Predictors of Objective and Subjective Career Success: A Meta-Analysis

ArticleinPersonnel Psychology 58(2):367 - 408 · June 2005with 11,087 Reads 
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Abstract
Using the contest- and sponsored-mobility perspectives as theoretical guides, this meta-analysis reviewed 4 categories of predictors of objective and subjective career success: human capital, organizational sponsorship, sociodemographic status, and stable individual differences. Salary level and promotion served as dependent measures of objective career success, and subjective career success was represented by career satisfaction. Results demonstrated that both objective and subjective career success were related to a wide range of predictors. As a group, human capital and sociodemographic predictors generally displayed stronger relationships with objective career success, and organizational sponsorship and stable individual differences were generally more strongly related to subjective career success. Gender and time (date of the study) moderated several of the relationships examined.

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  • ... Por otra parte, en el contexto de estudio del éxito de carrera, el meta-análisis realizado por Ng et al. (2005), muestra a partir del análisis de 10 estudios, que el número de años de experiencia laboral se relaciona positiva y significativamente con el número de promociones obtenidas por los individuos durante su carrera profesional. ...
    ... Así por ejemplo algunos estudios muestran que los empleados altamente educados tienen menos rotación entre trabajos, mientras que otros han encontrado resultados opuestos. Dicha contradicción en los resultados del efecto de la formación se debe principalmente a las debilidades que presenta la operacionalización de la empleabilidad en términos de las de transiciones internas o externas y a la manera de medir la educación y la Por otra parte, en el contexto de estudio del éxito de carrera, el meta-análisis realizado por Ng et al. (2005), muestra a partir del análisis de 26 estudios, que el capital humano medido en términos del nivel educativo se relaciona positiva y significativamente con el número de promociones obtenidas por los individuos durante su carrera profesional. A pesar de que no se hace referencia al tipo concreto de promociones en dicho meta-análisis, se puede intuir que las promociones implican la transición de mayor calidad o al menos de mayor nivel en comparación con el empleo anterior, lo cual permite inferir una relación positiva entre el nivel educativo y las transiciones a empleos de una mayor complejidad. ...
    ... Por otra parte, Ng et al. (2005) encontraron que características personales como la proactividad, extraversión, meticulosidad, centralidad del trabajo y la disposición a la movilidad se relacionan significativamente con el número de promociones a lo largo de la carrera profesional, siendo las dos primeras características las que presentan una mayor correlación con el número de promociones (.16 y .18 respectivamente). ...
    Thesis
    Full-text available
    El objetivo general de la presente tesis es determinar si la empleabilidad de los jóvenes facilita la obtención de empleos de calidad. En este sentido, se pretende identificar si la empleabilidad tanto a nivel percibido, como a nivel de las dimensiones que la constituyen, predice la calidad del empleo medida a través de un conjunto amplio de indicadores. Así, la presente tesis pretende contribuir a la literatura al identificar las consecuencias de la empleabilidad, hasta ahora poco estudiadas, en la calidad del empleo de los jóvenes. Más específicamente, la presente tesis pretende responder dos preguntas de investigación fundamentales a través de la realización de cuatro estudios empíricos. La primera pregunta de investigación indaga si la empleabilidad, entendida como la percepción de empleabilidad de los jóvenes, se relaciona positivamente con la obtención empleos de calidad. La pregunta primera pregunta de investigación se abordó a través de los estudios 1 y 2 de la tesis. El primer estudio de la tesis pretendió determinar en qué medida la empleabilidad percibida predice la satisfacción de los jóvenes con los aspectos intrínsecos, extrínsecos y sociales de su trabajo. Adicionalmente, este primer estudio analizó si la satisfacción con dichos aspectos aumenta cuando la empleabilidad percibida interacciona con la iniciativa personal, la cual es considerada como una característica personal importante en la potenciación de los efectos de la empleabilidad. En términos generales, los resultados de dicho estudio mostraron que tanto la empleabilidad percibida, como la iniciativa personal de los jóvenes predicen positivamente su satisfacción con los aspectos extrínsecos, intrínsecos y sociales del trabajo. Asimismo, tales resultados mostraron que los jóvenes con una alta empleabilidad percibida y que también poseen una iniciativa personal alta, presentan una satisfacción aún mayor con los aspectos extrínsecos e intrínsecos de su trabajo. El segundo estudio de la tesis pretendió analizar si los jóvenes que se perciben empleables obtienen empleos con bajos niveles de sobrecualificación tanto cuantitativa, como percibida y si este hecho afecta positivamente su satisfacción laboral. Adicionalmente, este segundo estudio pretendió probar si la satisfacción laboral derivada por los jóvenes que se perciben empleables les permite derivar una mayor satisfacción con su vida en general. Los resultados del estudio 2 mostraron que la empleabilidad percibida predice negativamente tanto la sobrecualificación percibida como la cuantitativa, las cuales a su vez predicen negativamente la satisfacción laboral global, que tiene un efecto positivo en la satisfacción con la vida. Asimismo, los resultados apoyaron un modelo en el cual la relación entre la empleabilidad y la satisfacción laboral está mediada parcialmente por la sobrecualificación percibida y en el que la satisfacción laboral predice la satisfacción de los jóvenes con su vida en general. Tomados en su conjunto, los resultados de estos dos estudios sugieren que las personas que se perciben empleables tienen la posibilidad de elegir los mejores empleos de un abanico de alternativas, lo cual les permite obtener empleos ajustados a sus cualificaciones y a sus expectativas. Lo anterior también les permite abandonar los empleos que no les resultan satisfactorios o que no ajustan a sus expectativas y, por tanto, a buscar empleos con mejores condiciones laborales (Berntson y Marklund, 2007). En este sentido, el cambio a un empleo de mejor calidad sería una solución que estaría al alcance de las personas empleables teniendo en cuenta que tienen la posibilidad de elegir un mejor empleo ya que cuentan con un conjunto de alternativas laborales a su disposición (De Cuyper et al., 2008; De Cuyper et al., 2009). La posibilidad de elección de la mejor alternativa laboral puede deberse al hecho de que las personas empleables son altamente valoradas en el mercado laboral al contar con el capital humano y las características personales necesarias para mostrar un alto rendimiento laboral y para contribuir de manera importante a la productividad de las organizaciones. La segunda pregunta de investigación indaga si las dimensiones de empleabilidad facilitan la obtención de empleos de calidad por parte de los jóvenes. Dicha pregunta de investigación fue abordada por medio de los estudios 3 y 4. El estudio 3 pretendió identificar si las dimensiones personales de empleabilidad propuestas por Fugate et al. (2004), esto es, el capital humano, la adaptabilidad personal y la identidad de carrera, contribuyen significativamente a predecir la calidad del empleo de los titulados universitarios jóvenes. Los resultados de este tercer estudio mostraron en términos generales que las dimensiones personales de empleabilidad propuestas por Fugate et al. (2004), contribuyen significativamente a predecir la calidad del empleo de los titulados universitarios. En este sentido, los titulados que se dedican o piensan dedicarse a ejercer su titulación (identidad de carrera), que presentan una alta autoeficacia generalizada (adaptabilidad personal) y que han cursado una titulación universitaria determinada (capital humano) obtienen empleos que se ajustan a su nivel educativo, a la titulación obtenida, están asociados a categorías profesionales altas y resultan satisfactorios a nivel de contenidos, de salario y de contrato. En base a lo anterior, cabe destacar que el capital humano, medido a través de la titulación cursada, es la dimensión más importante en la predicción de los diferentes indicadores de calidad del empleo, según los resultados obtenidos. Finalmente, el estudio 4 pretendió analizar en profundidad la relación entre la dimensión de capital humano de la empleabilidad y la calidad del empleo a través del análisis de los componentes específicos del capital humano de los titulados universitarios jóvenes que les facilitan la obtención de empleos de calidad. En términos generales, los resultados del estudio 4 mostraron que los componentes del capital humano de los universitarios predicen diferencialmente los indicadores de calidad del empleo. Tomados en su conjunto, los resultados de los estudios 3 y 4 sugieren que diferentes componentes del capital humano, así como de la identidad de carrera y de la adaptabilidad personal constituyen características personales que conforman la empleabilidad de los titulados universitarios y que les facilitan la obtención de empleos de calidad. Los resultados de la tesis apoyan la teoría del capital humano (Becker, 1964), en el sentido de que las inversiones realizadas por los jóvenes en el desarrollo de su capital humano, y por tanto en su empleabilidad, son recompensadas con aspectos no monetarios, como la calidad de los empleos obtenidos (Vila, 2005). Por otra parte, la relación positiva de la empleabilidad con los indicadores de calidad del empleo apoya la teoría del mercado laboral dual (Doeringer y Piore, 1971), en el sentido que las personas con una empleabilidad alta y un capital humano desarrollado formarían parte del mercado laboral primario, caracterizado tanto por empleos estables y bien pagados, como por empleos de alto nivel que se ajustan a las características educacionales del empleado y que presentan características intrínsecas y extrínsecas satisfactorias para el individuo. Así, los resultados obtenidos en la tesis resaltan la importancia del desarrollo de la empleabilidad y del capital humano para la transición de los jóvenes del mercado laboral secundario al primario o para su inserción directa en el sector primario del mercado laboral. En términos generales, los resultados obtenidos en la tesis presentan una gran relevancia práctica debido a que indican que los jóvenes pueden desarrollar las características personales implicadas en la empleabilidad con el fin de aumentar sus posibilidades de obtener empleos de calidad, esto es, satisfactorios y ajustados a sus características educacionales. Es importante destacar que el alcance de los modelos de empleabilidad centrados en la persona y de las variables personales en la predicción de la calidad del empleo está condicionado por el importante efecto de la situación del mercado laboral en la disponibilidad y acceso a los empleos de calidad por parte de los jóvenes, lo cual implica que la rentabilidad de la educación y el aprovechamiento del capital humano están condicionados por las características del tejido productivo (Pérez et al., 2012). En este sentido, es razonable esperar que dichos modelos centrados en la persona predigan porcentajes moderados de varianza de los indicadores de calidad del empleo, como los obtenidos en la presente tesis y en la literatura relacionada.
  • ... The first approach concentrates on maximizing education and skills in developing human capital to achieve career success. Previous studies have supported the significant association between human capital variables and career success of this first approach (Kirchmeyer, 1998;Ng, Eby, Sorensen & Feldman, 2005). Secondly, the structural approach incorporates the organizational variables as the influence to career success. ...
    ... The subjective construct of career success applies the comprehensive assessment of two measures; intrinsic job success and perceived career success. Past studies have used either one of the two measures or both measures of career satisfaction (Judge et al., 1995;Baruch, Bell & Gray, 2005;Cocchiara, Kwesiga, Bell & Baruch, 2010;Ng et al., 2005). ...
    ... Within the general context of the human capital theory, the dimensions of individual and organizational characteristics are often considered as the predictors of career success (Nabi, 1999;Tu, Forret & Sullivan, 2006;Ng et al., 2005). Although the components of human capital in general such as the level of education and the type of training are common, the categories may vary among many studies. ...
    Article
    The main objective of Malaysia’s New Economic Model (NEM) outlines the need to produce quality human capital that commensurates with higher career success. As an ultimate reward, career success should be indicated by the tangible aspect as well as the personal conception of career success. This study specifically looks at the latter; on the link between capital and competencies gained during the attainment of MBA studies, to the intrinsic value of career satisfaction. As specified through educational attainment, human capital is defined by the scholastic, social, and cultural capitals whereas managerial competencies encompass the skills of knowledge, analytical, and general management. 151 MBA graduates participated in the self-administered online survey and linear regression analysis was employed to test the relationships. The result reveals that among the three dimensions of human capital, cultural capital has the most positive significant association with career satisfaction. On the association between managerial competencies and career satisfaction, the skill of analytical is found to be a significant estimation of the intrinsic career success. The findings of this study are intended to contribute to a better understanding of assessing the intrinsic value of career success. It presents a means for the higher-education providers and policy makers to devise a strategy that generates a balanced human capital in terms of their extrinsic and intrinsic career success.
  • ... Career success has been defined as the "accomplishment of desirable work-related outcomes at any point in a person's work experiences over time" (Arthur, Khapova, & Wilderom, 2005, p. 179). The literature distinguishes between objective and subjective career success and explains that these two constructs are empirically distinct but related (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005). A recent perspective on subjective career success is that it is multidimensional (Shockley, Ureksoy, Rodopman, Poteat, & Dullaghan, 2016). ...
    ... According to Ng, Eby, Sorensen, and Feldman (2005), employees who achieve work-related goals are full of energy, and those who are devoted to continuous selfdevelopment distinguish themselves from other employees (because they achieve more success). Coetzee, Bergh, and Schreuder (2010), Karsan (2011) andSmith, Caputi, andCrittenden (2012) have found that employees who experience subjective career success not only feel that they belong in their organisation but they also love their jobs. ...
    ... The minimum criteria for participation were that a participant had to be a South African employee who had been working for at least 5 years in a full-time capacity. Guided by career success literature (Ng et al., 2005), it was decided to include work experience as a minimum requirement. A sample size of 334 employees was obtained. ...
    Article
    Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the possible indirect effect of subjective career success on the relationship between work–family enrichment and job satisfaction and work–family enrichment and work engagement. Method: A cross‐sectional, quantitative research design approach was followed using a convenience sample (N = 334). Results: Results revealed that work–family enrichment was not only positively related to subjective career success, job satisfaction and work engagement, but also predictive of the mentioned constructs. Furthermore, subjective career success was found to indirectly effect the relationship between work–family enrichment and job satisfaction and work engagement. Conclusion: Using the resource‐gain‐development framework, new insights are provided into the processes and mechanisms relating to work–family enrichment. Our findings suggest that resources are creating positive affect in not only the work and career domains of employees, but also leading to more engaged and satisfied employees. (i.e., the indirect effect of subjective career success). Organisations can benefit when they enhance work environments (e.g., by providing relevant resources) to promote work–family enrichment and, by implication, subjective career success and positive work outcomes such as job satisfaction and work engagement.
  • ... 1. Oregon State University 2. Indian Institute of Management Bangalore 3. St. Gallen University 4. National Technical Institute for the Deaf -NTID Examining workplace outcomes-such as earnings (in)equality-of persons with disabilities (PWD) is important as the number of PWD is expected to grow worldwide given ageing workforces and the association between age and disability (McDaniel & Zimmer, 2016). Although educational attainment is an important predictor of earnings (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005), the literature does not give us a concrete answer as to whether or not educational attainment levels the playing field for PWD and, in particular, for women and racial minorities with disabilities (Baldridge, Beatty, Konrad, & Moore, 2015). ...
    ... Controls. We control for age, hours, managerial status, and employer type because these variables have been shown to impact earnings (Ng et al., 2005). ...
    ... What we add to this literature is the fact that educational attainment, a perceived equalizer in terms of earnings (Ng et al., 2005), does not paint a straightforward story for PWD and, in particular, for women with disabilities. Our findings suggest that although all groups benefit from greater educational attainment, the extent to which educational gains result in earnings gains is complex and that greater educational attainment cannot be assumed to level the playing field, especially for high paying jobs requiring advanced degrees. ...
  • ... However, career success in organizations is not merely a function of one's skills and abilities. Instead, supervisors play a key role in shaping the environment in which career success takes place (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005;Ng & Feldman, 2014). Thus, we predict that the nature of the relationship between perceived overqualification and intrinsic and extrinsic career success will vary across managers, and will be contingent on the job insecurity experienced by one's manager. ...
    ... Career satisfaction refers to the degree to which individuals believe that they are successful in achieving their career goals. It is regarded as the key indicator of intrinsic career success (Ng et al., 2005). Promotability ratings are important signals for future upward mobility of employees (De Pater et al., 2009;Hoobler, Wayne, & Lemmon, 2009). ...
    ... This is perhaps not surprising, given that the ICC score for career satisfaction was 2%, which suggests that only 2% of the variation in individual career satisfaction was at the manager/group level. It seems that individual career satisfaction may be primarily determined by individual-level factors such as individual personality and human capital factors (Ng et al., 2005). However, we also found a between-group interaction in the expected direction. ...
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    Full-text available
    In this study, we propose that manager job insecurity will moderate the nature of the relationship between perceived overqualification and employee career‐related outcomes (career satisfaction, promotability ratings, and voluntary turnover). We tested our hypotheses using a sample of 124 employees and 54 managers working in a large holding company in Ankara, Turkey, collected across five time periods. The results suggested that average perceived overqualification was more strongly, and negatively, related to career satisfaction of employees when managers reported higher job insecurity. Furthermore, employee perceived overqualification was positively related to voluntary turnover when manager job insecurity was high. No direct or moderated effects were found for promotability ratings. Implications for overqualification and job insecurity literatures were discussed.
  • ... However, some studies have indicated that it remains beneficial for organizations to invest in practices of career management (PCM) for their employees through a supportive approach due to the link with positive outcomes for both employees and organizations. PCM refer to programs, processes, and other forms of assistance provided by organizations to support and enhance their employees' career success (Ng, Eby, Sorensen and Feldman, 2005) such as career planning, training and skills development programs, promotion, coaching, mentoring, annual appraisal interviews, retirement preparation programs or outplacements. At an individual level, the conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 2011) and the job demand resource model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001) postulate that resources of the professional environment, such as PCM, promote the preservation and development of personal resources and the employees' psychological health. ...
    ... However, presently research is beginning to reconsider these practices because they are essential organizational resources for workers (e.g., Clarke, 2013). Studies have demonstrated that they are positively associated with workers' psychological health (De vos & al., 2009) and with objective (e.g., salary and promotion) and subjective career success (e.g., career satisfaction) (Ng et al., 2005). Practices of career management (PCM) also promote individual performance such as sales (Yahya, Othman & Meruda, 2012). ...
    ... Consequently, defining PCM is not easy. However, the most frequently used definition is that proposed by Ng et al. (2005) who specified these practices as programs, processes, and other forms of assistance provided by organizations to support and enhance their employees' career success. These authors quote practices as diverse as training and skills development programs inside and outside the organization, skills management programs, career counseling, formal mentoring and coaching programs, individualized feedback, promotion, job rotation, outplacements, international assignments and retirement preparation programs (Ng et al., 2005). ...
  • ... research; or research on expertise, aim at explaining the development of achievement in general and of high achievement in particular (for overviews, see Hambrick, Macnamara, Campitelli, Ullén, & Mosing, 2016;Sternberg, 2004;Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius, & Worrell, 2019; for meta-analyses, see e.g., Hattie, 2009;Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005;M. Schneider & Preckel, 2017). 1 People are not born as (high) achievers but eventually develop into such. ...
    ... First, general and specific cognitive abilities are important during the whole process of talent development. There is overwhelming evidence for interindividual differences in psychological variables related to achievement in general (e.g., intelligence or conscientiousness; Ng et al., 2005;Nisbett et al., 2012;Richardson, Abraham, & Bond, 2012;M. Schneider & Preckel, 2017;Strenze, 2007), as well as for high levels of achievement Lubinski, 2016). ...
    ... The choice of appropriate psychological features to serve as predictors and indicators of talent development depends on the specific domain and developmental level (see Application of the TAD Framework to Different Achievement Domains section). Psychological variables with predictive power for describing talent development at different levels include cognitive variables (e.g., intelligence, working memory, perceptual abilities, creativity), personality variables (e.g., openness and further investment traits, conscientiousness, emotional stability), motivational variables (e.g., achievement motivation, interests, values, self-concept), and psychosocial skills (e.g., resilience, empathy, receptiveness to feedback, a growth mind-set), including selfregulatory skills (e.g., coping, goal setting, self-regulated learning; for overviews, see Jarvin & Subotnik, 2010;Lipnevich et al., 2016;Ng et al., 2005;M. Schneider & Preckel, 2017;W. ...
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    Achievement in different domains, such as academics, music, or visual arts, plays a central role in all modern societies. Different psychological models aim to describe and explain achievement and its development in different domains. However, there remains a need for a framework that guides empirical research within and across different domains. With the talent-development-in-achievement-domains (TAD) framework, we provide a general talent-development framework applicable to a wide range of achievement domains. The overarching aim of this framework is to support empirical research by focusing on measurable psychological constructs and their meaning at different levels of talent development. Furthermore, the TAD framework can be used for constructing domain-specific talent-development models. With examples for the application of the TAD framework to the domains of mathematics, music, and visual arts, the review provided supports the suitability of the TAD framework for domain-specific model construction and indicates numerous research gaps and open questions that should be addressed in future research.
  • ... One significant predictor of career satisfaction is organizational support that provides career opportunities for the personal goals of its workers. (e.g., superiors' support, career sponsorships, education and training, organizational opportunities and size) (Irwin et al. 2005). When workers are satisfied with their career development programs, these workers will tend to believe that their work in the organization will increase their competence and competitiveness. ...
    ... Volume 10 Issue 2 / June 2020 nt 9 According to Irwin et al. (2005) objective and subjective criteria of career success including human resources (such as the number of hours worked, work involvement, years of work, work tenure, work experience, willingness to share, level of education, career planning, political knowledge and expertise, and social capital) and permanent individual differences (such as Big Five personal, proactive, control over locus and cognitive abilities) factors. Several studies report a positive relationship between Psychological Capital and well-being. ...
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    This study examines the relationship between Organizational Support Perceived and Psychological Capital on Subjective Welfare from employees of government organizations in Indonesia. 118 staff of the Directorate General of Taxes who participated in filling out the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Partial Least Square technique. The results showed that organizational support and work involvement were not proven to mediate the effect of organizational support on subjective well-being. Work engagement and career satisfaction are proven to mediate the influence of psychological capital. The practical implication proposed is the development of organizational capacity through psychological capital as the most dominant variable.
  • ... Employees who have proactive personalities will significantly increase job satisfaction. This is similar to previous research which states that a proactive personality can positively influence job satisfaction [39][40][41]. Employees who have proactive personalities will not wait for information and opportunities passively, but they will naturally determine the decision to find the best solution in carrying out the task [42,43]. In addition, employees who have proactive personalities are more likely to take advantage of opportunities to exceed expected work expectations [41]. ...
    ... Employees who have proactive personalities will not wait for information and opportunities passively, but they will naturally determine the decision to find the best solution in carrying out the task [42,43]. In addition, employees who have proactive personalities are more likely to take advantage of opportunities to exceed expected work expectations [41]. ...
  • ... Additionally, we explore the interactions between neuroticism, conscientiousness, and extroversion, and find that these relationships lead to positive initial sales performance and performance growth outcomes. These three traits were selected for examination as they are generally perceived as most relevant to career outcomes (Judge et al., 1999), and are most commonly characterized as "positive" (extroversion, conscientiousness) and "negative" (neuroticism) in the literature (for metaanalyses, see Kotov, Gamez, Schmidt, & Watson, 2010;Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005). Indeed, we show that the interaction of these three traits result in performance trajectories that exceed those predicted by either variable alone, or any other interactive (i.e., twoway) combination, thus, demonstrating the importance of neuroticism as a positive predictor of sales performance. ...
    ... While the Big 5 traits (Goldberg, 1990) provide arguably the most popular framework for studying the effect of personality on job performance (i.e., Barrick & Mount, 1991;Vinchur, Schippmann, Switzer, & Roth, 1998), there are many examples of research that go beyond these focal traits (Goldberg & Saucier, 1998;Mowen, 2000), or that focus on a subset of these traits (i.e., Bendersky & Shah, 2013;Le et al., 2011). Given the context under examination, we restrict our analysis to Big 5 traits generally perceived as positive (conscientiousness and extroversion) and negative (neuroticism; for meta-analyses, see Kotov et al., 2010;Ng et al., 2005), and which are also perceived as most relevant to career outcomes (Judge et al., 1999), in hopes of gaining a more complete understanding of the interactive effects of these traits on not only static sales performance, but sales performance growth, as well. ...
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    While often characterized as a negative personality trait in the academic literature, we contend that neuroticism, under certain conditions, can spur employee success in the workplace. Utilizing longitudinal growth modeling (LGM) analysis with a sample of 114 direct-to-consumer salespeople, we show that neurotics demonstrate positive initial job performance, but that their performance attenuates over time. Additionally, we demonstrate positive synergies between neuroticism and the traditionally desirable traits of conscientiousness and ex-troversion on initial performance and performance growth. Specifically, we demonstrate that individuals who are conscientious and extroverted perform better when they are also neurotic. In so doing, we contribute to the literature by demonstrating the time varying effects of personality on job performance as well as the importance of evaluating the synergies between different personality traits.
  • ... First, to strengthen the robustness of our findings, subordinates' gender, age, education and job tenure were used as controlled variables in our research since previous research showed that these demographic characteristics influenced the subordinates' perceptions of leader behavior (Gu et al. 2013;Li et al. 2010) and their career satisfaction (Ng et al. 2005;Seibert et al. 2001). Second, leader-member exchange relationship reflects differentiated the relationship quality of leader-subordinate. ...
    ... First, by identifying that spiritual leadership promoted subordinate career satisfaction, our research further enriched existing knowledge about the antecedents of career satisfaction. According to a meta-analysis review, stable individual difference, sociodemographic status, human capital, as well as organizational sponsorship facilitate the emergence of career satisfaction (i,e., Ng et al. 2005). From the perspective of leadership, our research found that spiritual leadership acted as a supportive supervisor to enhance subordinate career satisfaction. ...
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    Based on self-determination theory, our research investigated the relationship between spiritual leadership and career satisfaction, and explored the roles of basic need satisfaction and power distance orientation in this relationship. Our research used a Chinese sample collected from 260 participants to verify the proposed theoretical model. The findings suggested that spiritual leadership had a positive relationship with career satisfaction, and basic need satisfaction played a mediator in this positive relationship. In addition, the indirect effect of spiritual leadership on career satisfaction through basic need satisfaction relied on subordinate power distance orientation, such that the indirect effect was stronger when power distance orientation was low than when it was high. Our research further provided several theoretical and practical implications for future research.
  • ... In a meta-analysis study, four predictors related the measured subjective success to career satisfaction and the measured objective success to salary level and promotion. It was found that two of the predictors-the human capital and the sociodemographic predictors-were more strongly related to objective success than the other two, organizational sponsorship and stable individual differences, which were more related to subjective success [26]. ...
    ... In another study among 177 employees, both personality and context were found to significantly associate with employees' attitudes towards a large-scale organizational change. These attitudes were, in turn, significantly associated with employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention to leave the organization [26]. ...
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    The purpose of this article is to simplify and facilitate the bottom-up sustainable development of a local society where the dominant element is the residents' vision. Thus, the primary questions that we investigate here refer to the fundamental components and the derived difficulties that influence the behavior change attitudes. Following a literature review and discourse analysis, the components participating in the intervention system emerge by issuing suitable surveys, which are quantified by using conventional statistical methodology. The estimated desire for change was continuously monitored to dynamically exclude the cognitive bias in the nine-step change process. Coming from the business management area, a structural formulation analysis simplified and remodeled the equation of change used and revealed the factors to interpret the outputs. A pilot case study is presented followed by an extensive discussion of the results. The proposed methodology provides a powerful cognitive tool and may be further utilized and developed. In a local community, a strict distinction should be made between the trend to envision a change and the implementation of a real one. The results foster the discussion of a novel governance paradigm transition towards a transversal approach.
  • ... To better understand the role study abroad plays in the production and reproduction of social inequalities, international student mobility should be examined in terms of inequity in opportunities as well as in terms of the possible outcomes (Bilecen & van Mol, 2017 The disparities in study abroad opportunities present challenges when measuring the effect of study abroad on students' educational and career outcomes. The factors impacting students' probability to study abroad are generally also related to graduate school enrollment (Zhang, 2005) and career outcomes (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005). Without correcting for the confounding factors in the research design, the supposed "effect" of study abroad might very well be due to the types of students who are more likely to go abroad (Caliendo & Kopeinig, 2008). ...
    ... As discussed in the previous section, study abroad is only available to a select group of students in the U.S and less accessible to students of socially and financially disadvantaged backgrounds. This is especially problematic as the factors predicting study abroad participation are predictors of measures of career success such as income (Ng et al., 2005). The fact that predictors of study abroad are also known to be impacting career success means that study abroad is an example of an educational opportunity through which social status can be produced or reproduced (Bilecen & van Mol, 2017). ...
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    Study abroad is one of the main ways in which higher education institutions provide students with the opportunity to gain international experiences. While study abroad is mostly discussed in terms of the beneficial effects on students’ learning and development, the results in this dissertation indicate that study abroad works for some but disadvantages other students. Based on nationally representative U.S. data, I examined 1) disparities in students’ opportunities to study abroad as well as the effect of study abroad on the socioeconomic outcomes 2) early career income and 3) graduate school enrollment. The combined studies in this dissertation provided insight into how study abroad may contribute to the reproduction of social inequality. The first study indicated disparities in students’ opportunities to study abroad. Specifically, first generation, low-income students, students of color and rural students tend to study abroad less often than their peers. In the second study, I found that participation in study abroad did not result in a higher income within the four years after students graduated from their undergraduate degree. This suggests that there is no immediate effect of studying abroad on social mobility in terms of early career income. However, the third study showed that students who studied abroad were slightly more likely to enroll in graduate school. This may mean that studying abroad likely does have an indirect effect on income but only at later career stages. My studies indicate that studying abroad does not reproduce social inequality directly in terms of early career income but that it may do so indirectly through increased graduate school attendance. Based on the results of the three studies, I provide key recommendations for future research on study abroad. Moreover, I suggest ideas on how higher education institutions and their international offices can develop policies that address disparities in study abroad opportunities. In doing so, higher education can work towards a more equitable system in which all students have the opportunity to gain international and intercultural experiences that help them and those around them flourish.
  • ... Such variables capture individuals' subjective judgments about their career attainments, such as job and career satisfaction (Burke, 2001;Judge, Higgins, Thoresen, & Barrick, 1999). The main construct used most often to measure subjective career success is still simply career satisfaction (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005). The nature of career success can be influenced by the country's unique contexts (Pringle & Mallon, 2003). ...
    ... In accordance with meta-analytical findings (Abele, & Spurk, 2009;Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005), it is reasonable to assume a positive correlation between the objective and subjective career success (Judge, Cable, Boudreau, & Bretz, 1995). Although the objective and subjective career success can be positively correlated, these constructs are empirically distinct; in particular, career satisfaction may not be predicted only by salary or promotions. ...
  • ... The human (Becker, 1993) and social (Seibert, Kraimer, & Liden, 2001) capital theories of success explain how accumulation of professional knowledge, skills, and experience (i.e., human capital), on the one hand, and information, resources, and sponsorship embedded in one's social network (i.e., social capital), on the other hand, lead to higher earnings. Meta-analytical evidence suggests that social and human capital are significant predictors of an individual's salary (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005;Ng & Feldman, 2014;Wolff & Moser, 2009). As explained above, having PBE implies having high social and human capital, that are important for salary progression. ...
    ... Third, this paper contributes to the literature on career outcomes (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005;Wang & Wanberg, 2017) by showing that in three different samples of students and employees, PBE was positively related to subjective ratings of job and career success (subjective career success, perceived employability, and self-rated job performance). Thus, in line with the prior research on personal branding (Gorbatov et al., 2019;Pagis & Ailon, 2017;Vallas & Cummins, 2015), individuals may influence their subjective evaluations of their career success, employability, and performance through their PBE. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Crafting a personal brand has become an important factor for career success. Despite the growing literature on topics associated with personal brands, the conceptualization and measurement of personal brand equity (PBE) have received little attention. By drawing upon and integrating the marketing and careers literatures on branding, we reconceptualized the definition of PBE and delineated its dimensions and conceptual boundaries. Furthermore, we developed a 12‐item scale to measure PBE. Among seven different samples (total N = 3,273), including two samples of employees, this study tested the construct and criterion‐related validity of the PBE scale. First, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a three‐dimensional structure of PBE (brand appeal, brand differentiation, and brand recognition). In two samples, the convergent and discriminant validity of the PBE scale was established. Finally, this study showed that PBE predicts perceived employability, career success, and job performance. The PBE scale offers new opportunities to understand and measure career behaviors by considering individuals’ personal brand positioning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
  • ... Consequently, employees have to develop their own idiosyncratic views of what constitutes a successful career. This resonates strongly with the newer conceptualisations of subjective career success, which implies a subjective judgement or evaluation by the individual (Abele & Spurk, 2009;Dries, Pepermans, & De Kerpel, 2008;Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005). Heslin (2005) argues that despite the extensive literature available and focal change in objective towards more subjective facets, career success has been defined too narrowly in the past. ...
    ... However, recent conceptualisations moved towards distinguishing between objective and subjective career success. Objective career success is judged by external people based on visible criteria such as job level, income, status, salary and occupation (Ng et al., 2005). Subjective career success is based on the internal components that involve individual employees' personal inner interpretations, perspectives and evaluations of their career achievements (Arthur, Khapova, & Wilderom, 2005). ...
    Article
    ORIENTATION: Currently, the workplace consists of four different generations of employees, of which the youngest, Generation Y (Gen Y), will become more prevalent in the next few years. Therefore, attracting and retaining employees of this generation are essential for organisations RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate how Gen Y IT employees experience career success by using the Kaleidoscope Career Model (KCM) as an interpretive lens MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Generation Y remains an understudied cohort with regard to perceptions of career success. Motivated by the potential value of constructing contexts, which promote career success among Gen Y, the KCM was used as a framework for exploring meanings associated with career success among this cohort. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive voluntary sample of 24 Gen Y IT employees. Data were analysed in a two-step process by, firstly, identifying elements associated with the central parameters of the KCM and, secondly, collating these to identify various sub-dimensions of each parameter, to identify associated meanings for subjective career success. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings describe more richly the needs for authenticity (i.e. making a difference or work as an enabler of lifestyle), balance (within time and over time) and challenge (i.e. career success implies growth/turning problems into opportunities or goal attainment as signifier of success) as means to experience career success, specifically expanding the description of balance, where employees try to maintain a work-life balance not only within but also over time (synchronic vs. diachronic balance PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings have value for management and human resource practitioners with regard to the implementation of employment practices that will enhance perceptions of career success among Gen Y IT employees and the development of a supportive culture which underpin the latter. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study adds to our knowledge of Gen Y's perceptions of career success with particular emphasis on authenticity, balance and challenge. It furthermore contributes to career success literature by adding a career development lens to the latter.
  • ... Despite the relatively intuitive link between working hard and achievements at work (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005), results from empirical studies tend to characterize workaholics as workers who are able to do a lot of work (i.e., "hard workers"), but not generally good work (i.e., "smart workers"; e.g., Spence & Robbins, 1992). Thus, despite some suggestions that workaholism may have positive organizational consequences (see Baruch, 2011;Ng etal., 2007), the link between workaholism and job performance is not obvious (see Clark, Michel, Zhdanova, Pui, & Baltes, 2016). ...
    Article
    Despite the relatively intuitive link between working hard and achievements at work, results from empirical studies tend to characterize workaholics more often as hard workers rather than smart workers. Indeed, the link between workaholism and job performance is not obvious. In this paper, we investigated the link between workaholism and a core component of contextual performance, namely, prosocial organizational citizenship behavior (P-OCB). More in detail, we posited a mediational model in which workaholic tendencies negatively predicted P-OCB indirectly through an increased perception of job demands. This model was tested using longitudinal data from a sample of 85 police officers assessed once every two weeks for three months. Results from multilevel structural equation analyses demonstrated the model's good fit and corroborated the mediated effect. All in all, our results point to an organizational cost of workaholism, represented by its aversive impact on P-OCB.
  • ... Career satisfaction is a more enduring attitude than job satisfaction and it includes reactions to the work itself and to anticipated benefits for one's career beyond the current job (Heslin, 2005). Career satisfaction is the sense that one is doing well in one's career (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005). Employees with higher career satisfaction are more likely to remain at organisations where they are employed (Joo & Park, 2010) and to experience a sense of purpose and work-life balance (Heslin, 2005). ...
    Article
    This paper examined the innovation process in the Australian Public Service (APS) using a Bayesian network (BN) founded on an empirically derived structural equation model. The focus of the BN was to examine the impact of leadership style and organisational culture on workplace innovation and career satisfaction in the APS. Using scenario analysis, the best combination of managerial actions for enhancing APS career satisfaction was determined. The results emphasise the benefit of encouraging management to adopt a transformational leadership style and instilling innovative culture in their organisation. In addition, innovative culture was a key driver of workplace innovation, which served to improve the career satisfaction of APS employees. Implications are discussed to propose practical strategies for organisations wish to encourage innovation among employees.
  • ... There is strong empirical support for the effects of career planning on job search and employment outcomes (e.g., Gould, 1979;Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005;Saks & Ashforth, 2002;Zikic & Klehe, 2006). Career planning involves translating the professional future and outcomes that individuals envision into specific career-related goals. ...
  • ... Second, transformational leadership acknowledges and is sensitive to followers' need to grow and develop themselves, so "supervisory career mentoring may be stronger when transformational leadership behaviors are present" [40]. Career mentoring, especially instrumental support, is helpful to employees' objective career success (i.e., salary and promotion [41]). Thus, employees will have a positive belief that there are opportunities for promotion ahead of them in the organization. ...
  • ... Previous researches showed that there were lots of causal factors of career success, such as personality, career behaviors, human capital [88]. However, few studies pay attention to the effect of those factors on life success such as subjective well-being [89]. ...
  • ... The literature on leadership supports these self-rated findings. Conscientious and Competitive people strive for leadership positions, their preferences and talents are recognised, and they tend to succeed in leadership roles (Hermans, 2007;Ng et al., 2005). ...
  • ... Vanhercke and colleagues [13] highlight five important aspects in this definition. The fact that it is a subjective assessment, therefore, similar individuals may have different perceptions of their employability; employability concerns employment "possibilities", considering both personal and work-related factors and organization, support in career development and society [4,[38][39][40][41][42]; employability is relevant for students [3,43], employed individuals [4,36] and unemployed individuals [44,45], as it is important for exploring the work market, finding employment and managing transitions [46]; perceived employability refers to "employment" opportunities; the focus concerns both the quantity and quality of jobs, meaning the number of available opportunities and the type of work. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The recent transformation of the workplaces and labor market, characterized by rapid technological changes, social and economic instability, has greatly influenced the construction of people’s career paths. These paths cannot be viewed more as linear, but multifaceted and unstable. In organizational context, the psychological contract has changed from long term to short term. In this scenario, the construct of employability becomes central: people need to maintain and improve their ability to be attractive to the labor market to get or keep a job. The study presents the adaptation of the Self-Perceived Employability Scale to the Italian context. The participants are 660 Italian workers. The instruments used to verify the concurrent validity of the scale were the Employability Scale, the Flourishing Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Organizational Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale. Results showed good psychometric properties of the Italian version in terms of internal consistency, construct and concurrent validity, with significant correlations with all the other measures. The CFA highlights some dissimilarity in the scale’s structure compared to the UK version, probably due to cultural differences among the samples.
  • ... For example, papers on career success (e.g. Ng et al. 2005;Spurk et al. 2019) tend to explore Western constructs, ignoring, for example, the role of face in shaping career success. This is a valuable development that could teach researchers a great deal about the validity and generalizability of the theories and models that are commonly applied in the related scholarly work (Akkermans and Kubasch 2017); however, there are limitations. ...
    Article
    Career studies attract significant attention, but most of the theories and concepts were developed and tested in Western contexts. Based on a systematic review and analysis of 95 articles published in the field of careers that focus on China in the period between 1991 and 2017, this paper identifies emerging trends and outlines a profile of the current development of careers research in the Chinese context. Using a time and space analytical framework, the review evaluates the theoretical and empirical career lenses embedded in the unique Chinese cultural, institutional and organizational contexts and confirms that research on Chinese careers is significantly underdeveloped. Through a theoretical lens of Confucianism, we propose a need to consider context‐specific factors, in particular time and space, when conducting Chinese careers research, and present implications for future research on careers in China.
  • ... It is one of the important factors leading to success in the organization. In one study by (Ng, 2005), it was classified that the predictors of career success are organizational sponsorship (support from supervisor, learning and growth opportunities and organization size), human assets, steady individual differences and socio demographic variables. It is also obvious that satisfied employees show a positive attitude towards the organization, while dissatisfied shows opposite. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Employee engagement and retention is a promising area in management as well as psychology. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of employee engagement (EE) on their retention (ER). We proposed a theoretical framework model explaining how employee engagement affects their retention. The original model linked engagement with control at work (CAW) and general well-being (GWB) through psychological capital (PsyCap). We extended this model by linking CAW and GWB to employee retention. We further added job satisfaction (JS) as a mediator between EE and ER. To establish its empirical validity, we conducted a survey from 200 employees working in different companies in Pakistan by using a close ended likert scale type questionnaire. Data was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings suggested a positive significant relationship between EE and ER. PsyCap, CAW and JS play a significant mediator role for EE and ER, only GWB does not mediates the relationship between EE and ER. This research will help in understanding how to retain employees and mounting their psychological capital through training and development, since when employees will be happy and motivated, they can perform well and will have job satisfaction. As a result, the level of intention of employees to leave would be low. This study is preliminary the first to investigate the association between EE and ER through many other constructs (PsyCap, CAW, GWB and JS) in the Pakistani context.
  • ... Career planning process takes place on an individual and organizational dimension [13]. Ng et al. stated that individuals' success in their careers contributed to the organizational success, gathered the elements that affect career success in four categories: human capital, organizational support, sociodemographic elements of the individual and constant personality characteristics [14]. If the career plans that determined by the organization match with the employees' own plans, the level of commitment and satisfaction in the organization increases and the search for alternative jobs decreases [15]. ...
    Article
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    p> This study investigated the effect of career planning of the students in the Ağrı Ibrahim Çeçen University department of sports management and the coaching education department on entrepreneurial tendencies. The research group consisted of 161 students who studying in Ağrı Ibrahim Çeçen University Sports Management and Coaching Department. In the study, "Personal Career Planning Scale", which was developed by a researcher "Entrepreneurial Tendency Scale", which was developed by another researcher and "Personal Information Form", which was prepared by the researcher was used as a data collection tool. Spearman Correlation (r) coefficient technique was used to reveal the relationship between the career planning sub-dimensions and the entrepreneurial tendencies of the students. The effect between dependent and independent variables of the study was tested by regression analysis. In the correlation analysis performed at the end of the study, it was found that there was a positive relationship between all sub-dimensions of career planning scale and there was a positive and moderate relationship between the career planning and sub-dimensions and entrepreneurial tendencies. As a result of the regression analysis, the sub-dimension of defining opportunities and planning sub-dimension from the career planning has significantly affected the entrepreneurship and it explains 41% of the changes in entrepreneurship. It is possible to say that the participants who have the opportunities and have a plan are more entrepreneurs. </p
  • ... From the supervisors' perspective, this lack of quality LMX relationship could undermine their provision of feedback to minority new hires, derail employee development, and result in reduced performance. By contrast, in comparison with minorities, Whites tend to have better access to developmental networks and higher-quality mentoring (Dumas et al., 2013;Ibarra, 1995;Thomas, 1990Thomas, , 2001Thomas et al., 2005) and resources that relate to improved work performance and career success (Allen, Eby, Poteet, Lentz, & Lima, 2004;Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005;Whitaker et al., 2007). Surprisingly, despite our LMX conveyance model being more predictive for minority newcomers, it did not translate into correspondingly stronger relationship between later SLMX and job performance among minority new personnel. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The present study explored whether the leader–member exchange (LMX) transmission process from new hires to their supervisors varies by new hires' race/ethnicity on the basis of LMX, racial stereotyping literature and role theory. Data were collected from 336 new hires and their supervisors over their first 4 months of working for a financial services firm. We hypothesized that role clarity would mediate the linkage between new hires' early LMX and supervisors' later SLMX. We further posited a moderated mediation effect such that the indirect effect of newcomers' early LMX on supervisors' later SLMX through role clarity would be stronger among minority than among White new hires. Study results were largely supportive of our hypotheses. The hypothesized mediated pathway extended to job performance, indicating that early high‐quality relationship was associated with enhanced job performance as rated 4 months later. The research and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Practitioner points • Our work demonstrates that the LMX conveyance process has greater influence on minority than White newcomers. Hence, managers should invest early in developing rapport with their new hires, especially minority newcomers. • Our findings suggest that organizations need to foster a positive climate to help newcomers feel comfortable seeking role clarity. • Diversity training for managers can bring unconscious biases to the fore. Accordingly, minority and White newcomers receive equal opportunity to adjust to and thrive in their new work roles.
  • ... Career planning is one dimension of an individual career that has a significant influence on employee career satisfaction [22]. An employee must develop a career plan. ...
  • ... According to Lumpkin and Dess (2001), proactivity is a fundamental skill in the process of wealth creation and, therefore, a key aspect in the intention to become an entrepreneur. This proactivity is closely related to entrepreneurship and can be defined as one of the basic characteristics of the entrepreneur (Bakker & Demerouti, 2014;Frese & Gielnik, 2014;Kickul & Gundry, 2002), of the intention to start a business (Crant, 1996), and of professional success (Erdogan & Bauer, 2005;Fuller & Marler, 2009;Ng et al., 2005;Uy et al., 2015). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The promotion of academic entrepreneurship through the creation of university spin-offs (USOs) as a transfer system has been enhanced during the last two decades. This commitment of universities and public policy makers has been based mainly on the use of investments of public funds in universities and the capacity for such investments to create employment and economic growth. In this sense, entrepreneurial skills are one of the strongest determinants of intention. For this reason, the present study proposes the use of the paradigm known as Big Five, which proposes as personality variables those recognized by the acronym OCEAN (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) to recognize if they are determinants of entrepreneurial skills and entrepreneurial intent, all through the application of Theory Planed Behavior (TPB). To study the influence of entrepreneurial skills, a self-administrated questionnaire was sent to more than 33,000 Spanish academics. The responses yielded a sample size of 799. The results show that entrepreneurial skills are the prime determinants of attitude and perceived control, and attitude is the decisive factor that determines the intention to go into business. Therefore, investment in training and the cultivation of skills and attitudes constitute the most relevant factors for achieving an increase in the creation of USOs.
  • ... Menurut Tohardi (2002) faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kesuksesan karir yaitu pengalaman, pendidikan, dan prestasi. Sedangkan menurut Ng et al. (2005) kesuksesan karir dipengaruhi oleh status sosial-dempografis, modal manusia, perbedaan individu stabil, dan sponsor organisasi. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The research aims to determine and explain the effect of Innovative Behavior on Career Success through Employee Self-Efficacy of PT Bank Pembangunan Daerah Jawa Timur Tbk Head Office of Surabaya. This is a causal research with quantitative approach. The sample collecting technique is using purposive sampling with 89 respondent from all divisions in the company. The statistical analysis used is Partial Least Square (PLS) with the support of smartPLS software. The results of this research show that Innovative Behavior has positive and significant effect on Career Success. Innovative Behavior has positive and significant effect on Self-Efficacy. Self-Efficacy has positive and significant effect on Career Success. Self-efficacy not mediate the influence of innovative behavior on career success.
  • ... Respondent gender was coded "1" for males and "0" for females. Sociodemographic variables generally display relationships with career success and growth (Cox & Harquail, 1991;Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005). Respondent employment level was based on the categories: Senior management, middle management, lower management, and administration. ...
    Article
    Local employees have different perceptions of the career opportunities they can derive from firms’ internationalization when compared to the senior managers who manage this process. We argue that perceptions of internationalization-related career advancement opportunities represent a perceived fit between employees and organizations. We examine this fit within a sample of 845 local employees from eleven Latin American countries. Our findings suggest that the degree of firm internationalization is negatively related to local employees’ anticipated career advancement opportunities. This relationship is positively moderated by perceived firm international competitiveness, but not by the extent to which the employee has a global mindset. These results suggest that local employees may feel threatened by their firms’ internationalization, as they perceive they may systematically be exposed to outside competition. This threat is attenuated by their firms' capabilities but not by individual characteristics such as an employee's global mindset, suggesting that firm characteristics are more influential in predicting local employees’ reactions to internationalization.
  • Article
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the roles of one’s original family and current family in influencing his or her entering entrepreneurial endeavors. Specifically, individuals’ original family is also crucial for entrepreneurship, which has been neglected by prior studies to a large extent. Moreover, the authors argue that a good marital relationship between two parents within the original family could facilitate an entrepreneurial spirit by providing better family support, whereas a good relationship with one’s life partner or spouse within their current family could also increase the likelihood of entrepreneurial activities through reducing work stress. Design/methodology/approach The authors use two archival data sets: National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and 2013 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Adult Population Survey to test whether a harmonious relationship between two parents or with life partner/spouse could encourage individuals to become an entrepreneur and whether family support and work conflict mediate such a relationship. Findings This study found that parents’ relationship in one’s adolescence provides individuals with more support, which leads to more entrepreneurial endeavors, whereas the conflicts between two parents will reduce their likelihood of initiating entrepreneurial activities. Besides, a good relationship with one’s life partner/spouse can release his/her work stress, which is also important for entrepreneurship development. Originality/value Different from the extant related research that focuses more on on-site predictors of entrepreneurship, the current study proposes factors from other life domains, including those in one’s adolescence, that can also influence and change individuals’ choice of entrepreneurial activities throughout their entire life. Harmonious family relationships (i.e. fewer family conflicts) are important for one to start a business, and family conflicts can reduce the likelihood of choosing entrepreneurship as the main occupation.
  • Article
    Purpose Drawing on the social influence literature and proposing parental intervention as a social influence process, this study seeks to theorize why parental intervention occurs and how it affects young adults' career development. Design/methodology/approach This paper adopts a conceptual design, offering a conceptual model based on social influence research and career development research. Findings It is proposed that parental intervention is a result of incongruence between parental expectations and young adults' interested occupations and between parents' assessments of young adults' qualities and job demands. Parents' traditionality moderates these relationships, while the success of parental intervention depends on young adults' traditionality and career maturity. Parents' position, referent and expert powers affect young adults' compliance, identification and internalization, respectively, which impact their occupational commitment and career satisfaction. Research limitations/implications Looking at parental intervention over time would help researchers understand this phenomenon more comprehensively than focusing only on its short-term effects as identified in the literature. The motivational processes of parental intervention triggered by power bases play a key role in determining young adults' long-term career consequences. Practical implications Career advisors should consider parents as a source of potential intervention in young adults' career choice. They may also provide parent-oriented services in addition to young adult-oriented services. Originality/value This framework contributes to the career development literature by adopting social influence approach to explain parental intervention in young adults' career choice and also providing implications for career counselors.
  • Article
    Career paths are formed over time from interactions between individuals, organizations, and labor markets within and across geographic locations. What are the prototypical career paths thus formed? Who are the likely incumbents of these career paths? What are the consequences of pursuing these career paths? This study combines micro-level perspectives on personal agency and macro-level institutional factors to explain how careers unfold over time and space. The juxtaposition of micro- and macro-level factors contributes to career research and practice, which have traditionally examined careers as movements across organizations and occupations over time, but almost exclusively within specific geographic locations. We make a significant contribution to theory and practice by analyzing sequences of jobs and residence locations for 2836 individuals drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. The analyses reveal eight prototypical career paths, some commonly found across geographic locations and others idiosyncratic to specific geographic locations. The profiles of the career path incumbents vary regarding gender, ethnicity, and education attainment. We find that the objective career success associated with prototypical career paths is more a function of human capital accumulation and career choices than geographic locations. We close by discussing our findings’ implications for career research and practice.
  • Article
    Purpose This study aims to contribute to subjective career success (SCS) literature using sequential mediation modeling to interrogate the inter-relationships between dimensions of SCS, including interpersonal success, financial success, job success and hierarchical success. In doing so, the research provides a nuanced understanding of career behavior among young adults using the perspective of a non-western developing context. Design/methodology/approach The study is operationalized using 342 survey questionnaires from Malaysian young working adults (18-34 years). Partial least square structural equation modeling is used as the main analytic tool. Findings The results of the study revealed that dimensions of SCS were related in a sequential mediating manner. Specifically, an individual’s interpersonal success is the foundation for one to accomplish job tasks (job success), which then leads to increased prospects for promotion (hierarchical success) and subsequently financial success. Practical implications These findings highlight the importance of interpersonal success as a foundation of career success and provide evidence for the study recommendation to support young working adults in building interpersonal relationships, which will help realize other forms of career success. However, the establishment of a sequential mediation pathway suggests that developing relationships alone are not sufficient. Study roles and tasks must also be designed to align with individuals’ personal goals for advancement and success. Originality/value The research contributes to knowledge on understanding career behavior specifically relating to the dynamics and complexities of SCS. The study sheds light on the potential limitation of operationalizing SCS as a multi-dimensional aggregate construct and provides empirical support for the proposed sequential mediation model of SCS.
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    Students’ academic achievement is a key predictor of various life outcomes. The two most prominent measures of academic achievement are grades and standardized test scores. Both measures are commonly used during selection processes as well as for educational monitoring and accountability. Research has suggested that grades and test scores are strongly related to students’ characteristics (e.g., cognitive abilities) but might differentially reflect personality. In order to better explain differential personality-achievement associations, it is important to move beyond the dichotomy of grades versus test scores. To this end, we propose the personality-achievement saturation hypothesis (PASH), which suggests that associations between personality and achievement vary, depending on four main features of the achievement measure used: level of standardization, relevance for the student, curricular validity, and instructional sensitivity. The PASH suggests that conscientiousness should typically be more strongly associated with grade point average, followed by course grades and final examination grades, whereas openness should be more strongly associated with test scores. We used data from three large-scale studies (total N = 14,953) and aggregated our findings. In line with the PASH, conscientiousness was most strongly related to grades, which have lower standardization, moderate to high relevance, high curricular-validity, and high instructional sensitivity, whereas it had substantially weaker associations with more highly standardized, less curriculum-valid, and less instructionally sensitive measures. In addition, openness was most strongly related to highly standardized, less relevant, less curriculum-valid, and less instructionally sensitive measures in English. Implications for the ways in which achievement measures can be used are discussed.
  • Article
    The purpose of this study was to determine the functional potential of various types of personal meaning of the profession. The article describes the results of an empirical study that involved a sample of 647 subjects. As methods of mathematical-statistical processing were used: the Pearson correlation criterion, one-way analysis of variance, followed by post hoc comparison of the mean values of groups by the Scheffe method, the criterion GT-Vegeliusa. The analysis made it possible to identify the optimal, suboptimal and pessimistic personal meaning of the profession from the point of view of its regulatory functions.
  • Article
    Purpose The purpose of this study is to test the moderating role of career-enhancing strategies (CESs) in the relationship between career commitment (CC) and subjective career success (CS). Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 217 full-time employees working for three different sectors in Ankara, Turkey. The participants were asked to respond to a self-reported survey. The hypotheses were tested using a hierarchical regression analysis. Findings The results indicated that CC had a significant and positive effect on subjective CS. Furthermore, the positive relationship between CC and subjective CS was stronger for employees with a high level of self-nomination and for employees with a high level of networking. However, creating career opportunities did not moderate the effects of CC on subjective CS. Research limitations/implications Because this study had a cross-sectional research design, causality cannot be established among the study variables. Practical implications The findings suggest a better understanding of the way CC is able to affect subjective CS through the networking and self-nomination CESs. Originality/value This study is original, in that no previous studies have investigated the moderating role of CESs in the relationship between CC and subjective CS.
  • Article
    The tremendous changes occurring in the work environment encourage new studies to update our knowledge about what determines ones’ career growth within and across organizations. Seven papers from a pool of submissions are presented in this special issue. We summarize how the seven papers included in this special issue contribute to our understanding beyond previous research and identify directions for future research. As a result of this special issue, we urge researchers to (a) identify other determinants of career growth, (b) enrich the theoretical framework connecting career growth with individuals’ attitudes and behaviors, (c) distinguish the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic career growth, (d) incorporate work context and career stage in future research, and (e) further explore the benefits of organizations’ investment on employees’ career growth in the new career era.
  • Article
    Purpose In 1979, Rosemary Pledger became the first female President of the Academy of Management (AOM). AOM, through scholarship and teaching about management and organizations, is well known for its contributions to the development of modern management theory. The purpose of this paper is to understand and analyze the human and social influencers which enabled Pledger’s career success. She climbed to the top of her profession and became a role model for other professional women, especially in the academic field; she successfully cracked the glass ceiling. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a qualitative methodology as most appropriate to examine the research question of how Pledger used human and social skills to overcome barriers to career success. In addition to her biographical data, the authors analyzed 1,593 pages of documents from the AOM Archives at the Khell Center, Martin P. Catherwood Library, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Findings Pledger succeeded because she developed strong human and social capital critical for career success and career mobility. Becoming part of the top management team in three organizations – the AOM, the Southwestern AOM and the University of Houston – Clear Lake City is evidence of her skill in using her capital to crack the glass ceiling. Research limitations/implications The limitation of author interpretation of secondary data is recognized. Practical implications This work illustrates the appropriateness of qualitative research, specifically, in placing important management figures in context, and it makes clear how human and social capital factors are critical to career success for women. Originality/value AOM’s contribution to the development of modern management theory is widely recognized; however, there is a lack of studies related to the career successes of AOM’s female leaders. This paper chronicles the career life of Rosemary Pledger who became the first female president of the AOM and a successful Dean and examines the factors that contributed to her career success despite the presence of a glass ceiling.
  • Article
    In this research, we evaluate the moderating role of personality on enjoyment and attention associated with a gamified data collection instrument, and the attractiveness of a surveying organization. In an online experiment, we compare a gamified survey with a traditional survey. The results suggest that gamified surveys are more enjoyable and users are more attentive when filling out gamified surveys. Specific personality traits moderate the effect of attention and enjoyment related to gamification, and the enjoyment associated with gamification increases the attractiveness of a surveying organization. These findings have theoretical and practical implications to improve the design of existing online surveys.
  • Purpose This study aims examine the impact of authentic leadership on the career satisfaction of hospitality employees through the lens of thriving. The two components of thriving, that is, learning and vitality, are tested as mediators, and psychological contract fulfillment is tested as a boundary factor. Design/methodology/approach Data are collected using an online survey through the Qualtrics panel service in the USA. Structural equation modeling and an invariance test are conducted to investigate the framework. Findings The findings show that authentic leadership can determine career satisfaction through the influence of learning and vitality. Moreover, psychological contract fulfillment exerts a conditional effect on this mediation. Practical implications The findings of this study extend the understanding on authentic leadership and its impact under specific conditions. This study offers several meaningful recommendations to hospitality managers on how to influence employees’ career success to maintain sustainable performance. Detailed approaches include establishing practices for regular and authentic leadership development, increasing attention on employee thriving states and addressing employee psychological contracts. Originality/value This study enriches research on authentic leadership and career management in the hospitality industry. Moreover, this study provides meaningful insights by examining the relationships between authentic leadership, thriving, career satisfaction and psychological contracts.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Today, competency development, career satisfaction, job performance and perceived employability concepts are among the important concepts in organizational behavior literature. Knowing these concepts and the relationships between these concepts guides managers and employees at all levels of the business in matters related to how organizational and individual development should be. It is important to examine the relationship between these concepts and as a result of the review in the literature, it was found that no study was conducted to investigate the mediation effect in the relations between these concepts. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of competence development on career satisfaction and job performance, and whether the perceived employability of individuals evaluated as mediators in this relationship may be mediated. Data were collected from 178 lecturers and civil servants working in 9 universities, 6 of which were state and 3 were foundations. In this study, sampling and questionnaire methods were used. R programming language were used for the analysis of the data collected at the end of the questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the scales were tested by factor analysis and reliability test. The hypotheses were examined by correlation and regression analysis and Sobel tests and the findings obtained at the end of the study were interpreted. At the end of the study, it has been found that competency development is important in increasing job performance, but it is not effective in increasing career satisfaction. In addition, it was concluded that self-perceived employability had no mediation role in the relationship between competency development and career satisfaction, and that there was a partial mediation role in the relationship between competence development and job performance.
  • Article
    Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between five-factor personality traits and workplace spirituality. Design/methodology/approach The research design of the study is prediction design, one of the quantitative research designs. The participants included 408 people working in a public university in Turkey as an academic or administrative staff. Five-factor personality traits and workplace spirituality scales were used to collect data. Findings Extraversion and conscientiousness have a positive effect on workplace spirituality. Openness, agreeableness and neuroticism have no significant effect on workplace spirituality. Research limitations/implications This study is limited to the relationship between “five-factor personality traits” and “workplace spirituality”. As the participants of the study were chosen among those who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study, the generalizability of the results is limited. The results are limited to explaining the questions such as “what”, “how much” and “who”. Practical implications The conclusions of the study are important in terms of showing the managers that everyone cannot be motivated and satisfied by the same motivators and therefore her or his perception of workplace spirituality will not be the same. Managers can improve organizational efficiency and effectiveness by raising employees’ workplace spirituality. It shows that employees attach importance to workplace spirituality, especially since Turkish culture has a conservative structure. In this way, motivation and job satisfaction of employees will increase and negative behaviors in the organization will decrease. Originality/value It can be argued that this study makes a significant theoretical contribution to research on the effect of workplace spirituality on the employee.
  • Article
    Purpose The purpose of the study is to understand whether psychological contract (PC) expectations manifest differently for diversity clusters of gender, physical disability and region in relation to job performance and intention to stay. Design/methodology/approach It is a survey-based study. Data from 1,065 information technology and business process management professionals were analysed using partial least square based structural equation model (PLS-SEM) and multigroup analysis. Findings The met PC expectations related to career growth and development impact performance and are influenced by regional diversity. The met PC expectations related to job and work environment impact the intention to stay. Gender and physical disability do not influence any relationship. Research limitations/implications The findings related to physical disability are based on a small sample of 60 employees. This could be reflective of their actual participation in the workplace. Practical implications No significant differences were found between men and women employees with/without physically disability. However, regional diversity creates significant differences. Diversity policies should reckon these similarities/differences while viewing requirements of job performance and determinants of intention to stay. Social implications One needs to be careful while assuming diversity as a heterogeneous phenomenon. The reality could reflect both differences and similarities. Diverse employee groups having a common set of expectations is a socially positive evolution connoting better social integration. Originality/value This article is one of the first to research the influence of gender, physical disability and regional diversity on PC and its outcomes in India. Regional diversity has not been studied based on this framework and this adds to the body of knowledge.
  • Article
    This research examines whether the relationships between psychological contract violations and three types of employee behavior (intention to quit, neglect of in-role job duties, and organizational citizenship behaviors) are mediated by unmet expectations and job dissatisfaction. Using a sample of over 800 managers from a wide variety of research sites, this study tests for mediator effects using both hierarchical regression analyses and structural equation modelling. The results suggest that unmet expectations and job dissatisfaction do partially mediate such relationships. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Data obtained from engineers (N = 230) in Singapore were used to test a tnodel of career withdrawal intentions. The model hypothesized personal, organizational and environinental variables as exogenous variables that affect career satisfaction and job satisfaction. These affective states in tum affect career commitment which was posited directly to affect career withdrawal intentions. The findings suggest that the model is useful in explaining career withdrawal intentions as 50 per cent (R^) of the variance was explained. As hypothesized, career commitment revealed a significant negative path to career withdrawal intentions. Some of the exogenous variables, particularly organizational variables , showed direct significant paths to career withdrawal intentions, though work-family conflict, a personal variable, approached significance. A limitation of the study, direction for future studies and implications of the findings are discussed .
  • Article
    This study compares the careers of matched samples of 69 female executives and 69 male: executives try examining perceived barriers and facilitators of advancement, self-reported developmental experiences, and career histories. Consistent with tokenism theory, women reported greater barriers, such as lack of culture fit and being excluded from informal networks, and greater importance of having a good track. record and developing relationships to facilitate advancement than did men. Career success, measured by organizational level and compensation, was positively related to breadth of experience and developmental assignments for both genders, but successful women were less likely than successful men to report that mentoring facilitated their advancement. Developmental experiences and career histories were similar for female and male executives, but men bad more overseas assignments and women had more assignments with nonauthority relationships.
  • Article
    This paper empirically examined theoretical antecedents of commitment in two organizational settings. Multiple regression results for a combined sample of 284 employees showed that mentorship, powerlessness, and perceived ability to find a job elsewhere were negatively related to commitment. In line with our assertion that employees are now faced with work environments that are rapidly changing, variables previously associated with commitment, such as age, education, and tenure, did not display significant positive associations in this analysis.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Linkages between a global measure of mentoring experiences, gender, and four outcome variables were investigated. Also, the moderating effects of gender were examined to determine whether mentoring is differentially associated with career outcomes for men and women. Business school graduates (147 women and 173 men) provided information about their backgrounds, companies, positions, mentoring practices, compensation, and compensation satisfaction. Individuals experiencing extensive mentoring relationships reported receiving more promotions, had higher incomes, and were more satisfied with their pay and benefits than individuals experiencing less extensive mentoring relationships. There were no gender differences with regard to the frequency of mentoring activities, and gender did not moderate mentoring-outcome relationships. The results are discussed within the context of a $7,990 income difference between men and women.
  • Article
    The construct of perceived teacher self-efficacy is defined and distinguished from related constructs by referring to Bandura's social-cognitive theory. In a retrospective view on the history of the construct in the English-speaking world, theoretical problems and psychometric deficiencies become obvious. To stimulate research in the German-speaking countries, a new scale to measure teacher self-efficacy was developed and tested in a longitudinal field study. The nationwide test of this instrument on 275 teachers in 10 schools revealed good psychometric properties. First indicators of validity could be obtained by means of correlations with other teacher characteristics at 2 points in time. High negative relations with job strain and with job burnout were found. Moreover, teachers high on teacher self-efficacy were used to offer up more leisure time for their students than their less self-efficacious counterparts.
  • Article
    Forty-six technicians employed by an ambulance and life flight service were surveyed to examine the effects of organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) on career outcomes and quality. Results show that those high in OBSE reported stronger career commitment and weaker career withdrawal intentions than those low in OBSE. Contrary to predictions, significant differences were not found for career satisfaction and career tenure. However, there was a significant difference between the high and low groups on the import of quality. Those low in OBSE tended to devalue quality as compared to those high in OBSE. A post hoc analysis was conducted to offer insight into which aspects of quality were important to the high OBSE group.
  • Article
    Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
  • Article
    In a study of a national random sample of mature male managerial, professional, and blue-collar workers, the positive effects of being married and the negative effects of having a working wife on both occupational status and wage attainment were observed most strongly for the professional and managerial subsamples. These results are consistent with both a conformance-to-social expectations and wife-as-career resource arguments, but not as consistent with either human capital/market-signalling or distributive justice arguments. The effects of specific organizational tenure, education, and socioeconomic origins on both forms of attainment tended to be stronger for managers than for professionals, and, in turn, than for the blue-collar respondents. These results are consistent with the different need for control, given the uncertainty of evaluation and performance and importance of the jobs (higher for managers and professionals than for others), and the different mechanisms for achieving control. Professional control is achieved more through extraorganizational mechanisms, while managerial control is achieved through background, certification, and tenure, which tend to be associated with compliance to the normative structure.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    While business organizations are struggling to hold on to their best and brightest women, the persistence of the glass ceiling makes this difficult. Dismantling the glass ceiling requires an accurate understanding of the overt and subtle barriers to advancement faced by women, and the strategies used to overcome these barriers. A large-scale, national survey of Fortune 1000 CEOs and the highest-ranking, most successful women in their companies identified key career strategies used by the women in their rise to the top, and the barriers to advancement they faced in their firms. A startling finding of the study was the disparity in the perceptions of chief executive officers and the high-ranking women in their firms. The Fortune 1000 CEOs had vastly different perceptions of the organizational and environmental barriers faced by their female employees, and in their companies' progress towards equality in the workplace.
  • Article
    This correlational field study investigated the affect of personal tendencies to experience positive and negative affect (affectivity) on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention to quit. The major findings indicated that positive and negative affectivity independently explain significant proportions of variance of measures of work attitudes.
  • Article
    Drawing on related literature and an inductive pilot study, we propose a conceptual framework for the relationship between job rotation and selected career-related variables. A test on 255 employees showed rotation was predicted by career antecedents, such as tenure and performance, and was related to career outcomes, such as salary and promotion, positive affect, and perceptions of skill acquisition and other career benefits. Rotation may he a proactive way to enhance the career development value of work assignments.
  • Article
    In this study, we examined the moderating effects of individual differences and sources of support on the negative relationship between work-family conflict and career satisfaction. Data from 975 managers indicated that the relationship was significant for women irrespective of age but was significant for men only in later career. Moreover, the relationship was stronger for individuals who were in the minority gender in their work groups, but it was weaker for those who had strong community ties. Implications are discussed.
  • Article
    In this study, I aimed to assess if traits and interpersonal support helped explain advancing in management from entry level to upper management, including gender differences in the links of interpersonal support. After human capital and promotion opportunities, managerial aspirations and masculinity were the strongest predictors of advancing in management. Male hierarchies predicted women's advancing less than men into lower and middle management, and career encouragement predicted women's advancing more to upper management, both as compared to declining to lower levels than men.
  • Article
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    The literature on transformational and transactional leadership suggests integrating the leader-memher exchange (LMX) approach with research on mentoring. Using LISREL VII confirmatory factor analysis. and 183 managerial dyads, we show LMX and mentoring to be empirically distinct from the supervisors' perspective hut not from the sub-ordinates'. LMX and mentoring each also accounted for meaningful incremental variance over the other with respect to rated performance, salary progress, and promotion rate. Implications are briefly discussed.
  • Article
    A large but dated literature indicates that academia does not reward individuals for contributions to science, instead applying sponsored mobility norms, whereby individuals are rewarded when they are sponsored by established academics. The reported study examined whether contemporary universities' hiring decisions are better described by tournament or sponsored mobility. Departing from the findings of past research, our longitudinal data indicated that management departments currently employ tournament-based criteria when distributing jobs.
  • Article
    This article proposes a four-cell typology of career systems, reflecting two critical dimensions along which firms choose a staffing strategy: supply flow and assignment flow. We suggest that this typology reflects, in a human resources context, the different choices firms make in managing their overall strategy. The career systems profiles that follow from the typology both describe and predict the composition of a company's work force.
  • Article
    This paper analyzes data describing jobs in 100 establishments in order to test hypotheses about the characteristics of jobs and organizations associated with the structure of internal promotion ladders. The diversity of labor market arrangements found within the organizations indicates only weak support for hypotheses linking internal labor markets to organizational or sectoral imperatives. At the job level, however, there is support for hypotheses linking job ladders to firm-specific skills, organizational structure, gender distinctions, technology, occupational differentiation, the institutional environment, and the interests of unions. The paper concludes with an examination of how promotion ladders are formed from clusters of jobs associated with each other by occupation, skill, or gender composition.
  • Article
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    This paper synthesizes the literature on vocational decision making among women. Anticipatory socialization to adult work roles results in the development of a vocational self-concept, which includes personality, interests, values, perceived capacities, perceived opportunities, and perceived costs. Preferences based on this self-concept guide the job-search process. Expectancy theory is proposed to integrate the findings in the literature, and implications for research are discussed.
  • Article
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    We measure the effects of motivation and ability on the early career success of a sample of Master's of Business Administration (MBA) graduates in the early years of their careers. We argue that performance is a joint effect of two important individual characteristics: general cognitive ability and motivation. General cognitive ability, which is representative of the general population, refers to individual differences in tasks or pursuits that demand mental effort, such as abstraction, rule inference, generalization, and manipulating or transforming problems. Motivation is conceptualized as a stable mental state that energizes human behavior. Results show that the combination of high general cognitive ability and motivation is significantly associated with more early career success. MBAs who were both smarter and worked harder were more successful in their job search upon graduation, were earning higher salaries, had more rapid pay increases, and received more promotions in their early careers. These findings add to the mounting evidence that studying enduring individual characteristics is critical to predicting behavior.
  • Article
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    Building on demography theories, we study the effects of organizational sex composition at different job levels on the turnover of men and women at the same or lower levels We found that women were less likely to leave when more women were employed at their job level but that the effects of the proportions of women immediately above and in executive levels varied with women's rank. Men's turnover was not significantly affected by the proportions of men at or immediately above their job level but decreased when more men were employed in executive levels.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This study examined the relationship of career mentoring to the promotions and compensation received by 404 early career managers and professionals working in a variety of organizations. The results indicate that with a number of variables controlled, career mentoring was related to both promotion rate and total compensation. The results also support the conclusion that career-oriented mentoring has a greater relationship with promotion rate for people from the highest-level socioeconomic backgrounds than for those from lower-level backgrounds. We provide several explanations for the effects of career mentoring on early career progress and suggest a number of areas for future research on mentoring and other developmental relationships. Studies of the early career progress of managers and professionals have frequently been based on the principle that ability, achievement, and con
  • Article
    The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
  • Article
    The relationship between organizational promotion and career satisfaction was investigated. Questionnaire data were obtained from 190 administrative employees in two universities in the northwest of England. The significant difference in career satisfaction between the two samples disappeared when statistical control for number of promotions was imposed. Further, number of promotions was the only variable which accounted for a significant amount of variance in career satisfaction. The implications of the results for organisations and the limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for research are made.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Multiple regression analysis is used to examine the impact of employment gaps on 2 dimensions of managerial careers - income and career satisfaction. Four hypotheses are tested using survey data from 1,361 individuals holding masters of business administration (MBA) degrees. The results indicate that discontinuous employment histories have a negative impact on future income beyond that attributable to diminished work experience. MBAs with employment gaps earn 14% less than those who have been continuously employed. While women with MBAs are more likely to experience gaps than men with MBAs, the impact of the gap on income is less severe for women than for men. The results also indicate that career interruptions diminish career satisfaction beyond the decrease attributable to lower income for men but not for women. The findings suggest discrimination against men not following a traditional career path.
  • Article
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    Although the number of traditional families, those with an employed father and a not-employed mother, has been decreasing, organizations and researchers have failed to examine the implications of these changes for managerial careers. In a study, an expanded typology of family structure is presented that includes spousal employment status. The effects on managerial career paths of a post-traditional family structure, in which both parents are employed, is explored. The results from a survey of M.B.A. degree holders show such a family structure to be related to income and career satisfaction for men and women. Single men and married men with employed wives and no children earn levels of income similar to married men with employed wives and children. In addition, the earnings of women in post-traditional families are similar to those of other married women and greater than those of single women. The findings suggest that family structure should receive greater focus from both researchers and organizations.
  • Article
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    This study examined the effect of employee commitment on individuals' nonwork and career satisfactions. Data on public employees' attitudes indicated that the individual consequences of employee commitment are positive, supporting the notion that psychological attachment to a work organization yields personal benefits for individuals. These results contradict the notion that people necessarily pay a high personal price for high levels of employee commitment and caution against viewing psychological attachment as a zero-sum phenomenon.
  • Article
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    Behavioral plasticity theory is offered as an explanation for the moderating effects of self-esteem on role perception-employee response relationships. According to this theory, because individuals with low self-esteem are more reactive than their counterparts with high selfesteem, they are more susceptible to adverse role conditions, such as role conflict, ambiguity, and overload, and a poor work environment and poor supervisory support. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses revealed significant moderating effects for organization-based selfesteem on role condition-response relationships, thereby providing support for predictions based on behavioral plasticity theory. It has been empirically demonstrated that role-related influences such as conflict, overload, and ambiguity can have an impact on the affective and behavioral responses of organization members. Researchers have further argued that an individual's ability, adaptability, and self-esteem may influence those reactions. The purpose of the research reported here was to evaluate empirically the hypothesis that an employee's level of self-esteem affects the impact of role conditions on performance and satisfaction. The research is important in that it provides insight into the viability of behavioral plasticity theory (cf. Brockner, 1988) for predicting relationships between role conditions and employee responses. In addition, this investigation employed an organization-based rather than a global self-esteem measure so the measure is framed within the same context as the affective and behavioral responses under investigation. Finding support for the moderating effects of self
  • Article
    There has been a considerable increase in the proportion of women managers in recent years, from 21% in 1976 to 46% in 1999, and a call for “feminine leadership” to capitalize on this increase. The present study examines whether there has been a corresponding change in men’s and women’s stereotypes of managers such that less emphasis is placed on managers’ possessing masculine characteristics. Data from 348 undergraduate and part-time graduate business students indicate that although managerial stereotypes place less emphasis on masculine characteristics than in earlier studies [Academy of Management Journal 22 (1979) 395; Group and Organization Studies 14 (2) (1989) 216], a good manager is still perceived as predominantly masculine.
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    Full-text available
    After summarizing the literature on the various models for the role of social support in the process of work stress, two studies are reported. In the first study, correlations between (1) social support and workplace stressors and (2) between social support and strains as well as (3) incrementalR2s across 68 studies, when the interaction term of stressors and support was added to the regression of strain on stressors and support, were meta-analytically cumulated. Potential moderators of these relationships were weak, suggesting the presence of three general constructs of stressors, strains, and social support. In the second study, the various models for the role of social support in the process of workplace stress were tested for the general constructs identified in the first study. Results indicated that social support had a threefold effect on work stressor–strain relations. Social support reduced the strains experienced, social support mitigated perceived stressors, and social support moderated the stressor–strain relationship. Evidence for mediational and suppressor effects of social support on the process of work stress was weak. In addition, the argument that social support is mobilized when stressors are encountered was not consistent with the available empirical evidence. A similar lack of support was found for the arguments that support is mobilized when strains are encountered and that support is provided when individuals are afflicted with strains.
  • Article
    We examined the relationship between taking a leave of absence and rewards among 11,815 managers in a financial services organization. Results indicated that leaves of absence, regardless of the reason for them (family responsibilities or illness) or the gender of the manager, were associated with significantly fewer subsequent promotions and smaller salary increases. Leaves of absence had a significant, negative relationship to performance ratings only if the leaves had been taken during the year of the performance evaluation.
  • Article
    Women face a complex panorama of choices and constraints in their career and life development. This article presents an approach to the understanding of women's careers that (a) takes into account non-work as well as work issues; (b) incorporates subjective as well as objective measures of career and life success; (c) incorporates the influence of personal, organizational, and societal factors on women's choices and outcomes; and (d) does not assume that women's careers go through a predictable sequence of stages over time. Such an approach is vastly different from traditional models of men's careers. Implications of this approach for research, organizations, and men's careers are discussed.
  • Article
    The major question which this research examinedis whether informal integration is likely to result incareer advancement and perceived resources within twodifferent organizational contexts (plural and multicultural). Specifically, we examinedinteractions of race, gender, and organization type onthe above two outcome variables. In pluralorganizations, employees are expected to assimilate intothe dominant culture, while in multicultural organizations,cultural change for the individual and the organizationis reciprocal. Hypotheses were tested with a combinedsample of 101 men, 35 women, 29 persons of color, and 107 whites. Results indicated that,congruent with predictions, greater social integrationoccurred in an organizational context in which valuingdifferences was a priority. Further, the influence of informal integration on career advancement wasstill important even after controlling for suchvariables as age, organizational tenure, education, andhierarchical level within the organization. Implications of these findings for valuing diversity arediscussed.
  • Article
    This study examined two alternative explanations for disparity in reported work-related experiences and outcomes between black and white managers: treatment discrimination because of race, and differences in human and social capital. Education and training, representing human capital, and racial similarity of network ties and proportion of strong ties, representing social capital, were used to predict whether human and social capital would mediate the relationship between race and the work-related experiences and outcomes under investigation.Results of a survey of black and white managers in a Fortune 500 financial services firm indicate that black managers reported a slower rate of promotion and less psychosocial support than white managers. Race had both a direct and an indirect effect on these outcomes. Participation in company training significantly predicted reported promotion rates, but race remained a significant predictor. Additional analysis revealed that race moderates the relationship between human capital and promotion rate and suggests a type of treatment discrimination against blacks. Contrary to predictions, social capital did not predict promotion rate, although social capital mediated the relationship between race and psychosocial support. Black managers reported having less social capital than whites, and social capital, in turn, was positively related to the receipt of psychosocial support. No differences were found between blacks and whites in their receipt of career-related support.
  • Article
    This study investigated the relation of the "Big Five" personality di- mensions (Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Consci- entiousness, and Openness to Experience) to three job performance criteria (job proficiency, training proficiency, and personnel data) for five occupational groups (professionals, police, managers, sales, and skilled/semi-skilled). Results indicated that one dimension of person- ality. Conscientiousness, showed consistent relations with all job per- formance criteria for all occupational groups. For the remaining per- sonality dimensions, the estimated true score correlations varied by occupational group and criterion type. Extraversion was a valid pre- dictor for two occupations involving social interaction, managers and sales (across criterion types). Also, both Openness to Experience and Extraversion were valid predictors of the training proficiency criterion (across occupations). Other personality dimensions were also found to be valid predictors for some occupations and some criterion types, but the magnitude of the estimated true score correlations was small (p < .10). Overall, the results illustrate the benefits of using the 5- factor model of personality to accumulate and communicate empirical findings. The findings have numerous implications for research and practice in personnel psychology, especially in the subfields of person- nel selection, training and development, and performance appraisal.
  • Article
    The importance of mentoring as a component of career development has been well supported empirically. Yet mentors may not be a viable option for individuals who would like to progress on a management track but have limited opportunities to do so. This study proposed that professional associations may function as a source of mentoring for its members. The influence of affiliation with a professional organization on career outcomes was tested. Four components of group mentoring were identified through factor analysis: psychosocial support, inclusion, networking, and role modeling. Inclusion predicted higher job attainment, whereas role modeling made a significant contribution to salary. This study has practical implications for management development.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Because of the longitudinal nature of careers, career commitment would seem to be important for career development and progression. Yet it has received little attention in the career literature. This article addresses the role of career commitment in career development and examines some personal and situational correlates of career commitment. The sample includes both managerial (n = 341) and professional (n = 85) employees. Among the variables examined, one of the strongest correlates of career commitment was having a mentor. Practical implications are discussed, including those for mentoring and organizational career development programs.
  • Article
    This study examines the relationship of career mentoring to the promotions, compensation and satisfaction of 148 early career managers and professionals in Belgium. The results support the conclusion that career mentoring is particularly related to early career promotion histories, to general work satisfaction and career satisfaction. Career mentoring was unrelated to total compensation. These results occurred even after controlling for a variety of factors identified by Pfeffer (1977) and Whitely et al. (1991). Several reasons are provided for the relationship between career mentoring and these early career outcomes. The results suggest a number of areas for future career mentoring research.
  • Article
    With the influx of women into management positions, researchers and practitioners have examined the career-related issues facing women managers (Powell, 1988). Their focus has been on documenting the unique issues facing women managers, and the individual and organizational strategies that can be used to assist them (Russell, 1993). The present article extends this research by reviewing a number of career assessment devices that may be useful for counseling women managers. Over 45 strategies are described that address both internal issues confronting women managers (e.g., burnout, disillusionment, self-efficacy, limited political skills, role conflict) and external barriers (e.g., backlash, work-family conflicts, little access to mentoring relationships, social isolation, sex-role stereotypes). A discussion of the research on career assessment tools for women managers is provided with prescriptions for future research and practice.
  • Article
    Although the relationship between job and life satisfaction has attracted much attention, little research has been undertaken in geographically remote settings. The present study addresses this deficiency by testing a causal model that incorporates job-related, personal, environmental, and community-related variables. The LISREL results, based on a sample of 286 male employees from an open-cut coal mine in remote central Queensland, Australia, indicate that the community variables of family isolation and kinship support have the largest total (direct and indirect) effects on life satisfaction. Job satisfaction is found to be the next most important factor, and mediates the impact of routinization, industrial relations (IR) climate, promotional opportunity, work overload, family isolation, kinship support, positive affectivity, community participation, and negative affectivity on life satisfaction. In addition, job satisfaction is observed to have a stronger effect on life satisfaction than vice versa. The implications of these findings for organizations operating in remote regions are discussed.