Article

Explaining career motivation among female doctors in the Netherlands: The effects of children, views on motherhood and work-home cultures

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The gender imbalance in senior medical positions is often attributed to an alleged lack of motivation on the part of female doctors, especially those with young children. Some researchers argue that an unsupportive work-home culture in the medical workplace also plays a role. This study investigates whether having children (and the age of the youngest child) affects female doctors' career motivation and whether this relationship is mediated by views on motherhood and the supportiveness of the work-home culture. Cross-sectional data collected on 1070 Dutch female doctors in 2008 indicates that neither having children nor the age of the youngest child significantly affects the career motivation of female doctors. However, views on motherhood and a supportive work-home culture do affect female doctors' career motivation. Governmental and organizational policies aimed at maternal employment and improving the work-life balance are discussed in terms of their effectiveness in supporting highly educated working women.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Working reduced hours is often considered to indicate lower career ambition. It has further been perceived as an obstruction to the career development of women workers in particular (Edwards & Robinson, 1999Hoque & Kirkpatrick, 2003;Lane, 2000Lane, , 2004Pas, Peters, Doorewaard, Eisinga, & Lagro-Janssen, 2011;Román, 2006;Tomlinson, 2006). However, several studies have shown that part-time workers do not consider working reduced hours to imply reduced career ambition (Durbin & Tomlinson, 2010;Lane, 2004;MacDermid, Lee, Buck, & Williams, 2001;Tomlinson, 2006). ...
... For example, due to the availability requirements that are commonly associated with these positions (cf., Edwards & Robinson, 2001;Lee et al., 2000), part-time workers may have less access to managerial positions. Additionally, 'hegemonic work place cultures' (Tomlinson, 2006: 83) and, more specifically, stereotyped views on part-time workers' career ambition (e.g., Benschop et al., 2013;Dick, 2010;Pas et al., 2011;Sools et al., 2007;Tomlinson, 2006) may restrict part-time workers' career development. ...
... A common explanation for part-time workers' limited career development is that working reduced hours amounts to lower career ambition (cf., Pas et al., 2011), a lack of career orientation, lower levels of commitment to work and career (Dick, 2010(Dick, , 2015Hochschild, 1997;Tomlinson, 2006), and a more 'home-centred' orientation (Walsh, 1999: 179). Hence, it has been suggested that part-time workers are less interested in having a career (see also Benschop et al., 2013;Eagly & Steffen, 1986;Hakim, 1998;Lane, 2004;Smithson, 2005;Sools et al., 2007), and this has been found for part-time working men even more than for part-time working women (cf., Eagly & Steffen, 1986;Smithson, 2005;Vinkenburg, Van Engen, Coffeng, & Dikkers, 2012). ...
Article
This paper contributes to the debate on the career development of part-time workers. First, it shows how institutionalised norms concerning working hours and ambition can be considered as temporal structures that are both dynamic and contextual, and may both hinder and enable part-time workers' career development. Second, it introduces the concept of 'timing ambition' to show how organizational actors (managers and part-time employees) actually approach these temporal structures. Based on focus-group interviews with part-time workers and supervisors in the Dutch service sector, the paper identifies four dimensions of timing ambition: timing ambition over the course of a lifetime; timing in terms of the number of weekly hours worked; timing in terms of overtime hours worked; and timing in terms of visible working hours organizational. Although the dominant template in organisations implies that ambition is timed early in life, working full-time, devoting extra office hours and being present at work for face hours, organisational actors develop alternatives that enable career development later in life while working in large part-time jobs or comprised working weeks and devoting extra hours at home.
... Working reduced hours is often considered to indicate lower career ambition. It has further been perceived as an obstruction to the career development of women workers in particular (Edwards & Robinson, 1999Hoque & Kirkpatrick, 2003;Lane, 2000Lane, , 2004Pas, Peters, Doorewaard, Eisinga, & Lagro-Janssen, 2011;Román, 2006;Tomlinson, 2006). However, several studies have shown that part-time workers do not consider working reduced hours to imply reduced career ambition (Durbin & Tomlinson, 2010;Lane, 2004;MacDermid, Lee, Buck, & Williams, 2001;Tomlinson, 2006). ...
... For example, due to the availability requirements that are commonly associated with these positions (cf., Edwards & Robinson, 2001;Lee et al., 2000), part-time workers may have less access to managerial positions. Additionally, 'hegemonic work place cultures' (Tomlinson, 2006: 83) and, more specifically, stereotyped views on part-time workers' career ambition (e.g., Benschop et al., 2013;Dick, 2010;Pas et al., 2011;Sools et al., 2007;Tomlinson, 2006) may restrict part-time workers' career development. ...
... A common explanation for part-time workers' limited career development is that working reduced hours amounts to lower career ambition (cf., Pas et al., 2011), a lack of career orientation, lower levels of commitment to work and career (Dick, 2010(Dick, , 2015Hochschild, 1997;Tomlinson, 2006), and a more 'home-centred' orientation (Walsh, 1999: 179). Hence, it has been suggested that part-time workers are less interested in having a career (see also Benschop et al., 2013;Eagly & Steffen, 1986;Hakim, 1998;Lane, 2004;Smithson, 2005;Sools et al., 2007), and this has been found for part-time working men even more than for part-time working women (cf., Eagly & Steffen, 1986;Smithson, 2005;Vinkenburg, Van Engen, Coffeng, & Dikkers, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper contributes to the debate on the career development of part-time workers. First, it shows how institutionalised norms concerning working hours and ambition can be considered as temporal structures that are both dynamic and contextual, and may both hinder and enable part-time workers' career development. Second, it introduces the concept of 'timing ambition' to show how organizational actors (managers and part-time employees) actually approach these temporal structures. Based on focus-group interviews with part-time workers and supervisors in the Dutch service sector, the paper identifies four dimensions of timing ambition: timing ambition over the course of a lifetime; timing in terms of the number of weekly hours worked; timing in terms of overtime hours worked; and timing in terms of visible working hours. Although the dominant template in organisations implies that ambition is timed early in life, working full-time, devoting extra office hours and being present at work for face hours, organisational actors develop alternatives that enable career development later in life while working in large part-time jobs or comprised working weeks and devoting extra hours at home.
... Rivera (2011), Tomlinson (2012) andTholen (2014)found males to have greater self-perceived employability than females, whereas Sok,Bloome and Tromp (2013),Morrison (2014), and Jackson and Wilton (2017) reported gender to have no impact. Non-student focused studies strongly support the notion that males perform more strongly in the labour market than their female counterparts(Kirton, 2009;Pas, Peters, Eisinga, Doorewaard & Lagro-Janssen, 2011;Rodrigues et al., 2016). This study thus starts from a position of awareness that gender may moderate self- perceived employability through the following hypothesis: ...
... The findings suggest a reason for the mismatch in career theory literature across student focused studies, with Rivera (2011), Tomlinson (2012), and Tholen (2014) reporting males to have greater self-perceived employability than females, whereasSok et al. (2013),Morrison (2014), and Jackson and Wilton (2017) reported gender to have no impact. The qualitative findings identified gender pipeline challenges and employer issues as central themes, offering an explanation for why non-student focused studies strongly support the notion that males perform more strongly in the labour market than their female counterparts(Kirton, 2009;Pas et al., 2011;Rodrigues et al., 2016). Chapter 8.3 draws on these findings to highlight the complexity of career theory, evidencing a need for cross-disciplinary research into employability across the lifespan of the individual. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Students’ perceptions of graduate employability are not well known. This research contributes a new model of graduate employability, which constructs an emergent identity, underpinned by a human capital and contemporary career theory framework. An extensive literature review generated the conceptual model, validated by a pragmatic, sequential explanatory approach through a two-wave quantitative study of 387 participants (2015/2016 and 2016/2017), followed by interviews of 38 participants (2016/2017) across 21 degree subjects. Moderators of gender, degree subject, and year of study further advanced career theory. Human capital incorporated factors of social capital, cultural capital, psychological capital, scholastic capital, market-value capital, and skills. The contemporary career theory framework underpinned careers advice, career ownership via a protean career orientation, and career mobility via a boundaryless career orientation. This research validated protean and boundaryless career measures in an undergraduate population, contributing twenty dimensions of international, national, and local mobility, and a two-dimensional model of personal factors and market factors. Tuition fee increases, interest rate increases, and modest salary expectations meant that the majority of students did not believe they would repay their university debt in full. Whilst students perceived the benefits of higher education to outweigh the associated costs, the gap is narrowing. Prospective students need a clear reason for pursuing higher education, validating the conservation of resources theory. The practical contribution of this research is to offer ways to prepare students for the graduate labour market, helping to enhance national competitiveness through making undergraduates more employable, and providing guidance to policy makers. The validated model of graduate employability offers a mechanism for further collaboration between all stakeholders.
... For example, it would seem to be unlikely that there are extensive differences in work commitment among female physicians even if their family status differs (Sasser, 2005). A recent study from the Netherlands supports this notion, in that it does not show a negative association between motherhood and female doctors' career motivation (Pas et al., 2011). This is a major benefit when analysing the relationship between wage and parenthood. ...
... In her study, women seem to choose specialties that make it easier to combine work and family, on the one hand, and that offer fewer financial rewards, on the other. However, although there is empirical evidence showing that mothers both tend to choose family-friendly jobs and to work fewer hours, a recent study of Dutch physicians finds no support for the assumption that mothers have lower career motivation (Pas et al., 2011). ...
Article
The gender wage gap within a highly prestigious occupation, the medical profession, is investigated both longitudinally and cross-sectionally using Swedish administrative data. This is done by investigating: to what extent the gender wage gap among physicians varies between fields of medicine (within-occupation segregation) and across family status; whether there is an association between parenthood and wages among physicians and, if so, whether there is a gender difference in this association; and changes in the gender wage gap among physicians over time. The results indicate a large overall gender wage difference for medical doctors. Even when gender differences in specialization are taken into account, men have higher wages than women do. For both men and women physicians, there is a positive association between parenthood and wages. The longitudinal analyses show that the gender wage gap among physicians was greater in 2007 than in 1975.
... The second theme, derived from 17 quantitative studies (32 to 10 866 participants) 8,13,[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][32][33][34] and one qualitative study (eight participants), 31 was the impact of being a mother on working as a doctor (Supporting Information, table 3). ...
... Four studies found that motherhood did not reduce the motivation and ability of female doctors to return to work. 13,20,32,33 A Dutch study found that female doctors who wanted or already had children remained motivated to work; 33 a Swiss study found that 78 of 109 female doctors (72%) continued working more than half-time after having children. 32 Similar findings were reported by British 13 and Latin American studies 20 in which respectively 47% and 54% of female doctors sought work in family-friendly environments (generalist or primary care settings). ...
Article
Objective To synthesise what is known about women combining motherhood and a career in medicine by examining the published research into their experiences and perspectives. Study design We reviewed peer‐reviewed articles published or available in English reporting original research into motherhood and medicine and published during 2008–2019. Two researchers screened each abstract and independently reviewed full text articles. Study quality was assessed. Data sources CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus abstract databases. Data synthesis The database search identified 4200 articles; after screening and full text assessment, we undertook an integrative review synthesis of the 35 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions Three core themes were identified: Motherhood: the impact of being a doctor on raising children; Medicine: the impact of being a mother on a medical career; and Combining motherhood and medicine: strategies and policies. Several structural and attitudinal barriers to women pursuing both medical careers and motherhood were identified. It was often reported that women prioritise career advancement by delaying starting a family, and that female doctors believed that career progression would be slowed by motherhood. Few evaluations of policies for supporting pregnant doctors, providing maternity leave, and assisting their return to work after giving birth have been published. We did not find any relevant studies undertaken in Australia or New Zealand, nor any studies with a focus on community‐based medicine or intervention studies. Prospective investigations and rigorous evaluations of policies and support mechanisms in different medical specialties would be appropriate. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD42019116228.
... To our knowledge, although some subscales or items of the WHC scale have been used in studies conducted in the Netherlands (Pas et al., 2011;Straub et al., 2018) or in other European countries (Beham et al., 2011(Beham et al., , 2014, and in Australia (Timms et al., 2015), no one has further validated the factorial structure of the whole 18-item WHC scale. Some of these studies deepened the relations between specific dimensions of WHC, organizational variables or selected aspects of the work-home interface. ...
Article
Full-text available
The two studies reported in this paper aimed to present and discuss both the validation of the Work-Home Culture (WHC) scale (Dikkers et al., Work & Stress , 21 (2), 155–172, 2007) in the Italian context (Study 1), and a relational model that links the WHC to subjective well-being via the mediation of three facets of the work-home interface: work-family conflict, work-family enrichment and work-family balance (Study 2). Heterogeneous samples of workers from different organisations took part in the cross-sectional studies. Substantial support was provided for the robustness of the factorial structure of the 18-item WHC scale with five factors (three support dimensions and two hindrance dimensions). Individuals’ perceptions of a supportive WHC that characterises the organisation they work for – particularly with respect to work-family issues and the use of family-friendly benefits – turned out to be positively associated with work-family enrichment and balance. Only organisational time demands, which is a hindrance dimension, was associated with work-family conflict. Moreover, our findings suggest that WHC is significantly associated with subjective well-being and that this association is largely indirect – through the facets of work-family interface – rather than direct. The results of the two studies represent a relevant achievement from the perspective of conducting future research using this measure in different socio-cultural environments and ad hoc interventions in the fields of organisational psychology and occupational health.
... This is because the Netherlands is a pioneer when it comes to part-time working in the medical profession, with about 70 percent of women physicians having a part-time position (Meijer and Heesen, 2005). At the same time, however, the medical profession is known for its demanding work ethos: working at least eight hours of overtime every week is considered the norm, even for those who work part-time (Pas et al., 2011a;Jagsi and Surender, 2004). Although Dutch legislation on part-time working is designed to facilitate those with caretaking responsibilities, 1 this is a task that typically still falls to women (Bagilhole, 2006;Hochschild, 1989). ...
Article
Full-text available
Women physicians are confronted with incompatible gendered role prescriptions, whereby the role of the 'ideal' mother contrasts sharply with that of the 'ideal' physician. This study introduces four goal frames that reflect how women physicians internalize these conflicting role prescriptions and investigates the relationship between women's goal frames and their career motivation. It also examines the relationship between gender-equality arrangements - inspired by the same underlying ideals - and women physicians' career motivation, and whether these arrangements moderate the relationship between goal frames and career motivation. Cross-sectional data on 1070 Dutch women physicians collected in 2008 indicate that women physicians with switching goal frames (i.e. those who want to live up to both ideals) are no less career-motivated than women with one dominant goal frame. However, gender-equality arrangements mainly seem to support women physicians who prioritize one role over the other. No evidence was found that gender-equality arrangements support those who try to combine conflicting role expectations.
... In an experimental study, mothers were evaluated as less competent than were equally qualified women without children; in an audit study, mothers applying for jobs received fewer callbacks than did childless women with the same qualifications (Correll, Benard, & Paik, 2007). In the second paper on Dutch female physicians' career motivation, female physicians without children perceived their work environment to be significantly more supportive toward their career goals than did female physicians with children (Pas, Peters, Eisinga, Doorewaard, & Lagro-Janssen, 2011). Likewise, female physicians with children may have encountered more prejudice than male physicians with children, resulting in ''forced'' career interruptions among mothers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Our study investigated gender differences in the long-term effects of education, work experience, agentic personality traits, and number of children on career success (i.e., salary) in medicine. German male and female students (N = 99) were surveyed at a German medical school (T1) and 15 years later (T2). Women interrupted their careers for longer than men (d = .92). Men had a substantially higher income at T2 (d = 1.07). Career interruptions, agentic personality traits, and high school grades were significant predictors of salary for both sexes. High final grades at medical school were significantly and positively related to salary but only for men. Low final grades at medical school and number of children predicted the length of career interruptions. For women, number of children was significantly and positively related to career interruptions. For men, number of children was significantly but negatively related to career interruptions. The findings corroborate research from other occupational fields, showing that a discontinuous work history has a negative influence on career success and that human capital variables are better rewarded for men than for women.
... In addition, employers may view investment in education as a signal of work commitment and may also find substituting highly qualified employees to be more difficult, which implies that these women may hold stronger bargaining positions compared to less qualified employees (cf., Budig and Hodges 2010). Furthermore, highly skilled employees might think more about their careers than less skilled employees and consider work to be an important part of their identity (Pas et al. 2011). This suggests that highly skilled employees may spend less time out of the labor market after having children compared to low skilled women (Aisenbrey, Evertsson, and Grunow 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research shows considerable variation in the strength of the motherhood wage penalty across countries, which has partially been attributed to differences in policies supporting maternal employment. Although such policies are usually understood to be complementary, their effects on workers—and especially on employees in jobs of diverse skills levels—may differ. Using longitudinal data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) for ten countries, this article describes the associations of different maternal employment policies with the motherhood wage penalty by skill. Findings from Hausman–Taylor panel models indicate that both a high share of small children in publicly funded child care facilities and long paid maternity leave are associated with a decrease in the motherhood wage penalty regardless of skill level. The standardized total effects were larger for the latter policy.
... The relationship between work and family is crucial for our understanding of women's and men's work patterns and commitments (Pas et al., 2011). In the literature, the concept of work-life balance is widely used (Ford and Collinson, 2011;Scholarios and Marks, 2004). ...
Article
Set in the context of the Swedish state’s agenda of dual emancipation for women and men, the article shows how a global ICT consultancy company’s formal gender equality goal is undermined by competing demands. Employing the concept of availability, in preference to work-life balance, the research found women opted out of roles requiring high degrees of spatial and temporal availability for work, in favour of roles more easily combined with family responsibilities. Such choices led to poor career development, plus the loss of technological expertise and confidence. These outcomes were at odds with the company’s gender equality aims, as well as government objectives to make it easier for women and men to combine work and family, and increase the number of women within ICT.
... In the wider literature, research indicates that pregnant workers are often subjected to comments and inferences from managers and colleagues about pregnant women being unreliable, emotional and unpromotable and expectation that motherhood reduces career motivation (Gatrell 2011a;Haynes 2008a;Millward 2006;Pas et al. 2011). In these gendered cultures, women feel progressively sidelined and disempowered during pregnancy and following maternity leave (Buzzanell and Liu 2007;Houston and Marks 2003;Liu and Buzzanell 2004;Mäkelä 2009;Millward 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides a transdisciplinary critical review of the literature on maternity management in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), embedded within the wider literatures on maternity in the workplace. The key objectives are to describe what is known about the relations that shape maternity management in smaller workplaces and to identify research directions to enhance this knowledge. The review is guided by theory of organizational gendering and small business management, conceptualizing adaptions to maternity as a process of mutual adjustment and dynamic capability within smaller firms’ informally negotiated order, resource endowments and wider labour and product/service markets. A context-sensitive lens is also applied. The review highlights the complex range of processes involved in SME maternity management and identifies major research gaps in relation to pregnancy, maternity leave and the return to work (family-friendly working and breastfeeding) in these contexts. This blind spot is surprising, as SMEs employ the majority of women worldwide. A detailed agenda for future research is outlined, building on the gaps identified by the review and founded on renewed theoretical direction.
... Professional working women face workplace conflicts arising out of the combined effect of social expectations, pressures and career role aspirations (Kelan, 2009). Many dimensions of this problem have been examined (Pas et al (2011) and the findings suggest that the experiences of women at work are determined by gender constructions and conflicts (Garey, 1999) which in turn have a bearing on career continuities and curtailments (Cleveland, Stockdale & Murphy, 1999;Desai, 1999;Gulati, 1999;Kanter, 1977). ...
Article
Full-text available
This is a study of the relationship between organisational commitment, employee empowerment and career satisfaction of female workforce. The focus of the paper is to explore the role of organization commitment & empowerment in career satisfaction among the female workforce. Women employees working in India were approached for investigations of variables in this study. Mainly women working in private organisations have been respondents. The result of the analysis states that organisational commitment and career satisfaction have a positive relationship. Employee empowerment has positive moderating impact on the relationship of organisational commitment with career satisfaction of female gender. The outcome of the study states the importance and need for empowering women employees in the organization for ensuring higher Organisational commitment and increasing career satisfaction. The framework brings insight for the managers & organizations to establish policies and practices which facilitate women empowerment to bring among them high satisfaction with career and long-term growth.
... Organizational support and employer flexibility facilitate the transition to motherhood process also, increase the organizational commitment of women following maternity leave and help them to balance maternal and employee identities. Study by Pas et al. (2011) found that the effectiveness of familyfriendly regulations such as the possibility of part-time employment, flexible working hours and on-site care facilities is due to support for integrating work-family life and value cultures within the organizations. ...
... Most of the career expectations which were described by the first-year students in this study are consistent with earlier research (Pas et al., 2011;Maiorova et al., 2008;Van Tongeren-Alers et al., 2011;Drinkwater, Tully, & Dornan, 2008;Smith, Bethune, & Hurley, 2017;Alers et al., 2014), indicating that these ideas about potential career differences between male and female students are already present when students enter medical school. In one study (Smith, Bethune, & Hurley, 2017), male medical students indicated that they also strived for work-life balance, yet this meant having time for their hobbies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sex and gender are important determinants of healthcare that need to be taken into account for medical teaching. Education is more effective if tailored to students’ subjectively-perceived needs and connected to their prior knowledge and opinions. This study explored first-year medical students thoughts about sex and gender differences in general and in specifically in healthcare, and what their educational preferences are in learning about these concepts during their medical training. Therefore six focus groups were conducted with 26 first-year medical students, 7 male and 19 female students, within one Dutch medical faculty. The discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. After that a thematic analysis was performed which included descriptive coding, interpretative coding, and definition of overarching themes. Three major themes were identified. (1) Students’ self-perception of concepts sex and gender, including three major domains: (a) The unavoidable allocation of individuals to groups, (b) The role of stereotypes, and (c) The effect of sex/gender on career choice options. (2) Students’ goal orientedness in learning about sex/gender. (3) Students’ struggles between the binary system of medicine and the complexity of reality. Continuous reflection during medical school might help medical students to acquire sex- and gender-sensitive competencies that can be applied in their future work. To increase awareness about the influence of sex and gender differences in healthcare and on career choices, we recommend addressing these themes explicitly early on in the medical curriculum.
... Despite this advance in numeric representation at the entry level of medical education, women continue to experience substantial disadvantages in comparison to men in medicine, as is the case in many other fields (Pratto and Walker 2004 internationally; Ryan et al. 2009 in North America and Europe). For example, in the Netherlands, men continue to hold the most senior medical positions (e.g., Pas et al. 2011), and in the U.S., men earn more than women do with comparable medical education and training (Lo Sasso et al. 2011). Female physicians report feeling a greater conflict between their work and home lives than do male physicians (e.g., Langballe et al. 2011 in Norway;Pas et al. 2011 in the Netherlands). ...
Article
Women continue to face gender-related challenges in the medical field in places around the world where it has traditionally been male-dominated, including in the U.S. In an online experimental study with women attending a mid-sized public university in the Northeastern U.S. (N = 55) who were interested in pursuing a pre-medical track (being pre-med) as undergraduates, we explored the mechanisms involved in undergraduate women’s pursuit of a career as a physician, focusing on three factors: exposure to successful female physician role models, perceived identity compatibility between being a woman and being pre-med, and sense of belonging in pre-med. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition in which they were exposed to information about successful female physicians, or to a control condition in which no information about female physicians was provided. First, as hypothesized, participants exposed to successful female physicians reported higher perceived identity compatibility, sense of belonging, and interest in a medical career compared to those in the control condition. Second, also as hypothesized, perceived identity compatibility mediated the effect of role models on sense of belonging, and sense of belonging mediated the relationship between perceived identity compatibility and interest in a medical career. This study highlights three key factors in women’s pursuit of a career as a physician and the process through which these factors may operate. Findings support the use of role models to set a positive psychosocial process in motion that can support women’s persistence in medicine.
... Professional working women face workplace conflicts arising out of the combined effect of social expectations, pressures and career role aspirations (Kelan, 2009). Many dimensions of this problem have been examined (Pas et al (2011) and the findings suggest that the experiences of women at work are determined by gender constructions and conflicts (Garey, 1999) which in turn have a bearing on career continuities and curtailments (Cleveland, Stockdale & Murphy, 1999;Desai, 1999;Gulati, 1999;Kanter, 1977). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to analyse relationship between employee engagement and turnover intention. It further attempts to understand the role of employee empowerment as a moderator in the employee engagement and turnover intention relationship. 274 data were collected from the respondents belonging to private sector bank managers across Delhi/NCR of India. Techniques like exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to validate the dimensions under study. Structural Equation Modeling and Regression Analysis were further used to assess the moderating impact of employee empowerment on employee engagement-turnover intentions relationship. An inverse relationship between Empowerment and Turnover Intentions was found and no relationship between Engagement and Turnover Intentions was determined by the results. Furthermore, employee empowerment did not have a moderating effect of employee engagement-turnover intentions. The result derived from the present study accentuates the significance of empowering employees which leads to better engagement.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A complex interplay exists between actors of higher education and graduate employability in developed countries. Collaboration between these actors takes on significant importance, driven by a globalized, technologically advanced and highly competitive knowledge-based economy. We propose a new graduate employability framework, constructed of employability capital and competencies; underpinned by human capital and Bourdieusian social theory. An emergent graduate identity research lens is adopted, incorporating work-integrated learning, seeking to enhance national competitiveness through making graduates more employable. Propositions and a conceptual model are subsequently offered, addressing both 'what' and why' angles of the student perception of the graduate labour market. Conclusions offer potential benefits to actors; including advice for policy makers of higher education and work-integrated learning. We believe that implementing the model will positively influence the ways undergraduate students are prepared for future introduction to the graduate labour market.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bu çalışmada, kariyer engellerinin mutluluk üzerindeki etkisinde kariyer motivasyonunun rolünün incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Kariyer engelleri; bireysel, toplumsal ve örgütsel faktörler çerçevesinde değerlendirilmekte ve bu engellerin kadın işgörenlerin tutum ve davranışlarını olumsuz yönde etkilediği düşünülmektedir. Bu doğrultuda, çalışmada kariyer engellerinin kariyer motivasyonu ve mutluluk üzerindeki etkisi ele alınmıştır. Araştırma amacı doğrultusunda, Antalya’da faaliyet gösteren beş yıldızlı dört otel işletmesinin 166 kadın işgöreninden anket tekniği ile veriler toplanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler, açıklayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizleri, korelasyon analizi, hiyerarşik regresyon analizi ve sobel testi vasıtasıyla değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma bulgularına göre, kariyer planlama eksikliğinden, iş-aile çatışmasından, çevreden ve cinsiyet ayrımcılığından kaynaklanan kariyer engellerinin kadın işgörenlerin mutluluk düzeylerini olumsuz yönde etkilediği görülmüştür. Bununla birlikte, kariyer planlama eksikliğinden, iş-aile çatışmasından ve çevreden kaynaklanan kariyer engellerinin kariyer motivasyonunu olumsuz yönde etkilediği ve bu engellerin mutluluk üzerindeki etkisinde kariyer motivasyonun kısmi aracılık etkisine sahip olduğu bulgusu elde edilmiştir. Ayrıca kariyer motivasyonunun kadın işgörenlerin mutluluk düzeylerini olumlu yönde etkilediği tespit edilmiştir.
Chapter
Evidence about the barriers and challenges to the sustainable career advancement of women professionals is present in the literature. Past studies report the inadequacy of strategic HRM, the dominant HRM approach, in developing sustainable careers for women professionals. This paper introduces the need for sustainable HRM practices for sustainable careers of women professionals. A comprehensive view of career issues of women professionals across their lifespan, a critical analysis of the role of strategic HRM and proposing the conceptual framework based on sustainable HRM for sustainable careers of women forms the crux of this paper. The paper builds on the theoretical grounding of kaleidoscope career model, evidence-based management and work–family enrichment to suggest theoretically informed sustainable HRM practices for sustainable careers of women. The specific strategies are discussed, and future research agenda was presented at the end.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bu çalışmanın amacı, çift yönlü iş aile zenginleşmesinin (iş-aile zenginleşmesi, aile-iş zenginleşmesi) işte mutluluk üzerindeki etkisini ve bu etkileşimde psikolojik sermayenin aracılık rolünün olup olmadığını belirlemektir. Araştırma Tokat ilinde tekstil sektörü çalışanları üzerinde yapılmıştır. Hiyerarşik regresyon analizi sonuçlarına göre iş-aile ve aile-iş zenginleşmesi, işte mutluluğu; yalnızca aile-iş zenginleşmesi ise psikolojik sermayeyi pozitif yönde etkilemektedir. Psikolojik sermayenin de işte mutluluk üzerinde pozitif etkisi saptanmıştır. Aracılık testi sonuçları ise, aile-iş zenginleşmesi ile işte mutluluk etkileşiminde psikolojik sermayenin kısmi aracılık rolü üstlendiğini göstermiştir. Mevcut bulgular, yazın ışığında tartışılmış ve gelecek çalışmalar için öneriler geliştirilmiştir. The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of work-family enrichment (work-family enrichment, family-work enrichment) on happiness at work and whether psychological capital has a mediating role on this effect. In the study, data were obtained from the textile sector. According to the hierarchical regression analysis results, work-family and family-work enrichment positively affect happiness at work, and only family-work enrichment positively affects psychological capital. Psychological capital has also been found to have a positive effect on happiness at work. Mediation test results showed that psychological capital plays a partial mediating role on the relationship between family-work enrichment and happiness at work. The current findings are discussed in the light of the literature and suggestions for future studies are developed.
Article
Full-text available
In light of recent research suggesting mothers are more likely to withdraw from work than fathers are, we assess the relative contributions of popular "pushed-out" and "opting-out" perspectives over the course of their pregnancies. As pregnancy is a pivotal time for the reevaluation of work and life roles, we investigate the degree to which gender differences in changes in turnover intentions and intentions to return to the workforce are explained by changes in perceived career encouragement from organizational members (a pushed-out factor), as well as changes in the employees' own career motivation (an opting-out factor), throughout pregnancy. We also examine the relationships between these pushed-out and opting-out variables over time. Using latent growth modeling, we find support for the notion that women's perceptions of being pushed out may lead to women's opting out of their organizations. We find that gender (being female) indirectly relates to an increase in turnover intentions and a decrease in career motivation throughout pregnancy, as explained by decreases in perceptions of career encouragement (for women) at work. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
With the feminization (in numbers) of several professions, changing gender role prescriptions regarding parenthood and an increased attention for work-life balance, career theorists recently addressed the need for a more contemporary career model taking a work–home perspective. In this study, we test such a model by investigating how parenthood, and support for work-life balance and career progress at work affect both Dutch men and women medical specialists’ career motivation and working (over)time. We are also interested in the mediating role of career motivation, and how these relationships differed between men and women. Contrary to what was expected, for women specialists parenthood had no total effect on their working (over)time, but support for work-life balance and high levels of career identity were importantly and positively related to working time, including overtime. For men specialists, however, only career identity showed relevance, and only regarding their contracted hours – not their overtime. Moreover, none of the family or work culture related issues seemed to affect men specialists’ career motivation. We conclude that a contemporary career model with a work–home perspective reveals that some of our role expectations, especially regarding women professionals, seem to be outdated. However, further investigation is needed to explain men specialists’ (long) working hours.
Chapter
Over the last few decades the number of female students enrolling to study medicine has been constantly rising (e.g. Hamel et al. 2006: 310; Buckley et al. 2000: 283; Crompton/Le Feuvre 2003: 38-43; Nonnemaker 2000: 400-401). However, barriers for women in medicine still exist and are reflected by the smaller numbers of women in higher positions (Hamel et al. 2006: 310-311; Buckley et al. 2000: 284; Carnes/Morissey/Geller 2008: 1455-1456; Nonnemaker 2000: 401-404) and the unequal distribution of men and women within one profession (sex segregation), for example women are more likely to be in primary care (Burgess et al. 2012: 508).
Article
The article argues that the long-running debate between organizationally bounded and boundaryless careers has been too narrow and neglects the variety and distinctive characteristics of career boundaries. Drawing on boundary theory, it investigates the main career-relevant domains and boundaries, and the motivations and structural conditions that influence boundary crossing or having a career within a specific domain among a sample of professional pharmacists. The qualitative study shows that careers are enacted within a number of relevant domains and are shaped by a range of boundaries such that boundarylessness and embeddedness are co-existing career dimensions. It also reveals how even within a professional population careers are embedded within diverse social and cultural contexts that impose differing constraints on career mobility. The article therefore provides a fuller, more nuanced understanding of career boundaries and contemporary careers.
Article
This study examines whether working long hours alters the motherhood earnings penalty in the context of the United States. The author uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979–2014) to model the annual earnings penalty mothers incur per child in the United States. The results support that working long hours (50+ hours per week) reduces the negative effect of motherhood on earnings for white women. Once we control for human capital and labour supply, however, there is no difference in the effect of children on earnings between full-time workers and overworkers. For black full-time workers and overworkers, having an additional child has little effect on earnings. The findings suggest that although overwork appears to attenuate the earnings penalty for white mothers, white mothers who work long hours exhibit a smaller penalty because they already have high levels of human capital and supply a great amount of labour.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Objectives We determine how gender or culture influence new medical students' specialty preferences and work-life issues and explore the relation between work-life issues and each specialty preference. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed first year Dutch and Swedish medical students (N=1173, cohorts from 2006-2009) on their preferences for specialties, full-time or part-time work, and agreement to eleven work-life issues. We tested differences by gender or culture using chi square and logistic regression. Results Over 93% of all students responded (N=1095). Almost no male first year student preferred gynecology as a specialty. Dutch male students were more often interested in surgery, Dutch female students in paediatrics. In the Netherlands, male students in particular preferred full-time work. In Sweden gender did not influence working hour preferences. Women in both countries expected equality in career-opportunities and care-tasks more than men, and agreed more often that their career would influence their family life. Women with a preference for surgery most often emphasized equality in career opportunities and care tasks. In most preferred specialties female gender related to a lower degree to full-time work. A gender gap in preferred working hours was larger for Dutch students preferring surgery or paediatrics than for Swedish students. For most of the specialty preferences studied, Swedish students anticipated childcare by day cares and Dutch students' informal day care. Conclusions Early in training, medical students have gendered specialty preferences and work-life preferences which relate to each other. Gender differences are signifi-cantly more pronounced in the Netherlands than in Sweden.
Article
Full-text available
According to the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, people are motivated to acquire and protect resources that help attain goals. Research elsewhere suggests that the inevitable integration of work and non-work demands is one of the most critical challenges facing organizations, families, and individuals nowadays; however, such research remains non-existent in Botswana. Of main interest in the study was the interplay between Family-Work-Conflict (FWC)—a demand; Instrumental Support (IS)—a resource; and a performance related distress termed Sensitivity Towards being the Target of Upward Comparison (STTUC) —an outcome. Data was collected and then statistically manipulated in order to test the proposed relationships.
Article
Health status and the experience of working in health care roles are both strongly shaped by gender and, although there have been attempts to incorporate ‘gender awareness’ in both health and employment policies, the significance of gender in these areas continues to be marginalised within public debates and academic discourses. Taking a social constructionist perspective, Watts considers the ways in which gender impacts upon health in all its elements including access, technology, professionalisation, health promotion and health as an important sector of the labour market. She discusses gender as a developing and diversified category, exploring ideas about masculinity and the fluidity of gender boundaries in determining individual identity. Chapters that follow discuss men’s and women’s health; ideology of gender and health, specifically exploring different social norms and ideas about male and female health and the dominant ideological association between femaleness and caring; working for health with particular focus on the gendered interplay of caring and curing roles; technology and changes to gender, health and healthcare; health promotion as a gendered activity and, finally, the importance of introducing an intersectional approach beyond gender to articulate a deeper understanding of health in a postmodern context. The concluding chapter draws together these themes to underscore the importance of placing gender at the centre of health and health care delivery to fully take account of both the different life and health experiences of men and women and the gendered dimensions of working in health care.
Article
Full-text available
An examination of the literature on conflict between work and family roles suggests that work-family conflict exists when: (a) time devoted to the requirements of one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; (b) strain from participation in one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; and (c) specific behaviors required by one role make it difficult to fulfill the requirements of another. A model of work-family conflict is proposed, and a series of research propositions is presented.
Article
Full-text available
We first present an overview of international figures on nonresponse and their trend over time, distinguishing between noncontacts and refusals. In the second part we model differences between countries, using background variables on survey design and fieldwork strategy...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
An examination of the literature on conflict between work and family roles suggests that work-family conflict exists when: (a) time devoted to the requirements of one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; (b) strain from participation in one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; and (c) specific behaviors required by one role make it difficult to fulfill the requirements of another. A model of work-family conflict is proposed, and a series of research propositions is presented.
Article
Full-text available
This article investigates whether women work part-time through preference or constraint and argues that different countries provide different opportunities for preference attainment. It argues that women with family responsibilities are unlikely to have their working preferences met without national policies supportive of maternal employment. Using event history analysis the article tracks part-time workers' transitions to both full-time employment and to labour market drop-out.The article compares the outcome of workers in the UK, a country with little support for maternal employment, relative to Denmark and France, two countries with a long history of facilitating workers' engagement in both paid employment and family life. It finds evidence of part-time constraint in the UK relative to the other two countries.
Article
Full-text available
One important consequence of the increasing convergence between sociology and econ omics is that sociologists make increasingly more use of rational choice theories for the explanation of social action. This shift opens up the possibility that sociologists make use of what must be considered to be the most powerful regularity in the social sciences: the relative pnce effect, which states that behavior depends directly on relative prices (or relative scarcities). This effect is also known as the law of demand: as one good becomes more costly in comparison to others, a person will purchase less of that good. It turns out that crucial sociological questions (for instance the relation of gain-oriented behavior to moral behavior) make it necessary that we know something about the size of the relative price effect. Surprisingly, there is virtually no theory in economics on this point and thus rational choice theory is badly in need of being extended in this direction. In this paper, two such extensions are suggested. First, a theory of alternatives consisting of (a) a theory of social production functions, (b) a theory of non-given alternatives and (c) a theory of 'ipsative' sets of alternatives Second, a theory of framing is presented which links the relative price effect to the definition of the situation which in turn is theoretically linked to the theory of alternatives. It is argued that these extensions make rational choice theory much more relevant for sociological applications than the neo- classical model in which alternatives are exogenously given and the definition of the situation is implicitly locked to a standard trading situation.
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed if human capital is more related to women’s advancement to low levels (i. e., supervisory and junior management) and if social capital is more related to their advancement to high levels (i. e., middle and senior management) in Australian banks. The results do not support differential prediction hypotheses. Overall, human capital explained most of women’s advancement at all levels in Australian banks. The contribution of social capital to that explanation was, generally, negligible. The study also included qualitative data. The qualitative results appeared to support the view that social capital is more important to women’s advancement to high managerial levels than to low managerial levels. Of particular concern is that the women reported gender discrimination as the most frequent barrier to their advancement at all managerial levels. Implications for banks and for women’s career management are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
We developed a measure of work–family culture (i.e., the shared assumptions, beliefs, and values regarding the extent to which an organization supports and values the integration of employees' work and family lives) and examined its relationship to work–family benefit utilization, organizational attachment, and work–family conflict. Using survey data from 276 managers and professionals, we identified three dimensions of work–family culture: managerial support for work–family balance, career consequences associated with utilizing work–family benefits, and organizational time expectations that may interfere with family responsibilities. As predicted, perceptions of a supportive work–family culture were related to employees' use of work–family benefits. Both work–family benefit availability and supportive work–family culture were positively related to affective commitment and negatively related to work–family conflict and intentions to leave the organization. In addition, the three culture dimensions were found to have unique relationships with these behaviors and attitudes.
Article
Full-text available
Work-life polices and practices have the potential to enhance opportunities for women in the workplace (and opportunities for men to be more involved in family life), but are often undermined by workplace culture. Presents a case study of an organisation which is addressing issues of workplace culture in relation to work-life policies and gender equality. Despite achieving substantial change in practice and in shared assumptions, a new set of issues have emerged which will require innovative solutions.
Article
Full-text available
The present study examines global employee perceptions regarding the extent their work organization is family-supportive (FSOP). Data gathered from 522 participants employed in a variety of occupations and organizations indicated that FSOP responses related significantly to the number of family-friendly benefits offered by the organization, benefit usage, and perceived family support from supervisors. FSOP responses also explained a significant amount of unique variance associated with work–family conflict, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions above and beyond the variance explained by the number of family-friendly benefits available by the organization and supervisor support. Results indicated that FSOP mediates the relationship between family-friendly benefits available and the dependent variables of work–family conflict, affective commitment, and job satisfaction. FSOP also mediated the relationship between supervisor support and work–family conflict. The results underscore the important role that perceptions of the overall work environment play in determining employee reactions to family-friendly benefit policies.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the associations of workhome culture with (a) demographic and organizational characteristics, (b) the use of workhome arrangements, and (c) negative and positive workhome interaction, among 1,179 employees from one public and two private organizations. Substantial support was found for a 2-factor structure of a workhome culture measure differentiating between ‘‘support’’ (employees’ perceptions of organization’s, supervisors’, and colleagues’ responsiveness to workfamily issues and to the use of workhome arrangements) and ‘‘hindrance’’ (employees’ perceptions of career consequences and time demands that may prevent them from using workhome arrangements). This 2-factor structure appeared to be invariant across organizations, gender, and parental status. Significant relationships with organizational characteristics, the use of workhome arrangements, and workhome interaction supported the validity of these two cultural dimensions. It is concluded that if employers want to minimize workhome interference, to optimize positive work home interaction, and to boost the use of workhome arrangements, they should create a workhome culture that is characterized by high support and low hindrance.
Article
Full-text available
This article reports on the findings and policy implications of a UK study that used both qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate mothers' decision-making with respect to the interlinked issues of the care of their pre-school children and their own employment. Mothers were found to have both internal and external constraints on their decisions. In the three areas of finances, childcare and working time, both personal identities and external circumstances limited mothers' choices. However, neither external circumstances nor identities were fixed. Behaviour and identities were therefore adjusted to each other, giving rise to feedback effects at both the individual and the social level. While the constraints of identity limit the direct effectiveness of some policies, the long-term effectiveness of others may be enhanced by positive feedback arising from attitudes changing along with behaviour. A ‘policy multiplier’ is defined as the ratio of such indirect to direct effects. This is likely to be greater for enabling policies that lift existing constraints and enable choices that were previously not available, than for coercive policies that impose new constraints on behaviour. The article examines the implications of such feedback effects for developing policy that expands the choices available to mothers in the short term, reduces the costs of motherhood, and meets the government's long-term objectives of reducing child poverty and increasing employment.
Article
Full-text available
Balancing work with family life has become one of the most important issues for families nowadays. In this article I study the varying degrees of success of governance structures in households and firms in dealing with competing time claims. Using Dutch data from firms, employees and their spouses and performing regression analyses with robust estimation to test the hypotheses, the results show that more modern organizations characterized by heavy deadlines and a large amount of autonomy for individual employees give more feelings of time pressure. With respect to the organization of the household, especially the presence of young children, time spent on domestic and paid work and existing household rules explain feelings of time pressure. Gender also appears to be important. Men are influenced more by workplace characteristics, and women more by household characteristics.
Article
Full-text available
No The male breadwinner model, which dominated both policy assumptions and social ideals in the post-war welfare state, is increasingly being supplanted by an adult worker family model. In this new model, both men and women are assumed to be primarily workers in the labour market, who as fathers and mothers pool their earned income in supporting children. In this article we assess this assumption. First, we examine the gendered moral rationalities of particular social groups of partnered mothers, defined in terms of class, conventionality, ethnicity and sexuality, about how mothering is combined with paid work, and how time and labour is allocated with their partners. Second, in the light of this empirical research, we examine three leading approaches to understanding change and decision making in families - new household economics, individualization in late modernity, and `post-modern moral negotiation'. We conclude that both the empirical and theoretical assumptions of the adult worker model are severely limited.
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the degree to which demographic, human capital,motivational, organizational, and industry/region variables predicted executive career success. Career success was assumed to comprise objective (pay, ascendancy) and subjective (job satisfaction, career satisfaction) elements. Results obtained from a sample of 1,388 U.S.executives suggested that demographic, human capital, motivational, and organizational variables explained significant variance in objective career success and in career satisfaction. Particularly interesting were findings that educational level, quality, prestige, and degree type all predicted financial success. In contrast, only the motivational and organizational variables explained significant amounts of variance in job satisfaction. These findings suggest that the variables that lead to objective career success often are quite different from those that lead to subjectively defined success.
Article
Full-text available
In recent years in the Netherlands, mothers’ labor participation has increased sharply. This article examines which factors influence mothers’ employment rates and the division of household and caring responsibilities between parents. From research among 1,285 women with young children, it appears that cultural factors rather than economic motives or institutional obstacles offer the most important explanation for whether they work or not. A culture of care dominates more amongwomen with lower than higher education levels, which clarifies the more limited labor participation of lower educated mothers. A comparison is also drawnbetween the various earner types of family. It appears that the one-and-a-half earner type of family with the man working full-time and the woman part-time is particularly popular among women with lesser education levels. However, for women with higher educations, the ideal is for both parents to work part-time, but for the time being, they have not yet been able to realize this.
Article
Full-text available
To study the career progression of NHS doctors, comparing men and women. Postal questionnaire surveys. Participants and setting Graduates of 1977, 1988, and 1993 from all UK medical schools. The response rate was 68% (7012/10 344). Within general practice, 97% (1208/1243) of men, 99% (264/267) of women who had always worked full time throughout their career, and 87% (1083/1248) of all women were principals. Median times from qualification to principal status were 5.8 (95% confidence interval 5.6 to 6.0) years for men, 5.6 (5.4 to 5.8) years for women who had worked full time during training, and 6.8 (6.5 to 7.0) years for all women. Of the 1977 and 1988 graduates in hospital practice, 96% (1293/1347) of men were consultants, compared with 92% (276/299) of women who had always worked full time throughout their career and 67% (277/416) of women who had not. Median time to first consultant post was 11.7 (11.5 to 11.9) years for men, 11.3 (11.0 to 11.6) years for women who worked full time during training, and 12.3 (12.0 to 12.6) years for all women. Women who had not always worked full time throughout their career were over-represented in general practice and under-represented in most hospital specialties, substantially so in the surgical specialties and anaesthetics. Women who had always worked full time were under-represented not only in the surgical specialties but also in general practice. Women not progressing as far and as fast as men was, generally, a reflection of not having always worked full time rather than their sex. The findings suggest that women do not generally encounter direct discrimination; however, the possibility that indirect discrimination, such as lack of opportunities for part time work, has influenced choice of specialty cannot be ruled out.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of medical specialists prefer to work part-time. This development can be found worldwide. Problems to be faced in the realization of part-time work in medicine include the division of night and weekend shifts, as well as communication between physicians and continuity of care. People tend to think that physicians working part-time are less devoted to their work, implying that full-time physicians complete a greater number of tasks. The central question in this article is whether part-time medical specialists allocate their time differently to their tasks than full-time medical specialists. A questionnaire was sent by mail to all internists (N = 817), surgeons (N = 693) and radiologists (N = 621) working in general hospitals in the Netherlands. Questions were asked about the actual situation, such as hours worked and night and weekend shifts. The response was 53% (n = 411) for internists, 52% (n = 359) for surgeons, and 36% (n = 213) for radiologists. Due to non-response on specific questions there were 367 internists, 316 surgeons, and 71 radiologists included in the analyses. Multilevel analyses were used to analyze the data. Part-time medical specialists do not spend proportionally more time on direct patient care. With respect to night and weekend shifts, part-time medical specialists account for proportionally more or an equal share of these shifts. The number of hours worked per FTE is higher for part-time than for full-time medical specialists, although this difference is only significant for surgeons. In general, part-time medical specialists do their share of the job. However, we focussed on input only. Besides input, output like the numbers of services provided deserves attention as well. The trend in medicine towards more part-time work has an important consequence: more medical specialists are needed to get the work done. Therefore, a greater number of medical specialists have to be trained. Part-time work is not only a female concern; there are also (international) trends for male medical specialists that show a decline in the number of hours worked. This indicates an overall change in attitudes towards the number of hours medical specialists should work.
Article
Full-text available
This article compares 14 OECD countries, as of the middle-to-late 1980s, with respect to their provision of policies that support moth ers' employment: parental leave, child care, and the scheduling of public education. Newly gathered data on 18 policy indicators are pre sented. The indicators are then standardized, weighted, and summed into indices. By differ entiating policies that affect maternal employ ment from family policies more generally, these indices reveal dramatic cross-national differences in policy provisions. The empirical results reveal loose clusters of countries that correspond only partially to prevailing welfare-state typologies. For mothers with preschool-aged children, only five of the 14 countries provided reasonably complete and continuous benefits that sup ported their options for combining paid work with family responsibilities. The pattern of cross-national policy variation changed no tably when policies affecting mothers with older children were examined. The indices provide an improved measure of public support for maternal employment. They are also useful for contrasting family benefits that are provided through direct cash transfers with those that take the form of sup port for mothers' employment. Finally, these policy findings contribute to the body of schol arship that seeks to integrate gender issues more explicitly into research on welfare-state regimes.
Book
Noting a phenomenon that might seem to recall a previous era, The New York Times Magazine recently portrayed women who leave their careers in order to become full-time mothers as "opting out." But, are high-achieving professional women really choosing to abandon their careers in order to return home? This provocative study is the first to tackle this issue from the perspective of the women themselves. Based on a series of candid, in-depth interviews with women who returned home after working as doctors, lawyers, bankers, scientists, and other professions, Pamela Stone explores the role that their husbands, children, and coworkers play in their decision; how womens efforts to construct new lives and new identities unfold once they are home; and where their aspirations and plans for the future lie. What we learncontrary to many media perceptionsis that these high-flying women are not opting out but are instead being pushed out of the workplace. Drawing on their experiences, Stone outlines concrete ideas for redesigning workplaces to make it easier for womenand mento attain their goal of living rewarding lives that combine both families and careers.
Article
In a survey among 468 Dutch surgeons, paediatricians and gynaecologists, women turned out to work ten hours less (52 hours a week) than their male colleagues. Female surgeons and gynaecologists more often had salaried positions at hospitals (as opposed to private practice) and earned less. Male specialists were more often married. Many of the women didn't have children; if they did, they had fewer children than their male colleagues. Women who stopped clinical practice often did so because of family circumstances; they accepted jobs of a lower level. Men usually quit clinical practice because they got a better job elsewhere. One of the most important factors in the combination of work and private life appeared to be the career of the spouses. Female specialists worked three hours less than their husbands, often doctors themselves. Half the wives of male specialists didn't have a paid job at all. The other half worked 28 hours less a week than their husbands. The children of male doctors were usually taken care of by their wives; female doctors had to make other arrangements, which often led to organizational or emotional problems.
Article
This article compares 14 OECD countries, as of the middle-to-late 1980s, with respect to their provision of policies that support mothers' employment: parental leave, child care, and the scheduling of public education. Newly gathered data on 18 policy indicators are presented. The indicators are then standardized, weighted, and summed into indices. By differentiating policies that affect maternal employment from family policies more generally, these indices reveal dramatic cross-national differences in policy provisions. The empirical results reveal loose clusters of countries that correspond only partially to prevailing welfare-state typologies. For mothers with preschool-aged children, only five of the 14 countries provided reasonably complete and continuous benefits that supported their options for combining paid work with family responsibilities. The pattern of cross-national policy variation changed notably when policies affecting mothers with older children were examined. The indices provide an improved measure of public support for maternal employment. They are also useful for contrasting family benefits that are provided through direct cash transfers with those that take the form of support for mothers' employment. Finally, these policy findings contribute to the body of scholarship that seeks to integrate gender issues more explicitly into research on welfare-state regimes.
Article
This paper examines the intentions of Dutch males and females with regard to combining paid employment and parenthood. Four models of how couples combine these roles are distinguished. Panel data from a representative survey among Dutch young adults show that the traditional model (the female takes care of the children and the male works full-time) is becoming less popular, whereas the supplementary model (the female takes care of the children and supplements the labor force participation of the male), and the egalitarian model (both partners share paid labor more or less equally) are becoming more popular. The no-child model is preferred by about 10% of the respondents. A multivariate analysis shows that both job characteristics, like the flexibility of working hours, and gender role attitudes are important predictors of intentions with regard to combining family and work roles.
Article
This article draws on a repeat of a 1994 survey, carried out in 2002, in three contrasting countries: Britain, Norway and the Czech Republic.The 1994 survey demonstrated that there was a significant association between more ‘liberal’ gender role attitudes and a less traditional division of domestic labour in all three countries. In 2002, this association was no longer significant for Britain and Norway. Gender role attitudes had become less traditional in all three countries, although women’s attitudes had changed more than men’s.There had been little change in the gendered allocation of household tasks, suggesting a slowing down of the increase of men’s involvement in domestic work. It is suggested that work intensification may be making increased participation in domestic work by men more difficult. Although national governments are becoming more aware and supportive of the problems of work-life ‘balance’, an increase in competitiveness and intensification at workplaces may be working against more ‘positive’ policy supports.
Article
In this article, the author endeavors to clarify the shifting nature of gender and motherhood for women physicians. She examines trends in the gender gap in marriage, divorce, childbearing, work hours, and earnings. The author draws on data from the 1990 and 2000 U.S. decennial censuses and data spanning 1991 to 1997 from the Survey of the Practice Patterns of Young Physicians. Compared with women in the general population, the trends for women physicians have been favorable. Women physicians are more likely to marry and less likely to divorce than are other women. Among employed physicians, gender differences in earnings and work hours are also narrowing slightly. Nevertheless, a gap is growing between female physicians with children and childless women doctors, and a small but growing percentage of young physician mothers are electing to forgo labor force participation entirely. Thus, young physician mothers still suffer significant professional sacrifice.
Article
Mothering and motherhood are the subjects of a rapidly expanding body of literature. Considered in this decade review are two predominant streams in this work. One is the theorizing of mothering and motherhood and the other is the empirical study of the mothering experience. Conceptual developments have been propelled particularly by feminist scholarship, including the increasing attention to race and ethnic diversity and practices. The conceptualizations of the ideology of intensive mothering and of maternal practice are among the significant contributions. Study of mothering has focused attention on a wide array of specific topics and relationships among variables, including issues of maternal well-being, maternal satisfaction and distress, and employment.
Article
Longitudinal studies have shown the long-term impact of attitudes, values, and aspirations on labor market behavior and outcomes. However, sociological theory has so far failed to incorporate this new knowledge. Preference theory does so, positing that recent social and economic changes give women genuine choices for the first time in history. A 1999 national survey in Britain shows that women choose three distinct combinations of market work and family work: They have home-centered, work-centered, or adaptive lifestyle preferences. The survey confirms that lifestyle preferences are a major determinant of fertility, employment patterns, and job choice. However, lifestyle preferences no longer determine occupational choice.
Article
The aim of this article is to study whether multiple social roles can be seen as a resource or a burden, or in other words, if a strong engagement in both paid work and family life is a positive or negative experience for men and women respectively. The main data used are a data set from Statistics Sweden, the so-called ULF (the study of living conditions), in which nearly 30,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed. When analysing how the combined family and labour market situation is related to the number of preferred working hours and psychological distress of individuals, the results show that it is primarily cohabiting women with children who work more than 40 hours per week, who want to reduce their working hours. However, the distress level is not relatively high for this category. Results indicate that many women, and some men, who have multiple social roles express a wish to reduce their working hours, but this does not necessarily mean that the levels of distress are higher for these groups. This may be a result of the fact that the alternative resources provided by multiple social roles in some sense outweigh the stressful effects that double demands have on psychological distress.
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore how mothers construct their worker–parent identity within a cultural context of competing mothering ideologies. We used narrative data from interviews with 95 married mothers with at least 1 child under the age of 5 to compare the construction of intensive mothering expectations by middle-class full-time employed mothers, part-time employed mothers, and at-home mothers. Although previous research has shown that mothers alter work status to live up to intensive mothering expectations, our results show that mothers also alter their construction of intensive mothering expectations to reconcile these demands with their work status choices. The results also suggest that mothers with different employment decisions differ in their construction of Y. Elvin-Nowak and H. Thomsson's (2001) 3 discursive positions—accessibility, happy mother/happy child, and separation of work and home.
Article
Career motivation is viewed as a multidimensional construct. Components consist of individual characteristics (career identity, career insight, and career resilience domains) and corresponding career decisions and behaviors. Relationships among these components and relevant situational conditions are proposed in a model based on prospective and retrospective rationality. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR Copyright of Academy of Management Review is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)
Article
Doel. Beschrijven van de ontwikkeling in het aandeel vrouwen in de geneeskunde tot nu toe en voorspellen van de situatie in 2027, inclusief berekening van het benodigde aantal artsen. Opzet. Retrospectieve dataverzameling, beschrijving en analyse. Methode. Uit gegevens verzameld bij het CBS, de Medisch Specialisten Registratie Commissie, de Huisarts en Verpleeghuisarts Registratie Commissie en de Sociaal-Geneeskundigen Registratie Commissie werd het percentage vrouwen onder studenten Geneeskunde, artsen in opleiding en specialisten tussen 1950 en 2007 berekend. Voor de schatting van het percentage vrouwen onder de praktiserende specialisten in 2027 werden modelberekeningen gebruikt die het Nederlands instituut voor onderzoek van de gezondheidszorg heeft uitgevoerd voor het Capaciteitsorgaan. Daarbij werd rekening gehouden met werken in deeltijd. Resultaten. In 1987 was ongeveer 20% van de artsen en 15% van de specialisten vrouw. In 2007 was dit opgelopen tot 40% van alle artsen en 34% van de specialisten. In 2027 zou ongeveer 66% van alle artsen en 55% van de gespecialiseerde artsen vrouw zijn. Door het hogere aandeel vrouwen zouden er in 2027 ongeveer 6% meer praktiserende specialisten nodig zijn en zouden er vanaf nu ongeveer 11% meer specialisten en basisartsen opgeleid moeten worden. Conclusie. De percentages vrouwen onder artsen en studenten Geneeskunde laten zien dat de geneeskunde inderdaad ‘feminiseert’ en dat dit proces zich in de komende jaren zal voortzetten. Het effect daarvan op het benodigde aantal specialisten en de benodigde opleidingscapaciteit is kleiner dan vaak gedacht wordt. Andere ontwikkelingen, zoals de vergrijzing van de bevolking, bepalen de behoefte aan artsen in sterkere mate. (aut. ref.)
Article
There is a strong effect of childbirth on female labour supply.This effect, however, is changing over time.This article uses panel data on the last two decades on three European countries (the Netherlands, Germany, the UK) to study changes in female labour force behaviour around childbirth and tries to find an explanation for these changes by looking at differences between the three countries.We conclude that there are substantial differences in participation patterns between the three countries in our study and that policy measures and institutions such as childcare that make the costs of combining work and family lower relative to being a full-time mother seem to increase female participation rates.
Article
In this article career preferences of medical specialists in the Netherlands are analysed, based on a survey among the members of medical associations of five specialties. Four different career preferences were offered, each of which implied a possible variation in working hours. A questionnaire was sent to a random selected group of working specialists in general practice, internal medicine, anaesthesiology, ophthalmology and psychiatry. Logistic regressions were used to predict career preferences. Besides individual characteristics, work and home domain characteristics were taken into the analysis. Not surprisingly, the preference for career change in respect of working hours is higher among full-time MDs, especially women, than among part-time workers. In contradiction to what was expected, home domain characteristics did not predict a part-time preference for female, but for male MDs. One home domain characteristic, children's age, did predict the male part-time preference. Further gender differences were found in respect of the fit between actual and preferred working hours (A/P-fit). The majority of male MDs with a full-time preference had achieved an A/P-fit, whereas significantly less female MDs achieved their preferences. It was found that hospital-bound specialists are less positive towards part-time careers than other specialists. Furthermore, the change of working hours would imply a reduction in FTE for all specialties, if all preferences were met. Especially in hospital-bound specialisms it was not confirmed that the reduction in FTE would be low; this was found only in respect of interns. It may be concluded that individual preferences in career paths are very diverse. Personnel policy in medical specialties, especially in hospitals, will have to cope with changes in traditional vertical and age-related career paths. Flexible careers related to home domain determinants or other activities will reinforce a life cycle approach, in which the centrality of work is decreasing.
Article
To describe the development to date of the percentage of female physicians and to predict the situation in 2027, including a calculation of the number of physicians needed. Retrospective data collection, description and analysis. Using historical data from Statistics Netherlands and the Dutch certification boards ofgeneral practitioners, clinical specialists, and public and occupational health physicians, the percentage ofwomen among medical students, residents and specialists was calculated for the period between 1950 and 2007. For the prediction of the percentage of women among clinical specialists in 2027, model calculations prepared by The Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL) on behalf of the national committee set up to determine current and future specialist training capacity were used, taking into account the effect of part-time jobs. In 1987 about 20% of all physicians and 15% of all specialists were female. In 2007 this had risen to 40% of all physicians and 34% of all specialists. In 2027 approximately 66% of all physicians and 55% of all specialists will be female. Due to the higher percentage of women 6% more practicing specialists will be needed. This requires an increase of 11% in the number of specialists and physicians in training. The percentage of women among physicians and medical students indicates that, numerically, medicine is indeed 'feminising' and that this process will continue in the coming years. The implications in terms of the number of specialists needed and training capacity are smaller than generally assumed. Other developments, such as an ageing population, will have a greater impact on the demand for physicians.
Article
We review current data on types of stressors acting on women physicians, the consequences of these stressors and methods of coping with them. We undertook a systematic review of original articles published in the last 15 years and registered mainly on Medline and on the internet websites focusing on these issues. In addition to the pressures acting on all physicians, women physicians face specific stressors related to discrimination, lack of role models and support, role strain, and overload. The depression rate in women physicians does not vary from that of the general public but the rates of successful suicide and divorce are much higher. Women in academic settings are promoted more slowly, have lower salaries, receive fewer resources, and suffer from a range of micro-inequities. They often lack mentors to provide advice and guidance. They must cope with the pressures of choosing when to have a child and conflicts between being a wife and mother and having a career. Despite these pressures, they report a high degree of career satisfaction. Although women physicians suffer from a variety of stressors that can lead to career impediments, stress reactions, and psychiatric problems, generally they are satisfied with their careers. Personal coping techniques can help women deal with these stressors. Pressures will continue until attitudes and practices change in institutional settings. Some institutions are initiating changes to end discrimination against women faculty.
Researchers often conduct mediation analysis in order to indirectly assess the effect of a proposed cause on some outcome through a proposed mediator. The utility of mediation analysis stems from its ability to go beyond the merely descriptive to a more functional understanding of the relationships among variables. A necessary component of mediation is a statistically and practically significant indirect effect. Although mediation hypotheses are frequently explored in psychological research, formal significance tests of indirect effects are rarely conducted. After a brief overview of mediation, we argue the importance of directly testing the significance of indirect effects and provide SPSS and SAS macros that facilitate estimation of the indirect effect with a normal theory approach and a bootstrap approach to obtaining confidence intervals, as well as the traditional approach advocated by Baron and Kenny (1986). We hope that this discussion and the macros will enhance the frequency of formal mediation tests in the psychology literature. Electronic copies of these macros may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society's Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.
Article
Breastfeeding is not simply a technical or practical task but is part of the transition to motherhood, the relationship between mother and baby and the everyday experience of living with a new baby. Discussion of breastfeeding must therefore include the individual's personal and social context. This paper explores how women in England who have chosen to breastfeed their baby accomplish this task during the early stages of motherhood and the relative weight attached to different factors, which impinge on decision-making. Our findings, based on observing 158 interactions between breastfeeding women and midwives or health visitors from one Primary Care Trust in the north of England, UK, and in-depth interviews with a sample of 22 of these women, illustrate the dynamic between breastfeeding, becoming and being a 'good mother' and merging multiple identities as they embrace motherhood. In this context, the value attached to breastfeeding as synonymous with being a 'good mother' is questioned. In managing the balance between ensuring a healthy, contented baby and the reality of their daily lives, women negotiate the moral minefield that defines 'good mothering' and the diverse conceptions and influences that shape it--including health professionals, their social networks and the wider social and structural context of their lives. The implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Taskforce Deeltijdplus Werkplan [Taskforce Part-Time Plus: Plan of Work]. Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, The Hague
  • Szw Ministerie Van Sociale Zaken En
  • Werkgelegenheid
SZW (Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid [the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment] (2007) Taskforce Deeltijdplus Werkplan [Taskforce Part-Time Plus: Plan of Work]. Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, The Hague. Available (consulted 8 March 2010) at: http://home.szw.nl/index.cfm?menu_item_id=13711&hoofdmenu_item_ id=1375 &rubriek_item=391837&rubriek_id=391817&set_id=3301&doctype_id=6&link_ id=140308
Proactive coping and successful aging. Dissertation, Department of Psychological Health
  • C Ouwehand
Ouwehand C (2005) Proactive coping and successful aging. Dissertation, Department of Psychological Health, University of Utrecht, Utrecht.