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Exploring teachers' informal formative assessment practices and students' understanding in the context of scientific inquiry

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Exploring teachers' informal formative assessment practices and students' understanding in the context of scientific inquiry

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Abstract

This study explores teachers' informal formative assessment practices in three middle school science classrooms. We present a model for examining these practices based on three components of formative assessment (eliciting, recognizing, and using information) and the three domains linked to scientific inquiry (epistemic frameworks, conceptual structures, and social processes). We describe the informal assessment practices as ESRU cycles—the teacher Elicits a question; the Student responds; the teacher Recognizes the student's response; and then Uses the information collected to support student learning. By tracking the strategies teachers used in terms of ESRU cycles, we were able to capture differences in assessment practices across the three teachers during the implementation of four investigations of a physical science unit on buoyancy. Furthermore, based on information collected in a three-question embedded assessment administered to assess students' learning, we linked students' level of performance to the teachers' informal assessment practices. We found that the teacher who more frequently used complete ESRU cycles had students with higher performance on the embedded assessment as compared with the other two teachers. We conclude that the ESRU model is a useful way of capturing differences in teachers' informal assessment practices. Furthermore, the study suggests that effective informal formative assessment practices may be associated with student learning in scientific inquiry classrooms. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach

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... To better understand formative assessment practices, Ruiz-Primo and Furtak (2007) and Shavelson et al. (2008), after studying the assessment practices of secondary school teachers in the United States, describe formative assessment strategies along an informal/formal continuum. For Shavelson et al.(2008), at the informal extreme ("on-the-fly" formative assessment), teachers use spontaneous and pedagogically significant moments to engage students in a dialogue that allows the teacher to find out what the students know and to provide feedback. ...
... Aligned with Ruiz-Primo and Furtak's (2007) perspective, Cagasan et al.(2020) after observing the assessment practices of primary and secondary Philippians teachers, consider that formal assessment requires teachers to collect students' information before making a decision following a planned structure of events at the class level; while informal assessment is focused on the student/teacher conversation level, and emphasises the flexible nature of assessment and the giving of timely feedback. A complementary perspective is given by Bonner (2013) in her revision of studies related to validity in classroom assessment by distinguishing between test-based assessment strategies and non-test assessment strategies. ...
... As a synthesis, formative assessment practices can be recognised and studied in relation to three typologies: practices identified by Black and Wiliam (1998a) as the most distinctive of formative assessment (shared and explicit criteria, for example); practices highlighted by researchers as effective measures that contribute to students learning (Hattie, 2009;Li, 2016), and practices classifications that allow to analyse and organise assessment strategies according to their level of formality (Cagasan et al.,2020, Shavelson et al., 2008, Ruiz-Primo and Furtak, 2007 or innovation (Hama and Barzan, 2015). As it will be shown in the methodology and analysis sections, my research considers these three approaches to understand and identify teachers' formative assessment practices. ...
Thesis
This thesis identifies and analyses the challenges of, and opportunities for, reading comprehension assessment practices with a formative purpose in Chilean classrooms. This research conceives assessment as a bridge between teaching and students’ learning. It also combines the cognitive and sociocultural perspectives of reading and assessment to create a framework where individual elements of reading instruction, such as reading comprehension skills or reading engagement, are situated in a context that defines how meaning is built and what reading and assessment practices are valued. The research was conducted as a multiple-case study, working with five teachers from primary and secondary schools. The teachers were selected considering their use of a formative approach to assessment within a context of socioeconomic vulnerability. This recognition of context was seen as necessary considering Chile’s education inequality. Interviews, assessment material analysis and classroom observations were selected as research methods. The data collected were analysed using thematic and discourse analysis. The research findings suggest that teachers’ assessment practices and beliefs were aligned with a formative purpose in general terms. However, these practices had to deal with the pressure of two forces which represented a relevant challenge to the formative approach from a sociocultural perspective where reading and assessment practices are conceived as mutually influenced by the context and social interactions. One of these forces comes from the broader educational system and includes distrust of teachers’ capacities and the prominence of a summative approach toward assessment. The other force comes from students’ beliefs, needs and sociocultural background, including, for example, the significant motivational effect of grades. These forces can blur or block the formative purpose of the assessment practices observed. This research contributes to the development of educational research in an understudied area in Chile (classroom assessment in connection with a specific school subject) and demonstrates the potential of combining not only different sources of data collection but also different perspectives to analyse the data: thematic analysis and discourse analysis. Additionally, this research enriches the discussion about formative assessment practices by distinguishing between its instructional dimension (the application of assessment strategies commonly described as part of a formative approach without reflecting on the nature of learning or reading comprehension) and ontological dimension (that requires understanding assessment, learning, and reading comprehension as a situated and complex phenomenon). The consideration of these dimensions highlights the implementation of a formative approach as a process that requires much more than the understanding of the purpose of formative assessment and the application of assessment strategies aligned with that purpose; it also comprises understanding learning as a subject-specific and situated process that needs the active participation of students and the consideration of teachers’ beliefs, professional capacities, and knowledge.
... Formative assessment allows teachers to adjust instruction based on students' feedback. As such, students must be active participants in the formative assessment process (López-Pastor & Sicilia-Camacho, 2017;McMillan, 2018a;McMillian, 2018b;Nicol & Macfarlane-Dick, 2006;Popham, 2008;Ruiz-Primo, 2006). Transaction identifies the mutual constitution of this process and recognizes that students are not merely acted upon; they are also agents within the formative assessment process. ...
... Formative assessment includes both formal and informal practices (Bell & Cowie, 2001;McMillan, 2018a;Schildkamp, 2019). While formal assessment is based on planned, systematic collection of student data (McMillian, 2018b;Popham, 2008;Popham, 2020;Schildkamp, 2019), informal assessment relies on less structured, but continuous, engagement with students (McMillan, 2018a;Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2006;Schildkamp, 2019). Formal assessment requires review of assessment data in order to make planned changes before more instruction occurs. ...
... Formal assessment requires review of assessment data in order to make planned changes before more instruction occurs. Informal assessment, sometimes referred to as embedded assessment (McMillan, 2018a), including observation of students' facial expressions, body language, and verbal reactions to instruction and responses to teachers' questioning (Jiang, 2014;Lekwa et al., 2020;Mc-Millan, 2018a;Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2006;Ruiz-Primo, 2011), allows instructors to make in the moment adjustments during instruction based on their own judgment. For example, an instructor who notices confused reactions to a question would restate the question for clarity. ...
Chapter
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The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a rapid transition to online instruction, both for universities and K12 schools. This transition exposed the limitations of teacher to student engagement using video conferencing technology for synchronous instruction. Effective use of formative assessment, including informal assessment, is beneficial for learners, both in K12 and postsecondary contexts, but requires adaptation for online instruction. This chapter illuminates the challenges of conducting informal assessment in synchronous online courses using Dewey and Bentley’s (1949) conception of transaction, or communication as mutually constituted, goal-oriented action.It argues that instructors of pre-service teachers should reestablish as much transactional engagement as possible, while using the affordances of the video conferencing technology to supplement where necessary.
... Adaptive teaching is accomplished when teachers gather information and diagnose student's understanding about the subject matter or task approach at hand. Van de Pol et al. (2011) proposed a scaffolding framework based on work of Ruiz-Primo and Furtak (2007), which focuses on how scaffolding takes place. In this framework, scaffolding is defined as a cycle with three teaching phases: teachers' diagnosing, checking of diagnosis and intervening (see Figure 1). ...
... In this framework, scaffolding is defined as a cycle with three teaching phases: teachers' diagnosing, checking of diagnosis and intervening (see Figure 1). Ruiz-Primo and Furtak (2007) and Van de Pol et al. (2011) A teacher diagnoses (1) when asking the student questions to gather information on students' current conceptions and available learning strategies. The student responds (2) and shows understanding (or not), giving the teacher a basis on which to decide whether enough is known about the students' capacities. ...
... Based on students' responses and students' understanding (4) a teacher intervenes and the actual scaffolding takes place (5). Research shows teachers find diagnosing difficult; they do not diagnose (Graesser, Person, & Magliano, 1995;Putnam, 1987), their diagnoses are far from perfect (Südkamp, Kaiser, & Möller, 2012;Van de Pol & Elbers, 2013), or they are intervening immediately (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). In this dissertation, this scaffolding framework was used as a lens to observe the diagnostic behavior of our teachers in interaction with their students. ...
Thesis
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In higher education students have many interactions with their teacher in which teachers provide support for students’ learning. Feedback conversations in higher education are specific examples of student-teacher interactions and are the objects of this research project. Feedback conversations can help students to acquire the essential skills for the task they are working on. In five empirical studies, we aimed to unravel the complexity of face-to-face feedback conversations between teachers and students in higher education. We explored how these student-teacher interactions take place, why they interact the way they do, and we stimulated teachers to interact differently. Five studies were conducted, with which we not only wanted to contribute to the literature on student-teacher interactions, but also aimed to improve educational practice. In many of the feedback conversations we have observed, student-teacher interactions were characterized by a teacher-centred approach with a lot of teacher interventions and direct regulation towards students’ learning. From a scaffolding perspective, this seems to be an acceptable teaching strategy when students are starting with a new task. The significance of this project lies in the empirical evidence it provides about how teachers can strengthen the role of students; how teachers can stimulate students to take on responsibility for their own learning process. We hope that the studies presented in this dissertation will inspire teachers, as well as researchers, to find the balance in student-teacher interactions, and conclude as we did: both students and teachers should be in control.
... In der Forschungsliteratur lassen sich dazu unterschiedliche Prozessmodelle finden, wie z. B. der "assessment process for both summative and formative purposes" (Dolin et al., 2018, S. 57) oder das ESRU-Modell für informelles formatives Assessment (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). Auf Grundlage unterschiedlicher Forschungsliteratur lassen sich drei zentrale Komponenten des formativen Assessments identifizieren, die sich auch aus dem weiter oben dargestellten Zitat von Black und Wiliam (2009, S. 9) ableiten lassen: Elicit, Interpret und Respond (im Zitat oben als "use" bezeichnet). ...
... Dazu müssen Aufgaben und Situationen geschaffen werden, in denen Schüler*innen ihr Verständnis zeigen können (u. a. Furtak et al., 2016;Gotwals & Birmingham, 2016;Kang & Anderson, 2015;Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). Im Kontext einer informellen Erhebung können Lehrkräfte die Schüler*innen beispielsweise gezielt nach Erklärungen fragen (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). ...
... a. Furtak et al., 2016;Gotwals & Birmingham, 2016;Kang & Anderson, 2015;Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). Im Kontext einer informellen Erhebung können Lehrkräfte die Schüler*innen beispielsweise gezielt nach Erklärungen fragen (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). ...
... Research on FS has been extensive in the last few decades, both regarding students' ideas [5] and, consequently, about ways to effectively teach this topic [6]. Concurrently, Teaching-learning sequences (TLSs), i.e., medium-level curriculum unit packages, that include well-researched teaching-learning activities empirically adapted to student reasoning [7,8], are increasingly present in science education research, because they provide the opportunity to integrate teaching and learning theories and approaches, students' ideas about science concepts and explanations of natural phenomena, as well as the historical development of scientific concepts [7][8][9][10]. ...
... Students' alternative ideas have played a decisive role in the planning of teaching in science education in the last few decades [6]. Consequently, students' ideas about FS phenomena, and the difficulties they face in adapting interpretations to be consistent with the scientific ones, need to be taken into account in every teaching effort that is developed within the frame of the prevalent constructivist approach [14]. ...
... Usually, the density-based approach is adopted by primary schools and junior high schools [6,15], while senior high schools and colleges/universities adopt the buoyancybased approach [15] or a combination of both [4]. When one develops a curriculum for this topic, the chosen approach, whether density-or buoyancy-based, would also involve selecting different steps, practices and concepts in the teaching and learning process. ...
Article
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This essay synthesizes more than a decade of research, most of which has been published, on the teaching and learning of floating and sinking (FS) phenomena. The research is comprised of the iterative design, development, implementation and evaluation of a Teaching-Learning sequence (TLS) for the teaching and learning of density within FS phenomena. It was initiated within the frame of the European Community supported “Materials Science” project. Due to the many, different aspects of the project, each publication has focused on a particular part of the study (e.g., effectiveness and the iteration process). The didactic transformation for the teaching of FS phenomena is presented and discussed here. In doing so, it is essential to mention: (a) the students’ ideas as the main cause of the scientific knowledge transformation, (b) the scientific/reference knowledge, and (c) the knowledge to be taught and its limitations. Thus, we intend to describe and justify the didactic transformation process and briefly synthesize the published (from previous papers) and unpublished results to show its effectiveness.
... The cyclical nature of formative assessment is underlined by the growing number of process models of formative assessment (e.g., Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007;Antoniou & James, 2014), which distinguish subsequent steps in formative assessment. Ruiz-Primo and Furtak (2007) view the interplay between a teacher and a student in formative assessment as a chain of actions in their ESRU-model: the teacher elicits a response (for instance, with a specific inquiry or task), the student responds, and the teacher recognizes and uses the student's response in further instructions. ...
... The cyclical nature of formative assessment is underlined by the growing number of process models of formative assessment (e.g., Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007;Antoniou & James, 2014), which distinguish subsequent steps in formative assessment. Ruiz-Primo and Furtak (2007) view the interplay between a teacher and a student in formative assessment as a chain of actions in their ESRU-model: the teacher elicits a response (for instance, with a specific inquiry or task), the student responds, and the teacher recognizes and uses the student's response in further instructions. For example, a teacher uses a quiz at the beginning of a lesson to determine the focus of his/her instruction. ...
... The teacher initiates activities and discussions to elicit students' responses. This strategy is similar to the E and S part of the ESRU-model (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). These classroom practices can be done collaboratively, for example, when the teacher starts a class discussion to activate prior knowledge, or individually, for example, when the teacher uses a quiz to test students' knowledge. ...
Thesis
Students in higher education are not just passive spectators. Nowadays, we recognize that their own motivation to be, stay, or become an active participant is crucial for lifelong learning. It is up to higher education to support students’ motivation; making students motivated to self-regulate learning can really set them off to great heights. Unfortunately, teachers are not always sure how to get this done. This dissertation can help teachers out. We explored various ways to support students’ motivation, starting from Self-Determination Theory. We took a student’s perspective to provide insights into which teaching approaches are effective – and why. With our studies, we have demonstrated that the social context, as perceived by students, is associated with students’ feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, with their autonomous motivation, and consequently with their academic achievement. Students’ perceptions of their teacher’s (de)motivating teaching approach form a first step in the chain that activates or counteracts academic achievement. Students seem to base their perceptions of their teacher’s teaching approaches not solely on what teachers do; they base their perceptions on the actual teaching behaviors, the nature of the teaching approach, and their general perceptions of the need-supportiveness climate within the educational program or institute. This finding indicates that teachers can focus on the informational nature of the teaching approach to be motivating, but asks for attention for motivational teaching at the individual as well as team level. Motivating students in not just about what teachers do; how they do it might matter even more.
... According to , informal evaluation can be implemented throughout the whole 5E learning cycle. During inquiry activities, teachers could use informal assessment conversations to probe students' thinking (Shavelson et al., 2008) and o er students valuable real-time feedback (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). We will include examples for informal evaluation, such as informal assessment conversations, in the in-class phase of the exploration in the revised version of the design heuristic. ...
... Evaluation should be an ongoing process and should not be seen as a distinct phase at the end of a 5E learning cycle . To address evaluation in the exploration phase in the design heuristic, we decided to cite informal assessment conversations (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007) as an example for informal evaluation. Furthermore, we included science journals as an example to let students document their inquiry process and formulate tentative explanations. ...
... To support students during their exploration, obviously exploratory activities should be implemented in class. Informal assessment conversations (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007) could be used to evaluate students' understanding and offer students valuable real-time feedback. By using informal assessment conversations, the essential feature of classroom inquiry students give priority to evidence in responding to questions can be addressed. ...
Thesis
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In flipped classroom scenarios information-transmission teaching is usually pursued out-of-class and in-class time is used for student-centred learning activities. Earlier research studies have already investigated flipped classroom scenarios suggesting potentials to increase student achievement and motivation in mathematics. However, there is a lack of research investigating didactical strategies concerning flipped classroom scenarios. Especially, little is known about implementing inquiry-based learning in flipped mathematics education. Implementing learning through inquiry in flipped classroom scenarios requires educators to plan arrangements for in- and out-of-class activities carefully. To support secondary mathematics teachers lesson planning practices, I developed a design heuristic suggesting activities for in-class and out-of-class phases and underlying design principles for inquiry-based flipped classroom scenarios. The study presented in this thesis addresses flipped classroom approaches merged with the widely used 5E inquiry model (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate). As the methodological framework, I opted for design-based research to develop the design heuristic and the underpinning theory synchronously through two sequential cycles over two years. The design heuristic was implemented in both cycles in one particular online professional development course for secondary mathematics teachers. The study was conducted at the Austrian University College of Virtual Teacher Education. In total, 37 lesson plans were collected from participating teachers. I used the 5E lesson plan scoring instrument to evaluate to what extent the design heuristic supported the participating teachers to develop flipped classroom lesson plans in line with the 5E inquiry model. Results revealed that teachers lesson plans were mainly in line with the 5E model, but most participants struggled with selecting appropriate assessment techniques. Based on the analysis, I revised the design heuristic and re-implemented it in a second cycle. Findings of the second cycle indicate that the evaluation phase was still insufficiently addressed. This issue could not be resolved with the proposed design heuristic. Hence, further research is needed to particularly investigate how to support teachers in evaluating learning through inquiry in flipped classroom scenarios. In the first cycle, I also explored how participating teachers adopted the design heuristic in their lesson plans by conducting a document analysis of 18 lesson plans. Using coding procedures related to a deductive-inductive qualitative content analysis approach, I identified the following three major categories: a) pre out-of-class phases to engage students, b) in-class phases for student-centred learning activities and c) post out-of-class phases for consolidation. Furthermore, analysing lesson plans of both cycles, I investigated teachers intended use of GeoGebra as dynamic mathematics software in inquiry-based flipped classroom scenarios. In summary, I present in this thesis a design-based research study aimed at a twofold yield. On the one hand, I developed a design heuristic for 5E-based flipped classroom scenarios to support secondary mathematics teachers lesson planning practice. On the other hand, design principles regarding fostering learning through inquiry in flipped classroom scenarios in secondary mathematics education were developed to contribute to the existing knowledge.
... Since Black and Wiliam's (1998) review article, formative assessment has gained increasing currency in educational systems as different as Australia (Klenowski, 2011), China (Xu and Harfitt, 2019), New Zealand (Bell and Cowie, 2001), Norway (Hopfenbeck et al., 2015), the United Kingdom (Torrance and Pryor, 1998) and the United States (Ruiz-Primo and Furtak, 2007). Part of the surge of interest comes from its intuitive appeal; part of it comes from claims of its effectiveness in "doubling the speed of student learning" (Wiliam, 2007, 36-37). ...
... The same phenomenon has been observed by Ruiz-Primo and her colleagues who labelled it 'informal formative assessment' (Ruiz-Primo and Furtak, 2006;Ruiz-primo and Furtak, 2007;Ruiz-Primo, 2011). These researchers developed this into an observation framework that included eliciting (E), student response (S), recognizing (R), and using information (U) and called it the 'ESRU cycle'. ...
Article
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The embedded and contingent nature of classroom-based formative assessment means that validity in the norm-referenced, summative tradition cannot be understood in exactly the same way for formative assessment. In fact, some scholars (e.g., Gipps, Beyond testing: towards a theory of educational assessment, 1994, Falmer Press, London, UK) have even contended for an entirely different paradigm with an independent set of criteria for its evaluation. Many others have conceptualized the validity of formative assessment in different ways (e.g., Nichols et al., 2009 , 28 (3), 14–23; Stobart, Validity in formative assessment, 2012, SAGE Publications Ltd, London, UK; Pellegrino et al., Educ. Psychol., 2016, 51 (1), 59–81). This article outlines a framework for evaluating the argument-based validity of CBFA. In particular, I use Kane (J. Educ. Meas., 2013, 50 (1), 1–73) as a starting point to map out the types of inferences made in CBFA (interpretation and use argument) and the structure of arguments for the validity of the inferences (validity argument). It is posited that a coherent and practical framework, together with its suggested list of inferences, warrants and backings, will help researchers evaluate the usefulness of CBFA. Teachers may find the framework useful in validating their own CBFA as well.
... In content area education, the research area most closely resembling DA is Ruiz-Primo and colleagues' work with assessment conversations (Furtak, Ruiz-Primo, & Bakeman, 2017;Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2006, 2007. As an informal method of formative assessment, assessment conversations allow teachers to "recognize students' conceptions, mental models . . . ...
... For example, in the life science task, the targeted probes "Where does the tree's energy come from?" and "Where does the energy go next?" were used to scaffold students' step-by-step description of energy transfer through the tiger salamander's ecosystem. This type of probe is commonly used to elicit student thinking during assessment conversations in the science education literature (e.g., Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). However, since targeted probes were not always reciprocated with precise or complete responses, open-ended probes (e.g., "What do you mean?" and "Show me what that looks like") invited students to elaborate on their previous responses and leverage other meaning-making resources beyond language (e.g., gesture). ...
Article
Dynamic assessment (DA) seeks to understand learners’ abilities that are still developing by embedding mediation (i.e., contingent forms of assistance) into the assessment process. To date, DA studies have been carried out primarily in contexts focused on language learning. However, in content classrooms (e.g., science, math), English learners (ELs) are developing content and English language proficiency simultaneously and may therefore be able to demonstrate their learning more fully with mediation than in independent performance alone. This study applied DA to a novel context—the science classroom—and examined whether embedding mediation (in the form of contingent questions/probes) into two science assessment tasks yielded more complete and accurate information about what fifth-grade ELs and their peers knew and could do. Findings indicated that mediation supported ELs in clarifying their science ideas that were initially communicated inexplicitly or imprecisely. Mediation also revealed that some non-ELs’ seemingly accurate initial responses were not underpinned by science understanding. By offering a theoretically grounded approach to assessment that is dually responsive to students’ content and language learning needs, DA could help refute deficit views of ELs in the content areas and create more equitable opportunities for these students to demonstrate their content learning.
... Under the umbrella term "formative assessment," an extensive body of research focuses on teachers' diagnostic practice and related teaching practice that foster students' learning. Diagnostic practice can range from informal thought-eliciting questions (e.g., Ruiz-Primo and Furtak 2007) via individual tasks and materials that help to make student understanding visible (e.g., quizzes; Wiliam et al. 2004) or help students to self-diagnose their knowledge (e.g., rubrics; Andrade et al. 2010) to systems of such tasks and materials, which are formally embedded into the curriculum (Shavelson et al. 2008). ...
... The central theoretical premise explicit to this research perspective is that teaching practices are more effective in promoting learning when they are contingent on the current learning status as revealed by diagnostic practices (Black and Wiliam 2009;Ruiz-Primo and Furtak 2007). Accordingly, the perspective is normative or prescriptive, as it asks what teaching and learning, including diagnostic practices, should be like (Wiliam 2019) and tries to foster these favorable practices. ...
Article
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Assessing students’ learning processes and products is considered a core requirement of effective teaching. As such, it is an object of research in several disciplines and research areas. To structure the various corresponding research perspectives and provide a broader, yet still systematic view of the field, we propose an overarching framework that allows for systematizing foci of interest, goals, methodologies, and theoretical premises as four integral aspects of conducting research in this area. We demonstrate the benefits of the overarching framework by using it as a tool to analyze and systematize previous research from four different research perspectives. Based on this framework, we discuss the strengths and limitations of existing studies and, in particular, highlight theoretical premises that are rarely explicitly addressed but become more obvious by using the overarching framework. In addition, we provide directions for future research by drawing connections within and between research perspectives. Our analyses illustrate how the overarching framework can provide a foundation for research synthesis and inform future studies.
... Effective science education must be grounded on the knowledge and ideas students carry to the learning environment and have developed through their previous life experiences and new learning must be built on these knowledge and ideas (Barnhart and van Es, 2015;Ruiz-Primo and Furtak, 2007;Talanquer, Tomanek and Novodvorsky, 2015). Not only this process is highly complex and challenging, but it also entrusts a considerably significant responsibility to teachers. ...
... Many studies reveal that formative assessment has a positive effect on students' learning and motivation (Black and Wiliam, 1998;Vogelzanga and Admiraal, 2017), and researchers concentrate on teachers' beliefs, perceptions, knowledge, and practice in studying formative assessment (Furtak, 2012;Lyon, 2011;Siegel and Wissher, 2011). The results of studies conducted indicate that the teachers' abilities to reveal students' learning, effectively interpret the information they have received, provide feedback, and revise their lectures are critical factors that increase student success (Furtak, 2012;Ruiz-Primo and Furtak, 2007). Therefore, it is expected that teachers will analyze student responses well, detect problematic parts in the responses, interpret these productively, and support student learning by helping them in areas they experience difficulty (Bennett, 2011). ...
... However, in this study we focus on teacher responsiveness particularly related to student ideas regarding a specific scientific phenomenon. Earlier work by Ruiz-Primo and Furtak (2007) highlights the importance of not simply eliciting student thinking but also honoring student thinking by incorporating it into instructional decisions. More specifically, we draw on Richards et al. (2015) description of responsiveness to student ideas as: (a) foregrounding attention to students' ideas, (b) recognizing connections between science concepts and students' ideas, and (c) meaningfully incorporating students' ideas into classroom activities. ...
... Conversely, students in Beth's classroom experienced fewer significant opportunities to engage in sensemaking and produced models mainly as a means to represent the correct canonical information rather than to make sense of and create an explanation of a phenomenon. In addition to connecting with previous studies highlighting the impact of teaching responsively on student learning (Lineback, 2015;Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007), we believe these different pathways and resulting differences in the ways students engaged in scientific modeling reveal a difference in the productive disciplinary engagement of the students in these two different classes with the more responsive classroom affording students the opportunity to engage more authentically in the epistemic practices of science. Described through the models of/for schema presented by Gouvea and Passmore (2017), students in Beth's class were more likely to construct models of the Axial volcano phenomenon while those in Martin's were more likely to construct models for making sense of the phenomenon. ...
Article
In this study, we examined the ways in which two middle school science teachers elicited and were responsive to students' initial science ideas for explaining an anchoring phenomenon while teaching the same model-based learning unit focused on plate tectonics. Data sources included student models, classroom video, and classroom artifacts. Our analysis revealed a connection between the elicitation of initial ideas, teacher responsiveness to those ideas, and the continued use of those ideas by the students across the unit as evidenced in their individually constructed models. In both classrooms, variation in initial ideas seen on the first day narrowed as students engaged in activities designed to challenge their ideas and present the scientifically accepted explanation of the phenomenon. In one classroom, however, far more ideas were surfaced early, and those ideas were utilized by students as they made sense of the phenomenon. In the other classroom, far fewer ideas were surfaced early and those that were all but disappeared once the unit activities began suggesting student ideas were less likely to be utilized as a sense-making resource. This study contributes to a growing understanding of the importance of eliciting and responding to students' initial ideas in students' productive disciplinary engagement across an instructional unit.
... Lernstände und Leistungen können durch verschiedene Methoden erhoben werden. Lehrpersonen können die Schülerinnen und Schüler beobachten, während sie arbeiten, Fragen stellen, um das Verständnis der Lernenden zu erkunden, und sich auf Diskussionen mit ihnen einlassen (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). Auch die Aufzeichnungen der Schülerinnen und Schüler über einen längeren Zeitraum können Einblicke in ihre Leistung geben oder es werden Aufgaben in unterschiedlichen Formaten verwendet (Dolin et al, 2018). ...
... Auch die Aufzeichnungen der Schülerinnen und Schüler über einen längeren Zeitraum können Einblicke in ihre Leistung geben oder es werden Aufgaben in unterschiedlichen Formaten verwendet (Dolin et al, 2018). Black und Wiliam (2009) und Studien anderer Forschender zur formativen Kompetenzdiagnose (Dini et al., 2020;Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007) betonen dabei die aktive Rolle der Lehrkraft, während weitere Studien vor allem das Potenzial von spontanen Beiträgen der Schülerinnen und Schüler für die formative Kompetenzdiagnose betonen (Louca et al., 2012;Nieminen et al., 2020). In den Interviews, die wir für dieses Buch mit Lehrkräften geführt haben (n = 30), berichteten diese, dass sie Lernstände und Leistungen von den Schülerinnen und Schülern erheben, indem sie sie im Unterricht beobachten, ihnen Fragen stellen, ihre Forschungsberichte oder Arbeitsblätter analysieren oder sie ein Portfolio über das Gelernte erstellen lassen. ...
Book
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Differenzierung ist ein wichtiges Unterrichtsprinzip. Konzepte zur Leistungsdifferenzierung existieren jedoch hauptsächlich für inhaltliche Kompetenzen, Lesen, Schreiben und mathematische Kompetenzen. Differenzierung in Bezug auf prozedurale Kompetenzen wie Hypothesen aufstellen, Experimente planen, Experimente durchführen und Schlussfolgerungen ziehen wurde bisher kaum entwickelt. Dabei kann eine Kombination von Diagnostik und Scaffolding die Differenzierung beim Vermitteln prozeduraler Kompetenzen sehr gut unterstützen. Im Buch wird für diesen Zweck ein Differenzierungstool für die Sekundarstufe zum Experimentieren im Sinne von Inquiry-based Learning (Forschendes Lernen) für die Fächer Biologie, Chemie und Physik vorgestellt und mit Beispielen und Unterrichtsmaterial veranschaulicht. open access - download: https://www.beltz.de/fachmedien/erziehungswissenschaft/produkte/details/48363-differenzierung-beim-inquiry-based-learning-im-naturwissenschaftlichen-unterricht.html
... Several authors underline the cyclical nature of formative assessment and its subdivision in several iterative, consecutive phases (e.g. Ruiz-Primo and Furtak 2007;Antoniou and James 2014). In most cyclical programmes, eliciting students' responses and interpreting those responses in relation to the learning objectives plays a central role. ...
Article
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Despite the increasing popularity of formative assessment as an instructional tool, teachers find it difficult to implement formative assessment strategies in their practice. To address this we developed a training programme based on formative assessment and scaffolding literature. A quasi-experimental design was utilised to examine the programme’s usefulness; 8 teachers in higher education received the training and eight teachers did not. A questionnaire (N = 260) was administered before and after the training to determine students’ perceptions of their teachers’ adaptive behaviour. The trained teachers also participated in an interview about the usefulness of the training. Although no significant interaction effects between time and group were found, results over time reveal that both trained and untrained teachers showed more adaptive behaviour by providing more challenge when needed. Both groups of teachers also showed more non-adaptive behaviour since they gave more support and challenge than needed and became less supportive when students needed support. Results between groups indicate that trained teachers showed more adaptive behaviour than untrained teachers. Interview results indicate that teachers reviewed the training positively and reported scaffolding theory as a useful addition. Teachers requested more time and support to implement newly learned strategies in daily practice.
... Pidempien vuorovaikutus-ja palauteketjujen aikana opettajalla on mahdollisuus kerätä tietoa oppilaiden ajatuksista ja käyttää niitä hyväksi oppimisen ohjaamisessa. Tämä voidaan ymmärtää vuorovaikutteisena opetuskeskusteluiden aikana tapahtuvana formatiivisena arviointina (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007), joka niin ikään on yhdistettävissä oppilaslähtöisyyteen oppilaiden ajatusten huomioimisen kautta (Pianta ym., 2012). ...
Article
Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan, miten oppilaslähtöisyys ja dialogisuus ilmenevät matematiikassa ja miten ne kytkeytyvät toisiinsa erityisesti oppilaiden näkökulmien, ajatusten ja kokemusten huomioimisen kautta. Tutkimuksen aineistoksi valittiin matematiikan aineenopettajaopiskelijoiden pitämiä oppitunteja, joissa havaittiin keskimääräisesti enemmän oppilaslähtöisyyden ja dialogisuuden ilmenemismuotoja. Keskustelunanalyysin keinoin osoitettiin, että oppilaslähtöisyyttä ja dialogisuutta voidaan edistää niin matematiikkaa kuin muitakin aiheita käsittelevissä opetuskeskusteluissa. Esimerkkien avulla pohditaan, miten vallitseva auktoritatiivinen ja oppiainekeskeinen opetusvuorovaikutus on haastettavissa jo opettajaopiskelijoiden opetusharjoittelun aikana.
... Formative assessment is carried out to determine student understanding, learning needs and learning progress in a given unit (Karimi, 2014). Formative assessment help teachers define areas of difficulty for students which can be used to inform or adapt instruction (Gong, Marion, Perie, & Wurtzel, 2007) in order to comprehend educational materials and acquire basic skills to reach learning competence (Furtak & Ruiz-Primo, 2007). For further, formative assessment allows teachers to make adjustments and revisions on learning materials based on feedback about student performance (Popham, 2006) as well as a set of tools to monitor student progress during learning (Dunn & Mulvenon, 2009;Stiggins, 2002) to be more effective in teaching. ...
... In this sense, the lesson itself can be counted as part of the medium-or long-cycle type of formative assessment (Wiliam, 2010). This pattern of classroom assessment practices is very much in line with Ruiz-Primo and Furtak (2007), who found very few complete CBFA cycles. ...
... While there has been a sustained emphasis on classroom assessment for formative purposes using teacher generated data (Bell and Cowie, 2001;Black et al., 2003;Ruiz-Primo and Furtak, 2007;Shepard, 2019), changes in technology and increased accountability expectations and measures mean teachers now have access to a wide range of standardized assessment tools and data for classroom use. Research on teacher use of this data is inconclusive, even negative, in terms of its use and impact on classroom level decision making (Stobart, 2008;Lai and Schildkamp, 2013;Volante et al., 2020) suggesting the potential value of this resource is worthy of further investigation. ...
Article
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Governments expect teachers to be able to make sense of and take action on data at various levels of aggregation. In our research we collaborated with 13 teachers from six primary schools and one intermediate school to use a Data Conversation Protocol to analyze and act on mathematics assessment data generated through a standardized assessment tool—the Progressive Achievement Test (PAT). Our intention was to optimize teacher use of this data for pedagogical decision making and action. At team meetings, the teachers co-constructed then refined a taken-as-shared definition for teacher data literacy for instructional action, which acted to inform and anchor our collaborative research. Data were collected in all teacher meetings and via interviews. Initial findings indicate that a ‘Data Conversation Protocol’ is helping teachers to slow down the process of considering, interpreting and making a judgement about their students’ understanding thereby opening up a space for deeper consideration of the range of possible reasons for student responses to assessment items. Students responded positively to teachers’ data informed small group teaching, gaining in understanding and confidence. Teachers considered this confidence translated to more positive engagement with mathematical ideas. Patterns and trends in student responses emerging from the teachers’ collaborative analysis of standard data supported a shift from viewing student responses as linked to student or school characteristics to critical analysis of how their teaching approaches might have contributed to student answers/misunderstandings. This finding has implications for how we might challenge assumptions about students through a willingness to engage critically with student achievement data. The importance of teachers having a rich pedagogical content knowledge as a basis for this was clearly evident.
... (2001) has poignantly compared classrooms with high-pressure "nuclear power plants, medical emergency rooms and air traffic controls" due to the fact that teaching is a process operating at parallel levels that require fast decision-making (Haider et al., 2005), complex maneuvers (Chassy and Gobet, 2011) and superior memory capacities (Saariluoma, 1991;McIntyre et al., 2017). Expert teachers show various advantages in terms of conveying the subject matter, managing the classroom (Kunter et al., 2013;Wolff et al., 2017), assessing students' performance (Ruiz-Primo and Furtak , 2007) and applying core-practice of teaching (Forzani , 2014). All these advantages of expertise have to build on how teachers look at the classroom. ...
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How teachers' eye movements can be used to understand and improve education is the central focus of the present paper. Three empirical studies were carried out to understand the nature of teachers' eye movements in natural settings and how they might be used to promote learning. The studies explored 1) the relationship between teacher expertise and eye movement in the course of teaching, 2) how individual differences and the demands of different subjects affect teachers' eye movement during literacy and mathematics instruction, 3) whether including an expert's eye movement and hand information in instructional videos can promote learning. Each study looked at the nature and use of teacher eye movements from a different angle but collectively converge on contributions to answering the question: what can we learn from teachers' eye movements? The paper also contains an independent methodology chapter dedicated to reviewing and comparing methods of representing eye movements in order to determine a suitable statistical procedure for representing the richness of current and similar eye tracking data. Results show that there are considerable differences between expert and novice teachers' eye movement in a real teaching situation, replicating similar patterns revealed by past studies on expertise and gaze behavior in athletics and other fields. This paper also identified the mix of person-specific and subject-specific eye movement patterns that occur when the same teacher teaches different topics to the same children. The final study reports evidence that eye movement can be useful in teaching; by showing increased learning when learners saw an expert model's eye movement in a video modeling example. The implications of these studies regarding teacher education and instruction are discussed.
... The program was abbreviated as VOPA, and the translated meaning of the entire name of the program includes emphasising the role of classroom interaction as a basis for teaching and assessment. When it comes to the assessment, the focus was again on interactive aspects of assessment, emphasising the activation and use of student thinking (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007;Kazemi et al., 2017). ...
Article
Research related to dialogic teaching has been gaining ground in recent decades. On a theoretical level, researchers have described how sociocultural approaches are linked to dialogic teaching. In addition, empirical studies have explained how dialogic teaching manifests itself in educational dialogue and classroom interactions. However, studies addressing how the dialogic theory and practice could be linked meaningfully in teacher education and professional development programs in subject teacher education and related praxis are still limited. Especially in the case of math teacher education, the reported professional development programs are limited in number. Whereas the tendency has been to report the challenges accompanying dialogicity, the present study contributes by making suggestions and delivering ways to enhance the dialogicity of math teaching. Most importantly, the findings reveal that this is done mostly by the student teachers themselves. Additionally, all of this can be considered a result of participating in an initial teacher education program, following a systematic and cyclic structure to develop one's understanding and skills related to classroom interactions that include dialogic approaches. Implications for subject teacher education are also discussed based on the findings of the current study.
... La raccolta di evidenze sugli apprendimenti di ciascuno studente (attraverso processi valutativi accurati): la letteratura recentemente ha posto forte enfasi sulle interazioni tra docente e studenti (intesi sia come singoli sia come gruppo) (Black & Wiliam 2009;Wiliam, 2011) evidenziando come esse possano essere mezzi per elicitare la manifestazione degli apprendimenti da parte degli alunni. Si tratta di un modo "informale" (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2004) per il docente di raccogliere informazioni a cui segue un'immediata restituzione di commenti formativi allo studente e una tempestiva modulazione delle attività da parte di entrambi. Questa proposta, seppur metta in luce importanti aspetti di sostenibilità su cui è necessaria un'attenta riflessione, potrebbe presentare alcuni rischi in quanto questi stessi momenti internazionali non sempre forniscono l'opportunità di monitorare gli apprendimenti in modo individuale, rigoroso e intenzionale. ...
Chapter
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In the sub-Saharan region, there is dearth of contextualized approaches to enhancing and assessing critical thinking. The few attempts at empirical studies to assess critical thinking in low-income contexts rely solely on assessment instruments imported from other cultural contexts, generating problems of comparability, absence of normative groups and lack of familiarity in adaptation and validation processes. This raises questions of cultural relevance. Considering the limited knowledge and understanding of the variables and constructs that characterise critical thinking in Uganda, this research has the long-term goal of developing methods for teaching and assessing critical thinking at classroom level that are relevant to the context. The objectives of this study are to investigate how Ugandans define and conceptualize critical thinking, as a starting point for developing tools for the enhancement of these skills in schools. The author identified in the constructionist grounded theory design a suitable method to generate ideas for a contextual conceptualization of critical thinking among various stakeholders in Uganda. For the data collection, a theoretical sample of 54 key informants was selected for ethnographic interviews. The study presents a contextualized model that describes the critical thinking skills structure. New strategies and methods of critical thinking skills development and assessment should be created as a result of these new localized studies and concepts. Authentic knowledge about the nature of a competency as used in a particular culture could inspire new ways of skills enhancement and assessment. Keywords: Critical thinking; educational development; grounded theory; cultural context; educational goals. 1.
... Moreover, students' processes as they go about the tasks, as well as the products they generate, have the potential to reveal elements of students' conceptual understanding and reasoning. In the I-TM, we emphasize that a high-quality instructional task should fit the following criteria (Ruiz-Primo and Furtak 2007;Chi 2009;Menekse et al. 2013;Chi and Wylie 2014;Kang et al. 2016): ...
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Instructors often encounter challenges in the implementation of evidence-based teaching practices in large-enrollment STEM courses. A novel Instructional-Teams Model (I-TM) seeks to address some of these challenges with the support of student assistants in specialized roles. I-TM roles focus on supporting course and classroom management (instructional managers), formative assessment (learning researchers), and student engagement (learning assistants, who are already a common feature of many large-enrollment STEM courses). We analyzed benefits and challenges in teaching with this model as expressed by participating instructors. Our results support the utility of the I-TM for implementing evidence-based, active-learning instruction in large-enrollment STEM courses.
... Because a teacher says much less in a student-centered classroom, the content of each teacher"s utterance is valuable in framing the discussion. In this age of increasing teacher accountability due to NCLB and RTTT requirements (USDOE, 2013), teachers are under pressure to perform well and need to be able to improvise during any teacher-student interaction (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). Hogan and colleagues (2003) showed that expert teachers presented mathematical content more conceptually and better predicted students" attained comprehension and misconceptions. ...
... Informal formative assessments are popularly known by several different names: interactive formative assessments (Bell & Cowie, 2001), assessment conversations (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007), and on-the-fly formative assessments (Shavelson et al., 2008). Nieminen, Hähkiöniemi, & Viiri (2021) showed that informal formative assessment conversations are a key driver of teachers' ability to collect information from students' thinking which can then be used to support student learning. ...
Technical Report
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As the demands and developmental expectations from STEM students is changing from being heavily reliant on building technical competency skills to more complex twenty-first century skills that require high levels of competence but within the framework of a more well-rounded skillset that encourages critical thinking, problem solving, effective communicating, and being perceptive. It has been shown in pedagogical research that employing innovative assessment techniques can be effective at improving student learning which encourages academic identity and self-efficacy in STEM students which in turn helps build competencies that that go beyond technical skills. This paper reviews the need for research into assessment techniques and their impact on student learning. The paper also reviews assessment techniques that are commonly used in teaching STEM curriculum, with a focus on identifying and highlighting innovative formative assessments that support inquiry and project-based learning. This literature review clearly demonstrate that the use of innovative formative assessments can significantly improve student learning experiences but the pedagogical research available is still highly deficient to clearly demonstrate exactly how effective such assessment techniques really are.
... To-date, research on the use of LPs to support classroom assessment practices has focused primarily on teachers' formative assessment practices: eliciting and interpreting evidence of students' learning needs to respond with appropriate instructional supports (e.g., Gotwals et al., 2015;Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). Eliciting may occur through assessment instruments or informally, for example, through unplanned student-teacher exchanges during instruction (e.g., Bell & Cowie, 2001;Shavelson et al., 2008). ...
Article
As models of how students' thinking may change over time, learning progressions (LPs) have been considered as supports for teachers' classroom assessment practices. However, like all models, LPs provide simplified representations of complex phenomena. One key simplification is the characterization of student thinking using levels—that is, the twin assumptions that student thinking is both coherent and consistent. While useful for the design of standards and curricula, the LP level simplification may threaten the basic premise that LPs could be used to diagnose a student's level and then provide tailored instruction in response. At the same time, our work with teachers suggests that, even with their simplifications, LPs may be useful in the classroom. Thus, rather than abandoning LPs, we sought to understand their potential affordances by exploring how teachers learn from LPs (knowledge‐for‐practice) and contribute to deeper understanding of LP use (knowledge‐of‐practice) as they identify and enact uses of these tools. To do so, we engaged high school physics teachers in a 2‐year, LP‐based professional development program. Based on qualitative analyses of planning meetings and interviews with the teachers, we describe how teachers used LPs to support classroom assessment with varying reliance on the LP level simplification. Although teachers used LPs in ways that relied on the coherence and consistency assumptions of the LP level simplification, uses of LPs that did not require these assumptions were more prevalent both within and across teachers. This study's findings have implications for research, teacher professional development, and the design of LPs.
... Formative assessment (FA) is critical to good teaching and learning. FA is considered as an appraising process wherein teachers elicit evidence of student learning to adapt his/her teaching and then meet the need of students (Black & Wiliam, 2009;Hondrich, Hertel, Adl-Amini, & Klieme, 2016;Kang & Anderson, 2015;Pinger, Rakoczy, Besser, & Klieme, 2017;Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). FA is also an Assessment for Learning (AfL)-any assessment serves the purpose of enhance student learning (Black, Harrison, Lee, Marshall, & William, 2003). ...
... Many studies have presented strategies that help to answer these three questions. Strategies associated with formative assessment include: identifying and making explicit learning objectives and success criteria; elicitation of evidence of students' understanding or learning; interpretation of the elicited information against the learning objectives and/or success criteria; providing students with feedback, and follow-up actions taken by the student and/or teacher to improve teaching and learning (Ruiz-Primo and Furtak, 2007;Antoniou and James, 2014;Veugen et al., 2021). Continuously answering these questions, using these strategies, helps teachers to better meet students' needs and to increase students' involvement in their own learning process (Black and Wiliam, 2010). ...
Article
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Formative assessment is considered as one of the most effective interventions to support teacher decision-making and improve education and student learning. However, formative assessment does not always meet these expectations. In order to be effective, formative assessment activities should be consciously and coherently planned aligned with other aspects of the curriculum and the decisions teachers wish to make based on these activities. While there is sufficient support for teachers to design formative assessment activities, no guidelines exist to help them tie these different activities together in an effective way. To support teachers in designing formative assessment plans informing formative decision-making, this study focused on the creation of a set of design principles. These design principles for formative assessment plans were formulated based on expert interviews and subsequently evaluated by future users. The result is a set of eight design principles that can be used and validated in educational practice.
... According to van de Pol, Volman, and Beishuizen (2012), the diagnosis of students' understanding is a prerequisite for tailored support -the type of support that has also been described within the context of formative assessment practices. Formative assessment has in fact been conceived of as a cycle starting with diagnostic strategies for assessing students' current understanding, followed by the validation of this estimate, and the use of this information for instructional task design and intervention (Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). Beyond assessment practices to gauge students' individual preconditions and current levels of understanding, teachers' overall judgment of within-class variability in student achievement may aff ect the way in which teachers respond to individual learners' needs in instruction. ...
... considering students' prior knowledge, selecting and sequencing tasks) (Hammond and Gibbons 2005) and the reflection afterwards about what occurred during the learning situation (Schön 1983). The activities must suit the children's level of development, which requires sophisticated knowledge about children's level of actual development and therefore requires diagnostic practices (Ruiz-Primo and Furtak 2007). Many assessment techniques are suitable for gathering information on the learning processes and abilities of kindergarten-age children (e.g. ...
Article
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Adaptive learning support is a key element of high quality preschool education and includes the planning of learning situations and teacher-child interactions. The provision of effective adaptive learning support in kindergarten is challenging. This longitudinal experimental study examined the impact of two professional development programs on 132 kindergarten teachers. One program focused on teacher-child interactions (micro-adaptive learning support), the other on planning, preparation, and reflection (macro-adaptive learning support). Each program had a positive impact on the quality of the specific type of adaptive mathematical learning support provided by kindergarten teachers, macro or micro, it was designed to improve.
... Every day, teachers face a variety of diagnostic situations in which they gather information about their students' learning prerequisites, processes, and outcomes (Herppich et al., 2018;Praetorius et al., 2013;Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007;Thiede et al., 2015). This information serves as a basis for different pedagogical decisions like lesson planning, adaptive teaching, or grading students (Schrader, 2013;Dünnebier et al., 2009;Südkamp et al., 2012;Vogt & Rogalla, 2009). ...
Chapter
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Mathematical argumentations and proofs cause difficulties for secondary school students (Healy and Hoyles, 2000). Teachers’ diagnostic skills are essential for adapting their teaching to students’ specific needs in order to facilitate students’ understanding of proofs (Südkamp and Praetorius, 2017). We developed a video-based simulation to investigate and promote pre-service teachers’ diagnostic skills. Participants encountered a diagnostic task with short, scripted video clips showing simulated students working on a geometry proof with a teacher. Observing student-teacher interactions served as the basis for the pre-service teacher participants’ diagnoses of students’ individual argumentation skills. This simulation is first used to investigate pre-service teachers’ diagnostic performance and the quality of their diagnoses and diagnostic processes. In a second step, the simulation will be expanded into a learning environment to investigate how pre-service teachers’ diagnostic skills can be supported through different kinds of scaffolds.
... Although grasp of practice could inform various aspects of classroom instruction with MLs, it could be particularly useful for bolstering teachers' formative assessment, especially their instructional dialogues with students (Goldenberg, 1992;Grapin & Llosa, 2021;Ruiz-Primo, 2011;Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007). For example, in the case of Nahín, a teacher might recognize and praise his grasp of models as being useful for generating predictions (thus refuting an otherwise deficit framing of his participation) while, at the same time, supporting him to communicate this grasp using more conventional syntax (e.g., conditional "if"). ...
Article
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Contemporary conceptions of content learning that emphasize disciplinary practices offer opportunities to see and hear multilingual learners’ (MLs’) participation in new ways. However, research on disciplinary practices with MLs has primarily targeted those practices traditionally considered language intensive, such as explanation and argumentation. As this research expands to disciplinary practices less familiar to language educators, it may benefit from cross-fertilization with research in content area education (e.g., science and mathematics) and, specifically, the constructs and frameworks those fields have developed to characterize effective participation in disciplinary practices. This study used the construct of grasp of practice to investigate MLs’ participation in the science disciplinary practice of modeling. By enhancing its current repertoire of constructs and frameworks with those developed by disciplinary colleagues, research in language education can capture a broader spectrum of what is valued in content learning and, in doing so, refute deficit views of MLs in content classrooms.
Article
The onset of the Next-Generation Science Standards [NGSS] has created a need for elementary teachers to develop purposeful, multi-dimensional formative assessments (FAs). In order to promote this process, we utilized teacher learning communities (TLCs) and practice-based professional development focused on key aspects of the reform while documenting how four teachers in rural elementary schools cyclically developed and revised several FAs during a two-year project. Utilizing a multi-case embedded case study design, primary data collected included multiple teacher-developed, classroom-embedded FAs (including student work samples), recurrent audio of conversations wherein teachers discussed the results of their FAs with peers in their TLC, and five teacher interviews. The findings, though not intended to be generalizable, detail how developing FAs helped two of the teachers expose both instructional and assessment-related vulnerabilities as they learned more about the NGSS and the value of purposefully eliciting their student’s thinking in a multi-dimensional manner. Conversely, the other two teachers maintained a prior preference for developing FAs that targeted the memorization of science content—though they did provide students with more “space” to reveal their thinking via more open-ended prompts. This adjustment unfortunately caused numerous challenges for students, as they struggled to provide the “correct” responses the pair sought. Implications discuss how the connections between instruction and assessment can become more tightly intertwined whilst cyclically designing FAs, with an emphasis on the science and engineering practices. Recommendations for future research stemming from outside and within the classroom, as well as practitioner-based supports are discussed.
Article
Research into the effective teaching of science to emergent bilinguals has converged around key theoretical perspectives and led to expansive empirical evidence that emphasizes the integration of science learning with language/literacy development. Simultaneously, formative assessment has been touted as one of the key components of effective teaching in science classrooms. I address a critical research gap by connecting the teaching of emergent bilinguals in science classrooms to formative assessment through sociocultural perspectives and linguistically responsive teaching—thereby reframing the traditional model of formative assessment into a framework for linguistically responsive assessing. To illustrate the challenges and opportunities of translating a framework of linguistically responsive assessing into practice, I analyzed the formative assessment practices of two middle school science teachers with whom I worked through ongoing professional learning in support of emergent bilinguals through assessing. Both teachers (1) framed learning goals and assessment around meaningful and relevant student contexts, (2) planned multimodal assessment interactions to scaffold science learning and language/literacy development, and (3) attempted to elicit students’ lived experiences. Yet, I also observed missed opportunities that provide additional insight into the continued challenges of ensuring that formative assessment for emergent bilinguals puts literacy and the students’ linguistic, cultural, and home/family assets front and center.
Technical Report
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Mejorar la calidad de la educación no sólo es una necesidad sino que representa una de las metas más urgentes a alcanzar por parte de los países en vía de desarrollo como Colombia, si aspiran a insertarse con éxito en la sociedad del conocimiento del siglo XXI. Para ello no basta con propiciar un sistema de ciencia y tecnología de alto nivel sustentado en algunos colegios y universidades de excelencia que puedan formar el recurso humano requerido. Lograr una sociedad que sepa gestionar el conocimiento e innovar para ser exitosa en este siglo, requiere de una educación de calidad para todos, formar élites no sólo no es equitativo y democrático, sino que además no funciona (Baudelot & Establet, 2009; Council of competitiveness, 2004).
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate science teachers' assessment literacy having different majors (education versus science) and compare those teachers' assessment literacy. A multiple-case study, one of the qualitative research designs, was utilized to fulfill the aim. Four science teachers, two from each major, who were teaching at public schools during the 2017-2018 semesters, participated in the study. Pre-interviews, observations, post-interviews, and documents were used as data collection tools during the investigation. Content analysis was conducted using science teachers' assessment literacy model that exists in the literature. The findings of the study revealed that science teachers were similar and different from each other with respect to several dimensions of assessment literacy, which are views about learning, assessment purposes, assessment strategies, what to assess, and assessment interpretation. Recommendations for science education research and implications for science teacher education are provided.
Article
This article introduces this special issue by addressing the types of assessment practices that are possible within STEM inquiry classrooms, where the focus is on noticing, developing, and improving inquiry competencies. Three domains are explored: informal formative assessment occurring in classroom interactions; structured formative assessment when teachers or peers collect information at a planned time; ongoing evolution of teachers’ knowledge and practices. We analyse how classroom formative assessment practices develop alongside and support inquiry learning. We report on how STEM teachers might be supported in transforming their teaching practices and assessment methods in tandem. We focus on the role of classroom discussion to challenge students’ ideas and make explicit their reasoning. We highlight how interactions between teachers and students support students in being more active in the assessment process. Combining inquiry learning with adapted assessment practices requires teachers to make significant changes to their practices. They need to be aware of how students develop their learning. Such professional moves are complex because implementing formative and summative assessments in a complementary manner remains a challenge for teachers and researchers. We emphasise how the collaboration between researchers and teachers support teachers in making changes to their professional knowledge, beliefs, and classroom practices.
Article
This study aimed to examine qualitative studies on formative assessment (FA) in science education through metasynthesis. To this end, the study examined 22 qualitative studies selected according to particular criteria out of 1077 studies in several electronic databases. It sought to determine how science teachers' FA applications were supported and how teachers used FA in science classes. The numerical superiority of case studies, the existence of professional development programmes, and the role of teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and beliefs in determining their FA practices were among the findings. Given the findings of the study, various suggestions are made for both researchers and science teachers. The studies that look at all aspects of classroom interaction could represent FA practices in more detail. It is also essential to improve science teachers' skills in FA applications with pre-service and in-service training.
Article
In this study, we investigated how an experienced fourth-grade teacher responded to her students’ thinking as part of her teacher noticing practice in a formative assessment context. Our primary purpose in doing this work was to decompose the responding component of teacher noticing and use our findings to present an emerging framework characterizing the multidimensional nature of this practice. We present two key outcomes based on the findings of this work. First, we show how a formative assessment context situated outside of instruction can engage teachers in practice-based noticing. Second, we present an emerging framework of the responding component of teacher noticing and discuss how it can be used by teacher educators to engage teachers in analytic work in ways that reveal the relationships between what teachers see in students’ thinking and how, when, and toward whom they respond.
Thesis
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Im Fokus der kumulativen Dissertationsschrift steht das unterrichtsbegleitende Diagnostizieren von Schüler*innenvorstellungen als wesentliche Komponente individueller Förderung von Schüler*innen im Fachunterricht. Genauer wird der Frage nachgegangen, wie (angehende) Lehrkräfte bei der Aneignung von Fertigkeiten zur Diagnose unterstützt werden können. Exemplarisch wurden als Diagnosegegenstand verschiedene Arten ökologischer Schüler*innenvorstellungen ausgewählt, die sowohl allgemein im Sachunterricht bzw. Biologieunterricht als auch im Kontext einer Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung (BNE) von wesentlicher Bedeutung sind.
Article
As they encounter new ideas, students need to make integrated revisions to their science explanations, a key aspect of science learning. This involves filling gaps, resolving inconsistencies with evidence, and strengthening connections among ideas. Rather than making integrated revisions, even after automated, adaptive guidance, students typically add disconnected ideas or fix mechanical errors. The knowledge integration framework, supported by new technologies including natural language processing, guided the design of the Annotator, a tool that models the revision process for students’ written explanations. This research investigates the added value of the Annotator compared to automated, adaptive guidance to support students to make integrated revisions to their science explanations and to strengthen knowledge integration. 798 6th and 7th-grade students from 4 schools participated in a study featuring pretests, posttests, embedded student explanations, student interviews and observations. Students using the Annotator who initially displayed unintegrated ideas were more likely to make integrated revisions to their explanations, than students receiving automated, adaptive guidance. These students also made greater knowledge integration revisions on the posttest one week later. Thus, modeling revision with the Annotator strengthened the ability of students who started with unintegrated ideas to explain scientific phenomena.
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Formatives Assessment und individuelle Lernunterstützung sind zwei Ansätze der Lernförderung, die sich mit Formen der individuell-adaptiven Begleitung von Lernenden auf Basis diagnostischer Informationen befassen. Die Frage, wie eine solche Förderung im Unterricht konkret umgesetzt werden kann, steht im Zentrum des vorliegenden Beitrags. Dazu werden qualitätsvolle Feedbackloops in den Blick genommen. Dies sind individuell-adaptive Interaktionen, in denen Lehrpersonen diagnostische Fragen (Eliciting Evidence) mit Rückmeldungen (Feedback) verbinden, um Lernprozesse gezielt zu unterstützen. Die Umsetzung qualitätsvoller Feedbackloops stellt eine Verbindung von formativem Assessment und individueller Lernunterstützung dar. Im Beitrag wird anhand von Unterrichtsvideos aus dem alltäglichen Mathematikunterricht von 52 Schulklassen der vierten Jahrgangsstufe, die im Rahmen der TUFA-Videostudie erhoben wurden, explorativ untersucht, wie Lehrpersonen qualitätsvolle Feedbackloops umsetzen. Der Beitrag schließt mit Schlussfolgerungen für eine individuell-adaptive Unterrichtspraxis.
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Homework is an integral component of most science courses but can have an impact on student learning only when students actually complete the assignment. Low completion rate of homework, then, is an impediment to student success in science courses, and a source of frustration for instructor and students alike. Here, we outline a set of design principles supported by research in how students learn, intended to streamline outside-of-class assignments to address course goals, improve student buy-in and motivation, and provide instructors better formative assessment data. We also share examples of outside-of-class assignments aligned to these principles to aid instructors in shortening and focusing the homework they choose to assign in their courses.
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The process writing movement in language education has informed current moves towards process methods in mathematics pedagogy. This has led to limited expectations of narrative recounts in students’ writing about mathematics. An examination of primary and secondary mathematics classes and commonly‐used textbooks shows that genre expectations are both limited and limiting. Given that mathematics is text, and that mathematicians need to operate competently within a number of different genres, it is argued that teachers should broaden the scope of task specification so that a wider range of mathematical genres is experienced in classrooms. This paper examines a number of mathematical genres that are accessible to students.
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We summarize a conference on scientific inquiry bringing together science educators, cognitive scientists and philosophers of science with three goals: 1. to establish how much consensus exists about scientific inquiry, 2. to discuss implications of that consensus for teaching science, 3. to identify areas where consensus is lacking to establish where further research and discussion would be most valuable.
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This paper reports on the findings of a 2-year research project into the process of formative assessment in the science classrooms of 10 teachers. Formative assessment is defined as the process used by teachers and students to recognise and respond to student learning in order to enhance that learning, during the learning. The findings indicate that the teachers used two kinds of formative assessment, planned and interactive. Planned formative assessment involved the teachers eliciting and interpreting assessment information and then taking action. It tended to be carried out with the whole class. Interactive formative assessment involved the teachers in noticing, recognising and responding, and tended to be carried out with some individual students or small groups. This paper discusses these two types of formative assessment, how they are related, how they are integral to teaching and learning processes, and how they are dependent on teachers' pedagogical knowledge.
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The meta-analytic technique was used to synthesize experimental research findings on the relationship between level of teacher questioning and student achievement. Twenty studies on teachers’ use of “higher” and “lower” cognitive questions were reviewed. Higher cognitive questions require pupils to manipulate information to create and support a response; lower cognitive questions call for verbatim recall or recognition of factual information. Effect sizes were computed to investigate the impact of program monitoring, experimental validity, and level of teacher questioning. Results show that gains in achievement can be expected when higher cognitive questions assume a predominant role during classroom instruction.
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This article is a response to Black and Wiliam's 1998 review article on formative assessment. The response draws attention to a number of enduring issues in the theory and practice of formative assessment, including its often inadequate conceptualisation in research studies; the essential role of the teacher in mediating the curriculum and learning, and therefore feedback; the conditioning of students by dominant assessment practices that encourage survival habits rather than true learning; the intellectual resources teachers bring to the assessment process as a result of their extensive experience (which students do not possess); and the need to induct students explicitly into how to interpret feedback.
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To achieve the reasoning and thinking curriculum of the future, we must first understand reasoning as a competence that is central to everyday, workplace, and academic functioning. We are engaged in research examining the actual processes of shared reasoning in various situations. This methodologically oriented article focuses on the reasoning that occurs in discussions of controversial social issues by groups of peers in informal settings. In the project reported here, rather sophisticated argument structures emerged and conversational interaction stimulated the development of arguments. Both a system for coding elements of reasoning and a method for displaying the interactive structure of reasoning in conversation were developed. With these took further analysis can help expose how people reason cooperatively in social settings.
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The improvement of science education in accord with the current science reform agenda requires the development of sophisticated instructional strategies that are grounded in a clear recognition of student understanding. We describe a pedagogical strategy, the assessment conversation, that helps teachers elicit student understanding and then use elicited and diverse student understanding as the instructional basis for achieving conceptual and reasoning goals in the classroom. We then illustrate the potential and challenges of using the assessment conversation through examples that have emerged from Science Education through Portfolio Instruction and Assessment (SEPIA), a project attempting to reform practices of assessment and instruction in middle school science classrooms. We conclude with a discussion of issues facing any substantial reform of science education.
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This article is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment. Several studies show firm evidence that innovations designed to strengthen the frequent feedback that students receive about their learning yield substantial learning gains. The perceptions of students and their role in self‐assessment are considered alongside analysis of the strategies used by teachers and the formative strategies incorporated in such systemic approaches as mastery learning. There follows a more detailed and theoretical analysis of the nature of feedback, which provides a basis for a discussion of the development of theoretical models for formative assessment and of the prospects for the improvement of practice.
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In this article we drew from studies in the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) to create a new perspective for understanding school science. In doing so, we brought together ethnography and discourse analysis to study science-in-the-making in a physics classroom. We sought to document the social practices that constituted students' experimental data trials. To understand these interactions, we investigated the local conceptual ecologies created in the moment by student laboratory groups and the views of science made available across multiple classroom-based activities. Throughout the study we asked what counts as science in this science classroom. In doing so, we traced how science was portrayed and interactionally acknowledged across the shifting sociocultural contexts that constitute this high school physics class studied. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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This article describes a case study of an expert teacher's questioning strategies during an open-inquiry engineering curriculum in a Grade 4/5 classroom. The data sources collected over a 13-week period included videotaped whole-class and small-group teacher-student interactions, debriefing meetings after each lesson, interviews with observing elementary teachers, and stimulated recall sessions with both teachers present in the class. A holistic, sociolinguistic framework was used to analyze the transcribed videotapes. The analysis provides evidence for the complexity of questioning that is characterized by the interactions of context and content of, and response and reactions to questions. The teacher's competence in questioning was related to her discursive competence in the subject-matter domain; but question content was always mediated by the contingencies of discourse context and response and reaction patterns. The study also provides evidence that questioning is a complex practice which cannot be appropriated easily, a finding which implies a fundamental change in the professional preparation and development of science teachers. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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This paper identifies four successive phases in the study of written feedback to students' compositions. The studies included in these phases are distinguished by views of writing instruction reflected in their theoretical frameworks: the view of writing instruction as a series of teacher provided stimuli and students' responses to these stimuli; the view that the writing class is a rhetorical community, where teacher and students interact as readers and writers over texts; the view of learning to write as a phenomenon both natural and problematic, where school may interfere with students' natural development; the view that learning to write, like all other learning, depends on successful student-teacher interactions within student's zone of proximal development. While reviewing recent studies of written feedback, the paper shows how these changing views of writing instruction are accompanied by changing theoretical perspectives for the study of the provision and processing of written feedback as well as by a gradual expansion of research contexts for looking at this problem. Finally, in view of such a line of development, it suggests an agenda for future research.
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Teaching has often been thought of as a creative performance. Although comparisons with performance were originally intended to emphasize teacher creativity, they have become associated instead with contemporary reform efforts toward scripted instruction that deny the creativity of teachers. Scripted instruction is opposed to constructivist, inquiry-based, and dialogic teaching methods that emphasize classroom collaboration. To provide insight into these methods, the “teaching as performance” metaphor must be modified: Teaching is improvisational performance. Conceiving of teaching as improvisation highlights the collaborative and emergent nature of effective classroom practice, helps us to understand how curriculum materials relate to classroom practice, and shows why teaching is a creative art.
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The theory of formative assessment outlined in this article is relevant to a broad spectrum of learning outcomes in a wide variety of subjects. Specifically, it applies wherever multiple criteria are used in making judgments about the quality of student responses. The theory has less relevance for outcomes in which student responses may be assessed simply as correct or incorrect. Feedback is defined in a particular way to highlight its function in formative assessment. This definition differs in several significant respects from that traditionally found in educational research. Three conditions for effective feedback are then identified and their implications discussed. A key premise is that for students to be able to improve, they must develop the capacity to monitor the quality of their own work during actual production. This in turn requires that students possess an appreciation of what high quality work is, that they have the evaluative skill necessary for them to compare with some objectivity the quality of what they are producing in relation to the higher standard, and that they develop a store of tactics or moves which can be drawn upon to modify their own work. It is argued that these skills can be developed by providing direct authentic evaluative experience for students. Instructional systems which do not make explicit provision for the acquisition of evaluative expertise are deficient, because they set up artificial but potentially removable performance ceilings for students.
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2 factors were proposed to affect awareness of one's comprehension failure: the inferential processing requirements, and the kind of standards against which comprehension is evaluated. These studies investigated elementary school children's awareness of their own comprehension failure when presented with inconsistent information. Study 1 showed that children were more likely to notice explicit than implicit contradictions. However, even 12-year-olds judged as comprehensible a sizable proportion of essays with seemingly obvious inconsistencies. Yet, the children had good probed recall of the information, the logical capacity to draw the inferences, and were not generally reluctant to question the experimenter. In subsequent studies children were (a) asked to repeat sentences in order to guarantee that the 2 inconsistent propositions were concurrently activated in working memory, and (b) warned about the existence of a problem in order to promote more careful evaluation. Taken together, the results suggest that to notice inconsistencies children have to encode and store the information, draw the relevant inferences, retrieve and maintain the (inferred) propositions in working memory, and compare them. Third through sixth graders do not spontaneously carry out those processes that they are capable of carrying out.
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