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Whey Protein Production and Utilization: A Brief History

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... Comparison of sweet and acid whey components[6]. ...
Article
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There are two types of milk whey obtained from cheese manufacture: sweet and acid. It retains around 55% of the nutrients of the milk. Milk whey is considered as a waste, creating a critical pollution problem, because 9 L of whey are produced from every 10 L of milk. Some treatments such as hydrolysis by chemical, fermentation process, enzymatic action, and green technologies (ultrasound and thermal treatment) are successful in obtaining peptides from protein whey. Milk whey peptides possess excellent functional properties such as antihypertensive, antiviral, anticancer, immunity, and antioxidant, with benefits in the cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immune, and nervous system. This review presents an update of the applications of milk whey hydrolysates as a high value-added peptide based on their functional properties.
... Whey is treated at several processes and dried to be obtained in powder form. Whey protein isolate is the concentrated whey powder containing high percentages of protein (>90%) and water soluble over wide range of pH (Tunick, 2008). Whey proteins are capable to form elastic films, and they have been employed as raw material for biodegradable packaging because they have good oxygen barrier and moderate moisture permeability. ...
Book
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We are pleased to present this book entitled “Recent Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology for Sustainable India”. Ratnesh Kumar Rao, Secretary, Mahima Research Foundation and Social Welfare are not new to Agriculture students. With his vast experience in Academic activities, he has dealt this complex subject and edited, with practical approach and simple language, to meet the requirement of the students and teachers of Agriculture. The large gap between potential and current crop yields makes increased food production attainable. India’s low agricultural productivity has many causes, including scarce and scant knowledge of improved practices, low use of improved seed, low fertilizer use, inadequate irrigation, conflict, absence of strong institutions, ineffective policies, lack of incentives and prevalence of diseases. Climate change could substantially reduce yields from rainfed agriculture in some countries. With scarcity of land, water, energy, and other natural resources, meeting the demands for food and fiber will require increases in productivity. Though this book is mainly deals with the agriculture research and education, it will also be very handy for those who desire to start Agricultural Research in Science and Technology. We are sure this will be accepted very much by the students, teachers, scientists and Stakeholders of Agriculture all over the India. We solicit your encouragement in this endeavour.
... Whey is treated at several processes and dried to be obtained in powder form. Whey protein isolate is the concentrated whey powder containing high percentages of protein (>90%) and water soluble over wide range of pH (Tunick, 2008). Whey proteins are capable to form elastic films, and they have been employed as raw material for biodegradable packaging because they have good oxygen barrier and moderate moisture permeability. ...
Chapter
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Sugar beet (B. vulgaris), a root crop grown in Europe, North America, the Middle East, Egypt, India, Chile, Japan, and China, is an important source of sugar. In temperate climates, sugar beet is the sole sucrose-storing crop. It produces approximately a third of the world's yearly sugar, with pulp and molasses being utilised for animal feed and methane production. Sugar beets are typically planted in the spring and harvested in the vegetative stage before the winter season. Because of the pre-winter development and increased growth in spring, cultivating sugar beet as a winter crop, by sowing in October and harvesting the following year, might enhance beet yields by up to 26%. (Jaggard and Werker, 1999; Hoffmann and Kluge-Severin, 2011). Winter beets have progressed to the point where they can be harvested and beet campaigns can begin early. As a result, one of the primary goals of sugar beet breeding is to produce winter beets. The control of bolting after the winter is a challenge in winter agriculture.
... The reduction in muscle fatigue during resistance training is the result of an increase in muscle buffer capacity during endurance sports. 11 Previous studies of whey protein on improved performance in athletes show performance in the treatment group with a value of P = 0.001. In contrast, there was no improvement in performance in the placebo group. ...
Article
Background: High-physical activity, including aerobic capacity and leg muscle explosive power, can cause stress oxidative and decrease the performance of athletes. Whey protein contains essential amino acids that were beneficial to decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Objective: To analyze the effect of whey protein on MDA level, aerobic capacity, and leg muscle explosive power in basketball athletes. Materials and Methods: Randomized controlled trial using pre- and post-test design was conducted on 12 male athletes aged 16-18 years at PPLOP Central Java Basketball Club. The treatment group received 30 grams of whey protein, and the control group received 30 grams of chocolate powder as a placebo for 28 days. MDA levels were measured through Elisa methods. Aerobic capacity was measured by 20 meters sprint. Leg muscle explosive power was measured by vertical jump. Data were analyzed by an independent t-test. Results: The mean MDA levels before intervention in the whey protein group were 182.36 (±59.05), and the mean after the intervention was 171.83 (±5.46). The mean before the aerobic intervention capacity was 36.95 (±5.84), and the mean after the intervention was 49.75 (±3.53). The mean leg muscle explosive was 83.50 (±21.58), and the mean after the intervention was 87.33 (±16.68). There were no effect of whey protein on MDA levels (p>0,05), aerobic capacity (p>0,05) and leg muscle explosive power (p>0,05). Conclusion: Whey protein for 28 days had no effect on MDA levels, aerobic capacity, and leg muscle explosive power
... Sweet whey is obtained from rennet coagulation of milk at pH 6.0-6.5 while acid whey is a result of acid coagulation of milk at pH 4.5-5.0 (Tunick, 2008). The presence of casein fines and fat in whey has adverse effects on the production of whey-based powders; therefore, they should be immediately separated from whey via cyclones, centrifugal separators, vibrating screens or rotating filters after whey is produced. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors explore the physicochemical composition of whey from bovine milk, the most representative technologies used for the production of added‐value products and bioactive compounds or biomolecules from industrialization of whey such as whey protein fractions, peptides, and oligosaccharides, beneficial properties and food applications of these products. In addition, the use of whey as the encapsulating material of bioactive compound‐loaded liposomes, and the presence of bacteriophages in whey derived products, are also discussed. Whey derived products enriched in proteins are widely used in many food and pharmaceutical applications because of their broad range of functionality, nutritive value, and health benefits. In addition, the demand for whey proteins has been boosted by the consumer request for high‐protein foods and supplements. The authors also focus on the structure, characteristics, technology of production, biological properties, and applications of some peptides such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial and antioxidant, GMP, GOS and lactosucrose.
Article
In-flow small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to probe in real-time (typically every second) the hydrolysis of whey protein isolate (WPI) by bromelain. The WPI concentration was 2.5%, the enzyme to substrate ratio was 1:10, and the enzymatic reaction was followed for 90 min at 50°C and pH 7. SAXS showed that the average size of WPI molecules was about 20 Å and that even at the completion of the enzymatic reaction some intact molecules of similar size remained; these are likely bromelain molecules and trace amount of BSA. SAXS allowed us to monitor the hydrolysis course through the calculation of the power-law exponent (P) and the Guinier scale factor (G) using a theoretical unified model fitting. The fitting exercise also indicated that bromelain hydrolysis transforms the globular WPI molecules into Gaussian polypeptides. The hydrolysis of WPI, which was completed within 40 min of hydrolysis, was confirmed by the degree of hydrolysis and turbidity measurements and by SDS-PAGE, which showed that bromelain has a broad specificity. This study demonstrates that SAXS is a powerful method to monitor in situ and real-time protein hydrolysis and can offer insights into protein structural changes that occur.
Chapter
The development of sustainable sources of energy brings forth the idea of exploration of different renewable sources for the production of biofuels. Globally, the contribution of the biofuel industry in reducing fossil-fuel dependency, mainly in the transportation sector, is rising. With the development of alternative sources of energy, biofuels like ethanol and butanol are becoming progressively comparable to the petrochemical-derived fossil fuels in terms of their technical and environmental performance. First-(1G) and second-generation (2G) biofuels are derived from food-competent substrates and non-food-competent substrates, respectively. This chapter demonstrates the feedstocks available from different food wastes for biologically-derived ethanol and how they help in ensuring sustainability. Biochemically, ethanol is produced from microbial-fermentation reactions. This article brings out an in-depth comparison of thermochemical and biochemical routes for ethanol production. It aims to provide a basis and understanding of the plausible shift toward the development of microbially-derived fuels. There are, however, many technological challenges for the commercial production of biofuels. Different pretreatment techniques adopted for structural modification of biomass have been discussed. Also, different fermentation strategies based on the degree of integration of intermediate steps involved have been described. The selection of the pretreatment techniques, fermentation strategies, and other intermediary steps in the biological process synchronously determine the overall economic competitiveness and the level of technological readiness of the process. The technology-readiness levels (TRL) of 1G and 2G bioethanol-production technologies are at commercialization and pilot-plant demonstration stages, respectively.
Chapter
The sensory properties of fluid milk and dairy products are enjoyed worldwide. The characteristic sensory properties of these products are due to intrinsic components of fluid milk as well as the extrinsic effects of a wide array of processing unit operations. This chapter will investigate the relationship between fluid milk and dairy products and their associated processes in the context of sensory profile.
Chapter
Milk is a very complex fluid. It contains four principal constituents, water, lipids, proteins and lactose and perhaps 100 minor constituents, the most important of which from a cheesemaking viewpoint is calcium phosphate. The manufacture and quality of cheese depend, especially, on the properties of one of its protein groups, the caseins, and to a lesser extent on the lipids. Most (~90 %) of the water of milk is removed in the whey, which contains the soluble constituents, i.e., the whey proteins, lactose and some of the inorganic salts. Traditionally, whey was an almost worthless by-product but it is now the source of several very valuable products which are described in Chap. 22. To better understand the cheesemaking process, the unique characteristics of the caseins, milk lipids, lactose and milk salts are described briefly in this chapter.
Chapter
The term ‘osmosis’ is used to describe the spontaneous flow of water from a less concentrated to a more concentrated solution when the two solutions are separated by a suitable membrane.
Article
In today's era of proper concern for water pollution control, the dairy industry has been giving attention to pollution which can be caused by whey if it is not properly handled. The soundest method of preventing whey from creating a pollution problem is by recovering its constituents for use as feed and food supplements. Perhaps the biggest drawback to this approach, however, is that recovery costs cannot be justified by the value of products recovered. The need to properly feed the world's growing population is becoming more evident. Hopefully, the value of the whey solids and by-products which can be recovered will increase so that regardless of economic conditions, these products will be an attractive food source.