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Coping with plagiarism and grading load: Randomized programming assignments and reflective grading

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Abstract

Programming assignments often suffer from plagiarism and lack of feedback. The Jarpeb system creates individually randomized assignments, grades the students' programs by utilizing Java's reflective evaluation capabilities, and allows students to submit their grade through the web by signing their grade with a cryptographically strong checksum. Jarpeb's empirical evaluation included as the dependent variables important learners' dimensions: plagiarism, understanding, learning, fairness, difficulty, fun, and interest. The results indicate that Jarpeb contributes to the reduction of plagiarism, increases the understanding, and learning of the course subject while also increasing the perceived fairness, fun, and interest of the learners. The system, however, proved to increase the difficulty of the related exercises. We discuss the implications for educators and outline specific future research directions. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ. 15: 113–123, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20096

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... Additionally, tests can be given more often than usual (the customary midterm exam may be replaced by weekly exams), since the effort required by the instructor is minimal. Both the above achievements are recommended practices against examination-time cheating and in favour of promoting learning [21], [22]. It has additionally been observed that the web interface makes the idea of frequent exams, more agreeable than usual for students. ...
... It is important to consider the opinions of users in evaluating any e-Learning system [22], [23]. The authors of ref. [22] define such an evaluation procedure based on hypothesis testing. ...
... It is important to consider the opinions of users in evaluating any e-Learning system [22], [23]. The authors of ref. [22] define such an evaluation procedure based on hypothesis testing. The hypotheses that needed to be tested in the case of the e-Xaminer where (1) "e-Xams are perceived as equally difficult to the corresponding paper ones", (2) "e-Xams promote learning by making tests more agreable experience for students" and (3) "e-Xams promote learning by helping students accept their test marks as a fair assessment of their performance". ...
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A computer-aided assessment system is presented that has been designed to produce and deliver tests to the Hellenic Air Force Academy students and assess their performance. The system is called e-Xaminer and is intended for use in both un- dergraduate courses and distance learning post-graduate programs of the Academy. The e-Xaminer uses meta-language concepts to automatically generate tests, based on parametrically designed questions. Tests intended for different students may en- tail differences in the arithmetic parameters. Additionally, different tests may be composed from different but equivalent and randomly chosen sub-questions. The system may also present each student with a scrambled sequence of the same ques- tions, as a counter-measure against cheating. Examinations are delivered via a web- based interface; an automatically generated program marks the answers submitted by each student. e-Xaminer allows the implementation of question parameterisation and counter cheating measures, so that electronic tests become significantly different and more powerful than traditional ones. Sample problems are presented which show the additional features of the e-Xaminer, intended to facilitate the work of the course or- ganiser in issuing and marking the tests, as well as in combating cheating. This paper focuses on some new, advanced types of questions enabled by electronic assessment; it then compares paper-and-pencil exams to electronic exams; results from a small student poll on the electronic exams are also presented. Finally, the directions for planned future work are outlined.
... Spinellis et al. [16] have proposed a system called Jarpeb which makes automated assessment of Java programming language assignments. The system works on the local computers of the students and it is not embedded into any distance education system like Moodle. ...
... However, in Refs. [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] and VPL plugin [44] automated assessment of assignments were made but in our study, we preferred semi-automated assessment. (ii) Our proposed system allows keyboard inputs and input files to be included during the running process of source codes; however C_Programming [43] plugin of Moodle does not have this property. ...
... (iii) Our proposed system uses well-known Moss tool to detect source code plagiarism. However, the previous systems [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] do not use Moss or any other plagiarism detection tool for this purpose. Gutiérrez et al. [14] detect plagiarism by using team ids, Spinellis et al. [16] avoid plagiarism by assigning randomized assignments to students, and Malmi et al. [20] prevented plagiarism by personalizing the assignments. ...
Article
In this study, an online compiler and a source code plagiarism detection tool have been included into the Moodle based distance education system of our Computer Engineering department. For this purpose Moodle system has been extended with the GCC compiler, and the Moss source code plagiarism detection tool. We observed that using the online compiler and the plagiarism detection tool reduces time and effort needed for the assessment of the programming assignments; prevents our students from plagiarism; and increases their success in their programming based Data Structures course. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 9999:1–11, 2014; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/cae; DOI 10.1002/cae.21606
... Finally the research concludes the study. (Joy and Luck, 1999;Daly and Horgan, 2005;Spinellis et al., 2007) have identified plagiarism issues in many perspectives. Unacknowledged copying of documents or programs is considered as an act of plagiarism. ...
... They find out that a blend of the two styles is best for students and can reduce plagiarism. Spinellis et al. (2007) agree with the blended approach in dealing with plagiarism. They do not only evaluate students' work in terms of originality, but also understanding, learning, fairness, difficulty, fun and interest as a result of collaboration with other students. ...
... Not only depending on the surveillance system, it is important for instructor to keep varying the course to keep it from getting stale. Such changes might involve instructor's approach in presenting material and collaborating with other students (Spinellis et al., 2007;Stewart-Gardiner et al., 2001). The new and innovative method in marking students' assignment would probably change and improve student's learning style and behavior to spend enough time to develop the program. ...
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Problem statement: Course instructors are facing serious problems in dealing with students who plagiarize programs especially when the number of students in the course is high. Among the proposed approach to handle this problem is by using automatic detection of plagiarism in programming projects. Preventive action is required rather than curing the problem so that programming students get the right message from the beginning. Approach: To address this problem, a surveillance system was proposed to record every programming activity. It is developed in an integrated development environment so that programming activity profile in Java format is created when students are developing their Java program. A non-intrusive and non-experimental setting approach was applied in which hidden data collection is conducted to observe students’ behavior in natural programming setting. Experimental study effect i.e., Hawthorne effect and effect of expectation on subject behavior was exploited as prevention on plagiarism. Surveillance system produces two file types: Activity log to keep programming activity log information and Backup file to save the program writing record. Results: The proposed programming activity surveillance system, DwiCoder presented a programming activity report at the end of each programming session. Students can assess their own progress in developing a program in these three activities: Compilation, execution and modification. The report was presented in a simple and meaningful way to encourage student spend their own time in programming activity. Conclusion: By using DwiCoder, student’s programming activity is continuously monitored and their behavior is under control. This system provides an effective prevention method in tackling plagiarism.
... Isu plagiarisme dalam pembelajaran ditinjau dari berbagai perspektif (Daly dan Horgan, 2005;Spinellis et al., 2007). Penyalinan dokumen atau atur cara tanpa memberi kredit boleh dianggap sebagai suatu perbuatan plagiarisme. ...
... Tenaga pengajar tidak sahaja bergantung kepada sistem pengawasan bahkan perlu mempelbagai pendekatan kursus bagi mengelak rasa bosan. Perubahan tersebut mungkin melibatkan pendekatan pengajar membentang bahan dan bekerjasama dengan pelajar lain (Spinellis et al., 2007;Stewart-Gardiner et al., 2001). Kaedah baharu dan inovatif dalam menanda tugasan pelajar mungkin mengubah dan meningkat gaya pembelajaran pelajar dan tingkah laku menghabiskan masa yang cukup bagi membangun atur cara. ...
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Plagiarism is a convenient way for students to accomplish assignments and projects since it is easy to copy and edit computer programs. Course instructors are facing serious problems in dealing with students who plagiarize programs especially when the number of students in the course is high. Among the proposed approach to handle this problem is by using automatic detection of plagiarism in programming projects. Prevention approach is conducted through monitoring of student programming activities. To address this problem, a surveillance system is proposed to record every programming activity. It is developed in an integrated development environment so that programming activity profile in Java format is created when students are developing their Java program. A non-intrusive and non-experimental setting approach is applied in which hidden data collection is conducted to observe students’ behavior in natural programming setting. Experimental study effect i.e. Hawthorne effect and effect of expectation on subject behavior is exploited as prevention of plagiarism. Surveillance system produces two file types: Activity log to keep programming activity log information and backup file to save the program writing record. The proposed programming activity surveillance system, DwiCoder presents a programming activity report at the end of each programming session. Students can assess their own progress in developing a program in these three activities: compilation, execution, and modification. The report is presented in a simple and meaningful way to encourage student spend their own time in programming activity. By using DwiCoder, student’s programming activity is continuously monitored and their behavior is under control.
... For example, if the instructor needs a tool that supports him/her in assessing programming assignments without spending much effort and time, he/she should consider automatic tools such as GAME [19,20,21] (T6), HOGG [45,46] (T8) and ONLINE ASSESSMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM [47] (T14). But, if the instructor also wishes students to have the opportunity to improve their programs continuously, he/she should consider tools which implement a student-centered approach, such as AUTOMARK [48] (T4), GLAB [49] (T7), JARPEB [50] (T9), KASSANDRA [51] (T11) and the tools developed by Hasan [14] (T26) and Huizinga [15] (T27). In addition, if the instructor wants students to develop more efficient programs, he/she should consider tools specialized in contests, such as ONLINE JUDGE [37,38] (T15). ...
... Ketidakjujuran akademik menjadi kebimbangan sejagat dan setiap tahun banyak penyelidikan telah dijalankan samaada di institusi pengajian tinggi awam mahupun swasta (Sevari Karim &Ebrahimi, 2011).Adalah menjadi kebiasaan ketidakjujuran akademik berlaku di institusi pengajian tinggi kini (Beck, 2014).Pensyarah biasanya menahan atau menangkap pelajar meniru dalam peperiksaan mahupun mencetak maklumat yang diperolehi daripada pelbagai sumber dalam penulisan tugasan (Barizah, Suhaiza, &Suaniza, 2010). Isu plagiarismedalam pendidikan dapat dilihat daripada pelbagai perspektif, penyalinan dokumen, atau atur cara tanpa memberi kredit boleh dianggap sebagai ketidakjujuran akademik (Spinellis et al., 2007). Selain itu, DemoeradanJindrova (2013) melaporkan bahawa The Center for Academic Integrity (CAI) mendapati lebih 75% pelajar-pelajar kolej dan pengajian tinggi akan melakukan ketidakjujuran akademik paling kurang sekali dalam pengajian mereka. ...
... In many cases, these types of assessments usually take much longer to evaluate, due to the variety of answers that are submitted. With that said, the most recent trend in higher education is that the student-to-faculty ratios are increasing (Spinellis, Zaharias, & Vrechopoulos, 2007). Thus, providing consistent, useful feedback in a timely manner will only become more challenging for instructors in the future. ...
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... Many colleges and universities use these learning management systems for purposes of allowing their students to have access to their grades and feedback provided by their instructors. The trend in universities is to increase the number of students to faculty ratio, which hinders the ability of the instructor to provide feedback (Spinellis, Zaharias, & Vrechopoulos, 2007). Not to mention, providing feedback and grading assignments that are based on computer programming, as is the case in computer science and other similar disciplines, is error-prone (Cheang, Kurnia, Lim, & Oon, 2003). ...
... The complexity of the problem in question is due to the different forms in which a student can cheat, as well as the pedagogical conditions under which programming courses facilitate learning within a controlled environment as proposed by the Jarpeb system authors [17], the CTPracticals module authors [18], or the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) laboratory work management framework [19]. An analysis of these restrictions [20] has determined that the degree of similarity among the students' assignments can arise from different causes and cannot be attributed exclusively to a specific type of plagiarism. ...
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... Finally, once the assignment deadline has expired student's executions stored at the university server are compared among them to detect possible plagiarism, which is recognized as an important issue in this kind of assignments [17,18]. To this end, we use JPlag (www.ipd.uni-karlsruhe.de/jplag) ...
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Using the Experience-Sampling Method flow experience, 60 subjects were assessed three times during a one hour inter-action with a hypermedia learning environment in an experi-mental setting. Two task conditions reflecting different depth of processing were introduced: scanning, covering a large area without depth and browsing as a fully elaboration of a system. Three indices of learning performance were as-sessed: (a) content knowledge, (b) structural knowledge, and (c) transfer performance. It was predicted that flow was the dominant state, flow should appear independent on task con-ditions and learning should be improved. Results showed that most of the users go into flow. A detailed analysis of ex-perience characterized flow as an optimal state of experi-ence. All variables measuring the quality of experience were more affected by flow than by other contexts (i.e. fear, apa-thy, boredom). Flow experience was stable over the experi-mental conduction. Learning was not improved for subjects in flow. Results and some limitations are discussed with con-cern to motivational design of hypermedia learning environ-ments and suggestions for future research are made.
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A perception that the reliability of our oral assessments of clinical competence was vitiated by lack of consistency in questioning. Parallel group controlled trial of a Structured Question Grid for use in clinical assessments. The Structured Question Grid required assessors to see the patient personally in advance of the student and to write down for each case the points they wished to examine. The Structured Question Grid limited assessors to two questions on each point, one designated a pass question and one at a higher level. Three basic science and three clinical reasoning issues were required, so that a total of 12 questions was allowed. Small (70 students/year) undergraduate medical school with an integrated, problem-based curriculum. Sixty-seven students in the fourth year of a 5-year course were assessed, each seeing one patient and being examined by a pair of assessors. Assessor pairs were allocated to use the Structured Question Grid or to assess according to their usual practice. After the assessment but before being informed of the result the students completed a questionnaire on their experience and gave their performance a score between 0 and 100. The questions asked were based on focus group discussions with a previous student cohort, and concerned principally the perceived fairness and subjective validity of the assessment. The assessors independently completed a similar questionnaire, gave the student's performance a score between 0 and 100, and assigned an overall pass/fail grade. No difference was detected between students' or assessors' views of the fairness of the assessment for assessors who had used the Structured Question Grid compared to those who had not. Students whose assessors used the Structured Question Grid considered the assessment less representative of their ability. No difference was detected in the chance of students being assessed as failing or on the likelihood of a discrepancy between students' and assessors' ratings of students as passing or failing.
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1982. MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ENGINEERING. Bibliography: leaves 756-761. by Brian Cantwell Smith. Ph.D.
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Measures of software complexity are necessary to monitor code, manage the programming process, and to ensure quality of the process and product. The history of complexity measurement has been marked by too many metrics that are not always based on theory appropriate to the programming process and that have been difficult to empirically validate. The cognitive complexity of software is defined, in this paper, as those characteristics of the software that affect the level of resources used by a person performing a given task. The theoretical approaches used for complexity measurement in the past, such as information theory, graph theory, lattice theory, communication theory, and empirical techniques are compared with the cognitive theoretical approach used. It is concluded that it is necessary to first analyze the processes involved in programmer tasks and the parameters that govern the effort involved in those processes. From these symptoms of complexity, a comprehensive conceptual model of software complexity is developed.
Article
To survey medical students' views about the purposes and fairness of assessment procedures. The survey used a 19-item questionnaire designed for self-completion. Respondents were invited to "strongly agree", "agree", "disagree" or "strongly disagree" with a series of statements about the purposes and fairness of assessment. There was space for free text comments relating to each statement. A total of 312 students out of a sample of 381 completed questionnaires (82% response rate). Whilst the majority of students (> 95%) agreed that ensuring competence, providing feedback and guiding student learning were important purposes of assessment, only half (51%) felt that assessment should be used to predict performance as a doctor. A clear majority of students (81%) agreed that, on the whole, assessment at Newcastle Medical School was fair. Data interpretation papers (comprising a combination of multiple true/false, "one best answer" and short answers) were perceived to be the fairest assessment tool; the assessment of clinical rotations by supervisors was perceived as the least fair. Differences in perception about the fairness of several assessment methods emerged between junior and senior students. A large number of respondents expressed desire for the provision of more feedback on performance in order to guide future learning. Whilst students' views about the fairness of specific assessment tools may sometimes be at variance with published research on assessment, their perceptions will influence the acceptability of assessment. Students would welcome the introduction of methods that provide meaningful assessment feedback.
Article
Constructivism is a theory of learning which claims that students construct knowledge rather than merely recieve and store knowledge transmitted by the teacher. Constructivism has been extremely influential in science and mathematics education, but much less so in computer science education (CSE). This paper surveys constructivism in the context of CSE, and shows how the theory can supply a theoretical basis for debating issues and evaluating proposals. An analysis of constructivism in computer science education leads to two claims: (1) students do not have an e#ective model of a computer, and (2) computers form an accessible ontological reality. The conclusions from these claims are that: (1) models must be explicitly taught, (2) models must be taught before abstractions, and (3) the seductive reality of the computer must not be allowed to supplant construction of models. Introduction The dominant theory of learning today is called constructivism. This theory claims that knowledge is actively constructed by the student, not passively absorbed from textbooks and lectures. Since the construction builds recursively on knowledge that the student already has, each student will construct an idiosyncratic version of knowledge. To
Enhancing E-Learning Assessment and Evaluation Strategies, Plagiarisms, authorships, and the academic death penalty
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Enhancing E-Learning Assessment and Evaluation Strategies
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