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Predictors of Objective and Subjective Career Success: A Meta-Analysis

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Abstract

Using the contest- and sponsored-mobility perspectives as theoretical guides, this meta-analysis reviewed 4 categories of predictors of objective and subjective career success: human capital, organizational sponsorship, sociodemographic status, and stable individual differences. Salary level and promotion served as dependent measures of objective career success, and subjective career success was represented by career satisfaction. Results demonstrated that both objective and subjective career success were related to a wide range of predictors. As a group, human capital and sociodemographic predictors generally displayed stronger relationships with objective career success, and organizational sponsorship and stable individual differences were generally more strongly related to subjective career success. Gender and time (date of the study) moderated several of the relationships examined.

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... Among these high-potential cohorts, how do we identify who is exceptionally successful? Career success 1 can be defined and measured in many different ways (Baruch & Bozionelos, 2010), but consistent across nearly all conceptualizations and assessments is the link with income ( Judge et al., 1999( Judge et al., , 2010Judge & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012;Ng et al., 2005). Although individual income is an imperfect indicator of career success, it summarizes both an individual's current productivity and human capital (including that acquired through prior experience), in addition to anticipated future career contributions (cf. ...
... SMPY's talent-search cohorts scored in the top 1% of cognitive ability and, although elite STEM doctoral students were not explicitly selected on their cognitive ability, exceptional ability-mathematical reasoning in particular-was nonetheless a virtual prerequisite for admission into those highly select programs. Although cognitive ability and career success are clearly associated ( Judge et al., 1999;Ng et al., 2005;Schmidt & Hunter, 1998, not all successful and highly paid individuals possess prodigious intellectual abilities. Determining how generalizable our findings are to occupations with more relaxed intellectual demands calls for further research. ...
... 1. Two types of career success are commonly recognized: objective and subjective. Objective success is typically indexed by externally verifiable variables such as income and occupational status, whereas subjective success is indexed by variables such as career and job satisfaction (Ng et al., 2005). Throughout its many manifestations, the "success" element of "wrecked by success" is exclusively framed by objective career success; thus, we use "career success" as a shorthand for "objective career success" throughout the article. ...
Article
We examined the wrecked-by-success hypothesis. Initially formalized by Sigmund Freud, this hypothesis has become pervasive throughout the humanities, popular press, and modern scientific literature. The hypothesis implies that truly outstanding occupational success often exacts a heavy toll on psychological, interpersonal, and physical well-being. Study 1 tested this hypothesis in three cohorts of 1,826 high-potential, intellectually gifted individuals. Participants with exceptionally successful careers were compared with those of their gender-equivalent intellectual peers with more typical careers on well-known measures of psychological well-being, flourishing, core self-evaluations, and medical maladies. Family relationships, comfort with aging, and life satisfaction were also assessed. Across all three cohorts, those deemed occupationally outstanding individuals were similar to or healthier than their intellectual peers across these metrics. Study 2 served as a constructive replication of Study 1 but used a different high-potential sample: 496 elite science/technology/engineering/mathematics (STEM) doctoral students identified in 1992 and longitudinally tracked for 25 years. Study 2 replicated the findings from Study 1 in all important respects. Both studies found that exceptionally successful careers were not associated with medical frailty, psychological maladjustment, and compromised interpersonal and family relationships; if anything, overall, people with exceptionally successful careers were medically and psychologically better off.
... Developing human capital through education and work experience allows individuals to acquire the human capital necessary to advance in a career (e.g. Ng and Feldman, 2010;Ng et al., 2005;Becker, 1964). ...
... Two meta-analyses have also examined the influence of human capital and other predictors of career success. First, Ng et al. (2005), found human capital variables, including education, tenure, work experience and others, predicted salary and promotions. Additionally, in a second meta-analysis, Ng and Feldman (2010) found that cognitive ability mediated the relationship between education and work experience when predicting in-role performance and extrinsic career success. ...
... Career research has tended to focus on general measures of human capital, such as education and experience (e.g. Ng et al., 2005); however, in this study we used a more objective specific measure of human capital (Ployhart and Moliterno, 2012) that indicates a Variable ...
Article
Purpose This study examines how managers' human capital, time spent with employees and employees' human capital can influence employees' career advancement. While research tends to find a positive relationship between human capital and career advancement, less attention is paid the effect of managers' human capital on employee careers. A combination of human capital and social capital theories is used to develop hypotheses. Design/methodology/approach A five-year sample of American football players selected in the National Football League (NFL) draft is used to test the hypotheses. Archival data for human capital, social capital and career success measures are used, and OLS regression analyses test the hypotheses. Findings The authors find employees with higher levels of human capital experience greater career advancement. Managers' human capital moderates this relationship and the length of time worked together by the employee–manager dyad. The relationship between employees' human capital and career advancement is strengthened when managers have high levels of human capital. Practical implications The results of this study indicate that individuals with higher levels of human capital and social capital have greater career success. When individuals have higher levels of human capital it is important for them to determine how long they should work for a particular manager before advancing in their careers. Individuals with higher levels of human capital may need lees time working for a manager than those with lower levels of human capital before advancing in their careers. Originality/value This study contributes to careers and human resource management research by examining the moderating impact that manager human capital and time employees spend with a manager have on the relationship between employee human capital and employee career advancement.
... The contribution of the Career Decision-Making Adaptability Score (CDA Score) to objective and subjective career success One of the most prominent topics in career research is the search for factors that contribute to career success (cf. Judge et al., 1995;Ng et al., 2005). However, a significant part of the variance in career success has yet to be explained. ...
... Among the behavioral factors that are considered crucial for career success, career-planning behavior is particularly important (Ng et al., 2005). One important aspect of career planning is the way individuals approach their career decisions (Ebner et al., 2018;Gati et al., 2010). ...
... It is also unclear why a fundamental flexibility for and adaptability to changing career conditions as represented through the CDMP subscale willingness to compromise, was not counted among the particularly adaptive strategies. Empirical evidence for the positive influence of an individual's consideration of alternative career paths and an associated mobility both inside and outside of employing organizations on career success exist (Ng et al., 2005). A similar argument can be made for the aspiration for an ideal occupation: In fact, a good fit between the needs, values and ideals of an employee and the values, working conditions, and culture of the organization predicts objective and subjective career success (Bretz & Judge, 1994). ...
Article
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The study aims at validating the Career Decision-Making Adaptability Score (CDA Score) by investigating its predictive influence on objective and subjective career success, career adaptability, and psychological well-being over a 1-year period. Furthermore, the predictive influence of additional career decision-making strategies was scrutinized. Regression analyses of data from 78 employed individuals from two measurement time points demonstrated that the CDA Score predicts yet unexplored variables (e.g., psychological well-being) and consulting with others contributes to career adaptability and satisfaction. The findings extend research on career decision-making, validate the CDA Score longitudinally, and offer directions for the design of career counseling services.
... In view of the considerable array of findings, we draw on existing organizational schemas (Ozer & Benet-Martínez, 2006;, as well as theoretically relevant models of personality and motivation (Kanfer et al., 2017), psychological well-being (Anglim et al., 2020), physical health (Bleidorn et al., 2020), prosocial behavior (Habashi et al., 2016), leadership (DeRue et al., 2011), job attitudes (Judge et al., 2017), performance (Campbell & Wiernik, 2015), career success (Ng et al., 2005), and antisocial behavior , to posit a framework of 16 conceptual categories of variables that are arranged under four general content domains: (a) individual (motivational constructs, personal values, psychological health, physical health, and medical conditions), (b) interpersonal (interpersonal attitudes, collaboration, and leadership), (c) work/ school (vocational interests, work attitudes, performance, and extrinsic career success), and (d) antisocial (dark traits, antisocial attitudes, counterproductivity, and turnover/accidents). Using the evidence, we seek to answer four major research questions: (a) How helpful is Agreeableness for consequential variables across the lifespan? ...
... Specifically, dispositions (i.e., relatively stable tendencies of thinking, feeling, and/or behaving across situations), attitudes (i.e., cognitive or emotional appraisals of relevant phenomena), behaviors (i.e., observable actions under direct control of individuals), or outcomes (i.e., outcomes of behavior that are influenced, but not fully controlled, by individuals; Campbell & Wiernik, 2015). Using these two dimensions of content and type, in conjunction with existing models of personality and external criteria (e.g., Anglim et al., 2020;Bleidorn et al., 2020;DeRue et al., 2011;Habashi et al., 2016;Judge et al., 2017;Kanfer et al., 2017;Ng et al., 2005;, we arranged qualifying variables into an organizational framework of 16 conceptual categories, which are defined in Table 1 (for details about descriptions, rating sources, and meta-analytic sources of all variables, see Table S1). 3 Finally, within each category, we organized the variables by career domain (i.e., education, job applicancy, on the job, across the career, non-work/domaingeneral; cf. and valence (i.e., positive vs. negative). ...
Article
Agreeableness impacts people and real-world outcomes. In the most comprehensive quantitative review to date, we summarize results from 142 meta-analyses reporting effects for 275 variables, which represent N > 1.9 million participants from k > 3,900 studies. Arranging variables by their content and type, we use an organizational framework of 16 conceptual categories that presents a detailed account of Agreeableness’ external relations. Overall, the trait has effects in a desirable direction for 93% of variables (grand mean 𝜌M = .16). We also review lower order trait evidence for 42 variables from 20 meta-analyses. Using these empirical findings, in tandem with existing theory, we synthesize eight general themes that describe Agreeableness’ characteristic functioning across variables: self- transcendence, contentment, relational investment, teamworking, work investment, lower results emphasis, social norm orientation, and social integration. We conclude by discussing potential boundary conditions of findings, contributions and limitations of our review, and future research directions.
... This widely recognized framework stands primarily for bright and affirmative personality attributes (Judge et al., 2009). Previous studies in career and personality research show that the diverse Big Five dimensions differently affect career related outcomes Ng et al., 2005;Smithikrai, 2007). indicated in their meta-analysis on job performance that the best predictors when relating to "getting along" ...
... The (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005;Smithikrai, 2007). Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion seem to be the most relevant dimensions in relation to career success . ...
Thesis
For years now career success emerged as one of the focal points in managerial psychology research. It still remains a key topic in contemporary literature. Personality has been identified as an essential predictor of work and career success. In examining associations between personality traits and professional outcomes, the Big Five represents the prevalent theoretical basis. This widely recognized framework stands primarily for bright and affirmative personality attributes. In more recent times, the rather negative side of the personality range received increasing scientific attention, not least triggered by severe scandals in the business world. Especially the Dark Triad personality construct consisting of Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism has attracted growing academic consideration. Surprisingly these rather undesirable personality characteristics do not only promote counterproductive outcomes. Consequently, the two topics of bright as well as dark personality traits and career success constitute the scope of the thesis. To split the topic up and to explore it as sophisticated as possible, a comprehensive scientific approach is required. Supported by a multilayered methodological procedure, the interplay of personality and career success was investigated on heterogeneous criteria: (1) multifaceted bandwidth of personality, (2) diversity of career success indicators, (3) varied decision-making levels, and (4) new work environment. In summary, this dissertation answers the following research questions in three interrelated essays: 1. How successful are both light and dark personalities in terms of objective success criteria? 2. Does a GFP-E specific for executives exist and how is it related to the Dark Triad, success and satisfaction measures? 3. Do paradox personalities, in particular narcissism and humility, succeed in new work environments? The first paper represents the basis for gain in knowledge. It takes a broad attempt by addressing both the bright and dark personality traits of the Big Five and the Dark Triad. Accordingly, the influence of these expansive personality attributes and the selected objective career success indicators budget responsibility and personnel decision-making authority were examined. Empirically, a dual approach with a German sample combining an AI-based automated speech analysis tool with self-reported survey data was chosen. The results indicate a positive relationship between psychopathy and personnel decision-making authority, as well as between narcissism and emotional stability to budget responsibility. In the second article, the interest shifts entirely to the top-management. Here, a narrower personality approach was considered. For this purpose, self-reported survey data from German top-managers were collected. The study demonstrates that a superordinate singular factor (General Factor of Personality, GFP) specifically for executives (GFP-E) exists that is characterized by high agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness and openness to experience as well as low neuroticism. Furthermore, the relationship of the GFP-E to the Dark Triad and to success and satisfaction indicators were examined. Positive correlations to these criteria as well as to narcissism were evident. In contrast, negative connections to Machiavellianism and psychopathy were apparent, indicating the existence of a Dark Dyad. Finally, the third essay highlights the impact of paradox personalities on career success, namely the combination of narcissism and humility. In order to reflect the current transformation in the business world, new work settings are integrated in this study as well. Methodologically, a dyadic approach relating self-reported and other-reported survey data of US-professionals was selected. Further, to represent career success in its entirety, especially in new work environments, four measures of objective career success as well as a multidimensional subjective career success scale were included. The interaction between narcissism and humility indicated negative effects on leadership position, project responsibility and salary. However, when the working environment is included, the humble narcissist is materially successful in the new world of work. In total these findings contribute to existing knowledge of both bright and dark personality by showing that psychopaths and especially narcissists can be quite successful in their professional life. Emotional stability and conscientiousness proved to be the relevant predictors in a professional setting. Supplementary to the important content-related insights, this thesis further contributes to an increasing body of research incorporating language and personality. It encompasses as one of the first studies that introduces elements of artificial intelligence to the research streams of personality and success by using an automated psycholinguistic analysis technology. This dissertation further contributes to the literature on paradoxes in the workplace by enhancing previous leadership approaches. While positive effects of paradoxical personalities have already been found at the top management level it was demonstrated that this phenomenon couldn’t be converted to the general career success perspective. Further, by expending the research focus to new modes of working it could be shown that the working environment in today’s organizations proves to be an essential contextual factor impacting an employee’s career.
... Prior studies have taken broad-based multivariate approaches to examine the mechanisms by which proactive personality is related to subjective career success (e.g., Seibert et al., 1999Seibert et al., , 2001Yang & Chau, 2016). Moreover, meta-analytic studies have been conducted to reveal the bivariate relation between proactive personality and subjective career success (Ng et al., 2005;Ng & Feldman, 2014;Zhou et al., 2015). The career construction model of adaptation assumes that individuals with the willingness to change (adaptive readiness) have a high level of adaptability (adaptability resources). ...
... We found that proactive personality has a direct effect on subjective career success. This is consistent with the finding of a prior meta-analysis study that indicated that proactive individuals are more likely to enhance their subjective positive evaluations of their careers (Ng et al., 2005). In addition, the relationship between proactive personality and subjective career success is partially mediated by career adaptability, which is consistent with expectations and empirical results based on career construction theory (Nilforooshan, 2020;Savickas, 2013 ). ...
Article
Drawing on the career construction theory model of adaptation, this meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) examines the effects of proactive personality on the subjective career success of adolescents and emerging adults. We identified 46 studies that covered 52 independent samples and 24,092 participants through literature retrieval. Based on these studies, we created an integrative model linking proactive personality with career adaptability, student career construction, and subjective career success. The results of the meta-analysis showed that all bivariate relationships among proactive personality, career adaptability, student career construction, and subjective career success were significantly positive. The results of the MASEM indicated that career adaptability intervened in the relationship between proactive personality and subjective career success, but student career construction, as a suppressor, carried out the negative association between proactive personality, career adaptability and subjective career success in the sequence of adaptation. We also discuss the research implications and provide directions for future research.
... We also controlled for variables that are thought to impact earnings in the general population (education, marital status, industry, tenure, and hours worked weekly; Ng et al., 2005) and some variables from the disability literature (types of disability, discrimination, and disability-related income supports). We originally measured education by using different categories. ...
Article
Purpose Persons with disabilities (PWD) are among the largest and most diverse minority groups and among the most disadvantaged in terms of employment. Entrepreneurial pursuit is often advocated as a path toward employment, inclusion, and equality, yet few studies have investigated earning variation among PWD. Design/methodology/approach The authors draw on social cognitive career theory (SCCT), and the disability employment and entrepreneurship literature to develop hypotheses about who among PWD are likely to earn more (less) from entrepreneurial pursuits. The authors then conduct analyses on the nationally representative sample of the Canadian Survey on Disability (CSD) by including all PWD engaged in entrepreneurial pursuit, and matching each to an organizationally employed counterpart of the same gender and race and of similar age and disability severity ( n ≈ 810). Findings Entrepreneurial pursuit has a stronger negative association with the earnings of PWD who experience earlier disability onset ages, those who report more unmet accommodation needs, and those who are female. Originality/value First, this study applies SCCT to help bridge the literature on organizational employment barriers for PWD and entrepreneurs with disabilities. Second, we call into question the logic of neoliberalism about entrepreneurship by showing that barriers to organizational employment impact entrepreneurial pursuit decisions and thereby earnings. Third, we extend the understanding of entrepreneurial earnings among PWD by examining understudied disability attributes and demographic attributes. Lastly, this study is among the first to use a matched sample to empirically test the impact of entrepreneurial pursuit on the earnings of PWD.
... So, lower expectations of future career success may translate into relatively more women at mid-level career stages deciding to quit academia, especially in LSB fields. Second, literature on career theory provides a strong empirical basis that subjective career success (perceptions about career success) and objective career success (pay, promotion) are interrelated (e.g., Poole et al., 1993;Ng et al., 2005;Abele and Spurk, 2009;Ballout, 2009). This could imply that female academics' lower perceived odds to attain full professorship (cf. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the study of women in academia, the focus is often particularly on women’s stark underrepresentation in the math-intensive fields of natural sciences, technology, and economics (NTE). In the non-math-intensive of fields life, social and behavioral (LSB) sciences, gender issues are seemingly less at stake because, on average, women are well-represented. However, in the current study, we demonstrate that equal gender representation in LSB disciplines does not guarantee women’s equal opportunity to advance to full professorship—to the contrary. With a cross-sectional survey among N = 2,109 academics at mid-level careers (i.e., assistant and associate professors) in the Netherlands, we test the hypothesis that in LSB (more than NTE), female academics perceive to hit a “thicker” glass ceiling—that is, they see a sharper contrast between the high representation of women at the lower compared to the top levels. We test whether this predicts female academics’ lower estimated chances to reach full professorship relative to men in LSB (but not NTE). We introduce a novel perceived glass ceiling index (GCI), calculated based on academics’ perceptions of the share of women and men in their direct work environment minus their perceptions of gender ratio among full professors in their field. Results confirm that the perceived glass ceiling is thicker in the non-math-intensive LSB compared to math-intensive NTE fields. Furthermore, only in LSB (but not NTE), women perceived a thicker glass ceiling than men. Moreover, only among female academics, the thicker the perceived glass ceiling, the lower their estimated chances to become full professor 1 day. Combined, a moderated mediation showed that for women only, a thicker perceived glass ceiling in LSB compared to NTE disciplines predicted their lower estimated chances to advance to full professor level. No such mediation occurred for men. We conclude that women’s higher numerical representation in LSB disciplines does not negate a male-dominant normative standard about academic leadership and success. Paradoxically, the perceived odds for female academics to reach the top of their field are lower in fields where they are relatively highly represented, and this may pose unique barriers to women’s perceived opportunities for career success.
... Therefore, for convenience, the model mostly refers to "work satisfaction". Consistent with this perspective, meta-analytic results have indicated that proactivity is strongly related to subjective career satisfaction (job and career satisfaction) (Ng et al., 2005). Proactivity is associated with job satisfaction because proactive people tend to create conditions more conducive to personal success at work. ...
Article
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Caregivers of people with disabilities are employees who work in organizations either in the public or private sector that led a differentiated life from those who are not in the role of caregivers of people with disabilities. The stress and various challenges faced by caregivers with people with disabilities have affected their careers. The various challenges they have to face in the workplace affect the level of job satisfaction among them. Job Satisfaction can be defined as a measure of employee's contentedness with their job, whether or not they like the job, or individual aspects or facets of the jobs, such as the nature of work or supervision, and they can balance their work life and personal life. Therefore, this concept paper would like to uncover whether the issue of job satisfaction occurs among these caregivers. In addition, this paper aims to discuss the factors that can affect job satisfaction among these caregivers. The findings of previous research and with reference to the Model of work satisfaction by Lent and Brown (2006) and Model of Proactive Behavior by Crant (2000), show that there are job satisfaction issues among caregivers and it also reveals the factors that can affect job satisfaction among them. Finally, this paper also discusses why research related to job satisfaction among caregivers needs to be conducted and its relation to the field of human resource development.
... A 'formulas' approach also relies on survivorship bias as it is incomplete sample: all elite athletes share the attribute offor examplehaving a brain, but having a brain does not make one an elite athlete. Across careers in many different spheres, socioeconomic status, sex/gender, season-of-birth bias etc. are all more dependable determinants of eventual achievement (Côt e et al., 2006;Ng et al., 2005). Yet no commentator has ever noted admiringly that the trophy-lifter was born in the right place, to a financially secure household at a favorable time of year: likely factors explaining much more variance in performance (Baker & Logan, 2007;Hancock et al., 2018). ...
... 119 The higher level of EPI provides individuals with the potential for organizational development and becomes loyal to their organizations, further increasing their job/career satisfaction. 120,121 Numerous studies have shown that personal initiative produces several positive outcomes: self-efficacy, career success, idea quality, active coping, optimism, occupational well-being, innovative behaviors, resourcefulness, and creativity. 117,[122][123][124][125] Scholars have stated that employees improve their well-being and job efficiency through personal initiative and reflect positive outcomes. ...
Article
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Purpose: Based on the componential theory of creativity, this study examined the link between high-involvement work practices and employees' innovative behavior by further investigating the moderating and mediating role of leadership humility and employees' personal initiative. Methodology: To test the hypothesized model, the data were gathered from 255-line staff and 119 supervisors working in the textile industry in Pakistan via the time lag technique. The proposed hypotheses were analyzed through partial least squares structural equation modeling using Smart-PLS software. Findings: The results indicated that high-involvement work practices were significantly related to employees' innovative work behaviors. Additionally, the moderation findings revealed that a higher level of leadership humility strengthens the relationship between high-involvement work practices and employees' personal initiative. Furthermore, employees' personal initiative mediates the relationship between high-involvement work practices and their innovative work behavior. The findings of the moderated mediation model indicated that a higher level of leadership humility leads to higher innovative behavior of employees in the presence of high-involvement work practices via employees' personal initiative. Practical implications: This study's findings are helpful for the management of organizations to understand the factors that enhance innovative work behaviors in high-involvement work practices. Moreover, managers should establish humble behaviors in their leadership style to influence employees' personal initiative, which indirectly influences their innovative work behavior. Originality/value: The present study highlights the importance of leadership humility and employees' personal initiative in the relationship between high-involvement work practices and innovative work behaviors of employees in the textile industry of Pakistan.
... Burke (2001) found that job addicts were positively associated with salary increases and job prospects reported to a sample of MBA graduates. Ng et al. (2005) found that those who work longer hours have greater external professional success in terms of salary and promotions. It is true that results such as salary increases, career expectations and promotions are not necessarily direct measures of performance, it is not unreasonable to think of them as alternative measures, as excess salaries and promotions are often the result of high performance. ...
Article
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This research aims to test the level of Workaholic and its dimensions-Behavioural, Cognitive and Affective, and the job performance in Dijlah University College of Iraq. the problem of research is determined by the following question: What is the role of Workaholic in improving the Job Performance in Dijlah University College? So, the samples are represented (125) lectures, the questionnaire was relied as main tool for collecting data and information. Used the Descriptive statistics tools, Pearson correlation coefficient and simple linear regression to analyze the results, The most results were a statistically significant correlation and effect between Workaholic and job performance, The main recommendations were to improve the physical and moral work environment in order to improve job performance.
... Others in the network may spread this information throughout its members, who may make negative inferences about the character of the extraverted person who lost so many followers (Feinberg et al., 2014). As one such consequence, extraverted people who lose many followers may be viewed as less trustworthy and, as a result, other members in the network may behave less prosocially toward them (Haley & Fessler, 2005), thus constraining their organizational advancement (Ng et al., 2005). We encourage future research to conduct longitudinal analyses examining the consequences of losing followers, which would be helpful in understanding the outcomes of these leader-follower changes. ...
Article
One of the classic relationships in personality psychology is that extraversion is associated with emerging as an informal leader. However, recent findings raise questions about the longevity of extraverted individuals as emergent leaders. Here, we adopt a social network churn perspective to study the number of people entering, remaining in, and leaving the leadership networks of individuals over time. We propose that extraverted individuals endure as emergent leaders in networks over time, but experience significant changes in the people being led, including the loss of people who once considered them a leader but now no longer do. In Study 1 (N = 545), extraverted individuals had a larger number of new and remaining people in their leadership networks, but also lost more people, above and beyond differences in initial leadership network size. In Study 2 (N = 764), we replicated and extended these results in an organizational sample while controlling for alternative explanations such as formal rank, network size, self-monitoring, and narcissism. Extraversion predicted the number of people entering, remaining in, and leaving leadership networks over time. Our findings suggest that while extraverted individuals tend to emerge as leaders, they are also more likely to experience greater network churn-they tend to lead different people over time and leave people in their wake who once perceived them a leader but now no longer do. We discuss the challenges posed by this network churn perspective for extraverted emergent leaders and highlight its importance for our understanding of extraversion and emergent leadership. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... However, even though aggression may still be a way to achieve status at the work place, at work there are other avenues for status that run via competence and promotion, for example via valued knowledge, skills, work effort, and via earning respect and positions (Blau, 1964;Cheng et al., 2013;Maner, 2017;Ng et al., 2005). These alternative ways of achieving status may greatly reduce the use of achieving status via displays of dominance (aggression), thereby also reducing the influence of the strength of the status goal on aggression. ...
Article
Status and affection are both goals related to social needs. The imbalanced needs theory of aggression proposes that although aggression can be used to realize status, this strategy is detrimental for realizing affection in the same social context. Thus, to the degree that the social circles overlap in which status and affection needs are realized, it becomes more costly (in terms of affection) to achieve status via aggression. This theory was tested for different forms of aggression, in different contexts, in a sample of adults from the general population ( N = 253, M age = 29.95, SD = 2.60, 78% female). Participants reported on social needs with the Interpersonal Goals Inventory and reported on general measures of physical and social aggression, as well as rule breaking, and aggression at the workplace and in intimate partner relationships. As hypothesized, status needs were associated with physical aggression when affection needs were weak. This interaction, though to a lesser degree, also extended to social forms of aggression and rule breaking. At the workplace, aggression was only related to weak affection needs, whereas aggression in intimate partner relationships was, as expected, unrelated to both social needs. Together, these findings support the results of an earlier test of the imbalanced needs theory of aggression in adolescence, and encourage more research into the link between aggression and the satisfaction of social needs.
... Agreeable individuals tend to be trusting, cooperative, modest, compliant, and tender-minded (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Highly agreeable followers are likely to avoid interpersonal conflict with others and they experience higher levels of stress when there is conflict (Suls et al., 1998), and can come across as "too nice" to others (Ng et al., 2005). These followers may be attracted to and influenced by narcissistic leaders because such leaders appear to be powerful and confident enough to handle future interpersonal conflicts (Smith et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Although research interest in leader narcissism has been on the rise over the past few years, prior literature has predominantly discussed leader narcissism from a leader-centric perspective. In this paper, we provide a relational-based perspective of leader narcissism by examining the interaction between follower personality traits and leader narcissism on follower engagement in an online context. We combine a machine learning (ML) approach and multiverse analysis to predict the personality traits of a large sample of leaders and engaged followers across 18 created multiverses and analyze hypothesized interactions using multilevel regressions, also accounting for leader gender moderation effects. We find that the interaction between leader narcissism and follower agreeableness and follower neuroticism positively predicts follower engagement, while the interaction between leader narcissism and follower openness negatively predicts follower engagement. In addition, we find that leader gender plays an important moderating role. Limitations and implications are discussed.
... Considering the strong competitiveness in the labor market and the continuous changes apparent in organizations, an absolute dedication and a life almost exclusively focused on work seem to be the rule of survival in modern organizations and the only way to achieve career success (Ng, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005;Serva & Ferreira, 2006). From the interviews conducted by Serva and Ferreira (2006), it was concluded that the organizational requirements imposed on managers are related to the occurrence of the workaholic phenomenon in the management of contemporary organizations. ...
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Organizations characterized by a climate and culture of competition and overwork facilitate the emergence of the workaholism phenomenon, as they provide favorable conditions for employees to spend more time in the workplace. Many of these employees are successful in their careers both in financial terms and in job satisfaction. This article aims to study the influence of workaholism on the perception of career success. The sample consists of 234 Portuguese individuals who were working in a professional context. The results reveal that pleasure at work influences career success perception in both objective and subjective dimensions and that work involvement influences only the subjective dimension of the career success perception. The findings of this study will contribute to the increase of knowledge in the workaholism and career success areas in light of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic so that companies are able to adopt strategies in order to optimize their resources and increase their productivity.
... As stated by Ng & al. on predictors of objective and subjective career success, "people have the tendency to attribute successes to internal causes and failures to external factors". 52 Finally, the data analyzed depend on participants' memory who are asked to report on events that have sometimes occurred a long time ago. It is reasonable to assume that the ability to recall the details, circumstances and turning points of a criminal career vary from one individual to another. ...
... Earlier studies showed that high physical activity is related to a higher educational level (45,46). Individuals with high educational achievement are more likely to tolerate and be open to diverse perspectives and to assimilate external information constructively (47). People with higher education recognize to a greater extent the importance of nutrition, diet, and the role of physical activity in treating their disease (48). ...
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Background A lack of physical activity (PA) is a threat to public health. However, for the elderly, most PA abilities are limited. By focusing on the types and intensity of PA that the elderly can bear, this study aimed to reveal whether preferences regarding types of PA (including housework, transportation, and recreational activities) and their intensity were associated with health status. The main forms of PA include shopping, cooking, cleaning, walking, cycling, various fitness activities and other activities with a certain intensity. Methods Surveillance data on chronic diseases and their risk factors were collected from one district of Shanghai in 2017-2018. A Kish table was used for sampling 500 older adults, including the diagnosed group (chronic diseases diagnosed by physicians, n = 119), the abnormal group (not diagnosed but abnormal indicators detected in this investigation, n = 287) and the healthy group ( n = 94). Multiple regressions were used to test the relationship between the various types, durations and intensities of PA the elderly individuals participated in and their health status. Results All three groups included a large proportion of older adults who participated in housework- and transport-related PA. The diagnosed group had the largest proportion (63.06% for housework-related PA; 87.39% for transport-related PA) and median minutes (17.14 min of housework-related PA per day; 30.00 min of transport-related PA per day). The diagnosed group had more metabolic equivalents (METs) of moderate-intensity PA than the two other groups (H = 33.01, P < 0.01), and more people met the WHO recommendation (χ ² = 34.71, P < 0.01). Diagnosis was associated with performing housework- and transport-related PA and moderate-intensity PA and with meeting the WHO's recommendation. Higher education levels were a positive factor for elderly individuals to participate in PA. Conclusions Transportation and housework activities are good targets for increasing PA in older adults. Diagnosis is associated with older adults' more PA.
... Differences pertaining the concept of career success may explain these confounding results. Career success can be measured objectively and subjectively (Ng et al., 2005). Objective career success refers to observable career achievements, such as money and promotion, while subjective career success is individually assessed and refers to job satisfaction and wellbeing (Biemann and Braakmann, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
A steady stream of well-educated young people has left Spain in recent years in search of work opportunities in other countries. This phenomenon, commonly known as brain drain, has traditionally been approached through a negative lens by estimating the damages that the loss of skilled people entails for the Spanish economy. This approach ignores that a significant number of young people are acquiring knowledge and skills abroad that are transferable, and that would allow their return with greater skills and aptitudes. This paper addresses this research gap by examining the perceived development of personal and professional skills through self-initiated expatriation experience. An online survey was answered by 309 Spanish self-initiated expatriates. Results confirm that they perceive the acquisition of a series of competences and skills that are determinant for their professional development and are dependent on their adjustment and wellbeing while they are abroad. These findings pinpoint the existence of a dispersed and invaluable source of competitive advantage for global firms. This pool of talent might be of strategic importance to face the socioeconomic crisis that unfolded from the recent world health emergency.
... However, even though aggression may still be a way to achieve status at the work place, at work there are other avenues for status that run via competence and promotion, for example via valued knowledge, skills, work effort, and via earning respect and positions (Blau, 1964;Cheng et al., 2013;Maner, 2017;Ng et al., 2005). These alternative ways of achieving status may greatly reduce the use of achieving status via displays of dominance (aggression), thereby also reducing the influence of the strength of the status goal on aggression. ...
... 21 In the same vein, career satisfaction is how individuals evaluate their own career (e.g., progress towards achieving career-related goals and success) and is often seen as a central indicator of subjective career success. 22,23 Nightingale et al. (2021) have demonstrated that radiographers feel limited in their career opportunities and professional development. 5 However, positive work and career evaluation has been shown to have a positive impact on individuals, organizations and patients, including retention and quality of care. ...
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Introduction Recognition of radiographers’ work has received limited research attention to date, notably its link with wellbeing at work (i.e., job and career satisfaction) and emotional exhaustion. This research focuses on these links and examines more precisely the mediational psychological mechanism (i.e., professional identification) that could explain these relationships. Methods This was a cross-sectional, quantitative study with data obtained through an online survey. The sample comprised 713 radiographers working in France. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediational model. Results Results of structural equation analysis suggest that radiographers who perceive more professional recognition from their supervisors, colleagues and patients are those who identify most with their profession and who are most satisfied by their job and their career; they also show lower levels of emotional exhaustion. These results underline the crucial role of recognition in the workplace for these professionals. Conclusion Recognition is one of the basic needs of an individual, and satisfying this need is a crucial issue for organizations. This paper focuses on the importance of recognition for radiographers, notably to protect their psychological health and increase their well-being at work and in their professional career. Practical implications Health organizations and supervisors should be aware of the importance of recognizing radiographers’ work in order to improve their psychological health, enhance their perceived quality of life at work, and have a positive perception of their career and their work.
... For example, it disposes employees to cultivate high-quality social exchange relationships with leaders (Yang & Chau, 2016), seek more educational opportunities (Converse et al., 2012), and participate in multiple career developmental activities (Major et al., 2006). These behaviors benefit employees by helping them gain desirable resources and opportunities to advance their careers, such as receiving promotions (Fuller & Marler, 2009;Ng et al., 2005). These proactive efforts capture a pro-self process that explains how proactive personality is conducive to career advancement (Greguras & Diefendorff, 2010;Raabe et al., 2007;Seibert et al., 1999;Yang & Chau, 2016). ...
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Drawing from a social information processing perspective, we investigate promotive and prohibitive voice as pro-organizational mechanisms mediating the relationship between proactive personality and supervisor-rated promotability. Moreover, we predict that organizational politics and leader-member exchange (LMX) moderate the first and second stages of the mediation processes, respectively. Findings from two multi-wave, multi-source field studies show that 1) proactive personality was positively related to both forms of voice, 2) promotive voice was positively related to promotability and mediated the proactive personality–promotability relationship, 3) the positive relationships between proactive personality and the two forms of voice were stronger when organizational politics were higher, and 4) the positive relationship between promotive voice and promotability was stronger in a low-LMX context. The relationship between prohibitive voice and promotability was non-significant in Study 1 but positive in Study 2. The moderating effect of LMX on this relationship was non-significant in both studies.
... 351). Career success is measured objectively (e.g., salary and number of promotions received) and/or subjectively (e.g., employees' perceptions and attitudes) (Ng et al., 2005). Specifically, our interest is in subjective career success. ...
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The value of a company’s ethical reputation has become a focal point for management researchers. We seek to join this conversation and extend the research centered on a firm’s ethical reputation. We accomplish this by shifting our focus away from its impact on external stakeholders to its impact on internal stakeholders. To this end, we rely on signaling theory to explain why a firm’s ethical reputation matters to its employees in an effort to bridge the macro–micro research gap. Across two studies, we propose and demonstrate that a firm’s ethical reputation impacts employee subjective career success in form of career opportunities and work–life balance. Given our signaling theory framework, we also identify and explain when two industry-level characteristics operate as boundary conditions that distort a firm’s ethical reputation signaling properties. Specifically, the results demonstrate that a firm’s ethical reputation is positively related to employees’ perceptions of career opportunities and work–life balance. The results of our studies also demonstrate that the relatively high levels of industry competition and industry regulation weaken the positive impact of a firm’s ethical reputation on career opportunities and work–life balance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... According to Brown and Brooks (1990), career development is a lifelong process where employees get ready to choose, are choosing and continue to make choices from among several jobs that are available during their lifetime. The career growth has been referred to as subjective measures of an individual's career during his or her employment across organisations (e.g., Ng, Eby, Sorensen, and Feldman, 2005). Patton and McMahon (2014) also agreed that career development is not just a person's occupation but involves his or her whole life. ...
... Forschungsergebnisse implizieren bereits einen positiven Effekt von Networking auf den Karriereerfolg (Forret & Dougherty, 2004;Langford, 2000). Während traditionell vor allem objektive Kriterien einer erfolgreichen Karriere betrachtet wurden (Forret & Dougherty, 2004), ist in den letzten Jahren für ein umfangreiches Verständnis der subjektive Karriereerfolg zunehmend in den Mittelpunkt gerückt und wird inzwischen als gleichermaßen bedeutsam angesehen (Ng, Eby, Sorensen & Feldman, 2005). Der subjektive Karriereerfolg bezieht die innere Perspektive einer Person mit ein (Hall & Chandler, 2005). ...
... In light of recent research on protean and boundaryless careers (Arthur & Rousseau, 1996;Hall, 2002), the notion of subjective career success (i.e., how individuals evaluate and experience their achievement through career outcomes) has drawn increasing attention from scholars (Briscoe et al., 2021;Shockley et al., 2016). A meta-analysis has suggested that organizational sponsorship, including career sponsorship, supervisor support, training and skill development opportunities and organizational resources, are important predictors of career success (Ng et al., 2005). In the workplace, leaders are consistently perceived as subordinates' most immediate organizational representatives, and they directly control resource and opportunity allocations (Collins et al., 2012); thus, leadership style may be an important predictor of employees' subjective career success. ...
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The aim of the present study is to examine whether a leader’s extrinsic relative to intrinsic goal orientation influences subordinates’ subjective career success through leader-member exchanges and to describe the moderating effect of subordinates’ gender. Drawing on goal content theory and leader-member exchange theory, we propose that a leader’s relatively extrinsic goal orientation is negatively related to subordinates’ subjective career success through leader-member exchanges. We conducted a field survey study (N = 216; employees and their immediate supervisors from China) to test our model, and the results suggest that (1) leaders with relatively extrinsic goal orientations are negatively related to subordinates’ subjective career success; (2) leader-member exchanges mediate the negative relationship between a leader’s relatively extrinsic goal orientation and employees’ subjective career success; and (3) subordinates’ gender moderates the indirect effect, whereby a leader’s relatively extrinsic goal orientation leads to lower levels of leader-member exchange for females than for males, leading to a lower level of subordinates’ subjective career success. This study contributes to the goal content and leader-member exchange literature.
... Career satisfaction: Career satisfaction, a determinant of subjective career success, is one's affective attitude towards career and work responsibilities (Ng et al., 2005). Career satisfaction in the global IT workforce involves various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. ...
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This study conceptualises career maximisation and its consequences in the Indian Information Technology (IT) workforce, a globally significant non-Western talent pool. It examined how maximising tendency in career decision-making (MT-CD) mediated career satisfaction through two contrasting responses based on counterfactual reasoning―career regret (dysfunctional) and career adaptability (functional). The study comprised of two parts. In Study 1, scales for MT-CD and career regret were developed and initially validated using a 172 respondents’ dataset. In Study 2, data from 434 respondents were analysed for psychometric evaluation and further validation of scales along with determining hypothesised relationships. Two dimensions of MT-CD were identified―‘state of internal career ambiguity’ and ‘striving for career excellence’. Both attributes produced career regret (an aggregated measure of ‘corporate regrets’, ‘career choice regrets’ and ‘developmental regrets’ dimensions), decreasing career satisfaction. Only ‘striving for career excellence’ led to career adaptability, which subsequently increased career satisfaction. Altogether, career regret competed with career adaptability, supressing its positive indirect effect on maximising ITPs’ career satisfaction. This study expands the current empirical research on career maximisation into non-Western contexts, adding unique knowledge to the Indian IT workforce’s vocational literature.
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Purpose This work is an extension of research on worker participation in achieving career success by including a prominent contextual construct, that is social capital. The present research aims to study how competency development influences the intrinsic career success of females in the handicraft industry, by considering the role of perceived employability as a mediator and social capital as a moderator. By doing so, this paper aims to fill the vacuum in the career literature that suggests that career success is not gender neutral. Design/methodology/approach Data was collected from handicraft workers by adopting the survey method. CFA and SPSS macro named PROCESS were used to analyse data. Findings Competency development influences the subjective career success of female workers, and perceived employability mediated the relationship between them. Moreover, social capital independently moderates the relationship between the participation of workers in competency development and perceived employability. Research limitations/implications The study is conducted in the Indian context alone, and therefore future studies must be conducted globally to deepen the scholarly dialogue on female workers' career success. Also, the current study measures career success, from a subjective perspective, thus future studies can measure female workers' objective career success. Practical implications The current paper identifies the need to study the factors contributing to female workers' career success in small industries. Social implications Conventional industries and their workers' career success must be given equal importance by researchers, practitioners and policymakers. Originality/value The paper fills the gap in career research by exploring female workers' career success through empirical evidence.
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What determines success in academia? Both researchers and academics have disagreements regarding the notion of success and its determinants in academia. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of political skill on employees’ subjective career success and the mediating and moderating role of mentoring and career adaptability in the said relationship respectively. The hypothesized relationships were tested utilizing a representative stratified random sample of 362 faculty members employed in the public sector universities of Pakistan. Results revealed that political skill positively influences subjective career success. The mediation model was supported and as expected: mentoring mediated the link between political skill and career success. The moderated relationship between mentoring and career success was stronger for individuals with higher career adaptability. The study adds to the understanding of underlying mechanisms involved in the political skill-career success nexus. Moderating role of career adaptability in the relationship between political skill and subjective career success was also probed, which further adds to the theoretical contribution of the study. The findings suggest that academics must realize that they need to be politically skilled, should be proactive in seeking mentoring relationships and should better equip themselves to cope with the work uncertainties.
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Purpose This study aims to build a framework of the influencing factors of construction workers' career promotion and identifies the critical determinants so as to propose suggestions for the government and enterprises to offer construction workers a path for career promotion. Design/methodology/approach In line with the theory of human resources, such as Herzberg's two-factor theory, this study constructs a theoretical framework that affects the career promotion of construction workers. Using evidence from Guangzhou city, valid data provided by 464 workers from 50 sites were collected by a questionnaire survey, and the significance test on the influencing factors of construction workers' career promotion was taken by binary logistic regression. Findings The overall career development of construction workers in Guangzhou is worrying. The binary logistic regression indicates that age, working years, type of work, career development awareness, legal awareness, professional mentality, vocational psychological training and career development path are critical factors that affect construction workers' career promotion. Originality/value This study for the first time explores the career promotion of frontline construction workers. Specifically, it identifies the critical factors that affect the career promotion of workers and thus lays a foundation for further research and the promotion and continuous and healthy development of the construction industry. Thus, this study is original and has theoretical and practical significance.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural relationships between clan culture, perceived supervisor support, leadership competencies and subjective career success among South Korean female managers. Design/methodology/approach A structural equation modeling was used to analyze the sixth wave of data from the Korean Women Manager Panel (KWMP) survey by the Korean Women’s Development Institute in South Korea. The panel respondents were 1,384 female managers in tenured positions at South Korean companies. Findings The results showed that clan culture and perceived supervisor support directly influenced female managers’ subjective career success and indirectly affected their subjective career success through leadership competencies at the same time. Research limitations/implications The respondents’ self-report can be a limitation as it can result in inflated outcomes in research findings. Even though no common method bias was found using Harmans’ single-factor test, the bias might not be removed completely. The study’s limitation includes the panel data and measures from KWMP, which constrained attempts to create constructs for measuring variables more precisely. Originality/value There is little research on the relationships between leadership competencies and other variables of female managers. The current study expanded the research on female managers’ leadership competencies by verifying that the leadership competencies play an important role in the relationships between clan culture, perceived supervisor support and subjective career success. The findings highlight that it is essential for female managers in South Korea to have supportive environments to receive fair treatment, demonstrate leadership competence in organizations and perform challenging tasks.
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The literature on destructive styles of leadership usually suggests the negative consequences at the individual and firm level, whereas the combined effect of dark dyads with susceptible followers lacks attention. Drawing on the cognitive appraisal theory, we examined the underlying psychological mechanism through which tyrannical leadership undermines employees' task performance via work withdrawal behaviors in construction projects. Moreover, the moderating effect of subordinates' Machiavellian personality trait on the relationship between tyrannical leadership and supervisor-rated subordinates' task performance was investigated. We collected data using questionnaires from 215 leader-subordinate dyads working in the construction industry. The results supported the negative effect of tyrannical leadership on task performance as well as the mediating effect of work withdrawal. This study provides evidence that tyrannical leadership induces work withdrawal behaviors, which in turn reduces subordinates' task performance. Moreover, the interactive effect of subordinates' Machiavellian personality trait with tyrannical leadership style positively impacts the subordinate's task performance, confirming the effectiveness of leaders-follower dark dyads in construction projects. The study expands theoretical as well as empirical evidence on destructive leadership in construction projects and demonstrates the relationship among psychological variables and their effects on task performance through the unique dynamics of the follower's personality trait in the construction industry.
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Today the world is vastly becoming dance and integrating into one single hub for economic and cultural activities, People are having busy schedules as well as a huge diversification in the global job market can be seen. As a result, people are focusing more on finding happiness and harmony within their job roles and building a relaxing career. In order to find the successfulness of the various job roles and employee performances, psychology is the most common approach by worldwide professionals. In this review, the possible methods to measure the successfulness of careers and various job roles are evaluated and explored using more technical and theoretical approaches which align with engineering guidelines.
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Considering the theoretical assumptions of the role stress theory (Kahn, Holf, Quinn, Snoek & Rosenthal, 1964) suggesting that occupying multiple roles (e.g. work and family) can unleash stress on families, and institutional theory (Scott, 2008) also suggesting that institutions and people in other national contexts especially developing countries may be exposed to different factors which influence their management practices, this cross-sectional survey of 129 Nigeria career mothers between 23 to 48 years investigated work-to-family conflict: health implications for their children under five years among career mothers who attended postnatal clinic in a Teaching Hospital in Enugu urban, Nigeria. A survey instrument comprising demographic information, work variables of the career mothers, health status of the children and Okonkwo (2013) 14-item work-to-family conflict scale was administered for data collection. The results revealed that the career mothers who worked 30 to 60 hours and even more (92.2%) a week experienced high level of work-to-family conflict, 46.5% of the women reported that domestic servants in their absence took care of domestic chores such as feeding their children, they reported that combining work and family responsibilities interfered with exclusive breastfeeding of their babies. And pressure and time crunch experienced affected the adequate involvement of the mothers in health-related practices which have implications for the health of their children. The findings have implications for work-family balance among career mothers, children's health, and employers of labour, public policy and sustainable development goals.
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This study conducts an empirical analysis on the relationship between the regional innovation environment (RIE) and scientific workers’ innovative behavior. Additionally, it examines the role of career satisfaction and the need for achievement in the relationship between RIE and innovative behavior. A questionnaire is used to elicit responses from a sample of 4,007 scientific workers in China. The data are analyzed on the SmartPLS software using a structural equation model. The results show a positive and significant effect of RIE on innovative behavior, while career satisfaction plays a partial mediating role in the relationship. The need for achievement serves as a moderator between career satisfaction and innovative behavior, such that the relationship is stronger for scientific workers with less need for achievement. Additionally, an importance-performance map analysis of RIE is conducted; the results suggest that three of the RIE aspects (industry-university-research cooperation, policy on entrepreneurship, and policy on talents) are in urgent need of improvement. The study aims to understand RIE more fully and shed light on the relationships between RIE, career satisfaction, need for achievement, and scientific workers’ innovative behavior and to obtain valuable information for designing strategies aimed at creating a favorable RIE for stimulating scientific workers’ innovation.
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Understanding the context and the antecedents of the entrepreneurship of minorities have attracted the interest of researchers in recent years, even though few studies have focused on the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transvestite, Transsexual or Transgender (LGBT) minorities. In keeping with this shortcoming, the objectives of this study involve identifying the context and the antecedents of the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of LGBT minority entrepreneurs through a qualitative study deploying semi‐structured interviews with six Brazilian entrepreneurs belonging to this minority community. A qualitative methodology was carried out based on the content analysis of interviews and its relationship with the theoretical framework. Based on the framework of theories on marginalization and individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO), the results demonstrate that in most cases, this type of LGBT entrepreneur experiences discrimination in socio‐normative working environments, which may directly or indirectly shape their interests in entrepreneurship. The results also reflect how entrepreneurship becomes interconnected with a feeling of liberation felt by these individuals in openly declaring their sexuality and fostering the confidence capable of motivating them for entrepreneurship. This study furthermore identifies how the pursuit of success in this minority needs to apply a broader perspective than simply status or financial goals while also contributing with a proposed conceptual model and suggestions for future research studies.
Thesis
Cette thèse a pour objectif de présenter une recherche concernant le comportement d’innovation d’un échantillon d’hygiénistes opérant dans des services d’hygiène hospitalière en France. La recherche vise à comprendre le rôle de certains facteurs susceptibles d’être des leviers (ressources individuelles et organisationnelles) et/ou des freins (individuels et organisationnels) à l’innovation des pratiques professionnelles des services d’hygiène hospitalière. Dans un premier temps, il a été fait une revue des travaux sur le comportement d’innovation organisationnelle, la satisfaction au travail, les caractéristiques du travail motivationnel et les comportements proactifs, en particulier la prise en charge. Deux études ont été réalisées pour le recueil des données : une étude qualitative menée auprès des hygiénistes de quatre Hôpitaux de la Nouvelle Aquitaine, et une étude transversale à partir d’un questionnaire auto-rapporté, envoyé à tous les hygiénistes de la France - Métropolitaine et dans les territoires d’Outre-Mer – adhérents à la Société Française d’Hygiène Hospitalière (SF2H), et ce, en un seul temps de mesure. Pour l’étude quantitative, des échelles de mesure traduites en français ont été utilisées, en l’occurrence pour les caractéristiques du travail, le comportement d’innovation. Pour les besoins de l’étude, d’autres échelles de mesure ont également été créées pour mesurer les contraintes liées au travail, les opportunités liées au travail et les échanges entre les services de soins et les services de d’hygiène.Pour tester les hypothèses de médiation, des modèles d’équations structurelles (SEM) ont été utilisés, ainsi que la Macros Process de Hayes pour tester les hypothèses de modération et de médiation modérée. Ces résultats mettent en évidence les leviers dont disposent les hygiénistes pour innover dans leurs pratiques professionnelles ; à savoir que : (1) la variété au travail et l’interdépendance au travail ont une relation positive avec le comportement d’innovation, à travers le comportement proactif de prise en charge, (2) l’autonomie a une relation directe et positive d’une part avec le comportement d’innovation, et d’autre part une relation positive avec le comportement d’innovation, à travers le comportement proactif de prise en charge. En outre, le comportement proactif de prise en charge a une relation positive avec le comportement d’innovation.De plus, ces résultats permettent également d’identifier que les échanges entre les cadres de santé et les hygiénistes sont un levier organisationnel au comportement d’innovation dans leurs pratiques professionnelles, et les contraintes liées au travail sont quant à eux des défis organisationnels à relever. Ces deux facteurs organisationnels contribuent à accélérer le comportement proactif de prise en charge et renforcent davantage le comportement d’innovation.
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This article constructs a conceptual model to explore the mechanism underlying the relationship between institutional pressures and perceived marketability through the perception of high-performance work systems (HPWSs) and tests organizational inertia as a moderator. Based on survey data from 73 senior HR managers and 291 grassroots employees of 73 manufacturing state-owned enterprises in Southwestern China, multilevel structural equation modeling shows that institutional pressures are positively related to perceived internal and external marketability. The perception of HPWSs fully mediates the relationship between institutional pressures and perceived internal marketability, and organizational inertia is a catalyst that strengthens the first stage of the indirect effect. However, the perception of HPWSs is found to have no mediation effect on the relationship between institutional pressures and external marketability. As such, this study provides theoretical and empirical insights into institutional pressures, HPWSs, and marketability.
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This systematic literature review explores studies addressing the objective career success and subjective career success of company-assigned and self-initiated expatriates after their long-term international assignments. Expatriate work is defined as high-density work that affects employee learning and career trajectories. We develop a holistic expatriate career success framework exploring the following questions: 1) What individual career impact results from international assignments? 2) What are the antecedents of such career success? and 3) What are the outcomes of assignees’ career success? A previously neglected range of theoretical perspectives, antecedents, and outcomes of expatriate career success is identified. Subsequently, a threefold contribution is made. First, we extend the conceptualization of international work density to unveil the differences between general and global career concepts. Second, we identify promising theories that have not been utilized in expatriation research, emphasizing context-related and learning theories that chime with the specific nature of global careers. Lastly, we suggest an extensive future research agenda.
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Background: The purpose of this research was to analyze which personal and organizational factors are related to organizational commitment and job satisfaction of shipyard workers who work in different auxiliary shipyard military companies in the north of Spain. Methods: In total, 567 shipyard workers participated in this cross-sectional survey study. The ages were between 19 and 64 (M = 39.36, SD = 10.01), males 82.52%, females 17.48%. We used a survey that included questions about personal and organizational factors such as physical environment, occupational risks, and psychosocial risks, in addition to the job commitment and job satisfaction scales. Results: The results of this study show that job commitment is significantly related to a higher age, lower education, and environmental risk (low vs. high). Furthermore, job satisfaction (high vs. low) and organizational commitment (high vs. low) is related with environmental risk (low vs. high). Job commitment is also higher in workers with a low educational level and older workers. Job satisfaction is lower in workers with a high educational level. Conclusions: This study shows that different personal and environmental factors influence the shipyard workers' organizational commitment and job satisfaction.
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The current study seeks to shed light on social-cognitive resources that mitigate master students’ experience of dysfunctional career-related worry before graduation. Based on the career self-management model (CSM; Lent & Brown, 2013 ), we investigate concurrent and time-lagged direct and mediated relationships between career planning, career-related self-efficacy, and career-related worry among a sample of 482 students shortly before graduation. Using data collected at three time points, a negative relationship was found between career planning (T1) and career-related worry (T3) via career-related self-efficacy (T2). Our findings shed light on the role of career planning and career-related self-efficacy as malleable social-cognitive resources that diminish dysfunctional thinking before graduation in sequential order. These findings imply that career planning and career-related self-efficacy are relevant predictors of affective states and can be incorporated into the CSM.
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Two studies were conducted to investigate the career decision status (CDS) of culturally Chinese people in Taiwan (henceforth referred to as Taiwanese CDS [TCDS]). The first study established a conceptual framework for measuring TCDS. Using a qualitative design, we collected and conceptualised the self-reported CDS of 289 participants, who were subsequently categorised into three groups: the career decided (i.e., career decidedness), explorative undecided (i.e., career indecision), and anxious/confused undecided (i.e., indecisiveness). The second study examined the features of TCDS by using latent profile analysis to determine the optimal solution for distinguishing 222 participants’ responses to the TCDS items. The validity of this three-type structure for TCDS measurement was supported. The implications for theoretical advancement in higher education and career counselling were explored.
Thesis
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Wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung, als ein Teil des bildungspolitischen Konzepts des lebenslangen Lernens, erfährt in den vergangenen Jahren einen stetigen Bedeutungszuwachs. Der einschlägige Diskurs reagiert darauf mit entsprechenden Beiträgen, fokussiert bei der empirischen Bewertung entsprechender Angebote jedoch vielfach auf die Zufriedenheitsurteile Teilnehmender. Fragen nach der Wirksamkeit, insbesondere dem Theorie-Praxis-Transfer, oder weitergehende Perspektiven bleiben eher unberücksichtigt. Die vorliegende Dissertation geht daher in evaluativer Absicht folgender leitender Fragestellung nach: Wie wird wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung von ihren Akteuren bewertet? Für deren Beantwortung werden die Erkenntnisse dreier empirischer Untersuchungen herangezogen. Studie 1 validiert ein für die Wirksamkeitsbewertung eines berufsbegleitenden Masterstudiengangs entwickeltes Evaluationsmodell und -instrument. Sie leistet die methodologische Absicherung der Erkenntnisse aus Studie 2, in der ebenjenes wissenschaftlich weiterbildende Angebot einer Wirksamkeitsbewertung durch die Teilnehmenden unterzogen wird. Die dritte Studie ermittelt die bei organisationalen Adressat*innen vorliegenden Bilder von Universität und ihre Bedeutung für die wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung. Die Bewertung wissenschaftlicher Weiterbildung hängt von ihrem Zeitpunkt bzw. von der eingenommenen Perspektive ab. Die organisationalen Adressat*innen zeichnen die Universität ambivalent: als renommierte und mit großem Fachwissen ausgestattete sowie zugleich als distanzierte und praxisferne Bildungseinrichtung. In Unkenntnis eines entsprechenden Angebots werden diese Bilder auf die wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung übertragen und wirken dort teilnahmefördernd und -hemmend zugleich. Erfolgt die Bewertung wissenschaftlicher Weiterbildung nach der Teilnahme, fällt diese im untersuchten Fall positiv aus. Der berufsbegleitende Masterstudiengang erweist sich auf allen Evaluationsebenen als wirksam. Mit den Erkenntnissen einhergehende Implikationen und Limitationen werden kenntlich gemacht, bevor ein abschließender Ausblick gegeben wird.
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Linkages between a global measure of mentoring experiences, gender, and four outcome variables were investigated. Also, the moderating effects of gender were examined to determine whether mentoring is differentially associated with career outcomes for men and women. Business school graduates (147 women and 173 men) provided information about their backgrounds, companies, positions, mentoring practices, compensation, and compensation satisfaction. Individuals experiencing extensive mentoring relationships reported receiving more promotions, had higher incomes, and were more satisfied with their pay and benefits than individuals experiencing less extensive mentoring relationships. There were no gender differences with regard to the frequency of mentoring activities, and gender did not moderate mentoring-outcome relationships. The results are discussed within the context of a $7,990 income difference between men and women.
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This study examined two alternative explanations for disparity in reported work-related experiences and outcomes between black and white managers: treatment discrimination because of race, and differences in human and social capital. Education and training, representing human capital, and racial similarity of network ties and proportion of strong ties, representing social capital, were used to predict whether human and social capital would mediate the relationship between race and the work-related experiences and outcomes under investigation.Results of a survey of black and white managers in a Fortune 500 financial services firm indicate that black managers reported a slower rate of promotion and less psychosocial support than white managers. Race had both a direct and an indirect effect on these outcomes. Participation in company training significantly predicted reported promotion rates, but race remained a significant predictor. Additional analysis revealed that race moderates the relationship between human capital and promotion rate and suggests a type of treatment discrimination against blacks. Contrary to predictions, social capital did not predict promotion rate, although social capital mediated the relationship between race and psychosocial support. Black managers reported having less social capital than whites, and social capital, in turn, was positively related to the receipt of psychosocial support. No differences were found between blacks and whites in their receipt of career-related support.
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