive statistically significant effect on both intention to leave and moral disengagement. On the other hand, the empirical findings of this study indicate that emotional job insecurity, one of the sub-dimensions of job insecurity, has a positive statistically significant impact on intention to leave, whereas no significant impact was found between emotional job insecurity and moral disengagement. As expected, the analysis results also demonstrate that private bank employees have a higher job insecurity level than public bank counterparts.
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In this longitudinal study on job search, fit perceptions, and employment quality, 113 graduates completed surveys prior to organizational entry and 4 months after entry. Job search behavior and career planning were positively related to pre-entry person-job (P-J) and person-organization (P-O) fit perceptions, and pre-entry P-J fit perceptions mediated the relationship between career planning and postentry P-J fit perceptions. P-J and P-O fit perceptions were positively related to job and organizational attitudes, and pre-entry P-J fit perceptions mediated the relationship between career planning and job attitudes. Further, the relationships between pre-entry fit perceptions and employment quality were mediated by postentry fit perceptions. These results indicate that P-J and P-O fit perceptions play an important role in linking job search to employment quality.
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This study examined whether the relationship between reward structure and team performance is contingent upon task dimension, team composition, and individual performance level. Seventy-five four-person teams engaged in a simulated interactive task in which reward structure was manipulated. A competitive structure enhanced one task dimension, speed, whereas a cooperative structure enhanced accuracy. Teams with extroverted and agreeable members performed better under the cooperative structure, whereas teams low on these orientations performed better under the competitive structure. Finally, reward structure had more impact on team members with low performance.
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Work values have been receiving increased research attention. Ravlin, Meglino, and their associates have recently conceptualized and provided measurement of work values. Although the effects of work values on job satisfaction, commitment, and individual decision making have been studied, work values have not been explicitly linked to job choice decisions. Using a sample of professional degree students and a policy-capturing design, we examined the influence of organizational work values on job choice in the context of job attributes that have been shown to affect this decision process. Organizational work values significantly affected job choice decisions. Individuals were more likely to choose jobs whose value content was similar to their own value orientation.
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This longitudinal study examines the development of leader-member-exchange (LMX) relationships via a model that extends and tests ideas presented but not yet fully tested in past theoretical models. New subordinates (n = 205) and their supervisors (n = 112) provided data that were used to test hypotheses stating that dyadic gender and personality similarity, member performance, and leader delegation would be incrementally and cumulatively related to LMX development. Support was found for relationships between the quality of leader-member exchange and positive affectivity similarity, performance, and delegation, but not for a relationship with gender similarity. In addition, it appears that good member performance may precede leader delegation.
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We address gaps in the multilevel organizational theory development literature by critically examining the structure and function of collective constructs. Structure emerges from interaction and can, over time, come to influence systems of interaction. Functions represent the causal outputs of constructs and provide a mechanism for integrating constructs across levels. We then discuss implications arising from this perspective and present a set of guidelines for multilevel research and theory development.
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The authors report the results of two studies that attempt to model antecedents of organizational citizenship behaviors in a personal selling context. They draw the antecedents from extant research and propose that the willingness to perform organizational citizenship behaviors is related to the job-related perceptions of the degree of organizational fit between the salesperson and his or her firm, level of leadership support, perceived fairness in reward allocation (i.e., distributive justice), and job satisfaction. They hypothesize and test direct and indirect relations with these constructs and organizational citizenship behaviors. Most of these relations were significant across the two studies.
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In order for researchers to understand and predict behavior, they must consider both person and situation factors and how these factors interact. Even though organization researchers have developed interactional models, many have overemphasized either person or situation components, and most have failed to consider the effects that persons have on situations. This paper presents criteria for improving interactional models and a model of person-organization fit, which satisfies these criteria. Using a Q-sort methodology, individual value profiles are compared to organizational value profiles to determine fit and to predict changes in values, norms, and behaviors.
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The Omnia Profile(R) is a popular tool used by organizations throughout New Zealand to assess job applicants' person-organization fit (P-O fit), person-job fit (P-J fit), and overall compatibility in personnel selection. Despite its popularity, however, this selection instrument has received virtually no prior research attention. The present study investigated the criterion-related validity of the Omnia Profile(R) using three criterion variables (job performance, job satisfaction and organisational commitment). It was carried out using a predictive validity strategy in two private-sector organizations (one in New Zealand and one in Australia). Results indicated that. contrary to expectation, the P-O fit measure correlated significantly with job performance, but not with attitudinal measures; and the P-J fit measure correlated significantly with both job satisfaction and organisational commitment, but not job performance. Combined overall compatibility scores failed to predict job performance (as used in practice), though they did predict attitudinal criteria. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
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The present study examines the impact of organizational values and value congruency on satisfaction, commitment, and cohesion within a not-for-profit setting. Information for the study was collected from 387 highway and transportation department executives. The findings indicate that organizational values affect satisfaction, commitment, and cohesion. Moreover, value congruence (i.e., a fit between professed organizational values and the values deemed appropriate by employees) also impacts these behavioral variables. If organizations lack the values studies and/or value congruence is low, the study results indicate that action should be taken to change the organization's value orientation.
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Understanding and predicting behavior in organizations requires a consideration of person and situation factors, and how these factors interact. This paper develops and longitudinally tests a model of person-organization fit (POF). POF is defined, and antecedents (selection and socialization) and consequences (commitment, performance, and tenure) are examined.
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One outgrowth of the person-situation debate has been the use of fit or congruence models to explain work outcomes. In this study, the profile-comparison process, a Q-sort-based technique that provides an isomorphic assessment of job requirements and individual competencies, was used to assess person-job fit in 7 small samples representing a variety of jobs and organizations. The results show that overall person-job fit is strongly related to a number of outcomes, including job performance and satisfaction. Implications for the assessment of persons and jobs are discussed.
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Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
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This study investigated whether sex discrimination existed in recruiters' evaluations of applicants in real employment interviews and, if so, whether other variables could explain it. The variables examined were the perceived similarity of the applicant to the recruiter, the interpersonal attraction felt by the recruiter toward the applicant, and the applicant's objectively measured and subjectively measured qualifications. Applicant sex did not directly or indirectly affect recruiters' evaluations of applicants in campus interviews, providing no evidence of sex discrimination. Instead, subjective qualifications had a significant effect on evaluations and also mediated the effects of perceived similarity, interpersonal attraction, and objective qualifications on evaluations. Recruiters saw stronger subjective qualifications in applicants with high scholastic performance whom they viewed as similar to themselves and whom they liked. Perceptions of these qualifications, in turn, were the primary determinant of evaluations.
Conference Paper
Six hundred fifty-two employees composing 51 work teams participated in a study examining relationships among team composition (ability and personality), team process (social cohesion), and team outcomes (team viability and team performance). Mean, variance, minimum, and maximum were 4 scoring methods used to operationalize the team composition variables to capture the team members' characteristics. With respect to composition variables, teams higher in general mental ability (GMA), conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, and emotional stability received higher supervisor ratings for team performance. Teams higher in GMA, extraversion, and emotional stability received higher supervisor ratings for team viability. Results also show that extraversion and emotional stability were associated with team viability through social cohesion. Implications and future research needs are discussed.
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We examined the impact of surface-level (demographic) and deep-level (attitudinal) diversity on group social integration. As hypothesized, the length of time group members worked together weakened the effects of surface-level diversity and strengthened the effects of deep-level diversity as group members had the opportunity to engage in meaningful interactions.
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A study of 1,200 employees from five Chinese cities found support for the cross-cultural applicability of Karasek's job demands-decision latitude model. The highest anxiety and depression were related to high job demands and low control, and the highest job satisfaction and life satisfaction were related to high job demands and high control. However, there were individual differences in the interactive effects of job demands and control and group differences in the applicability of the model, suggesting that Karasek's model needs to be amended and extended to take individual and socioeconomic differences into account.
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It was hypothesized that leader-member exchange (LMX) will moderate the relations between Person-Organization Fit (P-O fit) and both job and career satisfaction, and between P-O fit and commitment. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 524 teachers from 30 high schools in Turkey. P-O fit was assessed using the Organizational Culture Profile (OCP). Moderated multiple regression results supported the hypotheses for job and career satisfaction, but not for organizational commitment. When teachers formed low quality LMX relationships with leaders, P-O fit was positively related to job satisfaction and career satisfaction. When teachers had high quality LMX relationships with leaders, P-O fit was not related to job satisfaction or career satisfaction. The results contribute to both the LMX and P-O fit literatures by demonstrating the complementary nature of LMX and P-O fit in explaining job and career satisfaction: It appeared that the formation of a high LMX relationship buffered the negative effect of low P-O fit on job and career satisfaction, while high P-O fit served to ameliorate the negative influence of low LMX on job and career satisfaction. It is suggested that future research examine interactions between LMX and P-O fit on other organizational outcomes, such as performance, turnover, and career success.
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The authors report the results of two studies that attempt to model antecedents of organizational citizenship behaviors in a personal selling context. They draw the antecedents from extant research and propose that the willingness to perform organizational citizenship behaviors is related to the job-related perceptions of the degree of organizational fit between the salesperson and his or her firm, level of leadership support, perceived fairness in reward allocation (i. e., distributive justice), and job satisfaction. They hypothesize and test direct and indirect relations with these constructs and organizational citizenship behaviors. Most of these relations were significant across the two studies.
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This study extends the previous research on creativity and person-environment fit by examining fit on the dimension of creativity and by incorporating both supply-value and demand-ability versions of fit. A fit between demands for creativity and abilities for creativity was related to lower strain and higher job satisfaction. However, the most impressive influence on outcomes was the environmental influence; particularly the influence of supplies for creativity. The version of fit examined also affected results. Supply-value and demand-ability versions of fit exhibited different relationships with outcomes. These results suggest that more research is needed to explore specific environmental conditions that encourage creativity in organizations.
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The influence of individuals' congruence with an organization's culture on their affective orientations toward the organization has been the focus of a growing body of research. The present study contributes to this research by examining this relationship (1) in the context of an organization undergoing significant cultural transformation, and (2) across four theoretically identified dimensions of culture. We found that, across all four culture dimensions, the discrepancy between individuals' assessments of the current culture and their ideal culture explained significant variance in two organization-focused affective outcomes, organizational commitment and optimism about the organization's future. In contrast, the congruence effects across the four culture dimensions were not uniformly significant for job satisfaction, job involvement, and job turnover intention. The implications of these findings for future individual-culture congruence theory and research are considered.
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A study of 264 certified public accountants in large public accounting firms showed that when professionals work in a professional-bureaucratic organization, conflict and deprivation result with predictable consequences such as job dissatisfaction and job migration.
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Executives should not take a reputation for ethical leadership for granted. Based on interviews with senior executives and corporate ethics officers, this article reveals that a reputation for executive ethical leadership rests on two essential pillars: the executive's visibility as a moral person (based upon perceived traits, behaviors, and decision-making processes) and visibility as a moral manager (based upon role modeling, use of the reward system, and communication). Developing a reputation for ethical leadership pays dividends in reduced legal problems and increased employee commitment, satisfaction, and employee ethical conduct. The alternatives are the unethical leader, the hypocritical leader (who talks the talk, but doesn't walk the walk), and the ethically neutral leader (who may be an ethical person, but employees don't know it because the leader has not made ethics and values an explicit part of the leadership agenda). The article also offers guidelines for cultivating a reputation for ethical leadership.
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We propose a taxonomy of multidimensional constructs based on the relations between the construct and its dimensions. Multidimensional constructs that exist at deeper levels than their dimensions we term latent model. We call constructs formed as algebraic functions of their dimensions aggregate model, whereas constructs formed as different profiles of dimensional characteristics we term profile model. We discuss the nature of multidimensional constructs defined under these models and their operationalizations in empirical research.