Article

Global Toyotaism and Local Development

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The current internationalization of the Japanese production system (global toyotaism) carries different implications for urban and regional development from the past internationalization of the American system (global fordism). Three trajectories of global toyotaism - flexibly specialized industrial district in Japan, transplants in North American and western Europe, and a complementary regional divison of labour in Southeast Asia - all indicate that global toyotaism, in comparison to global fordism, is localizing more of the production process and therefore may be more conducive to local development in host nations. -Authors

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Each period has a characteristic production model, which frames the organization of work and the social landscape (see Table 1). The production model of the Fordism and Toyotism has been studied in greater detail in the past [Piore, Sabel, 1984;Fujita, Hill, 1995;Wood, 1991;Bell, 1999]. So for my short study I choose the automotive industry as reference to obtain a clear picture of the differences between these production models in the three selected periods. ...
... • Fordism: the production system of the postwar industrial period where the mass production of cars was an economically successful concept and the Ford-inspired model was a leading organizational concept [Forgacs, 1988;Piore, Sabel, 1984]; • Toyotism or Post-Fordism: a period when the diversified production of high-quality cars became the new key production model that was first implemented in Japan and attained economic success and formed a more flexible and more flat organizational structure [Wood, 1991;Fujita, Hill, 1995]; • Uberism or Waymoism: the newest system based on virtual value chains and the idea of the sharing or platform economy which revolutionized production structure and consumption. This shift has ramifications beyond the automotive sector. ...
... Globalization just meant building a new manufacturing location at another place in the world with the latest know how and technology. Specialization only took place as the production of different products at one location or another occurred [Fujita, Hill, 1995]. Looking further to the organization of work within the larger enterprises in the production sector in the postwar industrial period, one see how the vertically integrated companies generated a special kind of organization of labor based on the idea of economics of scale. ...
... More recently however, a counter view has emerged which argues that despite the relative mobility of transnationals, they not only continue to display characteristics of their national origin, but indeed derive considerable competitive advantage from being 'embedded' in the home nation (Gertler 1997; Mair 1997). As Fujita and Hill (1995) argue, Japanese transnationals have moved from traditional 'screw driver assembly' branch plants to recreate the competitive advantages of their national base in new host locations by developing dense subcontracting and other networks. Many researchers have emphasized the importance of the Japanese domestic system of industrial organization for conferring important long-run com-petitive advantages to Japanese corporations (Florida and Kenney 1991; Kester 1996; Fuijita and Hill 1995). ...
... In the case of North America, researchers such as Florida and Kenney (1991) and Holmes (1996) argued strongly that a successful and nearly complete transfer of Japanese production, buyer-supplier practices and teamwork has occurred . Certainly it is the case that Japanese producers have been able to transfer many of their domestic supply systems to North America, such as a heavier reliance on suppliers through longer-term contracts for initial design and development of components and sub-assemblies and their delivery via JIT (just-intime ) systems (Fujita and Hill 1995; Kester 1996). However, other studies give a more qualified assessment of the transfer of these practices. ...
Article
Full-text available
Japanese automakers have become an integral part of the North American economy, with total investment approaching $20 billion, direct employment ex- ceeding 40,000 and 3 million vehicles being built annually. The investment and productive capacity can be considered a function of globalization trends and/or deliberate policy initiatives by governments and firms. This paper briefly introduces the global context for a set of papers that explore how the Japanese automakers responded to the opportunities and challenges posed by the North American market. It outlines the growth of the global automobile industry and periods of foreign direct investment (FDI) by European, American and Japa- nese firms. The distribution of Japanese investment is shown to vary during the 1990s as production capacity is increased in each major continental market. The Japanese investment in North America is shown to have created new ca- pacity equal to the entire Canadian automobile industry, the fifth largest in the world. New equity linkages are established among major Japanese, American and European automobile producers as joint ventures are formed or significant equity interests established. The global context is set for more detailed consid- eration of the policies, supply chain, production systems and environmental
... Much sharing of risk. Adapted from Sako 1992 and Kenney 1991, 1993; Morris 1991; Edgington 1995; Fujita and Hill 1995; Abo 1996; Mair 1997). In the case of North America, some researchers such as Florida and Kenney (1991) argue strongly that a successful and nearly complete transfer of Japanese production and buyer-supplier practices has occurred. ...
... Moreover, there is some evidence of a different trajectory of development in the Canadian parts sector. For example, it has been argued that Japanese reluctance to source higher valueadded components in North America and in particular Canada, is driven primarily by a lack of independent, high quality suppliers (see Fujita and Hill 1995; Edgington 1995). This has meant the Japanese have significantly amended their traditional domestic vertical keiretsu networks when moving to North America (see Parker et al. 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines how the arrival and expansion of Japanese automotive assemblers in North America during the 1980s and 1990s, has been characterized by a complex process of mutual adaptation by both the transplant assemblers and North American suppliers. It argues that despite the arguments that globalization is necessarily associated with a convergence in supply-management practices, Japanese assemblers generally remain more committed to long-term supplier development and technical assistance and are less price focused than their North American counterparts. Nonetheless, I argue that a hybrid system is emerging in which the Japanese have modified some of their strategies to the more adversarial and price oriented systems which characterize North America. The second half of the paper examines Canadian-based supplier relations with the transplants and concludes that despite the emergence of a core of large R&D intensive Canadian suppliers, most remain smaller and more specialized in lower value added components than their US counterparts.
... In this analysis, the spatial dimension of the original production system founded by Toyota has in and of itself becomes a research topic. Questions concerning the relationship between geographic proximity and the techniques of Just-inTime (JIT) have sparked a debate between observers whose analyses have been diverse, and often incomplete (Hill, 1989;Linge, 1991;Glasmeier and Sugiura, 1991;Reid, 1995;Fujita and Hill, 1995). ...
Article
Full-text available
The geography of the automotive industry has changed in recent years. This article focuses on the changes that are associated with 'modular production', whose diffusion has reinforced the need for proximity between auto-makers and parts-makers. The new geographical configurations that have cropped up, especially in the field of assembly operations, are based on spatial contiguity. On one hand, this spatial and organizational contiguity comprises a move away from former methods for managing vertical relationships; on the other hand, it has transformed the role that geographical proximity plays in the coordination of such activities. Such a co-evolution needs to be interpreted. Following a brief description of recent experimentation in this area, we try to determine how geographic proximity can drive the emergence of new methods for coordinating vertical relationships by highlighting some of the opportunities for organizational innovation that can result from proximity. Several factors will be discussed: the management of the logistical constraint; the convergence of representations; the site specificity by which vertical relationships can be stabilized; the different ways in which employment relationships can be managed; and the limits of all of these factors. We highlight both the benefits and the shortcomings of geographical proximity by drawing certain conclusions from the first experiments that the automobile industry has conducted. Copyright Joint Editors and Blackwell Publishers Ltd 2002.
... Driven by this empirical evidence, academic research started to investigate questions concerning the relationship between supplier location and JIT. One major contribution to this quest delivered the economic-and especially industrial-geography (Hill, 1989;Linge, 1991;Glasmeier and Sugiura, 1991;Reid, 1995;Fujita and Hill, 1995;Frigant and Lung, 2002;Sako, 2004). Larsson (2002) provided an extensive academic research to the significance of geographical proximity in the restructuring process of a domestic subcontractor system in the Swedish automotive industry. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose ‐ In recent decades the automotive industry has established a variety of new forms of logistics integration between automobile assemblers and their suppliers, in particular those in the first tier. The purpose of this paper is to outline which form of logistics integration original equipment manufacturer (OEM) assembly plants use to link up with proximate suppliers, and to classify and compare different types of logistics supplier integration. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The data and insights for this paper come from a literature review of research and practitioner papers and studies to survey logistics integration models in theory and practice. In addition, data are collected through semi-structured interviews and site visits. Findings ‐ The main findings are summarised in five conditions which characterise logistics supplier integration in the automotive industry. These conditions vary significantly between local dedicated supply as discussed in this paper and the traditional supply, which is distant and scattered around suppliers. These main conditions are "geographical proximity", "delivery contents, volume and sequence", "shared investment and asset specificity", "information sharing and information technology system integration" as well as "transport system". Although all of the five conditions were considered relevant for the description of existing integration forms, only the "geographical proximity" dimension is emerged as most suited for a formal typology. Therefore, a seven-step integration model was developed which allows for a categorisation and comparison of existing logistics integration forms of proximate supply. Research limitations/implications ‐ This research aims to support the academic study of cross-company and inter-organisational supplier integration by providing consistent criteria for cross-site comparisons. A holistic and consistent understanding of different logistics integration types will be necessary, which will help in evaluating the actual integration forms such as supplier parks. Originality/value ‐ The majority of studies into the supplier integration phenomenon conclude that logistical concerns are the driving factor behind supplier co-location. Therefore, the focus of this research is on the spectrum of vertical integration in logistics between the vehicle manufacturers and their suppliers.
... Meanwhile, it would increase urban polarisation because the new criteria of competitive survival and the need for flexibility against escalating uncertainty require location in large metropolises. Other authors argue that " global toyotaism, in comparison to global Fordism, localises more of the production process and therefore seems to be more conducive to local development in host nations " (Fujita&Hill, 1995). ...
Article
Full-text available
Since the 1980s, the restructuring tendencies of capital have been calling for the reorganization of production, reshaping of enterprises and reconsiderations of geographical space. Globalization and japanization emerged as the new concepts of the postfordist production era, the former implying the geographical enlargement of economic operations and markets while the latter representing a certain managerial model which has come to be considered a crucial element of the globalization process in the postfordist organization of production. Radical improvements in transportation and communication technologies resulted in the reduction of the associated costs which, in turn, made resources and markets all over the world accessible. However, this accessibility destroyed the oligopolistic advantages of business firms due to? their proximity to local markets (Thisse, 1994). Globalization forced them to seek for other types of competition whereby the survival of a firm depends on its performance in the diversity of its products, quality of goods and asociated services, its responsiveness to demand, ability to reduce lapse of time, and innovating capacity (Veltz, 1994). This new type of competitiveness requires intense interaction and cooperation inside firms, between various phases in the production cycle, between firms and their suppliers and clients, as well as between commodity markets and labour markets (Thisse, 1994). Thus, a new type of proximity becomes important for competitiveness. Territorial and local considerations are reinterpreted in reference to the global restructuring process of capital. Several questions are raised in this context: Will the big cities be increasingly interlinked in a global urban network? Will small towns which are not well linked to the network be facing increasing degeneration and poverty? What new links should be established between cities and their surrounding areas? (Derycke,1994). There are antithetic answers to those questions as far
... The Japanese production system has been widely studied with automobile manufacturers identified as models of flexible production (Fujita & Hill 1995), however, the production system should be set in a wider context of societal relations (Parker et al. 2000) to explore how new technologies are developed and then promoted. Societal demands for improved environmental performance create pressures for new technologies. ...
Article
Japanese automakers are a source of new technologies to meet the environmental needs of society. The Japanese production system has been widely studied with automobile manufacturers identified as models of flexible production, however, the production system should be set in a wider context of societal relations to explore how new technologies are developed. These new technologies may come from small innovative firms such as Ballard Power Systems or from established firms such as Toyota and Honda. These firms do not work in isolation, but carefully monitor market trends, consumer preferences, and government policy both in Japan and overseas. As a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and smog precursors, the Japanese automotive industry has chosen to develop and market new vehicle technologies to meet demands for reduced emissions. The strategy is to have proven technology available to meet the demands of the most stringent jurisdictions and thus create expanded market opportunities as other jurisdictions follow the path of the leaders. The environmental performance of hybrids is compared to the expected performance of fuel cell technology being developed by Ballard Power Systems and its partners.
... Such a process also took time to cultivate. Therefore, once in place, the Toyotaists saw little benefit in relocating one of, or their entire cluster of factories, to another city, region, or nation (Fujita & Hill, 1995; Hill, 1989). As a result, Toyotaism has fostered cooperative inter-local and manufacturer-community relations in the Tokai region. ...
Article
 Drawing on scholarly literature, descriptive data, and 142 face-to-face interviews with non-elected local officials, this article examines the relationship among political-economic context, inter-municipal relations, and spatial outcomes in the primary auto regions of the US (Detroit) and Japan (Tokai) between 1969 and 1996. It maintains that Detroit's embedded context promoted inter-municipal relations that can best be termed competitive separatism and apathetic avoidance. It then chronicles how such inter-local relations severely exacerbated existing conditions of uneven development in the region over the past 30 years. Conversely, it demonstrates how Tokai's context encouraged lateral interdependence among communities in its region. It then reveals how inter-local collaboration played a critical role in the relatively balanced metropolitan growth that came to exist there during this time period. It concludes by stating that inter-municipal relations have played a more vital role in metropolitan development than previously has been described in the scholarly literature.
... While all three of the newly established branch plants had some Japanese managers on site, Toyota hired relatively few Japanese managers and wants to decrease the presence of Japanese personnel further over time (see Table 6). This "adaptation"-the inclusion of Polish managers-demonstrates not a corruption of lean production, but a practical step toward organizing factory operations that are locally viable (see Fujita and Hill 1995). At the same time, the presence of Japanese managers and the training of Polish managers in corporate philosophy help facilitate smooth relationships between the parent firms and the branch plants and foster an understanding of the potentials of the parent companies' practices. ...
Article
This article examines hybrid branch plants created by an interaction of the routines and conventions of the parent company with those of local institutions. We argue that hybridization is a search for an appropriate mix of practices that ensure viability in local circumstances, rather than necessarily the transfer of established “best” (parent-company) practices. Conceptually, hybridization is interpreted as learning-based (and bargaining) processes that are inherent in the evolution (internationalization) of firms in which alternative trajectories are possible. Empirically, the article examines the recent transfer of lean production to Poland's automobile industry and comparatively and qualitatively analyzes four hybrid branch plants in terms of six dimensions of shop-floor and factory management. Given the explosion of Japanese foreign direct investment in recent decades, its competitive strengths, and the importance that Japanese firms attach to learning processes, lean production is an important case study for hybridization. The four cases illustrate different types of hybrid behavior with different consequences for corporate and local performance.
... These clusters are particularly common in the oil refining, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and automobile industries throughout the world (Cumbers 2000; Wang and Yeung 2000; Yeung 2006; Dicken 2007). They are effective only if spatial proximity enhances inter-firm transactions along particular production chains via the formalization of just-in-time production and supply chain management practices (e.g. the Toyota City; see Womack et al. 1990; Fujita and Hill 1995). ...
... Whatever the future of the Japanese domestic economy, since the establishment of Japanese assemblers outside of their domestic base, a crucial question has been the extent to which this system could also be transferred (see Florida and Kenney 1991;Fujita and Hill 1995;Abo 1996;Mair 1997). Researchers such as Florida and Kenney (1991) argued strongly that a successful and nearly complete transfer of Japanese production and buyer-supplier practices had occurred in North America. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the global automobile industry has both influenced, and been influenced by, the debate on the impact of globalization on the nation state and national institutions. Rather than assume that globalization operates in a uni- form socio-economic environment, this paper examines how Japanese auto- mobile manufacturers have departed from their home environment in Japan and adapted to North America in general, and the national socio-economic environments of Canada and the United States in particular. Instead of simply imposing structures from one country on another, we find that a two-way ex- change of information, ideas and technology is established. Interviews were held with senior managers in automotive parts and vehicle assembly plants in Japan, the United States, Canada and Mexico. Investment patterns are uneven across the three countries. The production and supply systems used by Japa- nese automobile transplants in North America share many attributes with those in Japan (greater integration with suppliers through long-term contracts and supplier responsibility for innovation and cost reduction, JIT deliveries), how- ever, important differences also emerged. The human resource and industrial relations systems used by transplants also showed significant national differ- ences. Honda illustrates many of these adaptations as part of its 'glocalization' or strategic localization approach. Overall, the creative corporate weaving of home and local approaches leads us to the conclusion that Japanese automo- bile transplants in North America operate as hybrids which seek to combine the best features of both worlds to retain their competitive position in the automo- bile markets of the 21st century.
... Recent research related to hybridization would suggest that firms can develop deep links with their host regions through "localized development"where competencies are developed on the basis of local endowments, and deployed then integrated in the knowledge of the parent firm and deployed globally (Fujita & Hill, 1995). Similarly, when a country aims to attract successful firms like Toyota, this is often done to introduce competencies that are seen as desirable to a local industry. ...
... As a result, even the few auto investments that are generally considered to be very successful and highly integrated in local economies (such as VW-Škoda) can lead to deskilling in the host countries. Additionally, the closure of uncompetitive domestic suppliers and extremely low or non-existent local content of foreign-owned suppliers may reduce the number of manufacturing jobs in the host countries (Fujita and Hill, 1995 ...
Article
Full-text available
Foreign direct investment (FDI) has been accorded a central role in the post-communist economic transformation of Central and Eastern Europe. This paper examines the regional effects of FDI in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia) in the 1990s. It challenges uncritical views of FDI and its role in regional economic transformations by considering its potentially adverse effects for regional economic development, such as the intensification of uneven development, the development of a dual economy, failure to develop linkages with local and regional economies, and its contribution to increased regional economic instability. A case-study of the Czech automotive components industry illustrates the regional economic effects of FDI in Central Europe in terms of stability of investment, its links with the regional economy and its effects on domestic research and development.
... En effet, notre mémoire de DEA portait sur les enjeux spatiaux de l'introduction du juste-àtemps. La littérature dominante à l'époque considérait que les contraintes de livraison induites par la suppression des stocks dans les industries d'assemblage, et singulièrement l'automobile, devaient se traduire par un renforcement des contraintes de proximité physiques, et donc, par une concentration géographique entre preneurs et donneurs d'ordres (Estall, 1985 ;Hill, 1989 ;Fujita, Hill, 1995) conduisant à redonner une seconde vie à la notion perouxienne de polarisation (Mair, 1993). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Ce mémoire propose une analyse de l'impact organisationnel de la modularité sur les relations verticales inter-firmes. Considérant en première approche la modularité comme une innovation technologique, il s'agit d'examiner comment les architectures produits, productives et organisationnelles co-évoluent dans le temps. Le texte est structuré autour de quatre chapitres. Le premier chapitre présente la grille de lecture mobilisée pour évaluer l'influence du choix d'une architecture produit sur les trajectoires organisationnelles des firmes et des industries. Le lien entre nos travaux et ceux en termes de dominant design sont explicités ainsi que l'importance d'étudier les changements technologiques comme facteur essentiel des dynamiques organisationnelles. Le deuxième chapitre présente la controverse entre Vanishing Hand et Complex product systems concernant les frontières de la firme. Ce débat est ensuite complété par une analyse détaillée du secteur automobile présenté comme une industrie imparfaitement modulaire. Le troisième chapitre cherche à comprendre comment émerge les architectures modulaires en retraçant la généalogie de son développement dans l'industrie automobile. La nature incrémentale et les effets de rétroaction entre technologie et organisation sont particulièrement mis en avant. Les conséquences de l'imparfaite modularité sur les firmes présentes dans l'industrie sont également soulevées et le rôle des PME captant les interstices du marché, soulignées. Le dernier chapitre cherche à évaluer comment le développement d'architecture produit modulaire contribue à accroître la fragmentation internationale des chaînes de valeur. Une première section présente les arguments habituellement présentés dans la littérature à partir de l'opposition architecture modulaire/imparfaitement modulaire présenté au deuxième chapitre. En se recentrant sur l'industrie automobile, on propose alors un modèle explicatif des stratégies de localisation des équipementiers en Europe. La conclusion rassemble les points clés dégagés et esquisse des pistes de recherche pour la suite.
... It was the changing nature of the global economy which inspired Friedmann and Wolff, whose article foreshadowed shifts in production location and practice, and the move towards financialisation and deepening inequalities, all of which are now taken for granted in analyses of the global economy, and as key features shaping urbanisation. In this virtual issue, this is reflected in the paper by Richard Child Hill (1989) comparing two sets of transnational automobile production systems orchestrated through Japan and the USA (which in a later paper could be contrasted as Toyotaism and Fordism (Fujita and Hill, 1995). Michael Storper's important intervention on regional industrial development in the "Third World" reflects the broader shifts in analysis which characterised this moment, driven by a theoretical shift away from the Marxist analysis of neo-imperialism and Third World development which shaped the contributions to IJURR through the 1980s and by profound empirical changes in the organisation of transnational production and the politics of development in many countries around the world. ...
Article
Comparative urbanism has been a core feature of IJURR's editorial agenda since its founding. This virtual issue comprises 30 articles reflecting IJURR's contribution to comparative urbanism, reinforced by the growing postcolonial insistence on a more global scope for urban studies widely aired in this journal. This introductory article discusses the contemporary potential of comparative urbanism to contribute to a more global urban studies and considers some of the key insights for this project which can be gleaned from early contributions to the journal, including comparing across cities jointly shaped by the uneven development of the world-economy, thinking across socialist and capitalist cities, and the important role of world cities approaches in shaping the scope of urban comparisons. The articles in the section on the ‘tactics and terms’ of comparison reflect on the methodological, analytical and political challenges involved in building a more global urban studies. In the ‘composing comparisons’ section there are examples of classic and more recent variation-finding comparisons, and innovative analyses which consider variations amongst cities within and across regions, including comparisons which challenge or bypass Northern or Western reference points. More experimental comparative methods associated with tracing connections across cities are reflected in the third section, beginning with the seminal world cities analyses and building on more recent interest in policy mobilities. The final section draws together a series of articles which demonstrate the scope for building analyses from specific contexts for wider theoretical interrogation: ‘launching and engaging concepts’. These articles reflect the best traditions of IJURR's editorial practices which have encouraged contributions from authors around the globe whose work disrupts and extends prominent analyses but who are also eager to initiate new theorizations through attending to the specificity of their case studies and situations. Here we see, for example, the concept of ‘informality’ emerging in studies of cities in Africa, to be put to work in the final contribution to the issue, in the USA.
... The first studies in this area (Estall, 1985) portrayed this as an organisational model based on a singular spatial geography. For instance, Fujita and Hill (1995) have shown that Toyota had a network of suppliers localised around its plants in a radiocentric formation, with Tier 1 suppliers being situated nearby, Tier 2 a little further away and Tier 3 at an even greater distance. Authors have largely described this type of organisation as reflecting the intensity of delivery flows, although they do recognise that Japan's particular geography (lack of room to build and ongoing congestion problems) offers another explanation. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we examine the evolution of international exchanges of auto parts over the 2000-2012 period. The first part of our study proposes an analysis of the organisation of automotive supply chains based on the global production networks framework. We give details about this approach by stating the nature of trade flows that occur in these networks, and by highlighting the importance of intra-firms flows. The second part poses the question of reasons for an eventual increase of intercontinental flows at the expense of intra-continental flows. In the third part, we evaluate the assumptions made in this context. On the basis of Chelem data about auto parts exchanges, we examine in a comparative way the evolution of intra-continental and intercontinental flows for nine zones of regional integration that cover the world’s entire set of countries. Our results highlight the heterogeneity of situations and of trajectories in the different zones. We explain this state of affairs by the history and the trajectory of the industrial actors, by institutional opportunities/constraints, and by the balance of power between the industries engaged in the setting up of automotive production networks.
... Semi-Standardization Flexible System or Toyotism. This is a system of production that aims at achieving flexibility and quality through flexible specialization, spatial agglomeration, and just-intime (JIT) delivery logistics (Fujita and Hill, 1995). Instead of mass production, Toyatism relies on producing a variety of high quality products, but of relatively small value. ...
... En effet, dès les premiers travaux sur la géographie du juste-à-temps (Estall, 1985), il est mis en évidence que ce modèle organisationnel fonctionne sur la base d'une géographie spatiale singulière. Fujita et Hill (1995) montrent ainsi que Toyota possède un réseau de fournisseurs géographiquement concentré autour de ses usines selon une logique radioconcentrique : les fournisseurs de rang 1 sont localisés à proximité, les rangs 2 plus loin, les rangs 3 dans un troisième périmètre. Ce type d'organisation s'explique essentiellement d'après eux par l'intensité des flux de livraison même s'ils reconnaissent que la géographie du Japon (très contrainte en espaces constructibles et sujette aux embouteillages) contribue à expliquer cette particularité. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dans cet article, nous étudions l’évolution des échanges internationaux d’éléments pour automobiles sur la période 2000-2012. La première partie propose une analyse de la structuration des réseaux d’approvisionnement automobiles à partir du cadre d’analyse des global production networks. Nous détaillons néanmoins ces travaux en précisant la nature des flux que l’on peut rencontrer dans ces réseaux et en soulignant l’importance des flux intra-firmes. La deuxième section s’interroge sur les raisons qui pourraient conduire à un accroissement des flux intercontinentaux au détriment des flux intracontinentaux. Les hypothèses formulées sont évaluées dans une troisième section. A partir des données de la base Chelem sur les échanges d’éléments pour automobiles, nous étudions de manière comparative, l’évolution des flux intracontinentaux et intercontinentaux pour 9 zones d’intégration régionale recouvrant l’ensemble des pays du monde. Les résultats soulignent l’hétérogénéité des situations et des trajectoires des différentes zones ce que nous expliquons par l’histoire et la trajectoires des acteurs industriels dans ces pays, des opportunités/contraintes institutionnelles et des rapports de force entre les industriels impliqués dans la construction des réseaux de production automobiles.
... Ezek a telephelyi döntések természetesen nem érinthették a vertikális lánc minden elemét; a festés vagy a kárpitozás mindenképpen helyhez (az összeszereléshez) kötött tevékenység. Egyes speciális, összetettebb elemeknél (dugattyúk, rögzítők, porlasztó) a méretgazdaságosság sokkal fontosabb, mint az egyszerűbb, munkaintenzív műveletek (hegesztés, összeszerelés különböző fajtái) esetén, így előbbieket végzik inkább a nagyobb, tőkeerősebb vállalatok, s itt nagyobb koncentráció figyelhető meg [Fujita-Hill 1995]. ...
Article
A közép-kelet-európai országok többségében, így hazánkban is, az átalakulási folya-mat fő katalizátorának és finanszírozási forrásának a működőtőke-beruházásokat te-kintették, s a magyar gazdaságban nemzetközi összehasonlításban is kiemelkedő lett a külföldi vállalatok súlya. Egyre inkább nyilvánvalóvá vált azonban, hogy a nagyará-nyú külfölditőke-beáramlás önmagában nem jelent megoldást a strukturális prob-lémákra, a működőtőke-beáramlás pozitív szaldójára nem lehet gazdasági stratégiát alapozni, így előtérbe kerültek azok a kérdések, amelyek a külföldi tőke puszta finan-szírozáson túlmutató hatásait taglalták, kitérve a beruházások adott vállalaton belüli (mint például munkahelyteremtő, technológiai) hatásaira. A beruházások beszállítókra gyakorolt pozitív hatásai nem érvényesülnek auto-matikusan. Elméleti, illetve empirikus szinten is megkérdőjelezhető az a tétel, hogy a pozitív hatások automatikusan, a vállalati jellemzőktől, a makrogazdasági és az ága-zati adottságoktól függetlenül működnének [UNCTAD 2001; Ruane 2001; Pavlínek 2002; Éltető 2000]. Mindezek érvényesülése az eddigi tapasztalatok szerint két tényezőcsoport függvénye: a befogadó ország vállalatainak technológiai színvonala, versenyképessége és más adottságai mellett a külföldi cég stratégiája is nagy szere-pet játszik a növekedési, technológiai és foglalkoztatási hatások érvényesülésében. A magyar gazdaság duális szerkezete, a hazai cégek versenyképességének ala-csony szintje, a rendszerváltást követő vállalati átalakulás módja, a kis-és középvállal-kozások lehetőségeinek felmérése felveti a külföldi tulajdonú vállalatok és a hazai gazdaság szereplői közti kapcsolatok mennyiségi és minőségi kérdéseit. Nem szű-kebb értelemben vett pénzügyi problémáról van csupán szó, nem csak a hazai be-szállítók arányának növeléséről, s nem is pusztán a hazai hozzáadott értékről, hanem arról a strukturális, szervezeti, technológiai, kulturális alkalmazkodásról, amely lehe-tőséget teremt a transznacionális vállalati rendszerekben történő részvételre. A tanulmány a közvetlen külföldi beruházások és a hazai vállalatok kapcsolatát a magyarországi Suzuki beszállítói rendszerének példáján ke-resztül vizsgálja. A beszállítói kapcsolatok kialakulása és a hazai vállalatok transznacionális termelési rendszerekhez történő csatlakozása nagymér-tékben függ a fordista, toyotista rendszerek működésétől éppúgy, mint a befo-gadó gazdaság vállalataitól. A vállalati mélyinterjúkon alapuló elemzés tipi-kus vállalati csoportokat különít el, vizsgálja a beszállítóvá válás folyamatát, a technológiai együttműködés kérdéseit, a beszállítók versenyképességének tényezőit. Bár a duális gazdaság képét nagymértékben árnyalni lehet, önma-gukban sem a fordista, sem a toyotista elven működő beszállítói rendszerek nem szolgálhatnak csodaszerként a hazai vállalatok számára.
... Distinguished from New York, Tokyo and Seoul have not experienced severe manufacturing decline. On the contrary, they maintain high-tech industrial growth and those productions are concentrated in cities [64,65]. Taipei and Singapore also show similar industrial structures [66,67]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Economic development is the natural requirement of urban sustainability. Faced with uncertainty in society, including economic crisis and risk, the ability to reduce the stress and increase the security of economic life should be considered. World cities, deeply impacted by globalization and urbanization, deserve more attention with respect to the economic dimension of sustainable development. This study explored the role of manufacturing in the sustainable economic development of world cities, based on research in Guangzhou, China. This paper applies the grounded theory method, whereas data collection was performed through in-depth semi-structured interviews and field observations. This research found industrial interactions between manufacturing and a variety of relevant advanced producer services facilitate industrial upgrading and diversity, which exert positive effects on the city's economic dimension of sustainable development.
... The first studies in this area (Estall, 1985) portrayed this as an organisational model based on a singular spatial geography. For instance, Fujita and Hill (1995) have shown that Toyota had a network of suppliers localised around its plants in a radiocentric formation, with Tier 1 suppliers being situated nearby, Tier 2 a little further away and Tier 3 at an even greater distance. Authors have largely described this type of organisation as reflecting the intensity of delivery flows, although they do recognise that Japan's particular geography (lack of room to build and ongoing congestion problems) offers another explanation. ...
... Sagunto pourrai t renforcer sa position dans le schéma de coopération globale des grandes firmes du secteur. avary, 1991 ; Ferrao, 1992 ; Amin et al, 1994 ; Fujita y Hill, 1995)condition qu'elles puissent améliorer leurs équipements en infrastructures, augmenter les niveaux de qualification de la population et préserver leur précaire équilibre environnemental (Commission Européenne, 1995). Cependant la préoccupante évolution récente des investissements industriels et le maintien de niveaux de chômage relativement élevés met en évidence la nécessité de clarifier et de développer politiquement le modèle d'industrialisation que l'on désire pour la région. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses and evaluates the restructuring process of the steel industry at Sagunto (Spain). The role played by the regional government and the attitudes taken by the trade unions were, as well as the good location conditions, critical elements to explain the final success. However the positive local trend seems to have been broken during the early 90s ; it is now necessary, once the social and unemployment problem of the restructuring process has been solved, to implement a development strategy for the area in the long term.
... Driven by this empirical evidence, academic research started to investigate questions concerning the relationship between supplier location and JIT. One major contribution to this quest delivered the economic-and especially industrial-geography (Hill, 1989;Linge, 1991;Glasmeier and Sugiura, 1991;Reid, 1995;Fujita and Hill, 1995;Frigant and Lung, 2002;Sako, 2004). Larsson (2002) provided an extensive academic research to the significance of geographical proximity in the restructuring process of a domestic subcontractor system in the Swedish automotive industry. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose ‐ In recent decades the automotive industry has established a variety of new forms of logistics integration between automobile assemblers and their suppliers, in particular those in the first tier. The purpose of this paper is to outline which form of logistics integration original equipment manufacturer (OEM) assembly plants use to link up with proximate suppliers, and to classify and compare different types of logistics supplier integration. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The data and insights for this paper come from a literature review of research and practitioner papers and studies to survey logistics integration models in theory and practice. In addition, data are collected through semi-structured interviews and site visits. Findings ‐ The main findings are summarised in five conditions which characterise logistics supplier integration in the automotive industry. These conditions vary significantly between local dedicated supply as discussed in this paper and the traditional supply, which is distant and scattered around suppliers. These main conditions are "geographical proximity", "delivery contents, volume and sequence", "shared investment and asset specificity", "information sharing and information technology system integration" as well as "transport system". Although all of the five conditions were considered relevant for the description of existing integration forms, only the "geographical proximity" dimension is emerged as most suited for a formal typology. Therefore, a seven-step integration model was developed which allows for a categorisation and comparison of existing logistics integration forms of proximate supply. Research limitations/implications ‐ This research aims to support the academic study of cross-company and inter-organisational supplier integration by providing consistent criteria for cross-site comparisons. A holistic and consistent understanding of different logistics integration types will be necessary, which will help in evaluating the actual integration forms such as supplier parks. Originality/value ‐ The majority of studies into the supplier integration phenomenon conclude that logistical concerns are the driving factor behind supplier co-location. Therefore, the focus of this research is on the spectrum of vertical integration in logistics between the vehicle manufacturers and their suppliers.
... In addition, Fujita and Hill (1995) argue that u.s. investments that follow Fordist production methods have minimum effects on the spread of technology to the host country 22 . ...
Book
Full-text available
Foreign Direct Investment (fdi) has grown in importance for both developed and developing countries during the last four decades. Developing countries eased restrictions on foreign capital since the 1980s' expecting " spillovers " in the form of productivity improvements, technology transfer and knowledge diffusion in the local economy. Mexico was among the countries that eased restrictions to fdi, hoping that economic development would be promoted through technological and productivity spillovers as well as through export growth. The country also transitioned from a highly protective import substitution strategy to an export promotion regime where fdi plays a central role. This book is focused on the effects of fdi on the Mexican economy. Specifically, the analysis is centered on inter-industry effects of both Japan and u.s. fdi on Mexico's manufacturing sector. Theoretical contributions suggest that effects from Japanese and u.s. fdi might differ due to the characteristics embodied in each type of investment. Interestingly, results show that not only are inter-industry effects different, but that differences are present within each type of investment under certain specifications.
Article
We need a more nuanced way of looking at the relationship between globalisation and the city; a framework that can accommodate substantial differences as well as growing similarities among world metropolises and give both global integration and local distinctiveness their rightful due. I propose and illustrate one such framework in this paper, based upon the principle of nested hierarchy. In the view espoused here, cities are lodged within an interdependent world order divided among differently organised regional formations and national systems. The economic base, spatial organisation and social structure of the world's major cities are determined by the entire multi-level configuration – global niche, regional formation, national development model, and local historical context – in which each city participates. Growing interdependence in the global whole is perfectly consistent with differentiation within and among regional, national, and city levels of the system. As constituent elements of the global order, cities both facilitate the globalisation process and follow their own, relatively autonomous trajectories.
Article
Full-text available
Les traites internationaux permettent-ils auw regions de mettre en oeuvre des politiques de developpement endogene afin de se rendre plus "competitigves" au sein de l'economie globale? Autrement dit, les regions retiennent-elles suffisamment d'autonomie pour se prendre en main? Apres tout, les traites de commerce international tentent de reduire l'autonomie nationale en otant des outils politiques aux nations. Ces memes outils ne sont-ils pas otes aux regions?
Article
This paper examines regional office mobility through a case study of Hong Kong and Singapore. The analysis is based on a database combining government-collected statistics in the case of Hong Kong and original survey data in the case of Singapore. These data provide a profile of the regional office population in both centres including parent company nationality, business sector affiliation, geographical responsibility and location evaluation. These indicators and case studies of actual location decisions indicate that Hong Kong remains the dominant location of regional offices for East Asian markets, whereas Singapore is preferred by regional offices focused on Southeast Asia. The paper concludes that the two centres tend to be complementary rather than competing regional office locations for the Pacific Asian region. The low level of mobility exhibited by regional offices is related to the specific characteristics of the region and the changing organisational context of regional offices.
Article
This paper examines the extent to which the Asian currency crisis of 1997–1998 impacted upon the behaviour of Japanese foreign direct investment (FDI) in the manufacturing sector. Much literature has claimed that transnational corporations (TNCs) are unlikely to be firmly embedded in the host countries where they operate. If this is the case, then Japanese firms in Asia might have exhibited a high degree of disinvestment or plant closure and transfer of operations to other countries following the onset of the financial crisis. Although the events surrounding the Asian crisis and subsequent recovery are still unfolding, FDI data, surveys of Japanese firms, and initial reactions by Toyota Motor Corporation and Matsushita Electric Industrial were reviewed to examine this proposition. In general, the evidence suggests that Japanese TNCs have not fled Asia bur rather they responded in the following manner. First, flows of Japanese FDI into Asia overall held steady throughout fiscal year 1997–1998, although it was set to decline thereafter, at least for the short term. Second, at the level of individual corporations, there is some evidence to show that major firms have maintained their operations, and that they have shifted to an export-orientation so as to earn income from their Asian production in overseas currencies. Third, the survey evidence points to a long-term commitment to Asia by Japanese transnationals.
Article
This study addresses the power relationship between TNCs and their partners in the host region, a question that critically affects regional development in this globalizing world. Site interviews suggest Shanghai's special standing in China, providing it with stronger power in bargaining with TNCs than any other region in the country. Shanghai has thus gained tremendous benefits in technology transfer and managerial skill improvement. Company studies further reveal that the bargaining relationship between TNCs and local companies differs according to many factors. The level of ownership is determined by competition between both sides in terms of capital strength, technology level and marketing capability. The level of localization is affected by the previous status of the local partner, the size and development of the domestic market and the capability of the local manager. The change of one region's bargaining power is also related to the power of other (potential) competition regions. The degree of regional economic imbalance between regions within a country tends to be enlarging in the process of global-local interaction mediated by TNCs.
Chapter
With the debt crisis of the 1980s, an economic transition began, replacing import substitution industrialization, with the aim of adopting a series of structural reforms as a new model of economic growth. In order to obtain the benefits associated with investment, governments in developing countries relaxed their barriers to foreign investment flows and actively promote the attraction of FDI through the provision of subsidies and tax incentives. In the empirical literature, four factors are identified as determinants of the FDI location decision: regional demand, regional production costs, regional policies and the regional presence of agglomeration economies. Studies focused on public policies as a determinant factor for the location of FDI in developing countries are relatively scarce. This study is focused on the fiscal policies offered by the Bajio states, and their role in attracting Japanese foreign direct investment in the automotive industry.
Article
In spite of Japan’s economic slowdown during the 1990s, major cities in Aichi Prefecture have continued to thrive. Nevertheless, these, and others in Japan, have largely been ignored by Western scholars as successful models of how to maintain vibrant cities elsewhere. As a result, little has been written in English, and few lessons have been learned in the U.S. from urban planning efforts in Japan. From literature research, field observations, and qualitative interviews with 40 local land use and economic development planners in the prefecture, this article chronicles how well integrated national, prefectural, and municipal development planning, supportive public policies, and corporate commitment have produced thriving major cities in Aichi, Japan.
Article
In focusing on regional development and industrialization, this article highlights three main themes: the relevance to developing countries of the new industrial district concept; the apparent continued need to theorize agglomerated industrial growth; and the relevance of agricultural development to local and regional industrial development. It concludes that the new industrial district concept is not relevant to understanding industrialization in the peripheral regions of developing countries and that despite the introduction of decentralization policies, local industrial development will, as before, very largely depend on central government resource allocation, the stability of government and the role played by large and medium scale enterprises, including Multi-National Corporations (MNCs). It is also argued that without special efforts to develop agriculture, local and regional industrial development are less likely to occur.
Article
Cities in the Southern United States have experienced dynamic economic and population growth over the past half-century, challenging existing paradigms of urban form, race relations, social movements, and immigration. This review shows how the timing of Southern urbanization—much later than in the Northeast and Midwest—has contributed to Southern cities' distinctive spatial patterns and political and economic structures. Southern cities were crucial to regional transformation, including the Civil Rights Movement and the end of one-party rule in the South. Moreover, Southern cities exemplify key trends of the contemporary political economy: a new relationship to regional industrialization, new forms of entrepreneurial governance, flexible labor markets, the importance of finance and producer services, and “new destination” immigration. I conclude by examining two Southern cities for their relevance to central themes in contemporary social research: Atlanta for the study of the African American experience a...
Article
This paper focuses on relative levels of investment and trade between Japan and East Asia in the 1990s. Although Japan has been devoting a higher proportion of its world wide investments to this region, the value of this investment has been falling absolutely and even more so relative to the size of inflows from other sources. The region is more important for the trade of Japan than is Japan for the trade of the region. While trade between Japan and China has become more important recently for the latter. Japan's contribution to the trade of the rest of the region has largely stagnated. For both FDI and trade intra regional flows are now larger than are flows between the region and Japan. Evidence that Japan dominates the region through supply of machinery or through coordinating regional production networks is not convincing. The paper concludes that Japanese hegemony over the region is neither actual nor imminent.
Article
Using a case study of North African immigrant labour in the Paris car industry, this paper explores the relationship between the ‘structured coherence’ of the Paris region, and the transition to ‘Toyotaism’ within four large final assembly plants. I argue first that organizational and technical change does not simply translate into a form of employment decline, as other processes of labour segmentation are at work. Management in all three firms shifted between the use of young French workers and immigrants to match both the technical requirements of Toyotaism and to achieve control and docility (thus improving productivity and quality) within the factories. Second, I argue that the coherence of the Paris region as a region of final assembly has rested upon the centralizing tendencies of JIT/kanban, and that North African immigrants ‘suit’ the firm's requirements for qualitative and quantitative flexibility. This has allowed simultaneously the adoption of Toyotaist principles in a way which might better be described as ‘neo‐Fordism’. Finally, I contend that the processes of segmentation along national lines which were apparent during the ‘Fordist’ era have persisted despite any large‐scale transformation of the Paris plants. This suggests that we need to conceptualize the regulationist wage relation as racialized.
Article
ZET 1970'lere kadar exojen kalkınma yaklaşımı, bölgesel kalkınmada hakim model konumundaydı. Bu anlayış çerçevesinde kalkınmanın, "kalkınma kutupları" olgusunda olduğu gibi, gelişmiş bölgelerden az gelişmiş yada geri kalmış bölgelere doğru yayılma göstereceği kabul görmüştür. 1970'li yılların sonlarına doğru bu tür modeller, bölgelerin sürdürülebilir kalkınmasını desteklemediği için terk edilmeye başlanmış, büyük ölçüde yerel kaynaklara dayalı, yerel aktör ve dinamikler tarafından gerçekleştirilen ve sürdürülen bir kalkınma anlayışı olarak tanımlanabilen endojen kalkınma yaklaşımı ön plana çıkmıştır. Bu yaklaşımın temel dinamikleri arasında yerel üretim sistemleri, şehir sistemleri ve yenilikçi çevre önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Bu çalışmada söz konusu dinamikler ayrıntılı ele alındığı gibi, aralarındaki etkileşimler üzerinde de durulmaktadır. Anahtar kelimeler: Endojen kalkınma, bölgesel dinamikler GİRİŞ 1960'lı y ı lların sonlarına kadar uygulanan exojen bölgesel kalkınma modelleri 1 , Fordist üretim sistemi ve Keynezyen ekonomi politikalarıyla yakından bağlantılıdır. Yukarıdan aşağıya doğru bölgesel kalkınmayı savunan bu modellerde ilave istihdam yaratmak gibi kısa dönemli faydalar üzerinde durulmuş bu nedenle de dinamik-sürdürülebilir bir büyüme gerçekleştirilememiştir. Temelde işgücünün alansal dağılımına bağlı olarak sürükleyici bir bölgeden çevreye doğru yayılan bir kalkınma modelini yansıtan bu yaklaşım çerçevesinde bölgesel ekonominin endojen sektörlerinin gelişmesi için yeterli destek ve yatırımların gerçekleştirilemediği görülmüştür (Walsh, 2002:1). 1970'lerin ilk yarısında batı ekonomilerinde yaşanan resesyon, hem endüstriyel gelişmeye hem de toplumun hayat standartlarına önemli bir ivme kazandıran Keynezyen ekonomi politikaları ve Fordist sistemin önemini yitirmesine, i şsizlik ve geleceğe dönük belirsizliğin artmasına neden olmuştur (Ruccio, 1993:34). Söz konusu dönemde gelir ve i ş sizlik kriterleri açısından merkez-çevre bölgeler arasındaki kalkınma farkları artmış, çoğu endüstriyel bölge zayıflamış ve yeni bölgeler ortaya ç ı kmıştır (Maillat and Lecog, 1992:2). Bu gelişmeler, süregelen bölgesel kalkınma vizyonunun sorgulanmasına neden olmuştur.
Chapter
This chapter explores how university–community engagement has emerged in the indicators which governments and universities have adopted to try to measure universities’ societal activities. University–community engagement has often been subordinated to easier-to-measure activities such as graduate employment, spin-off companies created or number of patents. This chapter analyses six attempts that have been made to measure the societal value of universities’ activities in a variety of different national settings. The central argument in the chapter is that effective performance measures for university–community engagement need to fulfil three criteria, they need to capture the resources made available to the community, capture in some way how external partners value the university activity, and clearly define what they mean by what is ‘good’ or excellent in engagement activity. This has consequences both for the way that policy-makers seek to promote university–community engagement and also for a much wider range of activities which frame that activity. Most important is that community engagement can never really be a satisfactory activity until there is clarity and cohesion as to what constitutes ‘good’ community development.
Article
Traditionally, the study of 'power in the city' was confined to the institutions of urban government and the actors involved in contesting and making political decisions in and for metropolitan societies. Increasingly, however, attention has turned to the function of the city not only as a centre of urban governance but as a major economic, social, cultural and strategic force in its own right. Cities, Politics and Power combines this traditional concern with how the cities in which we live are organized and run with a broader focus on cities and urban regions as multiple sites and agents of power. This book is divided into five sections, with a short introduction outlining the argument and organisation of the text. Part two charts the development of the urban polity and considers the ways in which coercion and force continue to be used to segregate, oppress and annihilate urban populations. Part three critically examines the key collective actors and processes that compete for and organise political power within cities, and how urban governance operates and interacts with lesser and greater scales of government and networks of power. Part four then explores the ways in which 'the political' is constituted by urban inhabitants, and how social identity, information and communication networks, and the natural and built environment all comprise intersecting fields of urban power. The conclusion calls for a broader theoretical and thematic approach to the study of urban politics. This book makes extensive use of comparative and historical case studies, providing broad coverage of politics and urban movements in both the Global North and the Global South, with a particular focus on the UK, USA, Canada, Latin America and China. It is written in an accessible and lucid style and provides suggestions for further reading at the end each chapter.
Article
Examines the Baldrige criteria and their use in New Zealand. Government development agencies and private industry groups have recently promoted models of best practice in business organization and strategy. Across these initiatives there is a remarkable unanimity in the version of best practice being advocated, reflecting the influence of the Baldrige Award criteria. Contrasts the types of workplace reorganization advocated in the Baldrige criteria with sociotechnical systems, German diversified quality production, flexible specialization. Argues that each of these systems offers a route to best practice in its related market and business environment. Discusses the limits of reducing workplace change to a single one of these options and managerial action alone. Presents evidence of the value of industry co-ordinated change, including contrasting case studies from the meat and dairy processing sectors.
Article
Full-text available
The research constitutes the first effort to test the claim found in the world city theoretical literature that, as world cities strengthen ties with each other, their linkages with their countries’ hinterlands and national urban systems will weaken. This research offers a more nuanced exploration of this hypothesis by taking into account variation in the nature of the state across countries in which world cities are located as well as the source of global capital in the world cities. Specifically, the research reported here suggests that three types of world cities—market-centred bourgeois world cities (MWC), state-centred political bureaucratic world cities (SWC) and dual-role world cities (DWC)—entail different deterritorialisation outcomes. Three countries that have prototypical global cities—Japan (SWC), China (DWC) and the US (MWC) are compared, applying longitudinal network modelling to relational data on national city networks. From 1993 to 2007, more globally connected MWCs weakened their national ties. In contrast, higher global status has no significant effect on the integration of SWCs or DWCs with their national urban systems. This indicates that the type of state, but not the source of capital, conditions whether the world city will deterritorialise vis-à-vis its national city system.
Article
Drawing inspiration from Bluestone and Harrison's seminal book The Deindustrialization of America, this article examines the impact of industrial restructuring on Japan's four largest major metropolitan areas (MMAs). Focusing upon (1) the bursting of the Japanese asset bubble in the early 1990's, (2) trade friction with the West, and (3) a significant appreciation of the Japanese Yen relative to the currencies of its major industrial competitors, it reveals how a complex array of factors provoked manufacturing employment decline in these MMAs after 1991. It then describes some of the negative outcomes accompanying industrial restructuring in the four largest MMAs, namely, (1) contracting total employment after 1996, (2) absolute declines in mean household income (HHI) after 2000, and (3) rising inter-municipal income stratification during the 2000s. A final important finding from these case studies suggests that there has been an inverse relationship between the percentage of a region's employment in manufacturing and its inter-place HHI inequality. In summary, although the Japanese case is distinct from the U.S. experience in many ways, these findings nonetheless demonstrate the continued importance of Bluestone and Harrison's conclusions about the connections among manufacturing employment, regional prosperity, and interplace equity.
Preprint
In the world city theory, most researchers focus on the service sector in the urban economy and less discuss the role of manufacturing. However, the path of only emphasizing financial and corporate service could not fit the sustainability concept. Compared to Anglo-American world city, Global South’s world cities have distinct pathway to be industrialization, tertiarization and globalization. This paper adopted dynamic historic perspective with first-hand materials including in-depth interviews with managers and government officers and second-hand data including yearbook statics and economic census to closely examine the emerging world city-- ‘World Factory’ in Global South, Guangzhou in China, from 1949 to 2015, to emphasize how manufacturing affects the urban globalization through three dimensions, economic, social and spatial dimensions. To make the confirmation of the role of manufacturing in Guangzhou as sustainable world city, we find manufacturing in Guangzhou builds up the basic foundation of export-oriented economy and makes positive effects on urban economic transformation. In addition, manufacturing remains important source of employment and foreign immigration. Along with urbanization and industrialization, urban spatial expansion and aggregation changes with different urban development concept. We provide new insights on multiple globalization on manufacturing for sustainable world city.
Book
This book provides a cross-regional overview of the development strategies followed by the newly industrialized countries in Latin America and East Asia, with a focus on Brazil, Mexico, South Korea and Taiwan. With contributions from distinguished scholars from both regions, this book goes beyond the simplified concepts of inward-oriented and outward-oriented industrialization to highlight the historical, political and institutional connections between these apparently contrasting development paths.
Article
This paper examines the geography of Japanese motor industry investments in Western Europe, including the U.K. The basic framework for the analysis is provided by the changing technology and organization of car production, but the relevance of political factors influencing the scale, location and composition of investments is also stressed. At the macroscale, Japanese investments focus on the U.K., which has, for essentially political and cultural reasons, become an "offshore car production platform." At the mesoscale, within the U.K., Japanese firms have chosen "nontraditional" sites in terms of labor supply for their major transplants, which enables new production practices to be utilized more readily. In all cases, however, the final site selection reflects the input of behavioral factors. Tight-knit concentrations of transplants and component manufacturers, as observed in the U.S.A., have not emerged, largely due to more stringent "local content" ratios and the existence of a powerful indigenous component industry. The likely expansion of transplant production will add to the problems of European car manufacturers, who have already experienced massive restructuring and must adopt further defensive strategies.
Article
Interpretations of the new international division of labour can be divided between those which emphasise the sphere of exchange, those which focus on the sphere of production, and those which are based on an analysis of the circuits of capital in the internationalization of capital. This article reviews these different approaches to the NIDL and discusses their implications for socialist strategies
Article
A major player in Japanese society is its government bureaucracy. Neither Japan's phenomenal track record in the world marketplace nor its remarkable success in managing its domestic affairs can be understood without insight into how its government bureaucracy works - how its elite administrators are recruited, socialized, and promoted; how they interact among themselves and with other principal players in Japan, notably politicians; how they are rewarded; and what happens to them when they retire at a relatively young age. Yet, despite its pivotal importance, there is no comprehensive and up-to-date study of Japan's administrative elite in the English language.This book seeks to fill that gap. Koh examines patterns of continuity and change, identifies similarities and differences between Japan and four other industrialized democracies (the United States, Britain, France, and Germany), and assesses the implications of the Japanese model of public management. Though many features of Japanese bureaucracy are found in the Western democracies, the degree to which they manifest themselves in Japan appears to be unsurpassed. Koh shows that the Japanese model of public management contains both strengths and weaknesses. For example, the price Japan pays for the high caliber of its administrative elite is the stifling rigidity of a multiple track system, a system with second-class citizens and demoralized "non-career" civil servants who actually bear a lion's share of administrative burden. The Japanese experience demonstrates not only how steep the price of success can be but also the enduring effects of culture over structure.
Article
This book first took shape in my mind as little more than a study of occupational shifts in the United States. I was interested in the structure of the working class, and the manner in which it had changed. That portion of the population employed in manufacturing and associated industries—the so-called industrial working class—had apparently been shrinking for some time, if not in absolute numbers at any rate in relative terms. Since the details of this process, especially its historical turning points and the shape of the new employment that was taking the place of the old, were not clear to me, I undertook to find out more about them. And since, as I soon discovered, these things had not yet been clarified in any comprehensive fashion, I decided that there was a need for a more substantial historical description and analysis of the process of occupational change than had yet been presented in print. This article can also be found at the Monthly Review website, where most recent articles are published in full. Click here to purchase a PDF version of this article at the Monthly Review website.
Article
The paper analyses the industrial performance of two East Asian (South Korea and Taiwan) and three Latin American (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico) newly industrializing countries. It argues that the better performance in East Asia is not due simply to differences in trade orientation or the degree of state intervention, but rather to the effectiveness of intervention. This is explained in terms of the relative autonomy of the state and the structuring of the state apparatus in the two regions. The historically determined class structure and the international context led to much greater state autonomy in East Asia than in Latin America. The last part of the paper shows a number of ways in which this greater relative autonomy has contributed to rapid industrial growth in East Asia in comparison with Latin America.
Book
The main thesis of this study is that the world economy is undergoing a profound structural change that is forcing companies to reorganize their production on a global scale. This is being brought about both through the relocation of production to new industrial sites, increasingly in the developing countries, and through the accelerated rationalisation measures at the traditional sites of industrial manufacture. The authors have designated this structural movement as ‘the new international division of labour’, and argue that it has led to the crisis that can be observed in industrial countries, as well as to the first steps towards export-oriented manufacturing in the developing countries. They see these trends as being largely independent of the policies pursued by individual governments and the strategies for expansion adopted by individual firms, and argue that the conditions currently prevailing in the capitalist world economy mean that the efforts of individual countries to devise economic policies to reduce industrial unemployment in the industrialised countries or to accentuate a balanced process of industrialisation in the developing countries are doomed to failure.
Book
This book, by a distinguished Japanese economist now resident in the West, offers a new interpretation of the current success of the Japanese economy. By placing the rise of Japan in the context of its historical development, Michio Morishima shows how a strongly-held national ethos has interacted with religious, social and technological ideas imported from elsewhere to produce highly distinctive cultural traits. While Professor Morishima traces the roots of modern Japan back as far as the introduction of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism from China in the sixth century, he concentrates his observations on the last 120 years during which Japan has had extensive contacts with the West. He describes the swift rise of Japan to the status of a first-rate power following the Meiji Revolution after 1867, in which Japan broke with a long history of isolationism, and which paved the way for the adoption of Western technology and the creation of a modern Western-style nation state; and a similarly meteoric rise from the devastation of the Second World War to Japan’s present position. A range of factors in Japan’s economic success are analysed: her characteristic dualistic social structure - corresponding to the divide between large and medium/small enterprises - the relations of government and big business, the poor reception of liberalism and individualism, and the strength of the Japanese nationalism. Throughout, Professor Morishima emphasises the importance of the role played in the creation of Japanese capitalism by ethical doctrines as transformed under Japanese conditions, especially the Japanese Confucian tradition of complete loyalty to the firm and to the state. This account, which makes clear the extent to which the economic rise of Japan is due to factors unique to its historical traditions, will be of interest to a wide general readership as well as to students of Japan and its history.
Article
In recent years Japan's automobile manufacturers have introduced improvements to their production processes in response to changes in both the labour market and the passenger car market. They have adopted advanced computerized flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) in order to produce different vehicle models on the same assembly line, raise automation levels and improve working conditions. Renovation schemes in existing plants have been facilitated by the construction of new "buffer plants', which allow output to be maintained throughout the conversion peroid. New assembly plants and production lines have been located in the Nagoya metropolitan area and in the Kyushu-Yamaguchi area. Car assemblers in the Kyushu-Yamaguchi area have encouraged component manufacturers affiliated to them to set up their own factories in the area, to supply various kinds of automobile parts. A new industrial complex centred on the automobile industry has been formed there. In most cases, transactions between assemblers and component suppliers within this complex have tended to reinforce company affiliations, but locally-owned subcontractors engaged in the partial processing of components have sought to diversify their business connections. -from Author
Article
Japan is the world's second most powerful economy and one of the most urbanized nations on earth. Yet the English-language urban literature has relatively little to say about cities in Japan. This omission seems all the more striking when one contemplates the intriguing questions Japanese urban development raises for social theory and comparative urban research. For example: 1. What role did the city play in Japan's transition from feudalism to capitalism? 2. How does the urban experience of Japan, a late but successful developer, compare to that of economically advanced Western capitalist nations, on the one hand, and dependent third-world countries, on the other, with respect to such widely discussed phenomena as urban primacy, overurbanization, and growth in informal urban economies? 3. Japan's post-World War II rate of urbanization has been among the most rapid of any nation in the world. What have been the consequences for Japanese society? 4. Japan's remarkable postwar economic growth thrust Tokyo into world city status. What is the character of Tokyo as a world city and the nature of her relationship to the rest of Japan and the world economy? 5. Oil crises in the 1970s and appreciation of the yen in the 1980s placed extraordinary pressures on Japan's economy. How did the state and the civil society respond to the threat of deindustrialization and the imperative for urban industrial restructuring? 6. Japan is the newest economic superpower and the first in the history of capitalism to be situated in Asia. What is the present and likely future impact of Japan's global economic power on urban development in other nations, particularly those along the western Pacific Rim, where Japan's influence is most immediate? The original essays gathered in this volume touch upon all of these questions and much more. We had several concerns in mind when we approached leading scholars on urban Japan for contributions to this collection. First, we wanted to convey the historical context for contemporary urban issues. All the essays, therefore, provide historical background for the questions they address, and one is explicitly devoted to the urbanization process in pre-World War II Japan. Second, we wanted to bring a range of city experiences into view. Essays in this collection encompass Japan's largest metropolitan areas (Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya), prototypical industrial cities (Kamaishi, Kitakyushu, Toyota City), high-technology satellite areas (Kanagawa), and smaller, more traditionally organized districts (Tsubame). Third, we wanted to explore the intersection between economic organization and the city and to analyze how industrial transformation has structured Japanese urban development. While the contributors to this collection differ in their theoretical perspectives, their essays all focus on these concerns. The essays also target the role played by government-central, prefectural, and local-in the restructuring of Japanese industrial and urban life. Of central concern is the extent to which Japan's urban and regional development policies have kept pace with, and indeed have influenced, changes in the nation's economy. The dynamic link between global relations and local activities is also a theme of this collection. Since the beginning of the Meiji era in the middle of the nineteenth century, Japanese cities have continuously adjusted to the changing position of Japan in the world system. Even so, as the essays here amply document, urban development in Japan has been shaped as much by social contradictions and conflicts as by the smooth functioning of "Japanese-style" corporatist relations between state and economy.
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of California, Berkeley, 1979. Bibliography: leaves 958-992. Photocopy. s
Article
President Nixon's new economic policy of August 1971, aggravated by the oil problem since October 1973 caused chaos and uncertainty in the international trade and currency system. There were fears of another 1930s style depression. In addition, a world food shortage and strident claims by developing countries for perpetual sovereignty over resources added another set of difficulties. This volume, written from Japan's standpoint, suggests a new direction for the world and regional economic order. The book tackles two major issues in international economics: Firstly, traditional international trade theory aims only at static maximization in the use of world human and material resources, but, the author stresses more attention should be paid to such dynamic or developmental elements as population growth, immigration, natural resource development, improvement in transfer of technology, economies of scale, direct foreign investment and economic integration in order to create development centres or sectors in the world economy. Secondly, the author discusses how to combine a global and regional approach to economic integration.
Article
Theories of the product cycle, hegemony, and the world system are used to analyze the creation and development of the Northeast Asian political economy in this century. Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan have each developed in a particular relationship with the others; the three taken together form a hierarchical, constantly interacting political-economic unit. During the period of colonial rule Japan was unique in building an imperial economic unit marked by a strong role for the state (whether in Tokyo or Taipei), by a tight, integral Unking of all three nations into a communications and transport network running toward the metropole, and by a strategy of both using the colonies for agricultural surpluses and then locating industries there. After 1945 a diffuse American hegemony replaced Japan's unilateral system, but elements of the prewar model have survived: strong states direct economic development in South Korea and Taiwan (here termed “bureaucratic-authoritarian industrializing regimes”); both countries are receptacles for Japan's declining industries; and both countries develop in tandem, if in competition, with each other. The most recent export-led competition has seen Taiwan succeed where South Korea has (temporarily?) failed, leaving Seoul in an export-led “trap,” burdened with rapidly increasing external debt. Taiwan, furthermore, has industrialized relatively free of social disruption, whereas Korean society resisted its transformation at Japanese hands and remains more rebellious today. There can be one Japan and one Taiwan, but not two or many of either, in the world economy.
Article
This paper directs attention to the rapid industrial changes experienced by the city state in the past thirty years and the problems associated with a maturing economy. To provide a deeper understanding of the adjustment process, the analysis is done within the context of firm, state, and labour interactions. The analysis indicates that with land and labour resources becoming fully utilised, the city-state adjusts to the requirements of international capital by increasing the regional, technical, and sectoral division of labour.
Article
The strategies of Japanese electronics firms have major implications for the electronics industries of the East Asian NIEs as well as the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) member countries. Japan's electronics industry has been undergoing a drastic restructuring in recent years, precipitated to a large extent by the strong revaluation of the yen. A marked shift is occurring away from consumer electronics to industrial electronics and electronic components (in particular, semiconductors). At the same time, within the consumer electronics industry, firms have focused their domestic production on the highest value-added segments of the market. Labor-intensive production processes and products which are not sharply differentiated by quality or special performance features are being shifted to the low wage ASEAN countries. An elaborate intra-regional division of labor is taking shape. Subsidiaries of Japanese firms established elsewhere in Asia still rely heavily on ... La strat�gie des entreprises japonaises d'�lectronique a de grandes r�percussions dans l'industrie �lectronique des nouvelles �conomies industrielles (NEI) de l'Asie de l'Est, ainsi que dans celle des Etats de l'ANASE (Association des Nations de l'Asie du Sud-Est). L'�lectronique japonaise a subi, au cours des derni�res ann�es, une restructuration s�v�re, largement acc�l�r�e par la forte r��valuation du yen. Son �volution l'a faite passer d'une �lectronique grand-public � une �lectronique industrielle et aux composants (en particulier, � la fabrication de semiconducteurs). En m�me temps, au sein de l'industrie grand-public, les entreprises ont mis� sur les secteurs � haute valeur ajout�e pour leurs productions destin�es au march� int�rieur. Toutes les op�rations et tous les produits caract�ris�s par l'utilisation intensive de main-d'oeuvre ont �t� transf�r�s dans les pays de l'ANASE � bas salaires, � l'exception de ceux qui requi�rent un
When lean is mean: life on the line falls short of the promise
  • Babson
The Asia-Pacific: trouble in paradise
  • Bello
Global production and regional ‘hollowing out’ in Japan
  • Fujita
Japanese car makers forge ASEAN component links
  • Goldstein
New Nissan center key to buying US parts
  • Keebler
GM picks 12 plants to be shut as it reports on a record US loss
  • Levin
The world car: shifting into overdrive
  • Hainer
Deindustrialization and urban restructuring in Detroit's downriver communities
  • M Indergaard
Manufacturing's new economies of scale
  • McGrath
Japanese brain trusts locate near Detroit
  • Maskery
A critical moment for Japanese management
  • Morita
Acura plant may be built in the US
  • Bernett
  • Cusumano
Local auto output in US set to exceed exports from Japan
  • Kato
Japan and the global economy
  • J Morris
Nissan revolution: profit is king
  • Oishi
Japanese shifting investment flow back home
  • Sterngold
Japan fuels rocketing economies of Asian NICs
  • Takeuchi
Global innovation: who's in the lead?
  • Buderi
The states: are they fulfilling their economic development potential?
  • Pierce
Sectoral strategies: targeting key industries
  • Siegel