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Perfectionism and psychological distress: Evidence of the mediating effects of rumination

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Abstract

Three studies investigated the role of ruminative tendencies in mediating the effects of multidimensional perfectionism (Hewitt & Flett, 1991) on psychological distress. Study 1 (Sample 1, N = 279; Sample 2, N = 224) and Study 2 (N = 205) found evidence, cross-sectionally and prospectively, that brooding ruminative response style either fully or partially mediated the effects of socially prescribed and self-oriented perfectionism on psychological distress, depression and hopelessness levels. In addition, Study 3 (N = 163) confirmed these mediation effects for socially prescribed perfectionism in relation to depression and hopelessness, 2 months later, after initial levels of distress were controlled. Overall, these findings provide evidence that brooding ruminative response style is an important mechanism that can explain, in part, the relationship between perfectionism and distress. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... Salah satu faktor dispoposional yang menjelaskan penyebab munculnya distres psikologis pada individu adalah perfeksionisme. Perfeksionisme telah diidentifikasi sebagai variabel disposisi penting dalam menjelaskan individual differences dalam distres psikologis (O'Connor, O'Connor, Marshall, 2007). Perfeksionisme adalah trait kepribadian yang ditandai dengan keinginan untuk tidak melakukan kesalahan dan menetapkan standar kinerja yang terlalu tinggi disertai dengan kecenderungan ke arah evaluasi yang terlalu kritis terhadap perilaku seseorang . ...
... Self-oriented perfectionism mengacu pada standar pribadi yang tinggi dan motivasi untuk mencapai kesempurnaan untuk diri sendiri. Other-oriented perfectionism mengacu pada kecenderungan individu untuk menuntut kesempurnaan dari orang lain (O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007;Jahromi, Naziri, Barzegar, 2011). ...
... Hal ini karena other-oriented perfectionism tidak pernah mendapatkan perhatian yang sama oleh para peneliti dibandingkan dua dimensi perfeksionisme lainnya (Stoeber, 2015). Flett, dkk (1998) menjelaskan bahwa trait perfectionist dicirikan dengan seringnya mengalami kognisi tentang perbedaan yang dirasakan antara diri mereka yang sebenarnya dan diri yang ideal (O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007). Flett, Hewitt dan Heisel (2002) mengatakan bahwa perfeksionis dengan kognisi perfeksionisme tingkat tinggi sangat rentan terhadap pengaruh negatif dalam bentuk depresi tentang kegagalan untuk mencapai kesempurnaan di masa lalu, serta dalam bentuk kecemasan tentang kemungkinan gagal mencapai kesempurnaan di masa depan. ...
Article
This study aims to determine the effect of perfectionism on psychological distress among Indonesian college students. The hypothesis proposed in this study is that perfectionism has an effect on psychological distress among Indonesian college students. Participants in this study were 402 college students aged 18-24 throughout Indonesia who were collected through incidental sampling techniques. Data collection uses an online questionnaire in the form of Google Form. Perfectionism variables were measured using the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) by Flett and Hewitt (1991) with an alpha cronbach coefficient of 0.881 and psychological distress variables measured using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) with a cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.871. There are 8 regions with the highest participation rate, namely Jawa Tengah, Sulawesi Selatan, DKI Jakarta, Aceh, Jawa Timur, Banten, Jawa Barat, and DI Yogyakarta. The results showed that there was an effect of perfectionism on psychological distress among Indonesian college students with a significance value of 0.000 (p <0.05), therefore, the hypothesis in this study was accepted.
... This association is thought to arise through negative interpretation of daily experiences and a tendency toward avoidant coping patterns (Dunkley et al., 2003(Dunkley et al., , 2014a. Research on perfectionism and stress perpetuation has focused mainly on the role of ruminative brooding (i.e., perseveration about negative emotions) in depressed mood and emotional distress (Blankstein & Lumley, 2008;O'Connor et al., 2007;Olson & Kwon, 2008;Short & Mazmanian, 2013). While this research has identified rumination as an important variable for predicting emotional distress, it does not necessarily reflect perseverative thinking about stressful experiences (i.e., event-focused rumination; Smith & Alloy, 2009) as described in the perseverative cognition hypothesis. ...
... Research to evaluate event-focused rumination in perfectionism is lacking; however, evidence suggests self-critical perfectionism confers vulnerability to other forms of repetitive thinking (Macedo et al., 2015;O'Connor et al., 2007). We hypothesized self-critical perfectionism would predict stress-reactive rumination across the 7-day study period. ...
... Similarly, our model showed people high in self-critical perfectionism demonstrate a tendency toward event-focused rumination in daily life that is independent of daily stressors. This extends past research on ruminative brooding and emotional distress (e.g., Blankstein & Lumley, 2008;O'Connor et al., 2007) and suggests perseveration could contribute to a rigid cognitive style that hinders effective emotion regulation while amplifying stress reactivity (Rudolph et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Models of perfectionism and stress have become increasingly complex, yet perseverative cognition has been largely absent from these models and remains under-represented in the perfectionism and stress literature. This research makes several key advances by testing the perseverative cognition hypothesis in relation to perfectionism and daily stress in a community sample of 100 working professionals. We collected data over a 7-day period using a multi-method daily diary design including self-report measures of daily experiences and daily heart rate variability (HRV), which is thought to reflect physiological adaptation to stress. HRV was measured daily using 15-min samples at the end of each day. Data were aggregated across days and analyzed using path analysis. Results showed self-critical perfectionism predicted poorer adaptation to stress directly and indirectly through perseverative cognition pathways (i.e., the combined effect of daily stress and event-focused rumination). However, considering the impact of daily stress alone did not show detrimental effects on HRV. Perfectionistic strivings was not related to perseverative cognition pathways, but it showed a small positive direct effect on HRV. Findings highlight perseverative cognition as a useful framework for understanding perfectionism and physiological adaptation to stress, and this research points toward the development of an integrative bio-psycho-social model of perfectionism and stress vulnerability.
... Rumination refers to a tendency to repetitively and passively focus on one's distress and the causes, meanings, and consequences of this distress (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991). Unlike other forms of coping that result in active problem-solving, individuals who are ruminating remain fixated on the problems and on their feelings about them without taking action (Nolen-Hoeksema, Wisco, & Lyubomirsky, 2008). Rumination has been associated with suicidal ideation (Ahrens & Linden, 1996;Fairweather, Anstey, Rodgers, Jorm, & Christensen, 2007;Miranda & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2007) and suicide attempts (Grassia & Gibb, 2009;Surrence, Miranda, Marroquín, & Chan, 2009), both concurrently and prospectively (see Morrison & O'Connor, 2008 for a systematic review). ...
... Rumination has been associated with suicidal ideation (Ahrens & Linden, 1996;Fairweather, Anstey, Rodgers, Jorm, & Christensen, 2007;Miranda & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2007) and suicide attempts (Grassia & Gibb, 2009;Surrence, Miranda, Marroquín, & Chan, 2009), both concurrently and prospectively (see Morrison & O'Connor, 2008 for a systematic review). In addition to being related to suicidal ideation and behavior, rumination is also consistently associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse, and nonsuicidal selfinjury (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2008). ...
... n the negative consequences of one's distress, whereas reflection involves attempts to understand the reasons for one's distress. Most studies have found a significant positive association between brooding and suicidal ideation, cross-sectionally (e.g., Cole et al., 2015;Tucker et al., 2013) and longitudinally (e.g., Miranda & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2007;D. B. O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007;R. C. O'Connor & Noyce, 2008); however, findings with regard to reflection have been mixed. For instance, some studies found that reflection was predictive of suicidal ideation crosssectionally and at 1-year follow-up (e.g., Miranda & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2007;Tucker et al., 2013), whereas others demonstrated no association (R. C. O'Connor & ...
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Rumination has been implicated as a risk factor for suicidal ideation and attempts, yet the literature to date has not been synthesized. We conducted a meta-analysis of the association between rumination and both suicidal ideation and attempts to consolidate the existing literature (k = 29). Results indicated that the relationships between global rumination (k = 13; Hedge's g = .74, p <.001, 95% CI [.45, 1.04]), brooding (k = 12; Hedge's g < .63, p < .001, 95% CI [.35, .90]), and reflection (k = 12; Hedge's g = .38, p < .002, 95% CI [.10, .65]) with suicidal ideation were significant. Associations between global rumination (k = 3; Hedge's g = .26, p < .001, 95% CI [.08, .44]) and brooding (k = 4; Hedge's g = .47, p < .004, 95% CI [.02, .91]) and suicide attempts were significant, but reflection (k = 4; Hedge's g = .09, p < .646, 95% CI [-.54, .72]) was unrelated. However, given the limited studies included in suicide attempt analyses-and the exclusive use of cross-sectional designs and heterogeneity with regard to samples and measures-these parameters should be taken with caution. Generally, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and year of publication were not moderators, and there was little evidence for publication bias across effects, with the exception of the effect of global rumination on suicidal ideation. Several future research directions are discussed.
... Consequently, given these mixed findings it would be useful for research to examine whether other processes such as perfectionism and repetitive negative thinking both contribute to explaining depression in the perinatal period. Repetitive negative thinking has been found to mediate the relationship between perfectionism and depression (Di Schiena, Luminet, Philippot, & Douilliez, 2012), perfectionism, and post-traumatic stress disorder (Egan, Hattaway, & Kane, 2013), and perfectionism and psychological distress (Flett, Madorsky, Hewitt, & Heissel, 2002;Macedo et al., 2015;O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007;Short & Mazmanian, 2013). Therefore, it would be useful to explore the contribution of both repetitive negative thinking and perfectionism to perinatal depression. ...
... The findings also indicated the roles of repetitive negative thinking and perfectionism, where perfectionism predicted repetitive negative thinking and antenatal depressive symptoms at time 1 during pregnancy, which in turn predicted postnatal depressive symptoms at time 2. This result is in line with findings that repetitive negative thinking mediates the relationship between perfectionism and depression (Di Schiena et al., 2012), and perfectionism and psychological distress (Flett et al., 2002;Macedo et al., 2015;O'Connor et al., 2007;Short & Mazmanian, 2013). ...
Article
Repetitive negative thinking and perfectionism have both been proposed as processes that are related to depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate concurrent and prospective relationships between antenatal and postnatal depression, perfectionism, and repetitive negative thinking. A longitudinal design was used and 71 women were followed from their third trimester of pregnancy to six weeks post birth. A structural equation model was tested with antenatal perfectionism predicting antenatal repetitive negative thinking, perfectionism predicting postnatal depression, and antenatal negative thinking predicting antenatal and postnatal depression. The final model provided an adequate fit to the data but the pathway from antenatal repetitive negative thinking to postnatal depression was not significant. The findings provide support for the role of perfectionism and repetitive negative thinking in the onset and maintenance of perinatal symptoms of depression. It is suggested that future research investigates the efficacy of targeting repetitive negative thinking and perfectionism in pregnancy to examine if this can reduce perinatal depression.
... Previous literature has shown that perfectionistic concerns are associated with lower self-esteem (e.g. Dunkley et al., 2012;Flett et al., 1991;Rice et al., 1998), higher levels of self-criticism, and increased ruminative tendencies (James et al., 2015;O'Connor et al., 2007). Research has also found that both self-critical rumination and metacognitions about self-critical rumination play a significant role in predicting lower self-esteem (Kolubinski et al., 2019). ...
... However, until now evidence that perfectionism and self-critical rumination has not yet emerged in the literature. This finding enriches earlier research, as previous studies have found positive associations between perfectionistic concerns and other forms of rumination, such as 'brooding' rumination (Egan et al., 2014;O'Connor et al., 2007) and depressive rumination (Flett et al., 2002), but not self-critical rumination, which despite having similarities to other ruminative processes, is considered to be its own distinct construct (Smart et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Past research has shown that perfectionism, can negatively impact self-esteem. However, the mediating factors that explain this relationship remain unclear. The current study aimed to investigate whether specific cognitive processes, namely, self-critical rumination and associated metacognitions, mediate this relationship. An opportunity sample of 347 participants completed a battery of online questionnaires measuring clinical perfectionism, self-critical rumination, metacognitions about self-critical rumination, self-esteem, and levels of psychological distress. Several hypotheses were tested to examine the associations between the study variables. Following this, a path analysis was used to determine whether the influence of perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic striving on self-esteem is mediated by positive metacognitions about self-critical rumination, self-critical rumination, and negative metacognitions about self-critical rumination, serially. Positive metacognitions about self-critical rumination, self-critical rumination, and negative metacognitions about self-critical rumination partially mediated the relationship between perfectionistic concerns and self-esteem and fully mediated the relationship between perfectionistic striving and self-esteem. These results point towards possible interventions for those who struggle with low self-esteem due to their perfectionistic tendencies. Further investigations should explore additional factors that help to explain why perfectionism impacts self-esteem levels, whilst also addressing the limitations of this current research.
... As reported in other studies (Blankstein & Lumley, 2008;O´Connor et al., 2007;Randles, Flett, Nash, McGregor, & Hewitt, 2010), these results indicate that the interpersonal dimension of socially prescribed perfectionism tends to be more strongly associated with maladaptive coping strategies and emotional discomfort than the intrapersonal dimension of self-criticism and high personal standards portrayed by self-oriented perfectionism. As for other-oriented perfectionism, it was not significantly correlated with depressive symptoms, thus not emerging as a putative risk factor for depression and being excluded from the rest of the analyses. ...
... These results are consistent with the findings of previous studies in relation to the role of brooding (Harris et al., 2008;O´Connor et al., 2007;Olson & Kwon, 2008, Di Schiena et al., 2012; however, they contrast with the findings of Flett et al. (2005), who reported that maladaptive defense mechanisms only act as a link between socially prescribed perfectionism and depression. This divergence may have emerged because Flett et al. grouped neurotic and immature defense mechanisms into a single factor, and perhaps the inclusion of the neuroticism dimension accentuates the relevance of perfectionist cognitions, placing greater emphasis on others' expectations (i.e., socially prescribed perfectionism). ...
Article
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Objective: This study investigated the mediating and moderating roles of emotion-focused coping strategies (rumination and immature defenses) in the relationship between perfectionism and depressive symptoms in a Spanish community sample. Method: 438 participants (67.4% female; mean age = 36.94 years) completed self-reports assessing perfectionism, rumination, immature defenses and depression. Multiple mediation, moderation and moderated mediation analyses were conducted. Results: Brooding-rumination and immature defenses mediated the relationship between perfectionism and depressive symptoms. Also, brooding-rumination moderated the impact of perfectionism on depressive symptoms. The mediating effect of brooding in the relationship between perfectionism and depressive symptoms turned out to be moderated by immature defenses, such that the vulnerability link between perfectionism and depressive symptoms through brooding was stronger in individuals scoring high on immature defenses. Conclusion: Brooding-rumination and immature defenses may be essential mechanisms to explain the paths and conditions whereby maladaptive perfectionism gives rise to depression.
... Moreover, extant mediational models linking perfectionism to depressive symptoms usually involve cross-sectional designs (DiBartolo et al., 2008) or two-wave longitudinal designs (O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007). Cross-sectional tests of mediation are potentially biased (Maxwell & Cole, 2007) and fail to clarify temporal relations, whereas two-wave longitudinal designs capture only a narrow, and possibly unrepresentative, slice of change. ...
Article
Perfectionistic concerns (i.e., negative reactions to failures, concerns over others’ criticism and expectations, and nagging self-doubts) are a putative risk factor for depressive symptoms. This study proposes and supports the existential model of perfectionism and depressive symptoms (EMPDS), a conceptual model aimed at explaining why perfectionistic concerns confer risk for depressive symptoms. According to the EMPDS, perfectionistic concerns confer risk for depressive symptoms both through catastrophic interpretations that magnify relatively minor setbacks into seemingly major obstacles and through negative views of life experiences as unacceptable, dissatisfying, and meaningless. This investigation tests the EMPDS in a sample of 240 undergraduates studied using a 4-wave, 4-week longitudinal design. Hypotheses derived from the EMPDS were largely supported, with bootstrap tests of mediation sug- gesting that the indirect effect of perfectionistic concerns on depressive symptoms through catastrophic thinking and difficulty accepting the past is significant. Results indicated perfectionistic concerns are more an antecedent of, rather than a complication of, catastrophic thinking, difficulty accepting the past, and depressive symptoms. Consistent (but imperfect) support for the incremental validity of the EMPDS beyond either perfectionistic strivings or neuroticism was also observed. Overall, this investigation suggests persons high in perfectionistic concerns not only tend to catastrophize their life experiences but also struggle to accept their life experiences and to negotiate a sense of purpose, direction, and coherence in their lives. With both a catastrophic view of their present and a dark view of their past, this investigation also suggests persons high in perfectionistic concerns are at risk for depressive symptoms.
... Cognitive behavioral models of suicide posit that the way in which individuals respond to stressful life events and negative emotions can increase their likelihood of experiencing suicidal crises, such as rumination over negative experiences or feelings of thwarted belongingness (Johnson et al., 2008;Wenzel and Beck, 2008;Williams et al., 2016). There is evidence that responses such as rumination, experiential avoidance, or avoidance-based coping attempts, are associated with increased distress (Penley et al., 2002;O'Connor et al., 2007;Karekla and Panayiotou, 2011). A large study involving 32,827 participants from the general population demonstrated that these kinds of psychological processes mediate the impact of life events, risk from familial mental health history, and social circumstances, such as income, on mental health (Kinderman et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Objectives This paper aims to identify potential areas for refinement in existing theoretical models of suicide, and introduce a new integrative theoretical framework for understanding suicide, that could inform such refinements. Methods Literature on existing theoretical models of suicide and how they contribute to understanding psychological processes involved in suicide was evaluated in a narrative review. This involved identifying psychological processes associated with suicide. Current understanding of these processes is discussed, and suggestions for integration of the existing literature are offered. Results Existing approaches to understanding suicide have advanced the current knowledge of suicide in various ways. They have guided valuable research in the following areas: motivations for suicide and the psychological distress which influences suicide attempts; ambivalence about suicide; suicidal individuals’ focus of attention; and ways in which individuals who contemplate suicide differ from individuals who attempt suicide. We outline a new theoretical framework as a means to integrating all of these concepts into the three principles of control, conflict, and awareness. Within this framework, suicide is regarded as occurring due to a long standing conflict between an individual’s personal goals, culminating in an episode of acute loss of control. The new framework posits that the individual then strives to regain control through the means of suicide because of a narrowed awareness of consequences of their actions on other valued goals. This psychological mechanism of limited awareness is posited to be the common pathway by which individuals make a suicide attempt, regardless of which risk factors are present. Conclusion This article introduces a theoretical framework that generates several hypotheses for future research, and focuses on psychological processes occurring during immediate crisis. One of the key hypotheses resulting from our predictions on how individuals progress from contemplating to attempting suicide will be tested in an ongoing program of research: Individuals who attempt suicide have a significantly reduced awareness of consequences of suicide, which would negatively impact on their important life goals, values, principles, or ideals, compared to individuals who contemplate suicide. Therapy guided by the new framework may be more flexible, immediate, and client-focused than other therapies for suicidal individuals.
... Particularly, those with self-critical perfectionism tendencies are likely to biasedly interpret ambiguous situations to warrant perfection (Yiend et al., 2011). They also struggle to withdraw attention from emotionally negative stimuli (Tonta et al., 2019) and often ruminate (O'Connor et al., 2007). Such reactivity to stimuli leaves certain individuals with perfectionistic tendencies in a chronically highly stressed state. ...
Article
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Perfectionism is a vulnerability factor for a wide array of psychopathology. Despite much evidence suggesting dysregulated stress response as an intermediary process that links perfectionism to psychopathology, the lack of a cross-lagged examination deterred researchers from making causal interpretations. This study examined the directionality of effects among perfectionism dimensions, stress reactivity, and depression. A total of 189 participants at time 1 and 94 at time 2 completed an online survey that consisted of measures of perfectionism, stress reactivity, and depression, one month apart. Cross-lagged analysis results showed that personal standards perfectionism predicted later prolonged stress reactivity but not depression at time 2. Self-critical perfectionism predicted later depression but not prolonged stress reactivity at time 2. Rather, prolonged stress reactivity at time 1 predicted self-critical perfectionism at time 2. Findings suggest that perfectionism dimensions are distinct in creating a dysregulated stress process. Future studies could incorporate other stress-related variables (e.g., coping) to further explicate the stress-generation process, in conjunction with stress reactivity.
... They are often preoccupied with their mistakes and disappointments, which suggests that they are not satisfied with themselves, so they are not perfect. There have been empirical studies with both adults and adolescents that have verified the association between higher level of perfectionism and elevated rumination [52][53][54][55]. These findings were also statistically significant for both socially prescribed and self-oriented perfectionism. ...
Article
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Background: Empirical evidence suggests that low self-esteem and high perfectionism are significant personality correlates of work addiction, but the mechanisms underlying these relationships are still unclear. Consequently, exploring cognitive mechanisms will help to better understand work addiction. For instance, rumination is one of the under-researched topics in work addiction, although it may explain specific thinking processes of work-addicted individuals. The purpose of the study was to test the mediating role of maladaptive rumination (i.e., brooding) in the relationship between personality and addiction. Methods: In a largescale cross-sectional, unrepresentative, online study, 4340 adults with a current job participated. The following psychometric instruments were used: Work Addiction Risk Test Revised, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and Ruminative Response Scale. Results: It was found that self-oriented perfectionism, socially prescribed perfectionism, and self-esteem had both direct and indirect relationships with work addiction via the mediating effect of maladaptive rumination. The two paths involving brooding explained 44% of the direct relationship. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that brooding type of rumination as a putatively maladaptive strategy explains why individuals characterized by low self-esteem and high perfectionism may have a higher risk of work addiction. The results suggest that cognitive-affective mechanisms in work addiction are similar to those found in other addictive disorders.
... Most of the studies report that rumination increases the emotional experience of frustration and distress (Bushman, 2002;Xie et al., 2019) and the intention to engage in self-criticism (Bushman, 2002). Maladaptive perfectionism is also characterized by experiencing a high frequency of rumination (O'Connor et al., 2007;Xie et al., 2019). Thus, the maladaptive perfectionist individuals who experience imperfection in their lives, might evaluate themselves critically and negatively and dwell on past negative emotions. ...
Article
The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it aims to investigate the mediating role of family–work conflict (FWC) on the relationship between the dimensions of perfectionism (adaptive vs. maladaptive) and well-being, and second, it aims to explore whether gender moderates this mediated relationship. Data are gathered from 238 dual working and married employees working in different sectors. The moderated mediation analyses are conducted using PROCESS macro developed by Hayes and Preacher (2013). The findings reveal that FWC plays a critical mediating role in transmitting the effects of maladaptive perfectionism to well-being. Regarding it the moderated relationship, we find that the positive relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and FWC is stronger for men than it is for women. However, the effect of adaptive perfectionism on FWC is found to be stronger for women compared to that for men. We discuss these findings in relation to gender roles and FWC policies and research.
... Given that rumination is among the most robust risk factors for psychological distress (O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007), various factors that may predict rumination have been concerned about. A large number of studies have revealed the predictive effects of stressful life events (Michl, McLaughlin, Shepherd, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2013), low self-esteem (Kuster, Orth, & Meier, 2012), cyber-victimization (Feinstein, Bhatia, & Davila, 2014, and negative social comparison on Facebook (Feinstein et al., 2013) on rumination. ...
Article
Background: With the increasing incidence of mobile phone addiction, mobile phone addiction has been considered to be related to adolescents’ psychological distress. However, the underlying mechanisms of this relation were still unclear. The present study tested the mediating role of rumination and the moderating role of the capacity to be alone in the relation between mobile phone addiction and psychological distress. Methods: 754 middle school students were recruited to complete measures of mobile phone addiction, rumination, the capacity to be alone, psychological distress and demographic variables. Results: Mobile phone addiction was significantly and positively associated with psychological distress, and this link could be mediated by rumination. Moreover, the direct effect of mobile phone addiction on psychological distress and the indirect effect of rumination in this link were moderated by the capacity to be alone. Both these two effects were stronger for adolescents with lower capacity to be alone. Limitations: The present study is limited in terms of its sample selection, cross-sectional design, and self-reported instruments. Conclusions: The present study advances our understanding of how and when or for whom mobile phone addiction is related to serious psychological distress. Education professionals and parents should pay special attention to the psychological distress of adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction, particularly for those with lower capacity to be alone.
... For instance, longitudinal studies have found that SC perfectionism predicts higher distress over time because of greater stress (e.g., Dunkley et al., 2003;Dunkley, Ma, Lee, Preacher, & Zuroff, 2014;Smith, Sherry, Vidovic, Hewitt, & Flett, 2020) and daily stress reactivity (Mandel et al., 2015). Other longitudinal research has demonstrated that rumination (O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007) and experiential avoidance (Moroz & Dunkley, 2019) mediate the link between SC perfectionism and distress symptoms (e.g., depressive, anxious) over time. ...
Article
This study of 124 community adults examined whether perfectionism interacts with mindfulness and self-compassion to predict anxiety and depressive symptoms over two years. Participants completed measures of self-critical (SC) and personal standards (PS) higher-order dimensions of perfectionism at Time 1; mindfulness and self-compassion domains and facets at Time 2 one year later; and general distress (i.e., shared between depression and anxiety), anxious arousal, and anhedonic depressive symptoms at Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3 two years after baseline. In contrast to PS, SC perfectionism was associated with lower mindfulness and self-compassion domains and facets. Hierarchical regression analyses of moderator effects demonstrated that individuals with higher Time 1 SC perfectionism and lower Time 2 domain mindfulness or self-compassion had higher Time 3 general distress symptoms than others, adjusting for the effects of Time 1 and Time 2 symptoms. SC perfectionism also interacted with specific facets of mindfulness (i.e., observing, nonreactivity) and self-compassion (i.e., self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification) to predict Time 3 general distress and/or anxious arousal symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of fostering mindfulness and self-compassion to reduce vulnerability to anxious and depressive symptoms in individuals with higher SC perfectionism.
... Rumination has been shown to intensify negative affect (Nolen-Hoeksema, Wisco, & Lyubomirsky, 2008), which leads to more rumination, in what Selby, Anestis, and Joiner (2008) described as an emotional cascade; this process continues until a maladaptive behavior (reassurance seeking, substance use, binge eating, etc.) interrupts the cycle. Rumination appears to be prominent across emotional disorders (see Aldao et al., 2010) and prospectively predicts increases in anxiety and depressive symptoms (Butler & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1994;Calmes & Roberts, 2007;Hong, 2007;Nolen-Hoeksema, 2000;Nolen-Hoeksema, Larson, & Grayson, 1999;O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007;Sarin, Abela, & Auerbach, 2005;Segerstrom, Tsao, Alden, & Craske, 2000). ...
... Striving to achieve goals can be taxing on children's coping resources (Masten, 2014). Similarly, the act of striving for perfection can cause intense distress if the goals are not achieved, with rumination acting as a mediating factor in this relationship (O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007). ...
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Objectives: Most research investigating children's experiences of stress and coping has utilized a quantitative approach. This study aimed to examine children's experiences of stress by conducting interviews with children and their parents. Design: Dyadic child-parent interviews, embedded within a multiphase design. Methods: Thirty-eight children (22 boys) aged 7-11 years and 38 parents (34 mothers) completed in-depth dyadic interviews about stressful life events, adversity, and coping, analysed using inductive thematic analysis with a phenomenological lens. Results: Four themes emerged: (1) navigating the social minefield; (2) pressure to thrive in the modern world; (3) fear of the unknown; and (4) learning life's lessons. The first suggested that social relationships are a major feature of children's stress experiences; however, social support was also found to be a beneficial coping mechanism. The second theme highlighted multiple sources of pressure on young children (including school, extracurricular activities, pressure from self and others); the impact of such pressure was dependent upon children's coping resources. The third theme emphasized the difficulty of coping with novel stressors, and how awareness can help reduce this fear. The final theme highlighted important lessons that children can learn from stressful experiences and how to cope with stress. Conclusions: This study addresses the importance of the person and context-dependent nature of stress and coping in order for children to survive and thrive following stressful experiences. These findings contribute to existing knowledge that could be used to develop a toolkit for coping with stress, designed specifically for children, parents, schools, and services. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Stress experienced in childhood can have a significant impact on psychological and physiological outcomes across the life course. It is known that individual differences are vital for understanding the effects of stress on health, for children as well as adults. Qualitative methods enable deeper understanding of children's experiences of stress and coping. What does the study add? Depth and breadth to understanding children's experiences of stressful events. An individual differences focus on the early stress experience that is frequently overlooked. Support for the use of a dyadic interview approach for assessing children's stress experiences.
... Osim istraživanja ruminacije i njenog odnosa s različitim psihičkim poremećajima, brojna su istraživanja u kojima je dobiveno da je ruminacija povezana s maladaptivnim (negativnim) perfekcionizmom (Flett i sur., 2002;Harris, Pepper i Maack, 2008;Luyckx i sur., 2008;Olson i Kwon, 2008;Randles, Flett, Nash, McGregor i Hewitt, 2010;Nepon i sur., 2011;Soliemanifar i sur., 2015), ali i da ruminacija ima medijacijsku ulogu u odnosu između perfekcionizma i depresije (O'Connor, O'Connor i Marshall, 2007;Harris, Pepper i Maack, 2008;Luyckx i sur., 2008;Nepon i sur., 2011;Soliemanifar i sur., 2015). Perfekcionisti ruminiraju zbog neuspjeha i potrebe da budu savršeni te se usredotočuju na diskrepanciju između njihovog Aktualnog ja i Idealnog ja (Hewitt i Flett, 2002;prema Harris, Pepper i Maack, 2008). ...
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Recent studies of anxiety and depression among students indicate there is an increase in psychological problems in that population. Given that those problems can negatively affect their academic and everyday functioning, it is of great importance to identify and study factors related to problems with psychological health. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between negative perfectionism, ruminative thought style, intolerance of uncertainty and mindfulness with anxiety and depression as well as their contribution in explaining the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Furthermore, the aim was to examine the differences in negative perfectionism, intolerance of uncertainty, ruminative thought style, depression and anxiety between those who are high and low on mindfulness. The study was conducted on 317 students in the Republic of Croatia whose age ranged from 18 to 41. Scales used in the study were general information questionnaire, Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale (PNPS; Terry-Short et al., 1995), Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire – RTS; Brinker & Dozois, 2009), Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (NN-11; Mihić et al., 2014), Mindful Attention Awareness Scale – MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003) and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS- 21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995a). The results have shown that there is a positive correlation between anxiety and negative perfectionism, intolerance of uncertainty, inhibitory and prospective anxiety, ruminative thought style as well as negative correlation with mindfulness. The correlation remained significant even after controlling for depression. Likewise, constructs have shown the same pattern of correlations with depression, even after controlling for anxiety. Other than that, the results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that intolerance of uncertainty, mindfulness and ruminative thought style significantly predict anxiety i.e. higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty and ruminative thought style and lower levels of mindfulness predict higher levels of anxiety. When it comes to depression, the results have shown that all selected predictors significantly contribute to the variance of depression i.e. higher levels of negative perfectionism, intolerance of uncertainty and ruminative thought style along with lower levels of mindfulness predict higher levels of depression. Additionally, the results have shown that there are lower levels of negative perfectionism, intolerance of uncertainty, ruminative thought style, anxiety and depression in high mindfulness group compared to low mindfulness group. The results are in accordance with expectations and make a significant contribution to understanding of investigated constructs on Croatian sample but considering the complex relationship between constructs, there is need for further research.
... In addition, the finding adds to our understanding of the development of perfectionistic concerns. Because previous research has found that perfectionistic concerns are longitudinally associated with difficulties in emotion regulation in adolescents over a short period of only one month (Vois & Damian, 2020), it may be that unhealthy strategies (i.e., avoidant coping, rumination) of dealing with negative affect are an explanatory mechanism of why perfectionistic concerns may increase as a function of negative affect (see Dunkley, 2017;O'Connor et al., 2007). Future research should further deepen this understanding by investigating whether learning healthy strategies of dealing with negative affect may help children and adolescents in reducing their perfectionistic concerns or preventing perfectionistic concerns to develop. ...
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Cross-sectional studies on perfectionism and general affect tend to interpret their findings suggesting affect is an outcome of perfectionism. However, personality theories posit that individual differences in general affect may also influence perfectionism. Expecting to find bidirectional relations, this 3-wave study sought to examine the longitudinal interplay between perfectionism and general affect in a sample of 489 adolescents (54% female) aged 12-19 years. Cross-lagged panel analyses showed a positive unidirectional effect from positive affect to perfectionistic standards as well as a positive bidirectional effect between perfectionistic concerns and negative affect. As expected, general affect was both an antecedent and an outcome of perfectionism. Implications of the findings for the development and outcomes of perfectionism are discussed.
... Given that rumination is among the most robust risk factors for psychological distress (O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007), various factors that may predict rumination have been concerned about. A large number of studies have revealed the predictive effects of stressful life events (Michl, McLaughlin, Shepherd, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2013), low self-esteem (Kuster, Orth, & Meier, 2012), cyber-victimization (Feinstein, Bhatia, & Davila, 2014, and negative social comparison on Facebook (Feinstein et al., 2013) on rumination. ...
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The phenomenon of problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) has been incredibly increasing, especially in Asian countries. Prior studies have argued that negative emotion is linked to PMPU. Based on the cognitive‐behavioural model of pathological Internet use and the buffering model of social support, our purpose is to identify the nuanced mediators of the rumination subtypes (i.e., reflection and brooding) and examine the moderator of social support in the relation between negative emotion and PMPU. A sample of 1,014 college students was recruited to complete the scales of PMPU, depression, anxiety, rumination (i.e., reflection and brooding), and social support. Results showed that (a) reflection did not mediate a link between negative emotion and PMPU whereas brooding partially mediated the link, and (b) both the direct association between negative emotion and PMPU and the mediated effect of brooding were moderated by social support, and they were stronger when social support was low rather than high. The study distinguishes the mediated effect of rumination subtypes and incorporates social factor in the relationship between negative emotion and PMPU, which deepens our understanding of how and when negative emotion relates to PMPU.
... Moreover, individuals high in maladaptive perfectionism engage in cognitive strategies that orient themselves towards negative, threatening information. For instance, greater maladaptive perfectionism is associated with greater rumination, that is, the tendency to repeatedly think about one's negative emotional experience, (e.g., Flett, Madorsky, Hewitt, & Heisel, 2002;O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007;Rudolph, Flett, & Hewitt, 2007) and worry (Santanello & Gardner, 2007;Stöber & Joormann, 2001). In a diary study that required participants to record mistakes, individuals high in maladaptive perfectionism reported greater rumination following mistakes compared to those low in maladaptive perfectionism (Frost et al., 1997). ...
Article
Maladaptive perfectionism has been shown to be associated with undesirable outcomes, such as elevated negative emotions and psychopathological traits. Perhaps unsurprisingly, there is preliminary evidence that maladaptive perfectionism is also related to emotion dysregulation. However, the nature of emotion dysregulation in perfectionism has not been characterized. In this review, Gross and Jazaieri's (2014)clinically-informed framework of emotion dysregulation is used to review the evidence of emotion dysregulation in maladaptive perfectionism. Specifically, this paper reviews evidence of problematic emotional experiences and unhelpful emotion regulation strategies in maladaptive perfectionism and discusses how poor emotional awareness and emotion regulation goals may also contribute to emotion dysregulation. A conceptual model of these components of emotion dysregulation in maladaptive perfectionism is proposed in which heightened negative affect in response to threatened perfectionistic standards is posited to be at the core of emotion dysregulation, and implicit and explicit unhelpful emotion regulation strategies and poor emotion regulation goals are suggested to contribute to further dysregulation and elevated negative affect. Clinical implications, limitations in the extant research, and future directions are discussed.
... Morrison & O'Connor, 2008;. It has also been prospectively related to suicidal ideation within one year(Miranda & Nolen- Hoeksema, 2007), three months(O'Connor & Noyce, 2008), and eight weeks(O'Connor et al., 2007). ...
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Suicide is a major public health problem, and suicide rates are still on the rise. Current strategies for identifying individuals at risk for suicide, such as the use of a patient's self‐reported suicidal ideation or evidence of past suicide attempts, have not been sufficient in reducing suicide rates. Recently, research groups have been focused on determining the acute mental state preceding a suicide attempt. The development of an acute suicidal diagnosis, the Suicide Crisis Syndrome (SCS), is aimed at capturing this state to better treat individuals. The SCS has five main evidence‐based components—entrapment, affective disturbance, loss of cognitive control, hyperarousal, and social withdrawal. The SCS may provide clinicians with the ability to identify individuals who are experiencing an acute pre‐suicidal mental state, regardless of their self‐reported suicidal ideation. Future research leading to the incorporation of this diagnosis into clinical practice could improve the quality of care and reduce the personal, societal, and legal burden of suicide.
... In previous research on depression and anxiety, the evidence base for psychological risk factors (e.g. self-criticism, perfectionism, repetitive negative thoughts, and rumination) [15][16][17][18][19][20][21] and behavioural risk factors (e.g. alcohol use and conduct problems) [10], has drawn typically from cross-sectional studies. ...
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Risk factors for psychological distress among help-seeking youth are poorly understood. Addressing this gap is important for informing mental health service provision. This study aimed to identify risk factors among youth attending Jigsaw, a youth mental health service in Ireland. Routine data were collected from N = 9,673 youth who engaged with Jigsaw (Mean age = 16.9 years, SD = 3.14), including presenting issues, levels of psychological distress, age, and gender. Confirmatory Factor Analysis identified thirteen factors of clustering issues. Several factors, including Self-criticism and Negative Thoughts, were strongly associated with items clustering as psychological distress, however these factors were poorly predictive of distress as measured by the CORE (YP-CORE: R² = 14.7%, CORE-10: R² = 6.9%). The findings provide insight into associations between young people’s identified presenting issues and self-identified distress. Implications include applying appropriate therapeutic modalities to focus on risk factors and informing routine outcome measurement in integrated youth mental health services.
... The association with self-blaming is not so surprising taking in consideration the tendency for self-critical evaluations, even in "positive" perfectionists, corroborating previous findings showing that personal standards and SOP are not completely adaptive (DiBartolo, Li, & Frost, 2008;Frost et al., 1990) and may be involved in both positive and negative outcomes, processes and mechanisms (Stoeber & Otto, 2006). To explain this differential function it has been proposed that their role on psychological distress may be a function of specific mediators (Macedo et al., 2015;O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007). ...
Article
Recent studies proposed that maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation (CER) is associated with negative dimensions of perfectionism and mediates the relationship between this trait and negative affect dimensions. In the present longitudinal study, our aim was to examine whether and which perfectionism cognitions and CER strategies would mediate the relationship between perfectionism traits and psychological distress, controlling for perceived stress, social support and outcome measure at one year before. At T0 and after approximately one year (T1), 258 college students (79.8% female) filled in the Portuguese validated versions of self-report questionnaires to evaluate perfectionism trait dimensions (perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic strivings), perfectionism cognitions, CER dimensions, perceived stress, social support and psychological distress (depression, hostility-anxiety, and amiability-vigor). We found that higher perfectionistic concerns at T0 contribute significantly, after one year, to maladaptive perfectionism cognitions, which in turn are associated with higher levels of catastrophizing and rumination, and altogether will ultimately contribute to greater anxiety/hostility (total indirect effect: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.07) and depression (total indirect effect: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.13). In this cognitive setting, perfectionist individuals may benefit from psychological interventions to reduce their tendency to use maladaptive CER strategies.
... Xie et al., 2019). Further, rumination on perfectionistic content explains variance in negative affect above and beyond the variance explained by trait perfectionism (Flett et al., 2002;O'Connor et al., 2007). The idea that individuals with elevated perfectionism ruminate on their perceived failures and flaws may offer an explanation for the common finding that perfectionism acts via rumination to increase negative affect (Xie et al., 2019). ...
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Objective: Using the Emotional Cascade Model as a theoretical framework, this study tested whether the relationship between perfectionism and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) operates through rumination and negative affect. Additionally, we tested whether the associations between perfectionism and both rumination and negative affect are moderated by attention control. Methods: Using a correlational cross-sectional design, adults aged 18-25 with (N = 197) and without (N = 271) a history of NSSI completed measures of perfectionism, rumination, negative affect, attention control, and NSSI. Results: Perfectionism was directly associated with increased odds of NSSI, and indirectly associated with odds of NSSI through rumination and negative affect. The relationship between perfectionism and rumination was moderated by attention focusing, such that the relationship was stronger for individuals who were higher in attention focusing. Conclusion: Integrating perfectionism and attention with existing models of NSSI may improve understanding of the factors contributing to NSSI and offers insights into future clinical directions.
... In addition, several studies have also found rumination to be related to ED symptoms (e.g., Etu & Gray, 2010;Gordon et al., 2012). Our findings extend prior research by showing that MEC perfectionism is not only associated with depressive brooding, as evidenced previously (O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007;Olson & Kwon, 2008;Van der Kaap-Deeder et al., 2016), but also with ED-related brooding. ...
... In a study by Rudolph, Flett, and Hewitt (2007), socially prescribed perfectionism was positively related to maladaptive cognitive strategies, such as self-blaming, catastrophic thinking, and rumination, and negatively related to adaptive cognitive strategies such as changing perspectives or positive reappraisal. In a study by O'Connor, O'Connor, and Marshall (2007), socially prescribed perfectionism had the strongest relationship with rumination and psychological distress compared to self-oriented perfectionism and other-oriented perfectionism. ...
Article
Based on a posttest-only control group design, we analyzed the efficiency of three group-level interventions (i.e., cognitive reframing, mood induction, and instrumental interventions) on the fairness perceptions of 198 participants in an assessment context. Each intervention was derived from a conceptual framework (Gilliland’s theory, Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy, Affect-as-Information Perspective), which was empirically validated. Although the results are not extremely encouraging, as between the three experimental groups and the control one (no intervention) there were not large statistical differences, our study still highlights that the assessors need to focus on the participants if they wish to increase their perceptions of fairness, not only over its formal elements. A series of limitations and future research directions are presented.
... PCT highlights two contributors (rumination and worry) to the perfectionism cognitive process and suggests that they mediate the link between perfectionism and distress. O'Connor, O'Connor, and Marshall (2007) found that rumination mediates the correlation between SOP/ SPP and depression and hopelessness, while Short and Mazmanian (2013) found that both rumination and worry mediate the correlation between SPP and negative affect. To the best of our knowledge, however, there is a lack of studies that explore the mediating role of worry in the link between SOP and mental health. ...
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The perfectionism cognition theory (PCT) provides a theoretical account of the cognitive mechanisms of perfectionism, with an emphasis on the function of cognitive perseveration. The framework of PCT provides three central themes: (1) that both self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) are correlated with rumination and worry; (2) that perfectionists are more likely to suffer from interrelated forms of cognitive perseveration; (3) that rumination and worry are important variables that contribute to vulnerability to emotional distress and physical illness. A meta-analysis was performed to examine the three themes of PCT. The results suggested that both SOP and SPP were positively correlated with worry and rumination. Moderator analyses suggested that both SOP and SPP are correlated with various forms of cognitive perseveration and meta-analytic mediation models suggested worry and rumination contribute to the relationship between perfectionism and distress. The findings of this meta-analysis provide evidence to support the three themes of PCT and shed light on the mechanisms and processes of perfectionism cognition.
... Core self-evaluation was positively related to depression and anxiety and inversely related to life satisfaction. Indeed, many studies note that a brooding ruminative responsive style is linked to poor psychological health (O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007;Olson & Kwon, 2007). Moreover, when one is preoccupied with locating personal inadequacies, paying attention to a full range of thoughts and emotions, even those that are positive attributes and success experiences, is hindered, leaving less margin for favorable self-evaluation. ...
Article
Adopting self-determination theory as a guiding framework, this cross-sectional study examined how motivational orientations (perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns) relate to mindfulness, core self-evaluation, and outcomes of life satisfaction, depression, and anxiety. A total of 273 college students responded to measures of perfectionism, mindfulness, core self-evaluation, life satisfaction, depression, and anxiety. Results supported that mindfulness and core self-evaluation sequentially mediated the associations between perfectionistic concerns and outcomes, but the hypothesized serial mediation model was not supported for perfectionistic strivings. Findings suggest that de-centering with awareness may build positive self-evaluation and thus mitigate the effects of perfectionistic concerns on life satisfaction, depression, and anxiety. On the other hand, not mindfulness but positive self-evaluation alone functions as a binder in the association between perfectionistic strivings and outcome variables. This study concludes that perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns, each positioned to reflect autonomous motivational orientations and controlled motivational orientations, relate to wellbeing with or without the role of mindfulness.
Article
Background: Veterinarians report high levels of psychological distress and self-criticism. However, there is minimal research investigating psychological interventions for veterinarians. Evidence suggests that compassion-focused therapy is effective at reducing distress in those with high self-criticism. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a 2-week online compassionate imagery intervention for veterinarians. Methods: A one-group repeated measures design was used with 128 veterinarians. Participants completed measures of perfectionism, self-criticism, self-reassurance and fears of compassion four times, at 2-week intervals (at baseline, pre-intervention, post-intervention and 2-week follow-up). Participants answered written questions about their intervention experience post-intervention. Results: Content analysis of the qualitative data found the intervention to be acceptable and beneficial to participants. Overall, study attrition was 50.8%, which is reasonable for a low-cost intervention. Minimal differences were found between participants who dropped out compared to those who completed the intervention. Perfectionism, work-related rumination and self-criticism were significantly reduced post-intervention, and these effects were maintained at follow-up. Resilience and self-reassurance remained unchanged. Fears of compassion reduced over the baseline period and pre-post intervention, questioning the validity of the measure. Conclusion: Overall, in the context COVID-19, the intervention showed impressive feasibility and preliminary effectiveness. Randomised control trials are recommended as the next step for research to establish the intervention's effectiveness.
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Psychometric meta-analyses and reviews were provided for four commonly used suicidal ideation instruments: the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation, the Suicide Ideation Questionnaire, the Suicide Probability Scale, and Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Practical and technical issues and best use recommendations for screening and outcome research are offered.
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The Interpersonal Theory of Suicide proposes that thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB) predict psychological pain and desire for suicide. Brooding may be a mechanism in explaining how TB and PB predict pain. The conceptual similarity between rejection sensitivity (RS) and TB suggests that individuals with high RS may be likely to experience psychological pain in the context of TB. To test this model, 155 college students completed measures of psychological pain, TB, PB, brooding, and RS. As predicted, brooding mediated the relations between both TB and PB and psychological pain. RS interacted with TB in predicting psychological pain.
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Academic burnout is prevalent among university students, although understanding of what predicts burnout is limited. This study aimed to test the direct and indirect relationship between two dimensions of perfectionism (Perfectionistic Concerns and Perfectionistic Strivings) and the three elements of Academic Burnout (Exhaustion, Inadequacy, and Cynicism) through Repetitive Negative Thinking. In a cross-sectional survey, undergraduate students ( n = 126, M age = 23.64, 79% female) completed well-validated measures of Perfectionism, Repetitive Negative Thinking, and Academic Burnout. Perfectionistic Concerns was directly associated with all elements of burnout, as well as indirectly associated with Exhaustion and Cynicism via Repetitive Negative Thinking. Perfectionistic Strivings was directly associated with less Inadequacy and Cynicism; however, there were no indirect associations between Perfectionistic Strivings and Academic Burnout operating through Repetitive Negative Thinking. Repetitive Negative Thinking was also directly related to more burnout Exhaustion and Inadequacy, but not Cynicism. It is concluded that future research should investigate whether interventions targeting Perfectionistic Concerns and Repetitive Negative Thinking can reduce Academic Burnout in university students.
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Objective: Over 50 years of research implicates perfectionism in suicide. Yet the role of perfectionism in suicide needs clarification due to notable between-study inconsistencies in findings, underpowered studies, and uncertainty about whether perfectionism confers risk for suicide. We addressed this by meta-analyzing perfectionism's relationship with suicide ideation and attempts. We also tested whether self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism predicted increased suicide ideation, beyond baseline ideation. Method: Our literature search yielded 45 studies (N = 11,747) composed of undergraduates, medical students, community adults, and psychiatric patients. Results: Meta-analysis using random effects models revealed perfectionistic concerns (socially prescribed perfectionism, concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, discrepancy, perfectionistic attitudes), perfectionistic strivings (self-oriented perfectionism, personal standards), parental criticism, and parental expectations displayed small-to-moderate positive associations with suicide ideation. Socially prescribed perfectionism also predicted longitudinal increases in suicide ideation. Additionally, perfectionistic concerns, parental criticism, and parental expectations displayed small, positive associations with suicide attempts. Conclusions: Results lend credence to theoretical accounts suggesting self-generated and socially based pressures to be perfect are part of the premorbid personality of people prone to suicide ideation and attempts. Perfectionistic strivings' association with suicide ideation also draws into question the notion that such strivings are healthy, adaptive, or advisable.
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Theoretical accounts suggest perfectionists are prone to suicide ideation, and over 25 years of research has tested these accounts. First, we review research demonstrating perfectionists think, relate, perceive, and behave in ways that engender suicide ideation, and use Ernest Hemmingway’s suicide as a case example. Next, we scrutinize evidence suggesting that, although the incremental validity of socially prescribed perfectionism (perceiving others as demanding perfection) beyond hopelessness is clear, the explanatory power of self-oriented perfectionism (demanding perfection of the self), and other-oriented perfectionism (demanding perfection from others) beyond hopelessness is unclear. Subsequently, we conducted a meta-analysis testing the extent to which self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism predict suicide ideation beyond hopelessness. Findings derived from 15 studies, with 20 samples involving 2,089 participants, revealed that, after controlling for hopelessness, self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, but not other-oriented perfectionism, displayed small positive associations with suicide ideation. Findings dovetail with longstanding theoretical accounts suggesting both self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism play an important role in suicide ideation. Findings also indicate self-oriented perfectionism’s and socially prescribed perfectionism’s relationships with suicide ideation are not merely statistical artefacts stemming from shared variance with hopelessness. Taken together, findings underscore the importance of developing ways of intervening when suicidal people feel they must meet the perfectionistic expectations of themselves and others.
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Les etudiants universitaires consultent de plus en plus les ressources d’aide psychologique de leur universite pour divers troubles mentaux qui pourrait bien avoir le perfectionnisme comme facteur commun. Il est donc important d’y apporter une attention particuliere. Plusieurs etudes ont ete realisees sur le perfectionnisme des etudiants universitaires sans offrir une vision globale du phenomene. Le present article vise a presenter un modele theorique hypothetique pour combler cette lacune et mieux comprendre l’experience subjective des etudiants perfectionnistes afin d’en preciser les cibles d’intervention.
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s The present study was conducted to evaluate the model which investigate predictive role of emotional dysregulation (ED), intolerance of uncertainty (IU), experiential avoidance (EA) and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) in positive and negative perfectionism. Participants were 412 B.S students of Tehran university, Allameh Tabatabei and Kharazmi university.The positive and negative perfectionism, repetitive negative thinking questionnaire, disorder in emotion regulation scale, intolerance of uncertainty scale and multidimensional experiential avoidance questionnaire were used for gathering data. Data was analyzed by structural equations modeling. ED does not have significant relationship with positive perfectionism. But there is mediated and unmediated significant relationship between ED and negative perfectionism. IU has unmediated significant relationship with perfectionism and has mediated and unmediated significant relationship with negative perfectionism. EA has unmediated significant relationship with perfectionism and has mediated and unmediated significant relationship with negative perfectionism. ED, IU and EA were significantly predicted 12 percent of positive perfectionisms, 64 percent of negative perfectionisms and 58 percent of RNT. The results showed that positive and negative perfectionism are two different structural models. And RNT mediates the association just between negative perfectionism and some of outcome variables.
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare self-compassion, sense of coherence and positive thinking in students with and without clinical perfectionism. Method: The present study is a causal-comparative method. The statistical population of the study consisted of all female students of the 10th and 11th grade students of Rasht city in the academic year of 2017-2018 (N=6500). From these students, 900 individual were selected by multi-stage cluster random sampling method and complemented the Stoeber clinical perfectionism scale. Using a clinical perfectionism questionnaire, 121 students with a high score of clinical perfectionism (cut-off point 8 and more) and 121 students (less than cut-off point 8) as without clinical perfectionism were identified and selected. Eventually, the participants responded to Neff self-compassion questionnaires, Antonovsky sense of coherence and Ingram positive thinking. Findings: The results of multivariate analysis of variance showed that there is a significant difference between students with and without clinical perfectionism in terms of self-compassion, sense of coherence and positive thinking, so that the mean scores of self-compassion, sense of coherence and positive thinking are lower in students with clinical perfectionism compared to students without clinical perfectionism. Discussion & Conclusion: The findings support the difference between self-compassion, sense of coherence and positive thinking in students with and without clinical perfectionism. So that, students with clinical perfectionism have less self-compassion, sense of coherence and positive thinking. Thus, the attention of counselors and specialists to these variables in programs of prevention, pathology, counseling and therapy in students with clinical perfectionism is important.
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Perfectionism is a transdiagnostic factor and prevalent phenomenon in many psychological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of emotion dysregulation, repetitive negative thoughts, intolerance of uncertainty and experiential avoidance in the prediction of positive and negative perfectionism. In this study, 412 B.S students of Tehran university, Allameh Tabatabei and Kharazmi university participated as the sample. Data were collected by filling 4 questionnaires: The positive and negative perfectionism (PANP), repetitive negative thinking questionnaire (RNTQ), disorder in emotion regulation scale (DERS), intolerance of uncertainty scale (IUS) multidimensional experiential avoidance questionnaire (MEAQ). Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling. All study variables except experiential avoidance correlated with positive and negative perfectionism. The multiple regression analysis indicated that the predictive model for positive perfectionism respectively consisted of emotional dysregulation, intolerance of uncertainty and repetitive negative thinking. And for negative perfectionism respectively consisted of intolerance of uncertainty, repetitive negative thinking and emotional dysregulation.These variables account for %11/5 of the positive perfectionism variance and %44/4 of negative perfectionism. Positive and negative perfectionism are two different structural models, with cognitive, emotional and behavioral mechanisms.
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Objective Rumination is often cited as a risk factor for suicide, yet few studies of rumination have utilized clinical samples, and no studies have examined its prospective association with suicide attempts. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent and prospective associations of brooding and reflection (the two components of rumination) with suicide ideation and suicide attempts among a high‐risk clinical sample. Method Participants were 286 adolescents and young adults (77% Caucasian, 59% female) aged 13–25 seeking psychiatric emergency services. A majority (71%) were presenting with a primary complaint of suicide ideation or recent suicide attempt. Participants completed a baseline assessment at the index visit; 226 participants (79%) completed a 4‐month follow‐up assessment of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Results Brooding was associated with lifetime history of one or more suicide attempts, but not concurrent suicide ideation. Reflection was not associated with lifetime suicide attempts or concurrent suicide ideation. Furthermore, prospective associations of brooding and reflection with suicide ideation and suicide attempts were weak‐to‐small in magnitude and statistically nonsignificant. Conclusions Rumination appears to have a limited association with suicide‐related outcomes within a high‐risk clinical sample. Additional longitudinal studies utilizing clinical samples are critically needed to better understand these associations.
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Introduction: Perfectionism is a capacity belonging with high action criteria and critical self-appraisals. It is necessary to check its psychometric properties in Iranian samples to use Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS) as perfectionism assessing tool. Aim: The aim of current research has been the determination of FMPS psychometric properties in Iranian non-clinical samples. Method: In this descriptive study, 304 B. A. and M. D. students of Shahed University completed FMPS. The methods internal consistency and splitting were utilized to investigate reliability of FMPS. The tools Experiences in Close Relationship-Revised and Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Short Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 item were applied to investigate convergent validity of FMPS. FMPS factorial structure was checked with Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results: Data analysis showed acceptable reliability and validity of FMPS in Iranian non-clinical samples. Six-factor structure of FMPS was also confirmed. Conclusion: Findings of the current research confirmed the usage of FMPS in psychological research and clinical Trails.
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Based on the cognitive model of suicide and broaden-and-build theory of gratitude, this study constructed a moderated mediation model to examine whether hopelessness mediated the relationship between brooding and Chinese college students’ suicidal ideation and whether this mediating process was moderated by gratitude, from the positive psychology perspective. A total of 1191 college students were investigated using four scales. The results were as follows: (1) Brooding significantly contributed to suicidal ideation; (2) Hopelessness played a mediating role in the relationship between brooding and suicidal ideation; and (3) Gratitude moderated the mediated path through hopelessness, such that this mediating effect was only significant in individuals with low gratitude. This study may shed light on how brooding influences Chinese college students’ suicidal ideation theoretically and on their prevention practically.
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The increasing performance and academic demands within the tertiary setting, in conjunction with perfectionistic behaviour and ruminative thinking, may contribute towards mental health difficulties among music students. The current study explored the relationship between perfectionism, rumination, mindfulness and mental health in music students. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 72 university music students participated in the study. According to their self- report mental health status, the participants were clustered into self-report mental health (n = 26) and no mental health (n = 46) groups. The results revealed that anxiety and depression were the most prominent mental health issues. Essential correlations between perfectionistic concerns and brooding rumination emerged in both groups; however, the participants from the no mental health group displayed significant inverse associations between perfectionism and mindfulness (Pursuit of Perfection and Non-judging of Inner Experiences; Concern over Mistakes and Non-judging of Inner Experiences) which were not evident among the participants from the self-report mental health group. Moreover, significantly higher scores of perfectionistic concerns, brooding and reflective rumination were found among participants from the self-report mental health group compared to those from the no mental health group. The results provide valuable insights into the mental health status of music students.
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Perfectionism is individuals setting hard-to-reach goals for themselves or others and striving to achieve them. People have difficulties in their lives because of their perfectionist thinking. One of the reasons for major depressive disorder is dysfunctional thinking style. In this context, it can be argued that dysfunctional perfectionist thinking is a risk factor for major depressive disorder. A wide range of research results shows that there is a relationship between perfectionism and major depressive disorder. Consequently, this review investigates the relation of perfectionism and sub-dimensions with major depressive disorder.
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In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and cognitive flexibility in university students. The sample consisted of 375 students (179 [47.7%] males) aged from 18 to 41 years. Data were obtained using the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) and Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the data. The results obtained from the research has shown that multidimensional perfectionism affects cognitive flexibility and as multidimensional perfectionism increases, the level of cognitive flexibility decreases.
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This study investigated the risk factors of suicide ideation, suicide behaviors, and self-harm, particularly the role of emotional schemas. Three hundred seventy-five university students participated and completed the Leahy Emotional Schema Scale (LESS), the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI), the Self-Harm Inventory (SHI), and the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). The findings indicated that there was a significant correlation between emotional schemas and suicidal ideation, self-harm behaviors, and suicidal behaviors. Specially, rumination and invalidation had a significant role in predicting which individuals have elevated levels of suicidal ideation and behaviors and self-harm. Invalidation and rumination, among other possible emotional schemas, could be considered as suicidal emotional schemas (SESs).
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There is compelling research to suggest that individuals high in perfectionistic concerns are at risk for psychological distress because they fail to effectively regulate their emotions. From a theoretical perspective, there may be multiple forms of maladaptive emotion regulation operating in the context of perfectionistic concerns, but empirical studies have generally examined only one or two of these at a time. Our research tested a diverse set of emotion-regulation factors that predict distress while accounting for perfectionistic concerns, and it examined the indirect effects between perfectionistic concerns and distress via these emotionregulation factors. College students (N = 270) completed multiple measures of perfectionistic concerns, distress, and emotion regulation via a web-based survey. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) suggested three emotion-regulation factors that we labeled regulation difficulties, emotional avoidance, and rumination. A latent-variable model indicated that perfectionistic concerns predicted distress, and a separate model revealed that regulation difficulties, emotional avoidance, and rumination predicted distress. In a combined model, only perfectionistic concerns and rumination significantly predicted distress; moreover, only the indirect effect through rumination was significant. Our findings affirm the potential role of rumination as a key aspect of emotion regulation in the study of perfectionistic concerns.
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Suicide is a global health issue. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, has been identified as one potential risk factor. Evidence is emerging to suggest that different psychological factors may be associated with increased resilience and vulnerability in this context. The current study investigated whether trait resilience, social support, socially prescribed perfectionism, trait worry and trait impulsivity influenced the cortisol awakening response (CAR) over a 7-day study in individuals vulnerable to suicide. 142 participants with a history of suicidal attempt or ideation (suicide vulnerability group; n = 95) and with no suicide risk history (control group; n = 47) were recruited. Participants completed baseline questionnaires before commencing a 7-day study where they provided cortisol samples immediately upon waking, at 15 min, 30 min and 45 min on 7 consecutive days. Higher worry, socially prescribed perfectionism and impulsivity, lower resilience and social support were found in the suicide vulnerability group compared to the control group. Lower levels of resilience, higher levels of socially prescribed perfectionism, worry and impulsivity were associated with significantly lower total CAR. Suicide group membership was also found to have an indirect effect on total CAR via trait worry. The current findings show for the first time, that these well-known psychological risk factors for suicide are associated with smaller total cortisol awakening responses. Researchers ought to elucidate the precise causal mechanisms linking these traits, CAR and suicide risk in order to develop interventions to help build resilience in vulnerable populations.
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Objective: The present study was conducted to (1) investigate the role of emotion regulation difficulties among self-harming Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, or Questioning (LGBTQþ) individuals and (2) to test for a mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties in self-harm among LGBTQþindividuals. Method: This study investigated the relationship between LGBTQþstatus, self-reported levels of emotion regulation difficulties, and self-harm in a community sample (N¼484, aged 16–63), using an online cross-sectional survey. Results: LGBTQþindividuals reported more emotion regulation difficulties and were almost seven times more likely to self-harm than non-LGBTQþparticipants. Being an LGBTQþparticipant was associated with greater self-harm frequency when controlling for age, income, and difficulties in emotion regulation. Emotion regulation difficulties mediated the association between LGBTQþstatus and both self-harm status and frequency. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that treating emotion regulation difficulties might reduce both the prevalence and lifetime frequency of self-harm episodes among gender identity and sexual orientation minority individuals. Targeting emotion regulation might be used as an early prevention strategy among LGBTQþindividuals who are at risk for self-harm. Further, enhancing emotion regulation skills among self-harming LGBTQþindividuals might replace maladaptive emotion regulation strategies with healthy alternatives, and can, therefore, foster resilience.
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Background: Suicidal ideation, as a risk factor for psychopathology, has diverse psychological and social impairments. Suicidal ideation and perfectionism are closely related to self-criticism. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated how self-criticism mediated the relationship between suicidal ideation and perfectionism. Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 300 students selected from the University of Science and Culture. The data collection tools were the Beck Scale for suicide ideation (BSS), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), and the Self-criticism Scale (FSCRS). Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and path analysis. Results: The results showed that suicidal ideation had a significant direct effect on self-oriented perfectionism (β = 0.18, P < 0.01) and socially prescribed perfectionism (β = 0.23, P < 0.01). Also, perfectionism had a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation through mediating role of self-criticism. Conclusions: According to the findings, both perfectionism and self-criticism play an important role in suicidal ideation. The inability to accept shortcomings or flaws and having rigid, unrealistic standards along with self-blame or self-criticism caused by a sense of incompleteness and deficiency feeling in various situations can provide ground for emerging suicidal thoughts and behaviors.
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare self-compassion, sense of coherence and positive thinking in students with and without clinical perfectionism. Method: The present study is a causal-comparative method. The statistical population of the study consisted of all female students of the 10th and 11th grade students of Rasht city in the academic year of 2017-2018 (N=6500). From these students, 900 individual were selected by multi-stage cluster random sampling method and complemented the Stoeber clinical perfectionism scale. Using a clinical perfectionism questionnaire, 121 students with a high score of clinical perfectionism (cut-off point 8 and more) and 121 students (less than cut-off point 8) as without clinical perfectionism were identified and selected. Eventually, the participants responded to Neff self-compassion questionnaires, Antonovsky sense of coherence and Ingram positive thinking. Findings: The results of multivariate analysis of variance showed that there is a significant difference between students with and without clinical perfectionism in terms of self-compassion, sense of coherence and positive thinking, so that the mean scores of self-compassion, sense of coherence and positive thinking are lower in students with clinical perfectionism compared to students without clinical perfectionism. Discussion & Conclusion: The findings support the difference between self-compassion, sense of coherence and positive thinking in students with and without clinical perfectionism. So that, students with clinical perfectionism have less self-compassion, sense of coherence and positive thinking. Thus, the attention of counselors and specialists to these variables in programs of prevention, pathology, counseling and therapy in students with clinical perfectionism is important.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A distinction between ruminative and reflective types of private self-attentiveness is introduced and evaluated with respect to L. R. Goldberg's (1982) list of 1,710 English trait adjectives (Study 1), the five-factor model of personality (FFM) and A. Fenigstein, M. F. Scheier, and A. Buss's(1975) Self-Consciousness Scales (Study 2), and previously reported correlates and effects of private self-consciousness (PrSC; Studies 3 and 4). Results suggest that the PrSC scale confounds two unrelated motivationally distinct disposition-rumination and reflection-and that this confounding may account for the "self-absorption paradox" implicit in PrSC research findings: Higher PrSC sources are associated with more accurate and extensive self-knowledge yet higher levels of psychological distress. The potential of the FFM to provide a comprehensive Framework for conceptualizing self-attentive dispositions, and to order and integrate research findings within this domain, is discussed.
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The relationship between religion and mental and physical health has received substantial scientific interest. It has been suggested that indicators of religiosity are inversely associated with aspects of psychological distress. The aim of the present study was to investigate further the relationship between religiosity, stress and psychological distress. One hundred and seventy-seven undergraduate students completed the Francis Scale of Attitude Towards Christianity (FSAC), the Stress Arousal Checklist, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) and the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. No association was found between scores on the FSAC, the measure of stress, social support or the GHQ-30. Stress and social support were the only variables significantly associated with scores on the GHQ-30. The results of the present study provide evidence, among an undergraduate sample, that religiosity is not associated with psychological distress.
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This study of university students (136 men and 307 women) examined the roles of hassles, avoidant and active coping, and perceived available social support in the relation between evaluative concerns and personal standards perfectionism and distress symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the measurement model used in this study. Structural equation modeling results indicated that hassles, avoidant coping, and perceived social support are each unique mediators that can fully explain the strong relation between evaluative concerns perfectionism and distress. Personal standards perfectionism had a unique association with active coping only. Hassles and social support also moderated the relation between both dimensions of perfectionism and distress. Clinical implications of distinguishing between evaluative concerns and personal standards perfectionism are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Mildly-to-moderately depressed and nondepressed subjects were randomly assigned to spend 8 minutes focusing their attention on their current feeling states and personal characteristics (rumination condition) or on descriptions of geographic locations and objects (distraction condition). Depressed subjects in the rumination condition became significantly more depressed, whereas depressed subjects in the distraction condition became significantly less depressed. Rumination and distraction did not affect the moods of nondepressed subjects. These results support the hypothesis that ruminative responses to depressed mood exacerbate and prolong depressed mood. whereas distracting response shorten depressed mood.
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It has been argued that a negative view of the future characterised by impaired positive future thinking is associated with increased hopelessness and suicide risk (e.g., MacLeod & Moore, 2000). Hence, the central focus of the two studies reported in this paper was to extend our knowledge of positive future thinking by investigating its relationship with established suicide risk factors: stress, perfectionism, and hopelessness. Study 1 demonstrates, for the first time, that positive future thinking moderates the relationship between stress and hopelessness. The findings of Study 2 replicated those found in Study 1 and they also supported the notion that perfectionism is best understood as a multidimensional construct and that its relationship with future thinking and hopelessness is not straightforward. The results are also discussed in terms of the relationship between the structure of affect and motivational systems.
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Describes the development of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and data exploring the reliability and construct validity of the subscales are provided. 809 college students (aged 17-43 yrs) participated. The results support the existence of 3 subscales with adequate internal consistencies and promising relationships with other relevant measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The current study examined the extent to which dimensions of perfectionism are associated with a ruminative response orientation and the experience of cognitive intrusions in response to stressful events. Our main goal was to test the hypothesis that individuals characterized by frequent automatic thoughts involving perfectionistic themes would also be characterized by a ruminative response orientation when distressed and they would report intrusive thoughts and images following the experience of a stressful event. A sample of 65 students completed several measures, including the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Response Styles Questionnaire, the Impact of Events Scale, and indices of depression and anxiety. Correlational analyses confirmed that high scores on the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory were correlated with a ruminative response orientation and the reported experience of intrusive thoughts and images following the experience of a stressful event. High levels of perfectionism cognitions, socially prescribed perfectionism, and rumination were also correlated with measures of depression and anxiety representingthe tripartite model. The results support the view that there is a salient cognitive aspect to perfectionism and the experience of frequent perfectionistic cognitions and related forms of rumination contribute to levels of psychological distress.
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This study investigated an integrative model involving the relationship between perfectionism (P.L. Hewitt & G.L. Flett, 1991) and coping (C.S. Carver, M.F. Scheier, & J.K. Weintraub, 1989) to predict changes in hopelessness and general psychological distress among college students. Results indicated that changes in psychological well-being (4 to 5 weeks later) were predicted by socially prescribed perfectionism and, as theorized, avoidance coping moderated the link between perfectionism and psychological well-being beyond initial levels of distress. Support was also found for the adaptive effects of cognitive reconstruction coping and other-oriented perfectionism whereas, under certain conditions, self-oriented perfectionism was shown to be maladaptive. These findings offer support for the proposed model. Implications for intervention and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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In an attempt to eliminate similar item content as an alternative explanation for the relation between depression and rumination, a secondary analysis was conducted using the data from S. Nolen-Hoeksema, J. Larson, and C. Grayson (1999). After constructing a measure of rumination unconfounded with depression content, support for a two factor model of rumination was found. These analyses indicate that the 2 components, reflective pondering and brooding, differentially relate to depression in terms of predictive ability and gender difference mediation. The results presented here support the general premise of Nolen-Hoeksema's Response Styles Theory (S. Nolen-Hoeksema 1987) that rumination can contribute to more depressive symptoms and to the gender difference in depression, but suggest important refinements of the theory. Such refinements include the need to differentiate between the reflective pondering component of rumination and the brooding component in rumination research. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/44342/1/10608_2004_Article_464752.pdf
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This article attempted to demonstrate that the perfectionism construct is multidimensional, comprising both personal and social components, and that these components contribute to severe levels of psychopathology. We describe three dimensions of perfectionism: self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism. Four studies confirm the multidimensionality of the construct and show that these dimensions can be assessed in a reliable and valid manner. Finally, a study with 77 psychiatric patients shows that self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism relate differentially to indices of personality disorders and other psychological maladjustment. A multidimensional approach to the study of perfectionism is warranted, particularly in terms of the association between perfectionism and maladjustment.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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The factorial and discriminant validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale was examined for a sample of 116 parents who were participating in family support programs designed to prevent child abuse and neglect. Participants' self-reports of depressive symptoms as measured by the CES-D were analyzed in relation to their self-esteem (measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale) and state and trait anxiety (measured with Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Factorial validity was adequate, and results indicated a moderate correlation between the CES-D and self-esteem and state anxiety. However, a high correlation was obtained between the CES-D and trait anxiety, which suggests that the CES-D measures in large part the related conceptual psychological domain of predisposition for anxiousness.
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Administered a scale designed to quantify hopelessness to 294 hospitalized suicide attempters, 23 general medical outpatients, 62 additional hospitalized suicide attempters, and 59 depressed psychiatric patients. The scale had a Kuder-Richardson-20 internal consistency coefficient of .93 and correlated well with the Stuart Future Test (SFT) and the pessimism item of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; .60 and .63, respectively). The scale was also sensitive to changes in the patient's state of depression over time, as evidenced by a correlation of .49 with change scores on the SFT and .49 with the change scores on the BDI. Findings also indicate that depressed patients have an unrealistically negative attitude toward the future and that seriousness of suicidal intent is more highly correlated with negative expectancies than with depression. A principal-components factor analysis revealed 3 factors which tapped affective, motivational, and cognitive aspects of hopelessness. (16 ref)
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The authors tested whether perfectionism dimensions interact with specific stress to predict depression over time. A sample of 103 current and former patients completed measures of perfectionism and depression at Time 1 and measures of stress and depression 4 months later. After controlling Time 1 depression, self-oriented perfectionism interacted only with achievement stress to predict Time 2 depression. Socially prescribed perfectionism did not interact with achievement or social stress to predict Time 2 depression, but it did predict Time 2 depression as a main effect. The results provide support for the contention that perfectionism dimensions are involved in vulnerability to depression over time.
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In recent years the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been extensively used as a short screening instrument, producing results that are comparable to longer versions of the GHQ. The validity of the GHQ-12 was compared with the GHQ-28 in a World Health organization study of psychological disorders in general health care. Results are presented for 5438 patients interviewed in 15 centres using the primary care version of the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument, or CIDI-PC. Results were uniformly good, with the average area under the ROC curve 88, range from 83 to 95. Minor variations in the criteria used for defining a case made little difference to the validity of the GHQ, and complex scoring methods offered no advantages over simpler ones. The GHQ was translated into 10 other languages for the purposes of this study, and validity coefficients were almost as high as in the original language. There was no tendency for the GHQ to work less efficiently in developing countries. Finally gender, age and educational level are shown to have no significant effect on the validity of the GHQ. If investigators wish to use a screening instrument as a case detector, the shorter GHQ is remarkably robust and works as well as the longer instrument. The latter should only be preferred if there is an interest in the scaled scores provided in addition to the total score.
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This article begins with a brief review of the current literature on the structure and measurement of perfectionism. It is concluded from this review that two major types can be distinguished, a normal/healthy form and a pathological form. These two forms are then defined as positive and negative perfectionism and related directly to Skinnerian concepts of positive and negative reinforcement. The positive/negative distinction is then further elaborated on in terms of approach/avoidance behavior, goal differences, self-concept involvement, emotional correlates, and the promoting environment. Finally, some of the more obvious theoretical and practical implications are briefly explored.
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Five studies tested the hypotheses that there are individual differences in the frequency of automatic thoughts involving perfectionism and that these thoughts are associated with psychological distress. Research with the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory (PCI) established that this new measure has adequate psychometric properties, and high PCI scorers tend to spontaneously report perfectionistic thoughts in naturalistic situations. Additional research confirmed that frequent perfectionism thoughts account for unique variance in distress, over and above variance predicted by standard measures of negative automatic thoughts and trait perfectionism measures. Overall, the findings support the view that personality traits involved in depression and anxiety have a cognitive component involving ruminative thoughts and that activation of this cognitive personality component contributes to distress.
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A distinction between ruminative and reflective types of private self-attentiveness is introduced and evaluated with respect to L. R. Goldberg's (1982) list of 1,710 English trait adjectives (Study 1), the five-factor model of personality (FFM) and A. Fenigstein, M. F. Scheier, and A. Buss's (1975) Self-Consciousness Scales (Study 2), and previously reported correlates and effects of private self-consciousness (PrSC; Studies 3 and 4). Results suggest that the PrSC scale confounds two unrelated, motivationally distinct dispositions--rumination and reflection--and that this confounding may account for the "self-absorption paradox" implicit in PrSC research findings: Higher PrSC scores are associated with more accurate and extensive self-knowledge yet higher levels of psychological distress. The potential of the FFM to provide a comprehensive framework for conceptualizing self-attentive dispositions, and to order and integrate research findings within this domain, is discussed.
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Shafran et al. (2002) provided a cognitive-behavioural analysis of perfectionism that focused primarily on self-oriented perfectionism. They argued against studying perfectionism from a multidimensional perspective that they regard as inconsistent with prior work on perfectionism as a self-oriented phenomenon. We respond to Shafran et al. (2002) by offering historical, empirical, and theoretical support for the usefulness and the importance of a multidimensional model of perfectionism involving both intrapersonal processes and interpersonal dynamics. It is concluded that a multidimensional approach to the study of perfectionism is still warranted.
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It was hypothesized that women are more vulnerable to depressive symptoms than men because they are more likely to experience chronic negative circumstances (or strain), to have a low sense of mastery, and to engage in ruminative coping. The hypotheses were tested in a 2-wave study of approximately 1,100 community-based adults who were 25 to 75 years old. Chronic strain, low mastery, and rumination were each more common in women than in men and mediated the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Rumination amplified the effects of mastery and, to some extent, chronic strain on depressive symptoms. In addition, chronic strain and rumination had reciprocal effects on each other over time, and low mastery also contributed to more rumination. Finally, depressive symptoms contributed to more rumination and less mastery over time.
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Reports in the public media indicate that intense perfectionism and severe self-criticism played a role in the suicide of three remarkably talented individuals. The role of perfectionism in these suicides is consistent with recent extensive investigations of aspects of perfectionism as well as further analyses of the NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program (TDCRP), indicating that intense perfectionism interfered significantly with therapeutic response in the various brief treatments for depression. Self-critical individuals, however made substantial improvement in long-term intensive treatment. These findings suggest the value of considering psychopathology, especially depression, from a psychological rather than a symptomatic perspective; that different patients may be differentially responsive to various types of therapy, and that more extensive therapy may be necessary for many highly perfectionistic, self-critical patients.
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The following are the results of a validity test of the G.H.Q. (General Health Questionnaire) using a cut off point of 5/6, in young people from 15 to 29 years of age in Zaragoza, (Spain). The test was carried out in the SAMAR-89 project, a psychiatric epidemiology survey in general population over 15 years of age following the screening method in two phases. Of the subsample of young people (n = 400) 10% were selected to carry out the G.H.Q.-28 evaluation following the double blind technique and using as diagnostic instrument the semistructured psychiatric interview C.I.S. (Clinical Interview Schedule). The results obtained (Sensitivity = 94,12%; Specificity = 88,89%; and Global Value or Test Efficiency = 91,43%) show that the G.H.Q.-28 is a good screening instrument in the considered age group, which together with brief and simple characteristics and low economical, time and human resource cost make this instrument specially attractive and recommendable in surveys in two phases on juvenile population.
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Preface.Acknowledgements.1. Suicide in the History of Western Civilization.2. Issues of Definition, Incidence and Measurement.3. Suicidal Behaviour I: clinical Factors.4. Suicidal Behaviour II: Social Factors.5. Suicidal Behaviour III: Person Factors.6. Suicide Communication I: Suicide Letters.7. Suicide Communication II: Parasuicide.8. Assisted Suicide.9. Suicide Prevention. References.Index.