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The Implementation of Public Policy: A Framework of Analysis

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... Based on these criteria, and on the premise that when used effectively (specifically by experienced and subject matter experts), this type of method is a systematic and flexible approach to analysing data and is appropriate for use in research [8]. The theoretical frameworks adopted in each of the stages are as follows: (i) Agenda stage (A)-"Multiple Streams Framework" [40] (Kingdon, 1984); (ii) Decision stage (D)-"Muddling Through Framework" [41,42] (Lindblom, 1959(Lindblom, , 1979; (iii) Implementation stage (I)-"Implementation Analysis Framework" [43] (Sabatier and Mazmanian, 1980). The conceptual framework adopted-which is shown in the Figure 1-is in an integrated and coherent scheme (which contributed to the understanding and explanation of which forces and factors operate at each stage of the public policy cycle). ...
... Based on these criteria, and on the premise that when used effectively (specifically by experienced and subject matter experts), this type of method is a systematic and flexible approach to analysing data and is appropriate for use in research [8]. The theoretical frameworks adopted in each of the stages are as follows: (i) Agenda stage (A)-"Multiple Streams Framework" [40] (Kingdon, 1984); (ii) Decision stage (D)-"Muddling Through Framework" [41,42] (Lindblom, 1959(Lindblom, , 1979; (iii) Implementation stage (I)-"Implementation Analysis Framework" [43] (Sabatier and Mazmanian, 1980). The conceptual framework adopted-which is shown in the Figure 1-is in an integrated and coherent scheme (which contributed to the understanding and explanation of which forces and factors operate at each stage of the public policy cycle). ...
... Mathematics 2022, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 5 of 31 frameworks adopted in each of the stages are as follows: (i) Agenda stage (A)-"Multiple Streams Framework" [40] (Kingdon, 1984); (ii) Decision stage (D)-"Muddling Through Framework" [41,42] (Lindblom, 1959(Lindblom, , 1979; (iii) Implementation stage (I)-"Implementation Analysis Framework" [43] (Sabatier and Mazmanian, 1980). The conceptual framework adopted-which is shown in the Figure 1-is in an integrated and coherent scheme (which contributed to the understanding and explanation of which forces and factors operate at each stage of the public policy cycle). ...
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This paper presents a methodology involving the transformation and conversion of qualitative data gathered from open, semi-structured interviews into quantitative data—a process known as quantitizing. In the process of analysing the factors behind the different levels of success in the implementation of entrepreneurship education programs in two case studies, we came up with a challenge that became the research question for this paper: “How can we best extract, organize and communicate insights from a vast amount of qualitative information?” To answer it, we developed a methodology involving codifying, labelling, attributing a score and creating indicators/indexes and a matrix of influence. This allowed us to extract more insights than would be possible with a mere qualitative approach (e.g., we were able to rank 53 categories in two dimensions, which would have been impossible based only on the qualitative data, given the high number of pairwise comparisons: 1378). While any work in the social sciences will always keep some degree of subjectivity, by providing an example of quantitizing qualitative information from interviews, we hope to contribute to the expansion of the toolbox in mixed methods research, social sciences and mathematics and encourage further applications of this type of approach
... Objectives Marzotto et al., 2000;Hogwood & Gunn, 1984;Matland, 1995;Van Meter & Van Horn, 1975), Implementation Structure (Winter, 2003;Hjern & Porter, 1981Van Meter & Van Horn, 1975), Resources (O'Brien & Li, 1999;Thomas & Grindle, 1990;Cheema & Rondinelli, 1983;Pressman & Wildavsky, 1979;Van Meter & Van Horn, 1975;Lipsky, 1971), Target Group Behavior (Winter, 2003;Van Meter & Van Horn, 1975;Grindle & Thomas, 1989;Ingram, 1990 andHood, 1986;Howlett & Ramesh, 2003), Political, Social and Economic Condition (Winter, 2003;Van Meter & Van Horn 1975;Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980), policy oversight Bardach, 1977& Torenvlied, 1996. The following section sheds some light on discussing about how these factors contribute to get policy executed with success. ...
... Another set of factor influencing policy implementation includes the political, economic and social condition of a given country. In fact, not only the existing socio-economic condition of a country, but also new political, economic or social events can affect implementation of policies (Van Meter & Van Horn 1975;Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980;& Marzotto et al., 2000). Both the political and social pressure might contribute either positively or negatively to the extent to which policies are implemented (Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980). ...
... In fact, not only the existing socio-economic condition of a country, but also new political, economic or social events can affect implementation of policies (Van Meter & Van Horn 1975;Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980;& Marzotto et al., 2000). Both the political and social pressure might contribute either positively or negatively to the extent to which policies are implemented (Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980). A change of government may also lead to changes in how to implement policies. ...
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This study primarily intends to analyse the state of CC’s implementation in the service delivery system of the Urban-Local Government, especially the City Corporations within Bangladesh. The City Corporations introduced the CC to offer quality of better services to the citizens by achieving an efficient, effective and accountable service delivery system. However, this study reveals that none of the City Corporations that were studied has made any thoughtful attempts to introduce and integrate the CC into their service delivery system. Rather, Civil Society Organisations (CSOs), namely SONAK and NAGORIK FORUM in Rajshahi and Khulna, respectively, deserve appreciation for their effort to introduce the CC in both the City Corporations. As a result of the pressure created by CSOs on the City Corporations, they introduced the CC by copying and pasting from the draft developed by CSOs. While doing so, they did not sensitise their officials about the pros and cons of the CC. Although KCC has further developed its CC based on the recommendations of the Civil Service Change Management Programme, RCC is still following the same developed by SONAK more than a decade back. Although it has been evident that since the implementation of the CC refers to just hanging off its display board at different points of cities, none of the City Corporations that were studied played any role in implementing the CC concerning the preparation and hanging of the charter; rather, as far as implementation is concerned, the credit goes to CSOs. However, while assessing the status of implementation of the CC in delivering services of the City Corporation, especially health services, it has been evident that implementation of the CC as a whole has not been successful in the service delivery system of the City Corporation. Of the health services, the City Corporations’ performance in delivering EPI and certificate services are remarkably noticeable, but no role of the CC regarding these services has been found. This study found nobody who has received these services following the procedures stated in the CC. Notably, before introducing the CC, these services have been offered successfully, and have grown in-depth and have continued to this day. Moreover, no role of the CC has also been found in the delivery of other services of the Health Department. However, this study reveals several problems that have made the CC’s implementation in the City Corporations’ delivery of health services difficult. Those problems are lack of awareness about the CC among both the citizens and service providers, lack of willingness among citizens to follow the CC, lack of enthusiasm among the service providers about the CC, lack of publicity, lack of knowledge among citizens about their entitlements, lack of monitoring, lack of orientation of staffs with the CC, the mindset of service provider, lack of visit to service delivering points/centres and lack of linkage among departments/offices.
... The implementers must have a high commitment, prioritise honesty and have a fair spirit in the process of distributing the aid. It is in accordance with what is offered by Sabatier & Mazmanian (1980) that implementation as a policy model recognises the morale of the implementers and internal conflict management-also, following what was conveyed by Edwards III. ...
... This assistance is also expected to be used as best as possible by the target group in this case poor families so that later they can ease the burden of life due to the economic crush of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is in accordance with what was conveyed by Sabatier & Mazmanian (1980), that implementation as a policy model requires the ability of management strategies to support the behavior change process of the target group (target group). ...
... One expert opinion state that state policy guidelines, which include both efforts to administer and to cause real consequences/impacts on society (Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980). Every policy implemented by the government will certainly have an impact, especially on the target group for which the policy is implemented. ...
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In Indonesia, villages are the spearhead of development implementation, including economic and social governance, as well as assistance tasks. Various forms have been developed to ensure the development implementation. One of them is the village fund program. However, it can cause issues, such as conflict among communities, especially in Aceh, Indonesia. Thus, the present study investigates how the village fund has been a source of conflict in society in the Nagan Raya Regency. The research is conducted using a qualitative method. Primary and secondary data are used to identify the source of conflict from the misused of the village fund. A public policy implementation model developed by Van Meter Van Horn was used to investigate how the fund is implemented in the village in Nagan Raya Regency, Aceh Province. This study identified that the Indonesian government had allocated a fund for developing the village. The society committees in the village manage the fund. However, a lack of skill and knowledge of village administration has led to a social conflict in the community. The study found that lack of public participation has caused mistrust in using the fund.
... This paper aims to retrace the trajectory of the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), especially its policy-oriented learning process. Initially, we contrast the elements in Sabatier and Mazmanian (1980), where the first efforts to develop an analysis model are found, with the arguments found in Sabatier (1987, 1988, and 1993). Subsequently, the historical trajectory of updates and versions of the model is discussed based on the analyses in Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith (1999), Sabatier and Weible (2007), and Jenkins-Smith et al. (2018). ...
... Notably, Sabatier, before coauthoring with Jenkins-Smith, together with Mazmanian throughout the 1970s, already proposed a prototype model for analysis to fill a gap in public policy studies -namely, the influence of the political system on the implementation of public policies. The proposal, at the time, addressed the following types of public policies: i) transformations from street-level bureaucracy to top-level bureaucracy; ii) changes in the behaviors of municipal or state bureaucrats in the distribution of resources; iii) behaviors of private actors during budget disputes (Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980). Three elements can be noted in terms of the scope of what the ACF depicts: the relationship between bureaucrats at different levels, changes in the behaviors of those who decide public policy, and formal participation of actors outside the government who attempt to permeate the decision-making process. ...
... To deepen the study of public policy without disregarding the political system and the institutional dimension, Sabatier and Mazmanian (1980) created the analytical framework presented in Figure 2. Flowchart of the variables in the process of public policy implementation Source: Sabatier and Mazmanian (1980). ...
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This paper aims to retrace the trajectory of the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), especially its policy-oriented learning process. Initially, we contrast the elements in Sabatier and Mazmanian (1980), where the first efforts to develop an analysis model are found, with the arguments found in Sabatier (1987, 1988, and 1993). Subsequently, the historical trajectory of updates and versions of the model is discussed based on the analyses in Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith (1999), Sabatier and Weible (2007), and Jenkins-Smith et al. (2018). It was possible to follow the modifications in the model, the main hypotheses built, the criticisms, and their unfoldings. As main findings, it was evident throughout the ACF construction trajectory: four versions of the model over almost 30 years and with the decisive participation of six prominent authors who contributed to its main developments since the first version, present in Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith (1993); and Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith (1999), the model gains greater analytical capacity with the intermediate variables between the external factors and the policy subsystem and analytically refines the categories internal to the subsystem. One gap identified in this trajectory, and consequent proposal for a future research agenda, is the influence of international actors and their implications on policy modifications, a condition not explicitly addressed by the ACF in its varied versions, as highlighted by Jenkins-Smith et al. (2018).
... Moving on to the final stages of the public policy cycle, the Implementation Ana Framework has presented itself as the best model to tackle the implementation-of-po stage. Based on several studies carried out in the United States during the 1960s and 1 on the unsatisfactory implementation of public policies and juridical decisions, Sab and Mazmanian, in 1980, developed a synthetic model based on previously existing ories and proposals entitled the Implementation Analysis Framework [35]. Accordi the authors, implementation is the execution of a basic political decision, usuall shrined in the body of laws. ...
... Sabatier and Mazmanian's proposal had several premises attached to three main tors: the treatability of a problem, the capacity of the law to structure implementation nonstatutory variables that determine implementation, which would then break d into a few categories and variables. Acknowledging that the use of this framewor analytical/interpretation purposes by academics and politicians could be too comple batier and Mazmanian [35] decided to organise the statutory variables into a checkl six conditions that a policy or decision that would interfere with the status quo h meet to be effectively implemented [35]. Figure 4 illustrates that checklist. ...
... Sabatier and Mazmanian's proposal had several premises attached to three main tors: the treatability of a problem, the capacity of the law to structure implementation nonstatutory variables that determine implementation, which would then break d into a few categories and variables. Acknowledging that the use of this framewor analytical/interpretation purposes by academics and politicians could be too comple batier and Mazmanian [35] decided to organise the statutory variables into a checkl six conditions that a policy or decision that would interfere with the status quo h meet to be effectively implemented [35]. Figure 4 illustrates that checklist. ...
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In this conceptual paper, we bring forward a new theoretical proposition in the form of an Integrated Policy-Making Process Framework. This tool arose from the discussion and hypothesis that the main models used to analyse public policies have practical and theoretical limitations and/or are due for an update, especially when it comes to the study of phenomena with many actors involved, vast legislation, large timeframes, and high degrees of complexity. Our original model encompasses the three fundamental stages of the public policy cycle (agenda; decision making; implementation). Our approach can have a wide spectrum of applications and contribute to the field of knowledge of political sciences. Our proposal of using three frameworks in an integrated way enables researchers and users to gain a holistic vision concerning policy processes, and it offers the possibility to compare and rank categories. The Integrated Policy-Making Process Framework is thus proposed as a new tool to tackle research and studies on decision making in public policies and the policy-making cycle.
... Most models of policy implementation identify resources as one of the determinant of effective policy implementation. They include Sabatier and Mazmanian (1980); Van Meter and Van Horn (1975); Chandarasom ( , 1984 and Cheema and Rondinelli (1983) models. The effective implementation of educational policies is influenced by the availability of educational resources, particularly human resources. ...
... Several scholars have identified amongst other factors the availability of resources as an important determinant of effective policy implementation. These scholars include Van Horns, (1975); Sabatier and Mazmanian, (1980);; Edwards III, (1980); Cheema and Rondinelli, (1983), and Tongbai, (1993). Concerning human resources, management model identifies amongst others organisational capacity and personnel as factors which influence effective policy implementation. ...
... Majority of policy implementation models identify resources as one of the determinant of effective policy implementation. These models comprise Sabatier and Mazmanian (1980); Van Meter and Van Horn (1975); Chandarasorn(1983) and Cheema and Rondinelli (1983) models. However, a cross sectional analysis of statistics on material resource capacity of Cameroon primary schools shows inadequacies as follows: less than 44% availability of electricity, portable water, toilets, fence and libraries (MINEDUB Statistical Yearbook, 2013-2014, p.81) and just 11 and 14 pupils with language and mathematics textbooks respectively (MINEDUB statistical Yearbooks (2007)(2008)(2009)(2010)(2011). ...
... Many authors have identified resources as one of the factors which influence successful policy implementation. These authors include Van Horns, 1975; Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980;Chandarasorn, 1983;Edmards III, 1980;Cheema&Rondinelli, 1983 andMcLanghlin, 1978. Dunsire(1990) asserts that failure of policy implementation could result from improper tools and mechanisms for policy implementation. ...
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As a policy response to the prevalence of high repetition rate in Cameroon primary schools, the government through the ministerial order No. 315/B1/1464/MINEDUB of 21 st February 2006 introduced automatic class promotion in these schools. Data reveal that this policy is ineffectively implemented as there is a significant and relatively high repetition rates in Cameroon primary schools even in classes where automatic class promotion is allowed (MINEDUB, 2016). A study (Author, 2018) indicates that this policy is just fairly effectively implemented. This study intends to show the extent to which the availability of material resources in these schools with respect to the instructional materials and physical facilities accounts for the ineffective implementation of this policy. A survey was carried out wherein a questionnaire and an interview guide were used for data collection. Four hundred and fifteen (415) teachers returned completed copies of questionnaire while 25 basic education stakeholders were interviewed. Data analysis reveals that the material resources available in schools understudy is grossly inadequate despite the significant positive relationship between availability of material resources and the effective implementation of the policy of automatic class promotion. Also, inadequacy in material resources is more acute with the availability of instructional materials than physical facilities. It is recommended that the government should conduct need assessment of public primary schools in terms instructional material and physical facilities and ensure the provision of these resources in these schools. Parents and other educational stakeholders should assist the government in the provision of educational resource materials.
... The number of actors assigned to implement the policy instruments can thus be decisive. Because relevant actors execute and enforce the adopted policy instruments depending on their institutional and financial settings, the higher the number of actors, the higher the costs of interaction and potential of unclear responsibilities may be (Bressers and Klok, 1988;Krott, 2005;Howlett and Ramesh, 1995;Nilsson et al., 2012;Sabatier and Mazmanian, 1980). Knill and Tosun (2012) stated that the higher the number of actors involved, the more complex the overall policy implementation (Kickert & Koppenjan, 1997). ...
... Clarity of the contents is an additional significant element for consistent policy instruments that may account for implementation outcomes. Lack of clarity often obscures policy goals and instrument settings (e.g., Nilsson et al., 2012;Sabatier and Mazmanian, 1980;Van Horn and Van Meter, 1977;Vedung, 1998). Hence, transparent and easily understandable policy instruments are essential as they can be communicated effectively to and understood by the stakeholders they most affect (FAO, 2005). ...
Article
Due to widespread over-exploitation, tropical forests became a priority issue on the political agenda in the 1990s. Policy frameworks incorporating forest aspects in different policy sectors and building on existing structures have been implemented in many tropical countries. This poses challenges to policy design, including the consistency of policy instruments and policy instrument mixes. Such instruments need to be coherently integrated across various policy domains affecting forests. The Ecuadorian government has been striving for improved policy design by adjusting the policies and policy instruments over time, considering the multifunctionality of forests and the maintenance of the related ecosystem services. This study aims to amend methodologies of existing policy analysis in tropical forestry, taking into account the increasing complexity of the forest policy domain and applying this in a case study in Ecuador. We present an approach that links overarching sectoral policies with policy instruments and considers structures (mainly objectives and contents of the policy mix), actors and their interactions. The work is based on two empirical components: a qualitative content analysis of policy documents, and key informant interviews. Results for the case of Ecuador show a formally largely coherent and consistent forest policy framework. Challenges are mainly related to institutional responsibilities. The stakeholder perceptions deviate from the results of the content analysis. These deviations are interpreted as being based on specific values and beliefs. We conclude that policy development and design need to take into account these stakeholder perceptions. Based on the key informant interviews, we also highlight challenges, provide recommendations for specific thematic policy areas in Ecuador, and conclude that a specific focus needs to be kept on implementation.
... This raises questions about the extent to which evidence and experience of coordination challenges can positively inform changes to health system governance. Included studies identified a wide range of facilitators of participation and creation of consensus such as decentralizing decision-making and providing local actors with greater power, which echo existing literature on the importance of taking 'bottom-up' and participatory approaches and being participatory in forming partnerships for health service delivery (Sabatier and Mazmanian 1980). These recommendations are not new in the field of humanitarian coordination, yet our review highlights gaps in operationalizing these practices, suggesting more work is needed to avoid repeating failures (Colombo and Pavignani 2017). ...
Article
Health system governance has been recognised as critical to strengthening healthcare responses in settings with conflict-affected populations. The aim of this review was to examine existing evidence on health system governance in settings with conflict-affected populations globally. The specific objectives were: (i) to describe the characteristics of the eligible studies; (ii) to describe the principles of health system governance; (iii) to examine evidence on barriers and facilitators for stronger health system governance; and (iv) to analyse the quality of available evidence. A systematic review methodology was used following PRISMA criteria. We searched six academic databases, and used grey literature sources. We included papers reporting empirical findings on health system governance among populations affected by armed conflict, including refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced populations, conflict-affected non-displaced populations and post-conflict populations. Data were analysed according to the study objectives and informed primarily by the Siddiqi et al. (2009) governance framework. Quality appraisal was conducted using an adapted version of the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Of the 6,511 papers identified through database searches, 34 studies met eligibility criteria. Few studies provided a theoretical framework or definition for governance. The most frequently identifiable governance principles related to participation and coordination, followed by equity and inclusiveness and intelligence and information. The least frequently identifiable governance principles related to rule of law, ethics and responsiveness. Across studies, the most common facilitators of governance were collaboration between stakeholders, bottom-up and community-based governance structures, inclusive policies, and longer-term vision. The most common barriers related to poor coordination, mistrust, lack of a harmonised health response, lack of clarity on stakeholder responsibilities, financial support, and donor influence. This review highlights the need for more theoretically informed empirical research on health system governance in settings with conflict-affected populations that draws on existing frameworks for governance.
... Numerous frameworks have been developed to describe, analyze, and guide policy implementation [32][33][34]. In the context of AMR, one notable framework is the interdisciplinary AMR-Intervene Framework designed by Leger et al., which contains six components of interventions [35]. ...
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In 2017, the Hong Kong Strategy and Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance 2017-2022 (HKSAP) was announced with the aim of tackling the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Hong Kong. However, little is known about how the planned activities have been implemented. In this study, we examine the status of implementation of the HKSAP using the Smith Policy Implementation Process Model. Semi-structured interviews with 17 informants found that important achievements have been made, including launching educational and training activities targeting the public, farmers, and healthcare professionals; upgrading the AMR surveillance system; and strengthening AMR stewardship and infection control. Nevertheless, participants also identified barriers to greater implementation, such as tensions across sectors, ongoing inappropriate drug use and prescription habits, insufficient human and technical resources, as well as a weak accountability framework. Environmental factors such as the COVID-19 pandemic also affected the implementation of HKSAP. Our study indicated that expanding engagement with the public and professionals, creating a collaborative environment for policy implementation, and building a well-functioning monitoring and evaluation system should be areas to focus on in future AMR policies.
... Thus, the focus of policy analysis is to produce better evidence to guarantee the utilization of the best choices and results considering the rationality of decision-makers and the logic of state processes. Scholars identify the following policy cycle stages: (a) problem identification; (b) agenda setting; (c) policymaking; (c) implementation; and (d) policy evaluation (Baumgarter & Jones, 1993;Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980). However, Majone and Wildawsky (1979) argue that "Public policies are continually transformed by the implementation of actions that simultaneously change resources and objectives" (Majone & Wildawsky, 1979: 170), which means that public policy is not static. ...
Article
How can one analyze the public actions of organizations and actors from different sectors? Studies using a policy analysis perspective have shed light on the role of the state in making and implementing urban agriculture (UA) policy. However, this perspective has limitations when it comes to explaining the interactions between the state, civil society, and the business organizations that support it. This article provides an analytical framework derived from the sociology of public action (SPA) to understand how multiple organizations support UA. We have applied the SPA framework to the city of São Paulo and our analysis indicates that civil society has mobilized significant meanings, ideas, and networks to reinforce the importance of UA. As a result, there has been a paradigm shift in terms of UA: it has gone from a state of invisibility within an institutional void to an improved state of policy planning. However, civil society organizations still lead the delivery of services for farmers with intermittent state support, which indicates that there has been a paradigm shift in UA policy planning, but not in policy implementation.
... Given this variation, one might expect drastically different policy outputs and outcomes. While a narrow suite of actions might be seen as a constraint to the FPC (Harper et al. 2009;Quick and Feldman 2011), scholars also argue a narrow breadth of activity can focus the depth of engagement and success of implementation (Sabatier and Mazmanian 1980). Others argue a breadth of authority allows FPCs the flexibility needed to interact with a complex policy environment (Bassarab et al. 2019;Gupta et al. 2018). ...
Article
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Food policy councils, which convene diverse stakeholders in local food policymaking and implementation, are increasingly recognized for the prominent role they play in food system governance. Yet little attention has been given to systematically identifying who participates in councils, why councils are established, what topics councils are expected to address, and how they are expected to address these topics as indicated in the formal mandates that govern them. This study addresses this limitation by offering a systematic description of the design of publicly mandated food policy councils operating at the municipal-level in the United States. It contributes understanding regarding (1) council membership, (2) the contexts in which councils are established, (3) the topical foci of councils, and (4) mandated and authorized policy activities. This study yields valuable insights for scholars and practitioners interested in understanding stakeholder representation within councils, as well as the authority and responsibility vested in them.
... The first stage, beginning in the 1960s, focused on studying the specific content of a given policy. At that time, the process of policy implementation was viewed as a top-down process, with a policy being established by those in power (typically at the federal level) and then implemented by people with decreasing amounts of power at the state, district, and school levels (Matland, 1995;Sabatier, 1986;Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980). The second stage of policy implementation research began in the 1970s, with the focus shifting from the policy's implementation to examining its longitudinal effects (Odden, 1991). ...
Article
Federal law calls for students with disabilities to be educated in the least restrictive environment possible. However, this still allows for students with disabilities to be placed in a range of educational settings, from the general education classroom to a separate school. The number of students with disabilities that are included to the maximum extent possible in the general education classroom varies by state. This study focused on the role of teacher training as defined by state drive teacher education standards. The purposeful outlier sample was selected by identifying the 12 states with the highest levels of inclusion of students with disabilities within a general education classroom across select disability categories. The level of inclusion was based on the percentages of students with disabilities in three educational settings: 80% or more of the day in general education, less than 40% of the day in general education and separate school across a ten-year period. The teacher education standards for these states were obtained and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) was used to analyze the standards for evidence both of best practices in regards to implementing inclusion, as well as how disability was described by these states. Evidence of many of the best practices were found in these states' standards, and disability was often included in standards about teaching practices, learning environments and diversity. However, it was also found that disability (and teaching practices) were often described in vague, non-specific terms, which may lead to the impression that disability is not included or important. These results are helpful in shaping the direction of the writing of standards in the future to better include and acknowledge disability in them.
... Critical variables are often derived from the case materials In their building of a framework for implementation analysis, Sabatier and Mazmanian (1980) In a later version of the framework for imple mentation analysis, media attention to the problem is included in the variable "public support" . 13 Clearcuts are chosen to represent forest activi ties regulated by the Forestry Act both because of practical reasons and because the environmental impact is considered to be great. ...
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According to the Swedish Forestry Act, environmental protection is required within forest operations regardless of forest ownership. This PhD thesis in political science examines the extent to which regulations issued by the National Board of Forestry are implemented in clearcuttings. Different factors contributing to the outcome of environmental protection are analyzed both from a top-down and a bottom-up perspective. Empirically, the study combines field investigation of clearcuts, interviews with implementing actors, and evaluation of written prescriptions and advice on environmental protection. The Swedish forest-environmental legislation and implementation process is also compared to that of the U.S. and, especially, to the state of California . Conflicting goals within the Forestry Act and vague environmental guidelines leave the implementing agency officers with great discretion. Steering attempts by the Forestry Agency are in terms of friendly advice and information. No breaches of the regulations were taken to court during 1980-1986 although this is formally possible. There is an average compliance of approximately fifty per cent of the required environmental measures. Aesthetic values are taken into account to a greater extent than pure floristic and faunistic ones. Economic considerations and harvest technology contribute to a low degree of environmental protection. Forest machines are inadequately suited for protecting single, environmentally valuable trees and they frequently cause deep tracks. Inadequate environmental knowledge and insufficient pre-harvest environmental planning also affect environmental performance negatively. Generally, economic considerations contribute to the low priority to environmental protection given by the implementing actors compared to timber production. Economic inducements counteract environmental protection. It is generally rare that environmentalists and other public interests affected by forest operations are consulted. Environmentalists however influence indirectly through political pressure to legislate, participation in the consultation process before legislation is enacted, and mass-media attention.
... mandates vs. incentives) and by extension the system's performance (Burstein 2003). From a policy implementation perspective in which citizens are considered policy targets, their issue positions are likewise important since successful implementation requires the alignment between the goals of the leadership and the positions of its targets (Sabatier and Mazmanian 1980). ...
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COP26 highlighted near-term emissions reductions in addition to longer-term net-zero. At the same time, shifts in political landscapes around the world have furthered the salience of climate action led by non-state actors such as business interests, civil society and nonprofits, and local and regional communities. Despite the promise, performance of non-state climate action remains unclear and requires further empirical validation. The current study focuses on corporate entities and explores the potential effect of corporate leadership on climate governance performance. Our aim is to advance the literature on non-state climate governance by offering empirical evidence of the less-studied effectiveness of non-state climate governance leadership. Echoing previous research, our study identifies a contingent perspective on the effect of corporate leadership on climate governance performance. Specifically, through the context of utilities’ energy efficiency programming in the U.S. and a multilevel research design, we find suggestive evidence that when the moderating effect of citizens’ support is considered, corporate leadership could potentially positively affect climate governance performance. Additionally, we demonstrate that a climate governance system’s operational uncertainty can complicate the effect of corporate leadership on performance whereas a pro-environmental citizenry can enhance such effect.
... The process of implementing public policies by socioeconomic changes, public opinion and other factors makes it necessary to expand the unpredictable politics that structure the entire process that can be affected (Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980). In this sense the third stage -Public Policy Formulation and Implementation -is the result of the continuous analysis of the environment and communication with stakeholders to overcome obstacles faced by citizens and, therefore, corresponds to one of the main tools of public marketing (Lees-Marshment, 2001). ...
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This study aims to raise evidence of how the domain of public marketing can be a wicked problem instrument to deal with. The evolution of public administration, from bureaucratic to New Public Governance, demonstrated a growing need for interaction between the State and society, which would not be possible without using marketing techniques applied to the public sector in order to communicate with the citizens and other stakeholders, despite the fear of using marketing strategies for public purposes. A literature review realized on wicked problems in political science and how marketing fields have adopted the concept for public marketing purposes. This research was deepened by designing a proposal for a conceptual model involving public marketing and the wicked problem. The essay enabled the development of a State action model, which involves three stages: analysis of the environment, communication with stakeholders and formulation of public policies. When this entire process takes place efficiently, it benefits the construction of public branding. The paper strives to analyze how the State can be the protagonist in facing wicked problems in society through the performance of public policies.
... This research focuses on three key requirements for implementing just adaptation policy, which were identified through the first synthesis of the ACF with elements of social justice theory to understand just climate adaptation (Malloy and Ashcraft, 2020). The ACF is a commonly used framework for analyzing public policy choices that centers the role of coalitions and political contestation and is well suited to understanding climate change policy choices (Sabatier and Mazmanian, 1980;Jenkins-Smith et al., 2017;Gabehart et al., 2022). Integrating elements of social justice theory with the ACF advances emerging research into how the framework can be used to understand the normative dynamics of climate change politics (Gabehart et al., 2022) and, importantly, centers equity and justice as explicit goals of implementing climate adaptation policy. ...
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Cities face intersectional challenges implementing climate adaptation policy. This research contributes to scholarship dedicated to understanding how policy implementation affects socially vulnerable groups, with the overarching goal of promoting justice and equity in climate policy implementation. We apply a novel framework that integrates social justice theory and the advocacy coalition framework to incrementally assess just climate adaptation in Boston, Massachusetts in the United States. Boston made an ambitious commitment to address equity as part of its climate planning and implementation efforts. In this paper, we evaluate the first implementation stage over the period 2016–2019 during which Boston developed coastal resilience plans for three neighborhoods. Despite Boston's commitment to equity, we find injustice was nevertheless reproduced through representation and coalition dynamics, the framing of problems and solutions, and a failure to recognize the priorities and lived experiences of city residents. The assessment framework presented can be adapted to evaluate how other climate adaptation initiatives advance social justice and highlights the need for incremental evaluation over short time periods to inform ongoing implementation efforts.
... The proponent of top-down highlights the role of the structural dimension determining the effectiveness of policy implementation. Therefore, much of the scholars of top-down focused on bureaucratic or implementation structure (Edward III, 1980;Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980), control, communication, and resources (Pressman & Wildavsky, 1984), content and policy environment (Grindle, 2017). However, the bottom uppers notion highlights policy implementation on the lowest layer in the implementation process, implementors or agencies. ...
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Several regional governments in Indonesia have implemented paid plastic shopping bags policy to reduce micro-plastic waste. However, there are only a few studies to evaluate this program. To fill the research gap, the researchers seek to implement the regulation by investigating policy effectiveness factors. The ultimate purpose of this paper is to illuminate what factors affect the policy. The researchers studied the implementation of paid plastic bags in Depok City, West Java, Indonesia, by employing a survey to achieve the objective. One hundred and thirty-four respondents had participated in this research and shared their responses on the policy. A partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was applied to analyze the data. The results showed three factors contributed to policy implementation: knowledge, awareness, and compliance. The current research extends Grindle’s theory by examining individual determinants as predictors of policy implementation. This study also adds the researchers’ knowledge into how society responds to Indonesia’s paid plastic shopping bags policy and contributes to the government designing a suitable strategy to implement the program effectively.
... The politics of implementation in this perspective is a story of potential non-compliance . Sabatier and Mazmanian's (1980) framework of successful implementation is one of the most prominent proponents of the top-down approach to implementation. ...
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Policy implementation is the stage of the policy process that follows a decision on how to solve a problem and is when the relevant authorities set out to put policy into practice. Implementing agents, who are mostly administrative actors, assume an immensely political role as they adapt formal policies to concrete cases and situations. This chapter provides an overview of the study of implementation and then zooms in on the changing political context in which implementation is currently taking place. We argue that the rise of conflictual politics puts public administrations under stress and makes policy implementation more demanding. This chapter charts various possible behavioral adaptations by implementers and the consequences for policy implementation that we expect arise from more conflictual politics.
... Importa salientar que Sabatier, antes de estabelecer a coautoria com Jenkins-Smith, em conjunto com Mazmanian ao longo dos anos 1970, já propunha um protótipo de análise para preencher uma lacuna nos estudos de políticas públicas, qual seja, a influência do sistema político na implementação de políticas públicas. A proposta, à época, abordava os seguintes tipos de política pública: i) transformações desde a burocracia de linha à alta burocracia; ii) mudança no comportamento de burocratas municipais ou estaduais na distribuição de recursos; iii) comportamentos de atores privados na disputa por orçamentos (Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980). Naquele momento, era possível visualizar três elementos presentes na essência do que o ACF tenta explicar: a relação entre os burocratas de diferentes níveis, as mudanças de comportamento daqueles que decidem a política pública e a participação dos atores formalmente fora do governo que tentavam permear o processo decisório. ...
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Resumo O trabalho reconstrói a trajetória do Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), especialmente seu processo de aprendizado orientado à políticas públicas. Inicialmente, o texto contrasta os elementos contidos em Sabatier e Mazmanian (1980), nos quais são encontrados os primeiros esforços para desenvolver um modelo de análise com os argumentos encontrados em Sabatier (1987, 1988 e 1993). Posteriormente, a trajetória histórica de atualizações e versões do modelo é discutida com base nas análises de Sabatier e Jenkins-Smith (1999), Sabatier e Weible (2007) e Jenkins-Smith et al. (2018). Ao longo de mais de 30 anos de pesquisa, foi possível acompanhar as modificações presentes nas quatro versões do modelo, as principais hipóteses construídas, as críticas e seus desdobramentos Uma lacuna identificada nessa trajetória e consequente proposta para uma futura agenda de pesquisa apontam a influência dos atores internacionais e suas implicações nas modificações de políticas públicas, condição não explicitamente abordada pela ACF em suas diversas versões, conforme destacado por Jenkins-Smith et al. (2018).
... Mazmanian and Sabatier [6] give their opinion on policy implementation as follows: Implementation is the carrying out of a basic policy decision, usually incorporated in a statute but which can also take the form of important executive orders or court decisions. Ideally, that decision identifies the problems to be addressed, stipulates the objective to be pursued and in a variety of ways structures the implementation process. ...
... Given the financial and regulatory importance of the state in most higher education systems, the early sociological research on HEI-environment interactions focused on the sector's relationship with the state, which was often seen as its primary audience. Accordingly, HEI action was often conceptualized as the implementation of public policy and researched by applying top-down policy implementation frameworks, inspired by the seminal works of Jeffrey Pressman and Aaron Wildavsky (1973), PaulSabatier and Daniel Mazmanian (1980), and LadislavCerych and Paul Sabatier (1986). However, neither the top-down perspective, nor the subsequent bottom-up emphasis on discretionary practices of academics and (less so) other higher education professionals have sufficiently captured the complexity of how HEIs interact with their surroundings(Kohoutek 2013:60-63; Gornitzka et al. 2005:17-20). ...
Thesis
Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, wie Hochschulen und ihr Personal politische und gesellschaftliche Erwartungen wahrnehmen, interpretieren und letztendlich in ihre Praxis einfließen lassen. Im Zentrum der Analyse steht der Verbleib hunderttausender internationaler Studierender, die zwischen 2010 und 2019 zum Studium nach Deutschland und Kanada zugewandert sind. Ihnen wird seitens der Politik ein hohes Fachkräfte- und Einwanderungspotenzial attestiert. Das Erkenntnisinteresse der Arbeit umschließt drei Teilbereiche: Erstens, das Ausmaß der deutschen und kanadischen ‚Bleibepolitik‘ sowie die einschlägigen Erwartungen an Hochschulen. Zweitens, die berichtete Hochschulpraxis und drittens, die institutionellen Zusammenhänge zwischen Erwartung und Praxis. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Mehrheit der untersuchten Hochschulen den Verbleib internationaler Studierender auch ohne eine von außen zugeschriebene Zuständigkeit aktiv fördert. Einerseits konnten die befragten Hochschulprofessionellen ihre Beratungs- und Betreuungsangebote größtenteils frei und eigenverantwortlich gestalten. Andererseits war der Raum dessen, was aus Sicht des Personals als möglich und wünschenswert erschien, stark vorgeprägt durch den jeweiligen Landeskontext und die dort institutionalisierten Erwartungen: In Kanada stand der Gedanke des Wettbewerbs um internationale Studierende als zahlende Kundschaft und potentielle Einwanderinnen und Einwanderer häufig im Vordergrund. In Deutschland waren Hochschulen vergleichsweise weniger markt- und wettbewerbsorientiert. Die Handlungs- und Interpretationsmuster des Personals zeugten häufig von dem gleichen migrationspolitischen Pragmatismus, der in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten die Bundes- und Landespolitik mitbestimmt hatte. Internationale Studierende wurde somit als potenzielle Fachkräfte konstruiert, nicht aber als mögliche Einwanderinnen und Einwanderer.
... Analysis model: Capacity for local implementation of public policies e early studies on public policy implementation assumed that a flawlessly public policy should be welldesigned in its formal and technical dimensions, based on well-defined goals and strategies, and with available human and financial resources (top-down approach). So, they disregarded the relationship between the policy, its actors, context, and society (Van Meter & Van Horn, 1975;Sabatier, 1986;Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980). is notion has been complemented by the understanding that elements such as discretionary power, social and cultural heterogeneity, different levels of government, and intergovernmental relations (bottom-up approach) within the normative and prescriptive universe (Farah, 2018;Lipsky, 2010;omann, Van Engen, & Tummers, 2018). ...
... Nutrition political economy is enabling for creating and sustaining momentum when nutrition actors (individuals and organizations) have clearly defined and understood roles and there is effective coordination among multisector actors (Gillespie et al., 2013). Role ambiguity can result in policies/ strategies becoming low priority among actors and remaining largely unimplemented (Sabatier & Mazmanian, 1980;Sawicki et al., 2019). Effective multisectoral coordination occurs when persons vulnerable to malnutrition concurrently receive interventions that address the multifaceted causes of malnutrition (Benson, 2007;Haddad et al., 2004). ...
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Unlabelled: Key 2025 global nutrition targets are unlikely to be met at current rates of progress. Although actions necessary to reduce undernutrition are already mostly known, knowledge gaps remain about how to implement these actions in contextually appropriate ways, and at scales commensurate with the magnitude of the problem. This study describes the nutrition enabling environment in Nigeria, a country that contributes significantly to the global undernutrition burden, and identifies potential entry points for improving the enabling environment that could facilitate implementation and scale-up of essential intervention coverage. Study data were obtained from two sources: content analysis of 48 policies/strategies from agriculture, economic, education, environment, health, nutrition, and water/sanitation/hygiene sectors; and interviews at federal level (16) and in two states (Jigawa (10) and Kaduna (9) States). The study finds that aspects of the enabling environment improved between 2008 and 2019 and facilitated improvements in implementation of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions. Enabling environment components that improved included the framing of nutrition as a multisectoral issue, nutrition advocacy, political attention, evidence around intervention coverage, civil society involvement, and activity of nutrition champions. These factors have been especially important in creating and sustaining momentum for addressing malnutrition. While challenges remain in these aspects, greater challenges persist for factors needed to convert momentum into improvements in nutrition outcomes. Research and data that facilitate shared understanding of nutrition; improved multisectoral and vertical coordination; increased and improved delivery and operational capacity; and increased resource mobilization will be especially important for achieving future progress in nutrition in Nigeria. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12571-022-01328-2.
... Desde un enfoque institucional, analizar la implementación implica tener en cuenta: el manejo de recursos -económicos, humanos, tecnológicos-, el tiempo disponible, la capacidad de gestión, las instituciones participantes, los niveles territoriales de aplicación de la política -local, regional, nacional-, una sólida teoría en la formulación de la política respecto a la causalidad de las acciones, claridad en los objetivos y en la normativa, el apoyo político, la continuidad temporal de la política, etc. ( Sabatier y Mazmanian, 1980;Parsons, 2007;Roth, 2007;Vedung, 2017). ...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of existing scholarship that engages the Institutional Grammar conceptually, methodologically, and/or empirically. As part of this overview, the chapter reviews common questions motivating Institutional Grammar research, theories and concepts explored in this research, and how institutional analysts collect and analyze institutional data and information within Institutional Grammar studies. The chapter concludes with a discussion of opportunities and challenges associated with the Institutional Grammar with respect to conceptualization and methods.
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Having identified the need to conduct research on the intersection between entrepreneur- ship education (EE) and public policies, we carried out a systematic literature review on decision- making processes regarding the implementation of education for entrepreneurship programs in schools and the introduction of this topic in the policy-making process. This SLR followed every process inherent to its well-established protocol. The research undertaken confirmed that the un- derstanding of decision processes associated with the implementation of EE programs is not only a “missing link” in the discussions about the way in which countries manage situations related to EE, but also a gap in academic knowledge. Indeed, the SLR process included only nine articles in the final review (obtained through a methodology based on an algorithm)—which is a clear sign that further scientific research around this specific topic is needed. The articles included in the final review suggest that: (i) entrepreneurship is fundamental to the progress and evolution of countries and their regions, (ii) there is evidence that EE is central to a more entrepreneurial youth, and (iii) the successful implementation of recommendations from regulatory institutions is based on political commitment and implementation capacities.
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Background Mental health is a critical component of wellness. Public policies present an opportunity for large-scale mental health impact, but policy implementation is complex and can vary significantly across contexts, making it crucial to evaluate implementation. The objective of this study was to (1) identify quantitative measurement tools used to evaluate the implementation of public mental health policies; (2) describe implementation determinants and outcomes assessed in the measures; and (3) assess the pragmatic and psychometric quality of identified measures. Method Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, Policy Implementation Determinants Framework, and Implementation Outcomes Framework, we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles published in 1995–2020. Data extracted included study characteristics, measure development and testing, implementation determinants and outcomes, and measure quality using the Psychometric and Pragmatic Evidence Rating Scale. Results We identified 34 tools from 25 articles, which were designed for mental health policies or used to evaluate constructs that impact implementation. Many measures lacked information regarding measurement development and testing. The most assessed implementation determinants were readiness for implementation, which encompassed training ( n = 20, 57%) and other resources ( n = 12, 34%), actor relationships/networks ( n = 15, 43%), and organizational culture and climate ( n = 11, 31%). Fidelity was the most prevalent implementation outcome ( n = 9, 26%), followed by penetration ( n = 8, 23%) and acceptability ( n = 7, 20%). Apart from internal consistency and sample norms, psychometric properties were frequently unreported. Most measures were accessible and brief, though minimal information was provided regarding interpreting scores, handling missing data, or training needed to administer tools. Conclusions This work contributes to the nascent field of policy-focused implementation science by providing an overview of existing measurement tools used to evaluate mental health policy implementation and recommendations for measure development and refinement. To advance this field, more valid, reliable, and pragmatic measures are needed to evaluate policy implementation and close the policy-to-practice gap. Plain Language Summary Mental health is a critical component of wellness, and public policies present an opportunity to improve mental health on a large scale. Policy implementation is complex because it involves action by multiple entities at several levels of society. Policy implementation is also challenging because it can be impacted by many factors, such as political will, stakeholder relationships, and resources available for implementation. Because of these factors, implementation can vary between locations, such as states or countries. It is crucial to evaluate policy implementation, thus we conducted a systematic review to identify and evaluate the quality of measurement tools used in mental health policy implementation studies. Our search and screening procedures resulted in 34 measurement tools. We rated their quality to determine if these tools were practical to use and would yield consistent (i.e., reliable) and accurate (i.e., valid) data. These tools most frequently assessed whether implementing organizations complied with policy mandates and whether organizations had the training and other resources required to implement a policy. Though many were relatively brief and available at little-to-no cost, these findings highlight that more reliable, valid, and practical measurement tools are needed to assess and inform mental health policy implementation. Findings from this review can guide future efforts to select or develop policy implementation measures.
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Buku Design Kebijakan Publik adalah buku bahan ajar di Program Studi Administrasi Publik Sarjana dan Passca Sarjana S2 dan S4 di Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta dan Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo (Beragama), mempelajari bebrbagai Desaign dalam pengambilan keputusan menyangkut kebijakan publik di Indonesia
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The goal of Complete Streets is to accommodate all road users and draw attention to the needs of those who are vulnerable. In the last 10 years, thousands of local/regional/state agencies in the U.S.A. have adopted Complete Streets policies. However, it is not clear how successfully these policies have been implemented and to what extent agencies have achieved related policy goals. Responding to the call from Louisiana, the research team reviewed the state’s practices and projects over 10 years to evaluate whether/how the state transportation agency has made progress toward the adopted policy goals. Based on the practice review results, much progress has been made compared with where the state started in 2010. However, shifting agency culture to balance multimodal needs is a long-term process. Continuous effort is needed to train and educate staff in both the state agency and local governments. Based on the project review results, improving the state’s project management system could facilitate periodic performance reviews on a more frequent basis. From the perspective of influencing the built environment, more attention should be given to preservation projects to improve routine integration of low-cost safety measures and support decision-making on roadway reconfiguration needs. Although the review was conducted for Louisiana specifically, the review procedure and recommendations may be applicable to other states and government agencies facing challenges in Complete Streets policy implementation.
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The making of new public space in already crowded urban landscapes involves intricate considerations of design, policy, and politics. This paper examines these considerations in the case of Mexico City's Pocket Park Program, an ambitious project undertaken by a specially created entity called the Public Space Authority. Drawing on close reading of archival documents, field observation, and spatial analysis, we consider the design and policy performance of the program over its short life from 2012 to 2018. To develop a grounded view of the program, we examined three pocket parks in different zones of the city using a modified version of an evaluation instrument developed by urban planning scholar Vikas Mehta. We find that the design of the pocket parks has been largely successful in creating meaningful new public spaces, but that the political and policy apparatus structuring the program faced a range of challenges that prevented it from reaching their goal of 150 new pocket parks. We conclude that good urban design was not enough to effect meaningful change in the public space portfolio of Mexico City; rather, the misalignment between politics, policy, and design frustrated efforts to achieve transformations in public space at the urban scale.
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The article examines implementation research across developed countries (North America, Europe), developing countries (Asia, Pacific) and Africa. It examines some key trends and directions of implementation research across regions. It revisits policy debate among scholars on approaches to implementation-top-down, bottom-up and mixed which characterised the developed world. Also, it adds some perspectives on the developing world including Africa. The paper has three contributions: it highlights trends in implementation research in developed and developing countries. It gives some directions on implementation research in Africa. It recommends that the policy design process should not be neglected, such neglect is inimical to implementation.
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The article examines implementation research across developed countries (North America, Europe), developing countries (Asia, Pacific) and Africa. It examines some key trends and directions of implementation research across regions. It re-visits policy debate among scholars on approaches to implementation-top-down, bottom-up and mixed which characterised the developed world. Also, it adds some perspectives on the developing world including Africa. The paper has three contributions: it highlights trends in implementation research in developed and developing countries. It gives some directions on implementation research in Africa. It recommends that the policy design process should not be neglected, such neglect is inimical to implementation.
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This study aims to analyze and describe changes in policy changes in landregistration policies from PRONA (National Agrarian Operations Project) whichis regulated in Ministerial Regulation of ATR/KBPN Number 4 of 2015 toComplete Systematic Land Registration (PTSL) which is affirmed throughMinisterial Regulation of ATR/KBPN Number 6 of 2018 concerning CompleteSystematic Land Registration. This study uses the theoretical perspective of theAdvocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) from Sabatier and colleagues. Theapproach used in this research is a qualitative approach with a case studystrategy. The results of the study indicate that the change in legislation regardingthe registration of land rights is contained in the regulation of the Minister ofAgrarian Affairs and Spatial Planning/Head of the National Land Agency Number 12 of 2017 concerning the Acceleration of the Implementation of CompleteSystematic Land Registration (PTSL). PRONA and PTSL policies are the samepolicy, namely regarding land adjudication, there is only a slight increase in theresults to be achieved later which is not only producing a certificate but alsocarrying out a mapping process to improve data on land in Indonesia which isgrouped into several categories.
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Water scarcity is a significant threat to urban and regional planning. Water scarcity has challenged planners to respond to the problem in an important but previously overlooked way. Although the connection between land and water planning has not been adequately recognized in planning education and research, some governments have begun to manage the two natural resources together. Drawing upon the literature on integrated policy approach and policy implementation, this article presents a summary of policy actions in the past decade aimed at better integrating land use and water resource planning in Colorado. This article also contributes to broader debates on mediating the divide between land use and water management.
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The resurgence of industrial policies in the European Union has led to the introduction of policies to support regions in industrial transition within the framework of territorial cohesion policies. There is an initial interest in introducing a social component in these policies. This brief investigation reviews the actions carried out to date and reflects on their implementation. The European Commission has launched several regional policy pilots, which could help in the definition of new industrial transition policies, but these policies require to progress in their practical implementation, in order to obtain the expected results, thus mitigating the social impacts that the transition may cause in the regions of Europe. From the analysis of the pilots and the state of the art, we propose some recommendations to operationalize these policies, based mainly in an appropriate policy mix, consideration of the spatial components, involvement of the stakeholders and the use of bottom-up and neo-endogenous approaches.
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This article explores how probation officers (POs) in France employ evidence-based practice in the real world. Using 78 audio tapes of 11 POs and 33 offenders in 2 probations services, we assessed PO skills with an adapted version of the Jersey Checklist. Our results suggest that French probation officers generally possess good communication skills, and use-to a certain extent-core correctional practices. They do, however, underperform with regard to cognitive behavioural techniques.
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A key objective of policy evaluation is assessing the efficacy of public policies. When evaluating public policy, compliance is treated both as an indicator of policy effectiveness and as a necessary intermediary outcome for achieving policy goals. Given the importance of compliance within broader assessments of policy efficacy, scholars have dedicated substantial attention to identifying policy, individual, and organizational factors linked to policy compliance. This chapter discusses what is meant by compliance in the context of policy evaluation and ways that it can be measured therein. It also provides an overview of recent scholarship that addresses determinants of compliance as relevant for policy evaluation.
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Researchers in public policy and public administration agree that policy integration is a process. Nevertheless, scholars have given limited attention to political aspects that facilitate or impede integration. This paper aims at filling that gap, by looking at how different theories of the policy process can help in explaining the process of policy integration as shaped by policy subsystems. By building on insights from theories of the policy process, we develop pathways regarding adoption and implementation in policy integration that account for the politicization and the role of actors and subsystems in the policy process. Our main argument is that policy integration is in permanent political tension with the sectoral logic of policymaking, which predominantly happens between actors in subsystems. Policy integration is, thus, not a single moment when those tensions are solved once and for all, but a political process that requires deliberate efforts to overcome the pull toward sector-specific problem definition, policymaking, implementation, and evaluation.
Thesis
The importance of bureaucratic discretion has long been at the focus of public administration scholars of street-level bureaucracy. This thesis explores the mechanisms through which front-line actors make decisions under conditions of high uncertainty. It does so by examining what determines the discretionary behaviour of front-line actors in Athens and Berlin, during the 2015-2017 period of the so called ‘European Migration Crisis’. Using an extensive number (149) of qualitative interviews with individuals working at the front lines of migration management (legal professionals, caseworkers, care-workers, administrative employees), it identifies some of their patterns and mechanisms of decision-making. By drawing on insights from social psychology and the existing literature on street-level bureaucracy, this thesis advances the argument that the identities of front-line actors (be they role, social or person-related) play a critical role in shaping their discretionary decisions. In a field as socially and politically contested as that of migration management, these actors often encounter unprecedented challenges, for which there are no clear guidelines or solutions. These challenges then translate into identity conflicts, as the actors often respond based on their self-understandings in a given context. These self-understandings are also influenced by the communities of practice within which the actors operate, as well as by the structural conditions surrounding these communities (economic capacity, welfare state, policy framework, etc.). This research contributes to the field of street-level bureaucracy in two ways. First, it makes a case for paying close attention to those at the front lines of service delivery, including not only public servants but also private contractors and members of the civil society, whether formally organised or spontaneously mobilised. To capture this diverse range of actors, it introduces the term ‘front-liners’. Second, it emphasises the significant role of front-liners’ multiple identities, while also providing an overview of the several levels of analysis at once. By doing so, and by providing also a cross-city comparison, it draws conclusions that allow for greater generalisability.
Chapter
In the past, social scientists interested in public policy directed their attention to the ways in which policies develop. More recently, they have concentrated on determining whether policies actually accomplish what they are intended to accomplish. They are therefore investing a good deal of intellectual capital in the problem of how to evaluate the outcomes of governmental actions. But between the inputs and the outputs there lies a terrain that is still fairly unexplored: the question of how policies change as they are translated from administrative guidelines into practice. This chapter is about that process, what I call “the politics of implementation.”
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Recent state and federal legislation holds the promise of sweeping reform in special- education practices. In this article, Richard Weatherley and Michael Lipsky examine the implementation of Chapter 766, the dramatically innovative state special- education law in Massachusetts. They show how the necessary coping mechanisms that individual school personnel use to manage the demands of their jobs may, in the aggregate, constrain and distort the implementation of special-education reform. Their findings have serious implications for those seeking to introduce policy innovations in service bureaucracies of all kinds where the deliverers of service exercise substantial discretion in setting their work priorities.
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The law of standing—rules by which judges find whether a party may bring suit—has been liberalized in the federal courts to permit interest group disputes not ordinarily possible. Following an historical pattern of conflict containment within judicial-style processes, consumer and environmental groups contest corporate business decisions by challenging the legality of their regulatory or legislative authorization. The vagueness and substantive emphasis of the new rules give groups more influence in determining when courts will intervene in the affairs of the other branches; and the doctrine's recognition of noneconomic injuries logically forces judges to consider whether they may find standing for some “public interest” beyond a specific plaintiff. Changes in standing equalize social power; but the entanglement of courts in the puzzles of interest representation may restrict protections for strictly private litigants, and may further remove the political system from the Rule of Law.
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Interest groups and public administration are both universal features of political life, and this article examines their interaction. This interaction is deemed crucial for an understanding of the formation of public policy in the modern state. Four categories of interaction between pressure groups and bureaucracy are developed, and the extent and types of effects of each on policy is examined. The types of interactions discussed range from legitimate and formal interactions in the Scandinavian countries to sporadic and illegitimate group activities in developed and underdeveloped societies.
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The substance and direction of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 have antecedents in earlier governmental programs. The Act evolved through phases emphasizing, in turn, concern with recreation, estuary protection, ocean development, and land use policy. The fact that the act reflects something of each of these concerns and incorporates ideas or devices associated with each historical phase perhaps accounts for its form and contents, its gaps and contradictions, and the uncertainty of its future. By the time the act was signed into law on October 27, 1972, some of the original concepts for dealing with the coastal troubles had been discarded and others drastically scaled down in face of determined opposition by vested interests, both governmental and non‐governmental. The act was signed unenthusiastically and initially denied fiscal support. The legislative‐political history of the act does not augur well for the future of the nation's coasts.
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In recent years economists have investigated the use of market mechanisms to deal with external diseconomies [Coase; Castle]. They have also recognized that many external diseconomies cannot be compensated by internalization. When this occurs the relevant problem becomes the specification of legal parameters for non-market regulation [Haveman; Galbraith; Castle]. This note examines an important component of the process of specifying the legal parameters - the decision rules of public agencies. The analysis is presented in somewhat more formal terms than has appeared previously in the literature by using the analogy of statistical decision rules. This approach provides considerable insight on how a change in political decisions (policy assumptions) can reverse a regulatory agency's decisions without changing its technical evaluation procedures. 1 Regulatory agencies are charged with establishing standards for such diverse items as drugs, industrial pollution and nuclear energy. They are also responsible for determining if the standards are being met and for enforcing compliance with them. Technical expertise in these areas constitutes the raison d'etre of the agencies, while policy assumptions are thought to belong in the sphere of the legislative bodies which establish guidelines and vote funds for the agencies. A point which is generally ignored, however, is that the daily decision rules of the agencies themselves are derived from the hypotheses they establish. The
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It is only in recent years that educational evaluation has become institutionalized. The present spate of reporting and the accepted belief in the necessity to evaluate can be traced to the 1965 passage of the massive Elementary and Secondary Education Act--the first major social legislation to mandate project reporting. This case study in policy research examines the congruence between the assumptions and expectations that generated these notions of evaluation and reform and the dominant constraints and incentives in the Title I policy system. The central question of this study concerns the degree to which the expectations of reformers about the conduct and use of evaluation squared with the behavior of individuals and bureaucracies, particularly in a federal system. Senator Robert Kennedy, the principal architect of the 1965 Title I evaluation requirement, viewed mandated evaluation as a means of political accountability. Reformers of a different stripe hoped that Title I evaluation could revitalize federal management of education programs. But state and local schoolmen argued that an evaluation requirement would presage federal control of local education. This tension between proponents and opponents of evaluation characterized Title I evaluation history. (Author/JM)
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Many regulatory agencies were established during the Progressive Era and the New Deal, in part out of faith in their capacity to regulate industry in an apolitical and scientific fashion. A number of observers—most notably Marver Bernstein—have noted that many regulatory agencies eventually become captured by the very interests they are supposedly regulating. This paper first examines the notion of clientele capture, focusing in particular on the development of an operational classification of regulatory policies. It then builds upon Bernstein's suggestion that the cycle of decay commences with the demise of the constituency supporting regulation. Through case studies an effort is made to explore (1) the conditions under which a regulatory agency is likely to actively attempt to develop a supportive constituency and (2) the conditions under which a constituency supportive of aggressive regulation is able to effectively monitor regulatory policy (and to be instrumental in preventing slippage) after the decline in public concern with the issue.
Implementation of Model Cities and Revenue Sharing in Ten Bay Area Cities: Design and First Findings
  • Rufus Browning
  • Dale Marshall
Rufus Browning and Dale Marshall, "Implementation of Model Cities and Revenue Sharing in Ten Bay Area Cities: Design and First Findings," in Public Policy Making in a Federal System, ed. by Charles Jones and Robert Thomas, Vol. Ill of Sage Yearbook in Politics and Piiblic Policy (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1976), 191-216.
The Missing Link: The Study of the Implementation of Social Policy
  • erwin Hargrove
'Erwin Hargrove, The Missing Link: The Study of the Implementation of Social Policy (Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute, 1975);
Implementing CETA: The Federal Role
  • Carl Van Horn
Carl Van Horn, "Implementing CETA: The Federal Role," Policy Analysis, 4 (Spring 1978), 159-183.
Benefit Cost Analysis and Pxiblic Policy Implementa-tion Pxjblic Policy Implementation: A Theoretical Perspective, Working Paper No. 43 (Cambridge: Joint Center for Urban Studies
  • Harold Luft
Harold Luft, "Benefit Cost Analysis and Pxiblic Policy Implementa-tion," Pxjblic Policy, 24 (Fall 1976), 437-462; Martin Rein and Francine Rabinovitz, Implementation: A Theoretical Perspective, Working Paper No. 43 (Cambridge: Joint Center for Urban Studies, March 1977);
The Implementation Game
  • Eugene Bardach
Eugene Bardach, The Implementation Game (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1977);
Heath, 1974); Richard Liroff, A National Policy for the Environment: NEPA and Its After-math
  • Harvey Lieber
  • Clean Waters Federalism
Harvey Lieber, Federalism and Clean Waters (Lexington: Heath, 1974); Richard Liroff, A National Policy for the Environment: NEPA and Its After-math (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976).
The Policy Implementation Process: A Conceptual Framework Adminis-tration and Society, 6 (Feb. 1975), 445-488The Study of Macro-and Micro-Implementation
  • Donald Van Meter
  • Carl Van
Donald Van Meter and Carl Van Horn, "The Policy Implementation Process: A Conceptual Framework," Adminis-tration and Society, 6 (Feb. 1975), 445-488; Paul Berman, "The Study of Macro-and Micro-Implementation," Public Policy, 26 (Spring 1978), 157-184; Lawrence Baxam, "Implementation of Judicial Decisions," American Politics Quarterly, 4 (January 1976), 86-114;
Social Program Implementation Chapter 2. and Rabinovitz, Implementation, p. 39. ^BermanMacro-and Micro-Implementation The Implementation Game, Chaps. 3-6, especially pp. 51-57. the relationship between economic diversity and an ability to withstand perturbations (or, in the case of regulation
  • Walter Williams
  • Richard Elmore
Walter Williams and Richard Elmore, ed., Social Program Implementation (N.Y.: Academic Press, 1976), Chapter 2. and Rabinovitz, Implementation, p. 39. ^Berman, "Macro-and Micro-Implementation," pp. 157-184. l^Bardach, The Implementation Game, Chaps. 3-6, especially pp. 51-57. the relationship between economic diversity and an ability to withstand perturbations (or, in the case of regulation, nonproductive costs), see Jane Jacobs, The Economy of Cities (N.Y.: Vintage, 1970).
  • Robert Alford
Robert Alford, Health Care Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975).
  • Harrel Rodgers
  • Charles Bullock
Harrel Rodgers and Charles Bullock, Coercion to Compliance (Lexington: Lexington Books, 1976);
The Implementation Game Donald Van Meter and Carl Van HornThe Policy Implementation Process: A Conceptual Framework Administration and SocietyThe Study of Macro-and Micro-Implementation
  • Eugene Bardach
Eugene Bardach, The Implementation Game (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1977); Donald Van Meter and Carl Van Horn, "The Policy Implementation Process: A Conceptual Framework," Administration and Society, 6 (Feb. 1975), 445-488; Paul Berman, "The Study of Macro-and Micro-Implementation," Public Policy, 26 (Spring 1978), 157-184; Lawrence Baxam, "Implementation of Judicial Decisions," American Politics Quarterly, 4 (January 1976), 86-114;
NTIS, 1973). 29DownsThe Issue-Attention Cycle
  • Viladas Co
Viladas Co., The American People and Their Environment, A Report to the Environmental Protection Agency (Springfield, Va.: NTIS, 1973). 29Downs, "The Issue-Attention Cycle," pp. 38-50; Riley Dunlap and Dan Dillman, "Decline in Public Support for Environmental Protection," Rural Sociology, 41 (Fall 1976), 382-390. the general argument, see Marver H. Bernstein, Regulating Business by Independent Commission (Princeton: Princeton University Press), Chapters 3-8.
Benefit Cost Analysis and Pxiblic Policy Implementation 437-462; Martin Rein and Francine Rabinovitz, Implementation: A Theoretical Perspective, Working Paper No
  • Harold Luft
Harold Luft, "Benefit Cost Analysis and Pxiblic Policy Implementation," Pxjblic Policy, 24 (Fall 1976), 437-462; Martin Rein and Francine Rabinovitz, Implementation: A Theoretical Perspective, Working Paper No. 43 (Cambridge: Joint Center for Urban Studies, March 1977);
crucial role of specialist reporters is illustrated by the role of Morton Mintz of the Washington Post in monitoring the Food and Drug Administration and Casey Buckro of the Chicago Tribune on water pollution in Lake Michigan. Miller and Donald Stokes
  • Downs
Downs, "Up and Down with Ecology-The Issue-Attention Cycle," Piiblic Interest (Summer 1972), 38-50. crucial role of specialist reporters is illustrated by the role of Morton Mintz of the Washington Post in monitoring the Food and Drug Administration and Casey Buckro of the Chicago Tribune on water pollution in Lake Michigan. Miller and Donald Stokes, "Constituency Influence in Congress," American Political Science Review, 57 (March 1963), 45-56;
the relationship between economic diversity and an ability to withstand perturbations (or, in the case of regulation, nonproductive costs), see Jane Jacobs, The Economy of Cities
  • Van Meter
  • Horn
Meter and Van Horn, "The Policy Implementation Process." the relationship between economic diversity and an ability to withstand perturbations (or, in the case of regulation, nonproductive costs), see Jane Jacobs, The Economy of Cities (N.Y.: Vintage, 1970).
  • Jeffrey Pressman
  • Aaron Wildavsky
Jeffrey Pressman and Aaron Wildavsky, Implementation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973);
The Implementation Game, Chaps. 3-6, especially pp
  • Berman
Berman, "Macro-and Micro-Implementation," pp. 157-184. l^Bardach, The Implementation Game, Chaps. 3-6, especially pp. 51-57.
The American People and Their Environment
  • Viladas Co
Viladas Co., The American People and Their Environment, A Report to the Environmental Protection Agency (Springfield, Va.: NTIS, 1973).
382-390. the general argument, see Marver H. Bernstein, Regulating Business by Independent Commission
  • Riley Dunlap
  • Dan Dillman
Riley Dunlap and Dan Dillman, "Decline in Public Support for Environmental Protection," Rural Sociology, 41 (Fall 1976), 382-390. the general argument, see Marver H. Bernstein, Regulating Business by Independent Commission (Princeton: Princeton University Press), Chapters 3-8.