Article

The anti‐allergenic properties of milk kefir and soymilk kefir and their beneficial effects on the intestinal microflora

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Food allergy is now recognized as a worldwide problem, and like other atopic disorders its incidence appears to be increasing. Kefir is reported to possess the ability to reduce intestinal permeation of food antigens; however, no experimental study has clearly evaluated the relationships between kefir consumption, allergen-specific IgE response, and intestinal microflora. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral consumption of milk kefir and soymilk kefir on in vivo IgE and IgG1 production induced by ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. The effects of kefir administration on the murine intestinal microflora were also examined. Oral administration of milk kefir and soymilk kefir for 28 days significantly increased the fecal populations of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, while it significantly decreased those of Clostridium perfringens. Milk kefir and soymilk kefir also significantly decreased the serum OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels for both groups, but not those of the IgG2a analogues. Consumption of milk kefir and soymilk kefir suppressed the IgE and IgG1 responses and altered the intestinal microflora in our supplemented group, suggesting that milk kefir and soymilk kefir may be considered among the more promising food components in terms of preventing food allergy and enhancement of mucosal resistance to gastrointestinal pathogen infection. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Kefir grains are a symbiotic association of different microorganisms wrapped in a polysaccharide matrix called kefiran, and the microbial ecology depends on the origin and cultivation method of the grains (Ferreira & Santos, 2008). Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus kefir, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Kluyveromyces lactis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces unisporus and Pichia fermentans are the main LAB and yeast species identified in kefir grains (FAO/WHO, 2003;Liu, Wang, Chen, Yueh, & Lin . Over time, in some countries, especially in those of Eastern Europe, kefir consumption has been suggested for the treatment of some diseases, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hypercholesterolemic effects and allergies (Farnworth, 2006;Leite et al., 2013;Liu et al., 2006). ...
... Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus kefir, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Kluyveromyces lactis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces unisporus and Pichia fermentans are the main LAB and yeast species identified in kefir grains (FAO/WHO, 2003;Liu, Wang, Chen, Yueh, & Lin . Over time, in some countries, especially in those of Eastern Europe, kefir consumption has been suggested for the treatment of some diseases, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hypercholesterolemic effects and allergies (Farnworth, 2006;Leite et al., 2013;Liu et al., 2006). ...
... However, the large microbial diversity prevailing in kefir grains and its easy adaptation to different substrates are advantages when compared to single-species starter cultures. Soy-based formulations represent a valid nutritional option as replacement of milk, as soybean is an excellent source of lowcost protein (Liu et al., 2006). Also, beneficial effects associated to soybeans consumption on nutrition and health have been observed, including cancer prevention, plasma cholesterol reduction, obesity, diabetes, and protection against bowel and kidney disease (Friedman & Brandon, 2001). ...
Article
In this study, the use of soybean extract on production and physicochemical characteristics of kefir was assessed. Also, the growth parameters of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during fermentation were evaluated. Experiments were carried out combining water-soluble soybean extract (S) and milk (M), leading to the evaluation of total or partial replacement of milk (formulations 100%S, 50%S50%M) a control formulation (100%M). During kefir fermentation, physicochemical analysis carried out as well as enumeration of yeasts and LAB. In all formulations, lactic acid concentration increased due to carbohydrates consumption by kefir microorganisms resulting in decrease of soluble solids content and increase of acidity. The final acidity of beverages varied from 0.600 to 0.738 g of lactic acid/100 mL and soluble solids ranged from 6.40 to 5.67 °Brix. Formulations 100%S and 100%M presented LAB counts of 8 log10 CFU/mL. LAB lag time increased in formulation 50%S50%M compared to formulations 100%S and 100%M (2.20 h, 1.03 h and 1.06 h, respectively). LAB and yeasts growth parameters were not affected in beverages prepared with milk and soybean kefir. This is the first study that examined the yeast and LAB growth parameters using water-soluble soybean extract fermented with kefir.
... Some examples are presented here. In multiple studies, consumption of kefir or kefiran in an animal model has been associated with an increase in microbes thought of as beneficial, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, while simultaneously decreasing harmful microbial species such as Clostridium perfringens (Liu et al., 2006b;Hamet et al., 2016). Kefir consumption was also able to reduce the severity of Giardia intestinalis infection in C57BL/6 mice, with the reported mechanism being through modulation of the immune system (Correa Franco et al., 2013). ...
... Furthermore, specific strains of Lactobacillus isolated from kefir have been shown to adhere to Caco-2 cells and inhibit the adherence of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Santos et al., 2003;Hugo et al., 2008;Huang et al., 2013a). The ability of these Lactobacillus species to bind to Caco-2 cells illustrates a likely mechanism for the increase in Lactobacillus species observed in the fecal microbiota of rats fed kefir (Liu et al., 2006b;Carasi et al., 2015). In an in vivo study where BALB/c mice were intragastrically challenged with E. coli O157:H7, mice receiving L. kefiranofaciens M1 prior to E. coli challenge showed reduced symptoms of infection, including intestinal and renal damage, bacterial translocation, and Shiga toxin penetration as well as increased EHEC-specific mucosal IgA responses Other in vitro work has also shown that lactobacilli isolated from kefir have the ability to protect Vero cells from type II Shiga toxin produced by E. coli O157:H7, leading to lower levels of cell death (Kakisu et al., 2013). ...
... Recent work has shown that an increasingly important factor in determining if a child develops allergic disease, be it food allergy or asthma, is the level of complexity and the specific organisms present in the gut microbiota (Kirjavainen et al., 2002;Sjogren et al., 2009;Azad et al., 2013;West, 2014). Higher levels of Bifidobacterium and group 1 lactobacilli (obligate heterofermentative lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus, L. delbrueckii, and L. helveticus) in the gut of infants have been associated with a lower incidence of allergic disease later in life (Sjogren et al., 2009), and both kefir and kefiran have been observed to exert these effects on the gut microbiota in animal trials (Liu et al., 2006b;Hamet et al., 2016). Supplementation with Bifidobacterium has been shown to influence the intestinal microbiota of weaning infants by reducing levels of Bacteroides and has been associated with lower incidence of food allergy (Kirjavainen et al., 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Kefir is a complex fermented dairy product created through the symbiotic fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within an exopolysaccharide and protein complex called a kefir grain. As with other fermented dairy products, kefir has been associated with a range of health benefits such as cholesterol metabolism and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, increased speed of wound healing, and modulation of the immune system including the alleviation of allergy and asthma. These reports have led to increased interest in kefir as a focus of research and as a potential probiotic-containing product. Here, we review those studies with a particular emphasis on the microbial composition and the health benefits of the product, as well as discussing the further development of kefir as an important probiotic product.
... e intestinal epithelial line is protected by three important factors such as pH, tight junction proteins, and secreted mucins. e metabolic activity of probiotics produces several organic acids and SCFAs, which help to maintain the low pH in the intestinal lumen [88]. Probiotic supplementation improved the production and distribution of tight junction proteins such as occludin, claudin, and JAM-1 [87][88][89] and mucin production [90]. ...
... e metabolic activity of probiotics produces several organic acids and SCFAs, which help to maintain the low pH in the intestinal lumen [88]. Probiotic supplementation improved the production and distribution of tight junction proteins such as occludin, claudin, and JAM-1 [87][88][89] and mucin production [90]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancerous diseases worldwide and causes leading cancer-associated deaths. Several factors are related to the incidence of CRC such as unhealthy diet and lifestyle, heredity, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors. Even though several advanced medical procedures are available for CRC treatment, the survival rates are poor with many adverse treatments associated side effects, which affects the quality of life. Probiotics are a well-known bioactive candidate for the treatment of several diseases and ill-health conditions. The recent scientific evidence suggested that probiotic supplementation protects the CRC patients from treatment-associated adverse effects. The manuscript summarizes the influence of probiotic supplementation on the health status of CRC patients and discusses the possible mechanism behind the protective effect of probiotics against CRC. The literature survey revealed that beneficial impact of probiotic supplementation depends on several factors such as strain, dosage, duration of the intervention, host physiology, and other food supplements. The probiotic intervention improves the microbiota, releases antimicrobials and anticarcinogenic agents, helps to remove carcinogens, and improves the intestinal permeability, tight junction function, and enzyme activity in CRC patients. Besides, not all probiotic strains exhibit anti-CRC activities; it is necessary to screen the potent strain for the development of a probiotic-based therapeutic agent to control or prevent the incidence of CRC.
... Whole Immunomodulating capacity (Vinderola et al., 2005b;Hong et al., 2009) Reduce glycemicIndex (Urdaneta et al., 2007) Calcium, phosphorus magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, iron, copper, molybdenum, manganese, zinc. Anti-allergenic properties (Liu et al., 2006b) Acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin. ...
... Regular consumption of kefir milk and soy-based kefir products restrain the IgE and IgG1 responses. Thus by alteration in gut microflora we can achieve the goal for prevention of food allergy and enhancement of mucosal resistance to gastrointestinal pathogen infection can be achieved (Liu et al., 2006b). Another study revealed that kefir inhibits ovalbumin-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue and mucus hypersecretion. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kefir and its related products are renowned nutraceutical dairy products produced through fermentation of yeasts and bacteria naturally present in grains of kefir. The nutritional attributes of this self-carbonated beverage are due to presence of vital nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and some nutraceutical components. Antimicrobial activity, better gut health, anticarcinogenic activity, control on serum glucose and cholesterol, control on lactose intolerance and better immune system can be achieved through its regular consumption. Moreover, on the one side kefir is good dietetic beverage, and of particular interest of athletes, and on the other side the whole kefir is good for feeding small babies and pre-schoolers for good tolerance against disease and quick weight gain. Lots of works have been done on kefir from a health point of view. This study summarizes all the data that have been compiled to date. The purpose of this review is to gather information about microbiological, chemical, nutritional, and therapeutic aspects of kefir and kefir-like products to provide justification for its consumption. This review leads us to conclude that kefir begins a new dawn of food for the mankind.
... 3,11 Kefir also seems to be a promising compound in terms of the enhancement of mucosal resistance to gastrointestinal pathogen infection. 12,13 In addition, kefir was found to have antiallergic and antimutagenic effects. 8,12,14 Kefir as a complex fermented milk, together with its cell-free fraction (KF), was able to exert beneficial effects on the immune system and prevent several types of cancer: 15 Ehrlich carcinoma or Sarcoma 180, Lewis lung carcinoma, E-ascites carcinoma (EC), human mammary cancer (MCF-7), and human T-lymphotropic virus-(HTLV)positive malignant T-lymphocytes. ...
... 12,13 In addition, kefir was found to have antiallergic and antimutagenic effects. 8,12,14 Kefir as a complex fermented milk, together with its cell-free fraction (KF), was able to exert beneficial effects on the immune system and prevent several types of cancer: 15 Ehrlich carcinoma or Sarcoma 180, Lewis lung carcinoma, E-ascites carcinoma (EC), human mammary cancer (MCF-7), and human T-lymphotropic virus-(HTLV)positive malignant T-lymphocytes. [16][17][18][19] The present study aims to test the cytotoxic, antiproliferative, and proapoptotic effects of a cell-free fraction of kefir on human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-negative leukemia cell lines. ...
Article
Full-text available
Katia Maalouf1, Elias Baydoun2, Sandra Rizk11Department of Natural Sciences, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Biology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Adult lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy that occurs in white blood cells. The overall cure rate in children is 85%, whereas it is only 40% in adults. Kefir is an important probiotic that contains many bioactive ingredients, which give it unique health benefits. It has been shown to control several cellular types of cancer.Purpose: The present study investigates the effect of a cell-free fraction of kefir on CEM and Jurkat cells, which are human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1)-negative malignant T-lymphocytes.Methods: Cells were incubated with different kefir concentrations. The cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated by determining the percentage viability of cells. The effect of all the noncytotoxic concentrations of kefir on the proliferation of CEM and Jurkat cells was then assessed. The levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α), transforming growth factor- beta1 (TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 mRNA upon kefir treatment were then analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Finally, the growth inhibitory effects of kefir on cell-cycle progression/apoptosis were assessed by Cell Death Detection (ELISA) and flow cytometry.Results: The maximum cytotoxicity recorded after 48-hours treatment with 80 µg/µL kefir was only 42% and 39% in CEM and Jurkat cells, respectively. The percent reduction in proliferation was very significant, and was dose-, and time-dependent. In both cell lines, kefir exhibited its antiproliferative effect by downregulating TGF-α and upregulating TGF- β1 mRNA expression. Upon kefir treatment, a marked increase in cell-cycle distribution was noted in the preG1 phase of CEM and Jurkat cells, indicating the proapoptotic effect of kefir, which was further confirmed by Cell Death Detection ELISA. However, kefir did not affect the mRNA expression of metalloproteinases needed for the invasion of leukemic cell lines.Conclusion: In conclusion, kefir is effective in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of HTLV-1-negative malignant T-lymphocytes. Therefore, further in vivo investigation is highly recommended.Keywords: apoptosis, cancer, CEM, Jurkat, kefir, leukemia
... These acids can be produced from the metabolic activity of probiotic microorganisms as previously described. Therefore, the fecal pH has been used as an indirect marker of the presence and activity of probiotic microorganisms [47]. ...
... Besides lowering the intracolonic pH, lactic and acetic acids increase peristalsis, hindering the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria to colonocytes and consequently reducing the time that carcinogenic compounds could be in contact with the intestinal mucosa [47]. ...
... Additionally, kefir was able to increase the population of LAB and reduce the levels of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium in the intestinal mucosa of mice (61) . Oral administration of milk kefir or soya milk kefir in mice over a period of 28 d was able to significantly increase Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium while reducing Clostridium perfringens in animal faeces (62) . ...
... In this situation, kefir may be able to reduce intestinal permeability against food-borne antigens. Liu et al. (62) observed that animals treated with ovalbumin and consumed milk and soya milk kefir, during 28 d, exhibit lower concentrations of IgE and IgG than the control animals. These results suggest the potential of kefir in the prevention of food allergy and in the improvement of mucosal resistance against pathogen infection. ...
Article
Kefir is fermented milk produced from grains that comprise a specific and complex mixture of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. The nutritional composition of kefir varies according to the milk composition, the microbiological composition of the grains used, the time/temperature of fermentation and storage conditions. Kefir originates from the Caucasus and Tibet. Recently, kefir has raised interest in the scientific community due to its numerous beneficial effects on health. Currently, several scientific studies have supported the health benefits of kefir, as reported historically as a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion, as well as being a safe and inexpensive food, easily produced at home. Regular consumption of kefir has been associated with improved digestion and tolerance to lactose, antibacterial effect, hypocholesterolaemic effect, control of plasma glucose, anti-hypertensive effect, anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, anti-allergenic activity and healing effects. A large proportion of the studies that support these findings were conducted in vitro or in animal models. However, there is a need for systematic clinical trials to better understand the effects of regular use of kefir as part of a diet, and for their effect on preventing diseases. Thus, the present review focuses on the nutritional and microbiological composition of kefir and presents relevant findings associated with the beneficial effects of kefir on human and animal health.
... In addition to anti-inflammatory properties and potential benefits to diabetes, kefir has been documented to have anti-allergic activities [286], anti-carcinogenic effects [287], cardiovascular protective activity [288,289] and the ability to modulate gut microflora [286,290]. The probiotic microorganisms in kefir contribute to their health-promoting properties. ...
... In addition to anti-inflammatory properties and potential benefits to diabetes, kefir has been documented to have anti-allergic activities [286], anti-carcinogenic effects [287], cardiovascular protective activity [288,289] and the ability to modulate gut microflora [286,290]. The probiotic microorganisms in kefir contribute to their health-promoting properties. ...
Article
Diabetes is a global health problem. The consumption of dietary polyphenols may help to decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes and slow the progression of diabetic complications. Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) and elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis) fruits are rich in polyphenols and exhibit health-promoting properties, but they are underutilized. Aronia and elderberries are rarely consumed raw due to the astringent mouth feel. New food products are needed to increase their consumption. Kefir, a fermented dairy beverage, was chosen to be the matrix for incorporating berries due to: 1) the protein matrix can help mask the astringency; 2) an acidic environment is beneficial for the stability of phenolic compounds; 3) fermentative microorganisms may be able to increase the bioavailability of polyphenols. The first objective of this research was to develop new palatable products using underutilized berries and different sweeteners (sucrose, stevia and monk fruit extracts). Sensory evaluations were conducted to assess consumer acceptability of berry-containing kefirs. The results showed that aronia and elderberry kefirs sweetened with stevia or sucrose were all accepted by consumers where sucrose was the best-accepted sweetener. The second objective was to assess the health-promoting characteristics of the berry-containing kefirs. Aronia kefirs contained high levels of total phenolics and anthocyanins. Elderberry kefirs were moderate in total phenolics. All kefirs exhibited antioxidant capacity. The third objective was to evaluate the diabetes-beneficial properties of aronia kefir using an in-vitro digestion model. The impacts of fermentation on aronia polyphenols were also assessed. The results showed that the levels of bioaccessible polyphenols were elevated during digestion and the antioxidant capacity increased. Fermentation enhanced the inhibitory activity of aronia kefir on α-glucosidase but did not alter its weak inhibition on pancreatic α-amylase. Specific inhibition of α-glucosidase may decrease the absorption of carbohydrates and contribute to blood glucose control without side effects compared to pharmaceutical agents, such as acarbose. In conclusion, new berry-containing kefirs were well-accepted by the consumers and the consumption of berry-containing kefirs may help to reduce oxidative stress and aid in blood glucose control. In addition, fermentation may be a good strategy to increase the bioavailability of dietary polyphenols.
... Recent epidemiological studies and experimental researches have suggested that stimulation of the immune system by LAB can influence the development of tolerance to innocuous allergens (34). Liu et al. (23) has already demonstrated from animal studies that consumption of fermentation of kefir in milk and soy bean can inhibit the allergic reaction and change the intestinal microflora in allergic mice. Therefore, it was suggested that kefir was considered promising in terms of food ingredients and strengthen the prevention of food allergy in gastrointestinal mucosa against the pathogens infection. ...
... All experimental procedures were performed according to the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. All of the protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Hungkuang University, Taichung, Taiwan (23). ...
Article
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microorganisms that benefit animals with allergic diseases and intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. We propose that LAB can prevent cardiomyocytes inflammation and apoptosis in BALB/c mice using an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergy. Thirty-nine male BALB/c mice were divided into five groups: normal control, allergy control and three allergy groups each treated with Kefir I (Kefir I), Kefir II (Kefir II) or GM080 products (GM080). The myocardial architecture and apoptotic molecules in the excised left ventricle from these mice were investigated and post-treatment effects were evaluated. The inflammatory pathway, including toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), phospholate-Jun-N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), JNK1/2 and tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) and the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis phospholate-p38 (p-p38), Bcl-2 associated agonist of cell death (Bad), Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) and activated caspase 3, were found to be significant- ly increased in the hearts of allergy mice. The expression of phospholate-nuclear factor-κB (p-NFκB), TNF-α, p-p38 and Bad protein products were reduced or retarded in the Kefir I- or II-treated allergy group. The GM080-treated allergy group exhibited significantly lower p-JNK, JNK1/2, phospholate- Ikappa B (p-IκB), Bax and Bad protein products than the Kefir I and Kefir II allergy groups. These results indicate that LAB can reduce inflammation and prevent apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in the heart of OVA-induced allergy mice.
... Notably, the word kefir is derived from the Turkish keyif, which translates as "good feeling". Indeed, numerous health benefits have been ascribed to kefir [62,75], such as anti-inflammatory effects in animal models [41,47,61], reduced obesity symptomatology in high fat diet-induced obese mice [11,30,40], and reduced hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats [73]. Furthermore, kefir administration has been shown to reduce physical fatigue and improve exercise performance in mice [34]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mounting evidence suggests a role for the gut microbiota in modulating brain physiology and behaviour, through bi-directional communication, along the gut-brain axis. As such, the gut microbiota represents a potential therapeutic target for influencing centrally mediated events and host behaviour. It is thus notable that the fermented milk beverage kefir has recently been shown to modulate the composition of the gut microbiota in mice. It is unclear whether kefirs have differential effects on microbiota-gut-brain axis and whether they can modulate host behaviour per se. Methods: To address this, two distinct kefirs (Fr1 and UK4), or unfermented milk control, were administered to mice that underwent a battery of tests to characterise their behavioural phenotype. In addition, shotgun metagenomic sequencing of ileal, caecal and faecal matter was performed, as was faecal metabolome analysis. Finally, systemic immunity measures and gut serotonin levels were assessed. Statistical analyses were performed by ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test or Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Fr1 ameliorated the stress-induced decrease in serotonergic signalling in the colon and reward-seeking behaviour in the saccharin preference test. On the other hand, UK4 decreased repetitive behaviour and ameliorated stress-induced deficits in reward-seeking behaviour. Furthermore, UK4 increased fear-dependent contextual memory, yet decreased milk gavage-induced improvements in long-term spatial learning. In the peripheral immune system, UK4 increased the prevalence of Treg cells and interleukin 10 levels, whereas Fr1 ameliorated the milk gavage stress-induced elevation in neutrophil levels and CXCL1 levels. Analysis of the gut microbiota revealed that both kefirs significantly changed the composition and functional capacity of the host microbiota, where specific bacterial species were changed in a kefir-dependent manner. Furthermore, both kefirs increased the capacity of the gut microbiota to produce GABA, which was linked to an increased prevalence in Lactobacillus reuteri. Conclusions: Altogether, these data show that kefir can signal through the microbiota-gut-immune-brain axis and modulate host behaviour. In addition, different kefirs may direct the microbiota toward distinct immunological and behavioural modulatory effects. These results indicate that kefir can positively modulate specific aspects of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and support the broadening of the definition of psychobiotic to include kefir fermented foods. Video abstract.
... Nowadays an increase in kefir consumption in many European countries, Japan and the United States has been reported due to its unique sensory properties and its benefits in health, including antibacterial activity 2 , enhanced immune function 3 , antitumoral activity 4 and hypocholesterolemic effects 5 . This fermented milk product results from the action of different microorganisms present in kefir grains in milk 6 . Kefir grains are whitish or yellowish, irregular granules about the size of a walnut or in some cases, wheat grains. ...
Article
Changes in microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters of kefir were studied during refrigerated storage. Kefir batches were prepared with 0 µl/100g (control, K) 15µl/100g (KA) and 30µl/100g (KB) concentration of an ethanolic extract of Viscum album and Abies alba and samples for analysis were taken 24h after inoculation (day 1), at 10th day and 20th day of storage at 3 ±1oC. The alcoholic extract resulted from the mixture of leaves and stems from Viscum album and Abies alba with ethanol in proportion of 1:1:1. The mixture was left at 4°C for one month, filtered and added into the kefir. Viscum album is known for its potential immunostimulatory, cytotoxic, proapoptotic and anticancer effects (in-vitro). Abies alba is the host of Viscum album and their synergy enhance the above properties. The results of this study showed that the use of the ethanolic extract of Viscum album and Abies alba in kefir production did not alter the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of kefir. It seems that the incorporation of a small concentration (15µl/100g) of the ethanolic extract of Viscum album and Abies alba in kefir does not affect the final product, which is similar or even better than the control.
... One of the dairy cultured products is also kefir (known also as kephir, kiaphur, kefer knapon, kipi and kippi), i.e. unique self-carbonated viscous dairy beverage with small quantities of alcohol and can be made with any kind of animal milk, such as those of cows, goats, sheep, camels and buffalos as well as coconut, rice and soy milk (Abraham & De Antoni, 1999;Farnworth, 1999;Koroleva, 1988;Kwak et al., 1996;Loretan et al., 2003;Otles & Cagandi, 2003). Original kefir contains among others also numerous bioactive ingredients that give its unique health benefits, such as, for instance, strengthening immune system (Vinderola et al., 2005), antitumor activity (Liu et al., 2002), improving intestinal immunity (Thoreux & Schmucker, 2001), antimicrobial activity (Garrote et al., 2000;Rodriguez et al., 2005), regulation of cholesterol metabolism (Liu et al., 2006a), improving anti-allergic resistance (Liu et al., 2006b), improving sugars digestion (Hetzler & Clancy, 2003) and antioxidant activity (Liu et al., 2005). Those kefir's health properties indicate that kefir may be an important, high quality and price-competitive targeted probiotic product. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
We compare variance ratio of bioprocess parameter j, Fj, to the standardized value at defined level of significance, Fm,n, which is obtained from the standard F tables (Ranjit, 1990), whereby m stands for the degree of freedom of bioprocess parameter j and n means the degree of freedom of error variance, and thus determine the bioprocess parameter impact accordingly. In the case where the variance ratio of bioprocess parameter j falls below Fm,n, the bioprocess parameter has no impact on the optimization criterion, therefore, it is pooled and ignored in the calculations. Consequently, the variance error changes, as the sum of squares and degree of freedom of the pooled bioprocess parameter are added to the error sum of squares and degree of freedom of error variance, respectively. By using the adjusted variance error, we determine new variance ratio of bioprocess parameter j and compare them again by the Fm,n. The process of pooling is sequential, which means that the parameter having the smallest impact on the optimization criterion should be pooled first, then we re–calculate the variance ratio of bioprocess parameter j and continue pooling until each bioprocess parameter meets the condition Fj > Fm,n. If the pooling process begins to perform, Taguchi recommends pooling bioprocess parameters until the degree of freedom of error variance is approximately half the total degree of freedom irrespective of significant test criterion validity Fj > Fm,n for all remaining bioprocess parameters (Taguchi, 1987). When the pooling procedure is completed, the relative impact of bioprocess parameter j and error on optimization criterion can be calculated using Eqs. (10) and (11). The final kefir grain mass concentration in the culture medium, γKG,f, daily kefir grain increase mass, mKG,di, and daily kefir grain increase mass fraction, wKG,di, experimentally determined under different conditions proposed by the DoE (Table 2), are presented in Table 3. Daily kefir grain increase mass fraction, wKG,i is the quotient between the kefir grain increase mass concentration (γKG,f – 40 g/L) and the initial kefir grain mass concentration (γKG = 40 g/L).
... On days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56, feces samples were collected from each rat to determine fecal bacterial flora. Probiotic microorganisms were isolated from feces in which the media and methods used were that of Liu et al. (2006) and the probiotic micro-organism count was determined biweekly. Approximately 0.5 g (wet weight) of feces was suspended in 4.5 mL anaerobic solution and serially diluted in an anaerobic workstation to obtain different concentrations. ...
... The beverage is a recognised probiotic dairy product (Heller, 2001). Its health-promoting properties include combating gastrointestinal disorders, such as lactose intolerance (Hertzler & Clancy, 2003) and intestinal infections (Zubillaga et al., 2001), therapeutic activity against arteriosclerosis and colon carcinogens (Kroger, 1993), anti-tumour activity (Hong, Chen, Chen, & Chen, 2009;Liu, Wang, Lin, & Lin, 2002;Zubillaga et al., 2001), anti-allergenic (Liu, Wang, Chen, Yueh, & Lin, 2006) and hypocholesterolemic effects (Tamai, Yoshimitsu, Wanatabe, Kuwabara, & Nagai, 1996). Kefir cultures promote food safety by inhibiting coliforms and pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (Brialy, Rivalland, Coiffard, & De Roeck Holtzhauer, 1995;Y} uksekda g, Beyatli, & Aslim, 2004), Klebsiella pneumoniae (Brialy et al., 1995), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Y} uksekda g et al., 2004) and Bacillus cereus (Medrano, Pérez, & Abraham, 2008). ...
Article
Vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies in poor Southern African communities lead to mandatory fortification of basic foodstuffs. Since folate- and B12-enriched kefir offers a cheaper alternative, regimes to include Propionibacterium freudenreichii (PAB) strains into kefir grains (KG) were investigated: two levels of PAB cell concentrations; freeze-drying KG to preserve PAB activity; and repeated PAB culture additions. Elevated B12 and folate levels and PCR results confirmed inclusion of PAB in all KG. Repeated inoculations with freeze-dried cultures (PAB concentration 1×108cfumL−1) delivered the highest B12 and folate production rate and concentration after 3d. The best treatment (freeze-dried inoculum (5×107PABcfumL−1) reacted once, followed by freeze-drying) delivered 186% Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) (B12) and 19% RDA (folate) per 200mL serving. Freeze-drying preserved PAB activity in KG.
... Numerous studies have investigated the therapeutic effects of fermented dairy products and lactic acid bacteria in cancer (Hirayama and Rafter, 2000;Liu et al., 2002Liu et al., , 2005Yasutake et al., 2000), allergy (Liu et al., 2006;Matsuzaki et al., 1998;Shida et al., 2002), infection and gastrointestinal disorders (Adolfsson et al., 2004). Since the immune system is involved in most of these diseases, an immune-stimulatory effect of those products and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was evaluated by in vitro or in vivo tests. ...
Article
In order to develop a new starter for fermented milk, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BFI46 (BFI46) obtained from new-born infant feces was investigated for physiological characteristics. Good immunomodulating activity was evident compared with commercial lactic acid bacteria starter cultures. The optimum growth temperature of BFI46 was with 12 h required to reach pH 4.3. Testing with 13 different antibiotics revealed greatest sensitivity of BFI46 to penicillin- G and chloramphenicol, and heightened resistance to neomycin, kanamycin and polymyxin. BFI46 displayed higher esterase activities compared to 18 other enzymes, was comparatively tolerant to bile juice and able to survive at pH 2 for 3 h, and displayed high resistance against Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium with a survival rate of 57.14% and 96.36%, respectively. The results indicate that BFI46 could be an excellent starter culture for fermented milk with high level of immunomodulating activity.
... Kefir, a cultured milk beverage, originated in the Caucasus Mountains of Russia centuries ago and has been ascribed with many health benefits including antitumor activity (Shiomi et al., 1982), antimicrobial activity (Cevikbas et al., 1994), enhanced immune function (Thoreux and Schmucker 2001), stress relief (Kabayama et al., 1997), specific health benefit (Otle and Cagindi, 2003) and improved digestion (Safonova et al., 1979). This fermented milk product results from the collective action of multiple microorganisms present in kefir grains in milk (Liu et al., 2006). ...
Article
The objective of this study was to assess the physicochemical and sensory changes of a kefir manufactured by a two-step fermentation (MTY, step: for 9 h; step: for 15 h) and compare it with kefirs produced by two conventional methods (GTY, fermentation at for 24 h; KEY, for 24 h). Rapid changes in pH and titratable acidity (TA) were observed in samples from all three manufacturing methods during fermentation process and storage period. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts of MTY increased gradually up to 12 h of fermentation, reaching 9.28 Log CFU/mL, with maximum value observed in this experiment of 9.48 Log CFU/mL. The LAB counts of all samples decreased significantly during storage. The highest viscosity was observed for MTY (1750-1771 cPs), compared with the lowest viscosity observed for KEY (1250-1277 cPs). The viscosity of all samples increased slightly during storage (1250-1805 cPs, p
... Different studies have investigated the therapeutic effects of probiotic-fermented milks on cancer (Yasutake et al. 1999;Hirayama and Rafter 2000;Liu et al. 2002Liu et al. , 2005, allergies (Shida et al. 2002;Liu et al. 2006) and infectious and gastrointestinal disorders (Adolfsson et al. 2004). Because the immune system is involved in most of these diseases, it is reasonable to believe that any beneficial effects may be mediated, at least in part, by the IMP of specific probiotic strains (e.g. ...
Article
Fermented dairy products are commonly used as the most efficient delivery vehicle for probiotics. These foods are well known for promoting the positive health benefits of consuming probiotics. Among their beneficial effects, their immunomodulatory properties have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years. Reports, both in vitro and in vivo, on the beneficial effects of consuming fermented milks containing probiotics have demonstrated the enhancement of various parameters in animal (e.g. rats and mice) and human immune systems, such as the production of cytokines and mediators by antigen-presenting cells and cellular markers for different cell populations. Hence, the purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the scientific literature concerning the potential of probiotic-fermented milks to influence the host's immune system, thereby modulating the immune response in a positive fashion.
... Kefir is a fermented milk drink, composed of bacteria, fungi and yeast that form grain or cauliflower-like structure. It originated in the Caucasus Mountains of Russia centuries ago and has various health-promoting properties [20][21][22]. Kefir grains, used for making kefir, composed of several lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. Kefir consists of a slimy polysaccharide matrix named kefiran that is thought to be produced by the lactobacilli in the grain, in which bacterial and yeast cells are embedded [23][24][25][26][27]. Kefir contains mainly lactic and acetic acids, vitamins (A, D, B 2 , B 12 and K) and minerals (calcium and magnesium) [28,29]. ...
... Un autre aspect examiné est celui lié à la réponse de type allergique du système immunitaire. Chez les souris, l'ingestion de kéfir frais ou lyophilisé diminue la réponse immunitaire spécifique à un allergène alimentaire, l'ovalbumine (Umeda et al., 2005 ;Liu et al., 2006a). L'ingestion de kéfir lyophilisé réduit aussi la réponse inflammatoire de la muqueuse bronchique provoquée par réaction allergique chez la souris. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Belgium and more widely in Europe, conditions for putting probiotics on the market are defined on the basis of their application: medicinal or food use. Probiotics used as food supplements, as well as functional foods, are governed by food legislation. By the 31st of January 2010 at the latest, new restrictions will be introduced governing the publication of positive health claims that are authorized to be made about foods and the conditions for using them. For any other health claim, as well as for a medicinal application, the scientific evidence of the claimed effect must be provided. The potential of kefir to promote human health has been subject to various studies. These aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotic strains isolated from kefir and the positive action of kefir, or some of its chemical components (fatty matter, polysaccharides), on specific health features predominantly related to cancerous tumour development, immunity, allergy and cholesteromia. The abilities of kefir to improve human health were evaluated on human cells and on laboratory animals but have not yet been confirmed by human trials.
... It was also observed that LP C2 increased highest log count between 0 to 6h of fermentation, it may be due to log phage and adapted culture in the soy milk medium used for inoculation as well as better availability of substrate. Several previous studies also reported such high viable count increase during soy product fermentation by L. casei (2.5 log after 14h), L. rhamnosus 6013 (2.3 log after 6h) and L. rhamnosus CRL981 (1.47 log after 12) (Marazza et al. 2009;Liu et al. 2011;Liu et al. 2006). ...
Article
This study presents, antimicrobial activity of bioactive peptides derived from fermentation of soy milk along with their production by Lactobacillus plantarum C2 strain. Bioactive peptides are specific fragment of protein, can be released by fermentation, upon release they may act as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and hypocholesterolemic activities. LP C2 showed very good growth in soy milk by increasing their count and acidity significantly, consequently pH dropped. Ultrafiltration was used for the separation of peptides and their peptide contents analyzed by OPA assay. 10kDa fraction was found high in peptide (655.128±2.95 μg/ml). Antimicrobial activity of bioactive peptide fractions was checked by agar well diffusion method and found that 5 kDa showed highest activity against all the pathogens with highest inhibition against E.coli (12±0.57) followed by S. dysenteriae (11±0.57), L. monocytogenous (10±0.57) and B. cereus (10±0.57 mm). However it was observed that unfractionated sample high in antimicrobial activity, may be due to combined effect of all the fractions.
... Daily intake of milk Kefir and soy-based Kefir products confine the IgE and IgG responses. Thus, gut microflora modification can be achieved with Kefir to inhibit food allergy and improve mucosal resistance in case of gastrointestinal pathogen infections (Liu et al. 2006b). In another study Lee et al. (2007) discovered that prevention of ovalbumin-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue and mucus hypersecretion can be achieved with Kefir thereby establishing itself as a potential therapeutic agent in management of allergic bronchial asthma. ...
... It was observed that the expulsion of the stones was greater, and the passage time was faster in the treatment with V. opulus. The demand for diclofenac was lower compared to patients who received only diclofenac [193]. There are no clinical trial reports for the premenstrual syndrome [111], only the folk medicine use, as antispasmodic, in menstrual cramps, dysmenorrhea, and miscarriage prevention [194]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Viburnum (Adoxaceae, Dipsacales) is of scientific interest due to the chemical components and diverse biological activities found across species of the genus, which includes more than 230 species of evergreen, semievergreen, or deciduous shrubs and small trees. Although frequently used as an ornament, the Viburnum species show biological properties with health-promoting effects. Fruits, flowers, and barks of certain species are used for pharmaceutical purposes or as cooking ingredients, hence containing biochemical compounds with health-promoting activity such are carotenoids, polyphenols, and flavonoids. However, its taxonomical determination is difficult, due to its wide distribution and frequent hybridizations; therefore, an objective classification would allow us to understand its biological activity based on its phytochemical components. More than sixty phytochemical compounds have been reported, where vibsanin-type diterpenes and their derivatives are the most prevalent. Leaves and twigs of V. dilatatum contain the largest number of phytochemicals among the genus. Through preclinical evidence, this study provides insight regarding antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and anticancer activities of genus Viburnum.
... Dairy product intakes are generally inversely proportional to the incidence of gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer but remain inconsistent with prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, and lung cancer [7]. Consumptions of traditional fermented dairy products, including curd or yogurt, cheese, kefir, shrikhand, are associated with enhanced gut health and reduced risk of intestinal diseases [8,9]. Although the common source of dairy products is milk from cow [10,11], goat, [12] and sheep [13], recent studies also focused on milk from various other sources, such as camel [14], mare [15], and ewe bovine milk [16]. ...
Chapter
The ever-escalating health care costs and public consciousness in recent years have given more attention to probiotic foods, like milk and dairy products. On the other hand, lactose intolerance and other medical and ethical reason for not using diary-based products have brought nondairy products to the limelight. These products include flavonoid-rich fruit beverages. They can be used as a vehicle for probiotics or mixed with dairy products, as well as nondairy products. Yogurts are plant seed protein-based, which may further be fortified with essential fatty acids and other phenolic compounds to improve their nutritive value. The inherent stability issues of these products can be overcome by implementing nanotechnology. The aim of this chapter is to introduce the latest non-dairy yogurts to evaluate newly formulated nanoparticles-induced nondairy yogurt as a functional food in curing lifestyle disorder diseases.
... However, in their follow-up study, no significant difference apart from the increase in Lactobacillus/Lactococcus populations was observed in the kefir group compared to control [39]. Similarly, an increase in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium populations and a reduction in Clostridium populations by consumption of kefir have been reported in mice previously [54][55][56]. The present study is one of the first reports showing the impact of kefir on human microbiota composition in patients with MetS. ...
Article
Circadian misalignment induced by disruptions in sleep/wake cycle or feeding/fasting cycle has been linked with both metabolic health, including energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity(Reference Morris, Yang and Garcia1) and alterations in gut microbiome(Reference Qin, Li and Cai2). This study aimed to examine the potential associations among sleep quality, night eating behaviour and gut microbiome composition in patients with metabolic syndrome. This is a secondary analysis of data collected for a randomized controlled clinical trial(Reference Bellikci-Koyu, Yurekli and Akyon3). The cross-sectional analysis was performed using the baseline data of twenty-one patients with metabolic syndrome (37-64 years; 16 females) who completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire (PSQI) for the evaluation of sleep quality and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) for the assessment of behavioural and psychological symptoms of night eating syndrome. Participants also provided stool samples for 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing analysis. Descriptive statistics, Spearman's correlation and partial correlation tests were computed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software. Partial correlation coefficients were calculated with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index and dietary fibre intake. The median of PSQI score was 3.0 with a range of 1.0-17.0 and median score on NEQ was 16.0 (6.0-34.0). Sleep disturbances and night eating syndrome were observed in 4 (19.0%) and 6 (28.6%) participants, respectively. PSQI score was correlated with the NEQ score (r = 0.571, p = 0.007), confirming a relationship between sleep quality and night eating behaviour. Sleep quality and night eating syndrome were associated with similar microbiome profiles. At the phylum level, poor sleep quality was correlated with higher relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria (r = 0.789 and r = 0.833 respectively, both p < 0.001), but lower relative abundance of Bacteroidetes (r = −0.569, p = 0.017). At the sub-phylum levels, poor sleep quality was correlated with Alistipes (r = 0.535, p = 0.027) and Erysipelotrichaceae (r = 0.821, p < 0.001) abundance. Similarly, the relative abundance of phyla Proteobacteria (r = 0.501, p = 0.040), and genus Alistipes (r = 0.595, p = 0.012) were associated with night eating behaviour. Partial correlations suggested that the relationships between bacterial abundance and night eating behaviour were not independent of sleep quality (r = 0.039, p = 0.886 for Proteobacteria; r = 0.413, p = 0.111 for Alistipes). This study suggests associations between gut microbiome composition and circadian disruptions induced by sleep disturbances or eating late at night. The associations between night eating behaviour and gut microbiome may be due in part to poor sleep quality. These data suggest that not only does eating at night, but also the sleep disruptions that result from this activity, may contribute to alterations in gut microbiome. Further research is required to identify the potential bidirectional relationship between circadian rhythms and gut microbiome that may affect overall health.
... Kefir is proposed as one of the factors associated with the long life expectancy of the people of Caucasus, owing to its many health benefits such as anti-stress properties, immune-modulation [6], cholesterol-lowering [7], anti-allergenic [8], anti-asthmatic, anti-microbial [9], anticancer properties [10] and chemoprevention against colon cancer [11], aside from its gastrointestinal beneficial effects [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kefir is a dairy product that can be prepared from different milk types, such as goat, buffalo, sheep, camel, or cow via microbial fermentation (inoculating milk with kefir grains). As such, kefir contains various bacteria and yeasts which influence its chemical and sensory characteristics. A mixture of two kinds of milk promotes kefir sensory and rheological properties aside from improving its nutritional value. Additives such as inulin can also enrich kefir's health qualities and organoleptic characters. Several metabolic products are generated during kefir production and account for its distinct flavour and aroma: Lactic acid, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and aroma compounds such as acetoin and acetaldehyde. During the storage process, microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of kefir can further undergo changes, some of which improve its shelf life. Kefir exhibits many health benefits owing to its antimicrobial, anticancer, gastrointestinal tract effects, gut microbiota modulation and anti-diabetic effects. The current review presents the state of the art relating to the role of probiotics, prebiotics, additives, and different manufacturing practices in the context of kefir's physicochemical, sensory, and chemical properties. A review of kefir's many nutritional and health benefits, underlying chemistry and limitations for usage is presented.
... Tryptophan, one of the essential amino acids abundant in kefir, is well known for its relaxing effect on the nervous system and others (Gaware et al., 2011). Original Kefir contains numerous bioactive ingredients that give its unique health benefits, such as, for instance, strengthening immune system (Celso et al., 2005), metabolism, improving anti-allergic resistance (Liu et al., 2006a), antitumor activity, improving intestinal immunity, antimicrobial activity, regulation of cholesterol, improving sugars digestion and antioxidant activity (Gorsek and Tramsek, 2011). The microbial population of Kefir grains consists of lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, filamentous molds and possibly other microorganisms which develop a complex symbiotic community. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of kefir intake on growth performance and some biochemical profiles among domestic rabbits. It was a case-control study experiment and was carried out on the rabbits that lived in normal condition and divided into three groups (one control & two cases 10%-20%). The sample included 24 rabbits at of 35-40 days. Each group have 8 rabbits, The highest growth observed in rabbits that took 20% Kefir milk and the lowest growth observed in rabbits that took 10% Kefir milk at first 4 weeks of growth period, but when compared with control group, it was non-significant. The same results were clear after 6 weeks in growth of cases. Total average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio was showed a significant decrease among cases compared to control group. As Kefir concentration increased to 10% of water, there was significant decrease in skin weight, kidneys, spleen, lungs, internal body fats and liver. In contrast, there were significant increases in Caracas, head and viscera weights. But when increased to 20% of water there were significant decreases in internal body fats, viscera weights and liver. On the other hand there were significant decreases in fasting blood sugars (FBS), insulin growth factor1 (IGF-1), low density lipoprotein (LDL), uric acid and free thyroxin as kefir percentage increased to 20%. In contrast to these results, there were significant increases with total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) among groups.
... Em 1982 [19] relatou a atividade antitumoral de um polissacarídeo solúvel em agua (KGF-C) isolado de grãos de kefir. O kefir possui algumas propriedades terapêuticas, tais como: nutricional [6,7,17,18], antitumoral [4,11], antibacteriana e antifúngica [2,20]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
O kefir é um líquido viscoso, com quantidades consideráveis de carbono na bebida láctea e pequenas porções de álcool. Ele é uma bebida de ação probiótica que teve origem na região das montanhas do Cáucaso. Os grãos de Kefir são compostos por microrganismo imobilizados com uma matriz de polissacarídeo e proteína. Eles têm uma complexa composição microbiana, onde há predominância de bactéria do ácido láctico, bactérias acéticas, leveduras e fungos. Em 1982 relatou a atividade antitumoral de um polissacarídeo solúvel em agua (KGF-C) isolado de grãos de kefir. O kefir possui algumas propriedades terapêuticas, tais como: nutricional, antitumoral, antibacteriana e antifúngica. Pesquisas recentes estudaram a superfície e a estrutura de biofilmes a base de kefir, os quais demonstraram, respectivamente, que os biofilmes podem ter aplicações distintas, tais como: farmacológicas, já que apresentam uma distribuição uniforme de bactérias nativas do kefir (que são os microrganismos que combatem outros através da competição) na sua superfície e na indústria de alimentos com a obtenção de filme impermeável para a embalagem. Nesta pesquisa, buscou-se estudar a cristalinidade de biofilmes de kefir produzidos com açúcar branco, que é refinado e ao contrário do açúcar mascavo, que possui muitos nutrientes, ele tem maior carga de sacarose e ainda retira minerais do organismo humano para poder ser digerido.
... Notably, the word kefir is derived from the Turkish keyif, which translates as "good feeling". Indeed, numerous health benefits have been ascribed to kefir (Rosa et al. 2017, Slattery et al. 2019, such as anti-inflammatory effects in animal models (Rodrigues et al. 2005, Liu et al. 2006, Lee et al. 2007), reduced obesity symptomatology high fat diet-induced obese mice (Kim et al. 2017, Bourrie et al. 2018, Gao et al. 2019, and reduced hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (Silva-Cutini et al. 2019). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Mounting evidence suggests a role for the gut microbiota in modulating brain physiology and behaviour through bi-directional communication along the gut-brain axis. As such, the gut microbiota represents a potential therapeutic target for influencing centrally-mediated events and host behaviour. It is thus notable that the fermented milk beverage kefir has recently been shown to modulate the composition of the gut microbiota in mice. It is unclear whether kefirs have differential effects on microbiota-gut-brain axis and whether they can modulate host behaviour per se. Methods To address this, two distinct kefirs (Fr1 and UK4) or unfermented milk control were administered to mice that underwent a battery of tests to characterise their behavioural phenotype. In addition, shotgun metagenomic sequencing of ileal, cecal and faecal matter was performed, as was faecal metabolome analysis. Finally, systemic immunity measures and gut serotonin levels were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test or Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney U test. Results Fr1 ameliorated the stress-induced decrease in serotonergic signalling in the colon and reward-seeking behaviour in the saccharin preference test. On the other hand, UK4 decreased repetitive behaviour and ameliorated stress-induced deficits in reward-seeking behaviour. Furthermore, UK4 impaired long-term spatial learning, yet increased fear-dependent contextual memory. In the peripheral immune system, UK4 increased the prevalence of Treg cells and interleukin 10 levels, whereas Fr1 ameliorated the milk gavage stress-induced elevation in neutrophil levels and CXCL1 levels. Analysis of the gut microbiota revealed that both kefirs significantly changed the composition and functional capacity of the host microbiota, where specific bacterial species were changed in a kefir-dependent manner. Furthermore, both kefirs increased the capacity of the gut microbiota to produce GABA, which was linked to an increased prevalence in Lactobacillus reuteri. Conclusions Altogether, these data show that kefir can signal through the microbiota-gut-immune-brain axis and modulate host behaviour. In addition, different kefirs may direct the microbiota toward distinct immunological and behavioural modulatory effects. These results indicate that kefir can positively modulate the microbiota-gut-brain axis and support the broadening of the definition of psychobiotic to include fermented foods such as kefir.
... Many studies have indicated that soymilk fermented with kefir may be beneficial to human health (24)(25)(26). After fermentation, the content of aglycone isoflavone and total phenolic in soymilk kefir multiplied in vitro digestive system simulation (16). ...
Article
Full-text available
Kefir is a traditional fermented milk originating in the Caucasus area and parts of Eastern Europe. In this study, the kefir culture, which is modified upon the addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cells, specifically for soymilk kefir fermentation with the highest capacity of isoflavone biotransformation, was successfully produced, and the metagenomics composition of soymilk or milk fermented using these kefir cultures was investigated. The metagenome analysis showed that the microbiota of kefir in M-K (milk inoculated with kefir), SM-K (equal volumes of soymilk and milk inoculated with kefir), and S-K (pure milk inoculated with kefir) were related to the addition of soymilk or not. Furthermore, the HPLC chromatogram revealed that Guixia 2 (Guangzhou, China) may be a good source of soymilk kefir fermentation due to its high isoflavone aglycone content (90.23 ± 1.26 μg/g in daidzein, 68.20 ± 0.74 μg/g in genistein). Importantly, the starter culture created by adding 1.5 g probiotics (Biostime®, Guangzhou, China) to Chinese kefir showed a significant increase in the levels of isoflavone aglycones (72.07 ± 0.53 μg/g in isoflavone aglycones). These results provided insight into understanding the suitable soybean cultivar and starter cultures, which exhibit promising results of isoflavone biotransformation and flavor promotion during soymilk kefir fermentation.
... LAB fermentation of soya can also reduce the abundance of some antinutritional factors such as phytic acids, which chelate divalent metals and thus limit their bioavailability (Lai et al., 2013;Rekha and Vijayalakshmi, 2011;Rui et al., 2016). The consumption of fermented soya milk has also been found to have a beneficial influence on fecal microbiota in animals (Ara et al., 2001;Butteiger et al., 2016;Liu et al., 2006) and humans (Cheng et al., 2005). Finally, LAB fermentation can improve the flavor of soya milk (Pinthong et al., 1980), notably by reducing the beany note (Favaro Trindade et al., 2001;Mital and Steinkraus, 1976;Wang et al., 1974). ...
Article
Societal demand for plant-based foods is increasing. In this context, soya products fermented using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are appealing because of their potential health and nutritional benefits. The thermophilic LAB Streptococcus thermophilus is an essential starter species in the dairy industry. However, while its physiology is well characterized, little is known about its general metabolic activity or its techno-functional properties when it is grown in soya milk. In this study, S. thermophilus LMD-9 growth, sugar production, and lactic acid production in soya milk versus cow's milk were measured. Additionally, the main metabolic pathways used by the bacterium when growing in soya milk were characterized using a proteomic approach. Streptococcus thermophilus LMD-9 growth decreased soya milk pH, from 7.5 to 4.9, in 5 h. During fermentation, acidification thus occurred in tandem with lactate production and increasing population size (final population: 1.0 × 10⁹ CFU/ml). As growth proceeded, sucrose was consumed, and fructose was produced. The proteomic analysis (LC-MS/MS) of the strain's cytosolic and cell envelope-associated proteins revealed that proteins related to amino acid transport and nitrogen metabolism were the most common among the 328 proteins identified (63/328 = 19.2% of total proteins). The cell-wall protease PrtS was present, and an LMD-9 deletion mutant was constructed by interrupting the prtS gene (STER_RS04165 locus). Acidification levels, growth levels, and final population size were lower in the soya milk cultures when the ΔprtS strain versus the wild-type (wt) strain was used. The SDS-PAGE profile of the soluble proteins in the supernatant indicated that soya milk proteins were less hydrolyzed by the ΔprtS strain than by the wt strain. It was discovered that S. thermophilus can grow in soya milk by consuming sucrose, can hydrolyze soya proteins, and can produce acidification levels comparable to those in cow's milk. This study comprehensively examined the proteomics of S. thermophilus grown in soya milk and demonstrated that the cell-wall protease PrtS is involved in the LAB's growth in soya milk and in the proteolysis of soya proteins, which are two novel findings. These results clarify how S. thermophilus adapts to soya milk and can help inform efforts to develop new fermented plant-based foods with better-characterized biochemical and microbiological traits.
... Kefir administration has been reported to increase the fecal populations of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli (Liu, Wang, Chen, Yueh, & Lin, 2006) and the number of lactic acid bacteria in the bowel mucosa (Marquina et al., 2002). It is well known that different bacterial strains have different properties, and the effect of a strain is specific for immunomodulatory potential (Zheng et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Evidence suggests that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a critical role in the initiation and promotion of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Kefir is a fermented dairy product including yeast and bacterial species. We aimed to investigate the effect of kefir on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)‐induced colitis in rats using two different doses. Fifty‐four Wistar rats were divided into six groups. For 14 days, the normal control and colitis control groups were given tap water, kefir10 control, kefir10 colitis, and kefir30 control, and the kefir30 colitis groups were given phosphate‐buffered saline containing 10% or 30% kefir, respectively, instead of tap water. Colitis was induced by intracolonically administrating TNBS in the colitis control, kefir10 colitis, and kefir30 colitis groups. On the 14th day, the rats were sacrificed. The weights and lengths of the colons were measured and macroscopically evaluated, and the distal 10 cm segments were subjected to a histopathological examination. The incidence of bloody stool and diarrhea in the kefir10 colitis group was found to be less than the colitis control and kefir30 colitis groups. The colonic weight/length ratio in the kefir10 colitis group was lower than that in the colitis control and kefir30 colitis groups. We detected that the 10% kefir treatment reduced TNBS‐induced macroscopic colonic damage, while it was exacerbated by the 30% kefir treatment. No significant difference was observed between the colitis groups in terms of microscopic colonic damage scoring. These results indicate that kefir, with a careful dose selection, may be a useful agent in the treatment of IBD.
... However, in their follow-up study, no significant difference apart from the increase in Lactobacillus/Lactococcus populations was observed in the kefir group compared to control [39]. Similarly, an increase in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium populations and a reduction in Clostridium populations by consumption of kefir have been reported in mice previously [54][55][56]. The present study is one of the first reports showing the impact of kefir on human microbiota composition in patients with MetS. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several health-promoting effects of kefir have been suggested, however, there is limited evidence for its potential effect on gut microbiota in metabolic syndrome This study aimed to investigate the effects of regular kefir consumption on gut microbiota composition, and their relation with the components of metabolic syndrome. In a parallel-group, randomized, controlled clinical trial setting, patients with metabolic syndrome were randomized to receive 180 mL/day kefir (n = 12) or unfermented milk (n = 10) for 12 weeks. Anthropometrical measurements, blood samples, blood pressure measurements, and fecal samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study. Fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure showed a significant decrease by the intervention of kefir (p ≤ 0.05, for each). However, no significant difference was obtained between the kefir and unfermented milk groups (p > 0.05 for each). Gut microbiota analysis showed that regular kefir consumption resulted in a significant increase only in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria (p = 0.023). No significant change in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria or Verrucomicrobia by kefir consumption was obtained. Furthermore, the changes in the relative abundance of sub-phylum bacterial populations did not differ significantly between the groups (p > 0.05, for each). Kefir supplementation had favorable effects on some of the metabolic syndrome parameters, however, further investigation is needed to understand its effect on gut microbiota composition.
... This can be achieved through introduction of new species or strains into the gastrointestinal tract or by promoting the growth of beneficial microbes that are already present. In multiple studies, consumption of kefir in an animal model has been associated with an increase in the abundance of bacteria that are considered beneficial, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, while decreasing abundance of harmful microbial species like Clostridium perfringens (Liu et al., 2006;Hamet et al., 2016). However, an important limitation of studies concerning kefir is that each batch of kefir may consist of different microorganisms. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kefir is a fermented dairy product, created by fermentation of milk by bacteria and yeasts. Kefir is the most common traditional non-sweetened fermented dairy beverage in the Baltic countries. Whole kefir and specific fractions and individual organisms isolated from kefir provide a multitude of health benefits, including regulation of composition of the gut microbiome. This review aims to summarise the available data about influence of kefir consumption on the gut microbiome in healthy individuals and to highlight the effects that kefir consumption as well as separated fractions of kefir can have in disease states via modulation of the host microbiome.
Article
Traditionally prepared kefir was enriched by the addition of transglutaminase (m-TG) to milk used for fermentation. Following multiplication of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, milk proteins were hydrolysed to short chain peptides. Results of a chromatographic analysis demonstrated significant changes in protein profiles observed at 214 nm and 280 nm absorbance. The addition of m-TG to fresh kefir evoked the formation of protein aggregates. Two distinct fractions (at 50–55 ml and 135–155 ml) were observed at 280 nm, which may suggest the formation of aromatic acids. After storage, the first fraction (50–55 ml) observed in the chromatographic analysis and the second one (135–155 ml) tended to divide into two peaks, both the kefir with m-TG and that without m-TG. Two-dimensional electrophoresis proved the formation of the protein aggregates as an effect of transglutaminase action. The ELISA results obtained during the reaction of kefir proteins with specific antibody against individual milk proteins (β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin and α-casein, β-casein and κ-casein) indicated differences in the level of proteins as a result of m-TG addition as well as storage. The reaction between immunoreactive β-lg and specific antibodies was not detectable in any of the kefir samples under the adopted conditions of the ELISA assay.The kefirs were evaluated for their sensory quality using a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). The results showed that both the addition of the m-TG enzyme and storage had significant effects on the sensory quality of the kefir samples. The kefirs with m-TG obtained higher scores for overall quality than the control one. The results indicated that this type of kefir can be offered especially to those consumers who are searching for foodstuffs with low immunoreactivity.
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro immuno-modulating capacity and mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kefir grains and their individual supernatants by cytokine profiles through a toll-like receptor pathway. Results demonstrated that kefir supernatants, obtained from kefir fermented more than 24 h, induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells. Among four LAB isolated from kefir grains and their supernatants, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 and its supernatant had strong potential to induce in vitro production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in RAW 264.7 cells and murine peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, blocking toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 using anti-TLR-2 mAb and TLR-2−/− mice showed a significant inhibition (p < 0.05) of IL-6 and TNF-α production. These findings indicated that kefir influenced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 through TLR-2, which would potentially have beneficial effects on promotion of cell-mediated immune responses against tumors and also against intracellular pathogenic infections. The putative immunomodulin in the kefir supernatant was also characterized and may be a protein with a molecular mass larger than 30 kDa.
Article
Kefir, a beverage produced by the action of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts and acetic acid bacteria on milk, has a long tradition of offering health benefits. The objective of this research was to optimize the best formula for producing the kefir candy with maximum viabilities of LAB and yeasts using the response surface modeling and the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method. In this study, milk was mixed with 5% kefir grains and incubated at 20C for 24 h. The samples were blended with lyoprotectants (galactose, skim milk powder [SMP] and sucrose), freeze-dried and then mixed with sweeteners and compressed to form candies. The ratio of the lyoprotectants was determined using response surface modeling for constructing a response surface model and then using an SQP method to optimize the model. Optimization results indicated that kefir containing galactose, sucrose and SMP at 4.53, 7.0 and 5.03% (w/v), respectively, produced a chewable tablet with the highest viability of the microorganisms investigated. A relatively higher survival of microorganisms could be achieved by placing the kefir candy product in a glass bottle with deoxidant and desiccant at 4C.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSA number of novel fermented dairy products have been developed and marketed under the concept of probiotic products, but few of these products were associated with confectionary goods. The kefir candy created in the present study with high viable cell counts (106–107 cfu/g) after extended storage (up to 2 months) provides a flavorful option to offer the health benefits of probiotics. This study not only provides an opportunity to resolve the difficulty of kefir commercialization due to its post-acidity and gas production but also increases the variety of dairy products in the market.
Chapter
Introduction Overview of Dairy Ingredients, their Processing, and Characteristics Milk Protein Allergens Effects of Processing on Dairy Allergens Nutritional and Functional Alternatives to Dairy Ingredients Cross-Reactivity Conclusion References
Article
The rise of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella has necessitated the need for alternative ways of preventing and controlling infections. Fermented products have been recognised to have prophylactic and therapeutic properties against diseases. This study focused on the analysis of antagonistic effect of two different traditional kefir grains on Salmonella Arizonae and Salmonella Typhimurium after 24 and 48 h fermentation. Kefir supernatants were analysed for ethanol, organic acid and protein composition using gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and shotgun proteomics, respectively. Salmonellae were rapidly eradicated in kefir possibly due to action of lactic acid as kefir cell-free supernatant contained high concentrations of lactic acid ranging from 83.59 to 229.92 mm. Other molecules with recognised antibacterial activities including carbonyl compounds, histone and cathelicidin were detected in the soluble phase that could have provided synergistic effect with the organic acids.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract We aim to study the effect of low-dose aspirin and kefir on arterial blood pressure measurements and renal apoptosis in unhypertensive rats with 4 weeks salt diet. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control, high-salt (HS) (8.0% NaCl), HS + aspirin (10 mg/kg), HS + kefir (10.0%w/v), HS + aspirin + kefir. We measured sistolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic pressure, pulse pressure in the rats. Cathepsin B, L, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activities were determined from rat kidney tissues and rats clearance of creatinine calculated. Although HS diet increased significantly SBP, MAP, diastolic pressure, pulse pressure parameters compared the control values. They were not as high as accepted hypertension levels. When compared to HS groups, kefir groups significantly decrease Cathepsin B and DNA fragmentation levels. Caspase levels were elevated slightly in other groups according to control group. While, we also found that creatinine clearance was higher in HS + kefir and HS + low-dose aspirin than HS group. Thus, using low-dose aspirin had been approximately decreased of renal function damage. Kefir decreased renal function damage playing as Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. But, low-dose aspirin together with kefir worsened rat renal function damage. Cathepsin B might play role both apoptosis and prorenin-processing enzyme. But not caspase pathway may be involved in the present HS diet induced apoptosis. In conclusion, kefir and low-dose aspirin used independently protect renal function and renal damage induced by HS diet in rats.
Article
This study compares the allergenic potential of Isosoy®, a soy germen commercialised as isoflavone for dietary supplements, with crude soy extract (CSE) and purified isoflavone. Specific antibodies (IgG, IgE and IgG1) generated in Swiss mice by oral and subcutaneous route with Isosoy® also recognised proteins of crude soy extract, but no reaction against purified isoflavone, like clearly demonstrated by ELISA, Western blot and immunoprecipitation assay. These results are in agreement with the same protein profile between Isosoy® and CSE observed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The immunoprecipitation assay demonstrates that Isosoy® boiling cannot inactivate the interaction with specific antibodies generated by oral route with unboiled Isosoy®. Results suggest that Isosoy® could lead to allergic reactions even after heat treatment.
Article
Full-text available
Food allergy or hypersensitivity is defined as “all reactions that are triggered by immune cells after food intake, including hypersensitivity type 1 reactions, mediated by IgE produced by Plasma B cells. Ig E will bind to mast cells causing degranulation and release of inflammatory products resulting in tissue damage. This study aims to determine the preventive effects of Kefir on Balb-C Mice ( Mus Musculus ) induced by ovalbumin on the relative number of B-Ig-E cells. The research method is a true experimental laboratory control post design only consisting of 5 treatments and 4 replications, consisting of negative control (healthy): placebo Nacl Physiological, positive control (ovalbumin at a dose of 20 μg/mice and adjuvant Al (OH)3 1000 μg on days 8 and 15 and re-induced orally with a dose of 60 mg/mice and 10 mg/mice Al (OH) 3 on the 29th day), T1, T2, T3 (kefir for 14 days with doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg / kg body weight and ovalbumin. Data on the relative amount of B+ cell-Ig E are quantitative then analyzed using the One-Way ANOVA test with a 95% confidence level to find out the differences between treatments significantly. The results showed that administration of kefir and ovalbumin to the relative number of B+ cells were not significantly different between the treatment groups while the decrease in the relative amount of IgE+ occurred in the T1 group. The conclusion shows that administration of kefir can decrease B+ cell-Ig E+ in ovalbumin-induced mice.
Article
Kefir is an acidic and low alcoholic beverage produced by fermentation of milk, fruit juice or sugary water with kefir grains and its consumption is associated with prophylactic and therapeutic properties including its antagonistic effect on enteric pathogenic bacteria. Kefir grains have several bacteria and yeast species encased in an extracellular polysaccharide matrix. The beverage is consumed due to its attributed health benefits conferred by probiotics. Kefir drink has bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects on enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms of kefir on bacterial pathogens involve destabilisation of the cell membrane, cell lysis, degradation of nucleic acid, inhibition of protein synthesis and binding onto yeasts. Exopolysaccharides, organic acids, peptides, S-layer proteins, and others are responsible for these antagonistic mechanisms. Other prophylactic and therapeutic properties of kefir include anti-inflammatory, constipation-alleviating, reversal of lactose intolerance and general gastrointestinal tract improvement. This can lead to better health, and consequently resistance to infection.
Article
Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage produced by the actions of the microflora encased in the "kefir grain" on the carbohydrates in the milk. Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage, home fermented from shared grains, but also recently as a commercial product commanding shelf space in retail establishments. This is similar to the status of yogurts in the 1970s when yogurt was the new healthy product. Scientific studies into these reported benefits are being conducted into these health benefits, many with promising results, though not all of the studies have been conclusive. Our review provides an overview of kefir's structure, microbial profile, production, and probiotic properties. Our review also discusses alternative uses of kefir, kefir grains, and kefiran (the soluble polysaccharide produced by the organisms in kefir grains). Their utility in wound therapy, food additives, leavening agents, and other non-beverage uses is being studied with promising results.
Article
In our study, BALB/c mice were orally administered multistrain probiotics or sterile water for 28 consecutive days. The total serum IgA and IgG antibody levels were significantly higher in the group of mice administered probiotics (p < 0.05) than in the control group at the 4 th week. Consumption of multistrain probiotics for 28 days significantly increased (p < 0.05) the fecal populations of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. In another animal model, the mice were orally administered for 14 consecutive days. On the 7th day, all the mice were orally challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium ISM 50. The mice were sacrificed after 6 days of infection, Salmonella counts in the spleen and liver of the mice administered probiotics significantly declined (p < 0.001) as compared to the control group. We demonstrated that the probiotic mixture could be used to enhance the host serum IgA and IgG levels and prevent Salmonella infection.
Article
Full-text available
Kefir is becoming increasingly popular as a result of new research into its health benefits. It is a fermented milk drink which has its origin in the Caucasus Mountains of Russia. Kefir is prepared by inoculating milk with kefir grains which are a combination of bacteria and yeasts in a symbiotic matrix. The common microorganisms present are non-pathogenic bacteria, especially Lactobacillus sp. and yeasts. Kefir has a long history of health benefits in Eastern European countries. It is believed that kefir has therapeutic effects, thus it is important to study the various properties contained in, and exhibited by it. This review includes a critical revision of the antimicrobial, anti-carcinogenic, probiotic and prebiotic properties of kefir. Other health benefits, like reducing cholesterol and improving lactose tolerance are also discussed.
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Mounting evidence suggests a role for the gut microbiota in modulating brain physiology and behaviour through bi-directional communication along the gut-brain axis. As such, the gut microbiota represents a potential therapeutic target for influencing centrally-mediated events and host behaviour. It is thus notable that the fermented milk beverage kefir has recently been shown to modulate the composition of the gut microbiota in mice. It is unclear whether kefirs have differential effects on microbiota-gut-brain axis and whether they can modulate host behaviour per se. Methods: To address this, two distinct kefirs (Fr1 and UK4) or unfermented milk control were administered to mice that underwent a battery of tests to characterise their behavioural phenotype. In addition, shotgun metagenomic sequencing of ileal, cecal and faecal matter was performed, as was faecal metabolome analysis. Finally, systemic immunity measures and gut serotonin levels were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test or Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Fr1 ameliorated the stress-induced decrease in serotonergic signalling in the colon and reward-seeking behaviour in the saccharin preference test. On the other hand, UK4 decreased repetitive behaviour and ameliorated stress-induced deficits in reward-seeking behaviour. Furthermore, UK4 increased fear-dependent contextual memory, yet decreased milk gavage-induced improvements long-term spatial learning. In the peripheral immune system, UK4 increased the prevalence of Treg cells and interleukin 10 levels, whereas Fr1 ameliorated the milk gavage stress-induced elevation in neutrophil levels and CXCL1 levels. Analysis of the gut microbiota revealed that both kefirs significantly changed the composition and functional capacity of the host microbiota, where specific bacterial species were changed in a kefir-dependent manner. Furthermore, both kefirs increased the capacity of the gut microbiota to produce GABA, which was linked to an increased prevalence in Lactobacillus reuteri. Conclusions: Altogether, these data show that kefir can signal through the microbiota-gut-immune-brain axis and modulate host behaviour. In addition, different kefirs may direct the microbiota toward distinct immunological and behavioural modulatory effects. These results indicate that kefir can positively modulate specific aspects of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and support the broadening of the definition of psychobiotic to include kefir fermented foods.
Article
An exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strain of Pediococcus pentosaceus (SPO) belonging to lactic acid bacteria was isolated from the soil sample of sugarcane field of Orissa. The purified EPS synthesizing enzyme of the isolate was used for production of EPS. The crude EPS was purified by ethanol precipitation. The lyophilised EPS was characterized through a battery of physico-chemical analyses such as optical rotation, FT-1R, NMR, SEM and rheometry studies. Polarimetric results demonstrated the D-rotation of the EPS. FT-IR spectrum showed the abundance of -OH group revealing the cause of its hydrophilicity. 1HNMR, 13C NMR and 2D NMR studies showed the mixed α and α glycosidic linkages and branched nature of the EPS. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the highly porous surface, very crucial for food additive and biomaterial applications. Rheological study showed the typical polymeric Non-Newtonian pseudoplastic nature of EPS from the isolate Pediococcus pentosaceus opening a slew of industrial prospects.
Article
Full-text available
There has been increased interest in the study of nutrition and immunity. This is especially true with respect to the hypothesis that consumption of specific foods may reduce an individual's susceptibility to the establishment and/or progression of immunologic disease. Although an increased intake of a specific food may improve health status in select cases, chronic consumption of large amounts of one specific food may in fact be detrimental. The studies described here examined the long-term effect of yogurt consumption on two different age populations, young adults (20-40 y) and senior adults (55-70 y). There were three study groups per age group, live-culture yogurt, pasteurized yogurt and control (no yogurt), given 200 g/d of yogurt for 1 y. The subjects completed a questionnaire detailing health parameters on a weekly basis and a 4-d food record was taken monthly. Blood was taken every 3 mo and complete blood chemistry, blood count, total and specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production measured. Yogurt consumption, especially for the live-culture groups, was associated with a decrease in allergic symptoms in both age groups. Seniors in the control group experienced an increase in both total and LDL cholesterol, whereas those in the yogurt groups remained stable during the course of the study. There was little effect on IFN-gamma and IgE production, although seniors in the yogurt group had lower levels of total IgE throughout the year.
Article
Full-text available
Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p < 0.05) fecal isobutyric, isovaleric and propionic acids as well as the total amount of fecal short chain fatty acids. Kefir supplementation resulted in increased fecal bacterial content in the majority of the subjects. Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent.
Article
Full-text available
In healthy individuals, the immune responses against foods cannot be induced. This phenomenon is known as oral tolerance. We observed that the oral tolerance was impaired in germfree mice, and that Th2-dependent antibodies such as IgE could be thus induced by an orally given antigen. As a result, the germfree mouse was considered to be a good animal model for allergic disorder. When germfree mice were mono-associated with such bacteria as E.coli and B. infantis, then oral tolerance was restored in these gnotobiotes to a level similar to that observed in SPF mice. Thus, these bacterias seemed to be important in oral tolerance induction. In addition, the probiotics using these bacteria may be a useful material for the treatment of allergic disorders.
Article
Full-text available
An increase in plasma ovalbumin concentrations after intragastric administration of ovalbumin was suppressed by concomitant freeze-dried kefir in BALB/c mice. Serum levels of ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin G and proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells in mice immunized orally with ovalbumin were suppressed by feeding freeze-dried kefir. We propose that kefir reduces intestinal permeation of food antigen, which contributes to suppression of oral sensitization.
Article
The chronic consumption of yogurt has been associated with 'better health'. The authors previously reported a five-fold increase in the production of gamma-interferon in normal adults consuming 450 g of yogurt daily for 4 months, when compared to control groups consuming either heat-killed yogurt or no yogurt at all. The present study enrolled two groups: 42 young adults (age 20-40) and 56 senior adults (age 55-70), who were divided into three groups who consumed yogurt daily for 12 months: Group 1 consumed 200 g live-active yogurt; Group 2 consumed 200 g heat-killed yogurt; and Group 3 consumed no yogurt. The subjects completed a questionnaire detailing health parameters weekly and a 3-day food record monthly. Blood was taken each quarter; measurements included complete blood chemistry panel and blood count, total and specific IgEs, and production of gamma interferon. Yogurt consumption was associated with a decrease in allergic symptoms in both the senior and young five-active yogurt groups Seniors not consuming yogurt experienced an increase in both total and LDL cholesterol, while those consuming yogurt remained stable over the year. Seniors consuming yogurt also experienced a significant decrease in GGT. Gamma-interferon, total IgE, and specific IgE tests did not show any significant differences, although seniors consuming yogurt consistently had lower levels of total IgE throughout the year.
Article
The microbial composition of kefir grains of household origin from Taiwan was studied using scanning electron microscopy, and lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were isolated from these kefir grains and characterised with respect to their growth, lactic acid and ethanol production in milk. The lactic acid bacteria were localised mainly in the surface layer and yeasts at the centre of the grains. The lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir grains were identified as Lactobacillus helveticus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and the yeasts were identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus and Pichia fermentans. From the results of studying the growth characteristics of the above strains, Lb. helveticus possessed better growth characteristics, and K. marxianus exhibited better L-lactic acid and ethanol production. D-lactic acid was the major form produced by Ln. mesenteroides. P. fermentans was a lactose-non-fermenting yeast, therefore the active proteolytic enzymes were essential for its growth in milk.
Article
Lactosucrose (4G-β-D-galactosylsucrose) was fermented in vitro by bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, and to a limited degree by the Bacteroides fragilis group, clostridia, eubacteria, and enterobacteriaceae. The effects of dietary lactosucrose on the fecal flora and fecal metabolites were studied in eight healthy volunteers (20-23 years of age) who ingested 3 g of lactosucrose/day for 7 days followed by 6 g of lactosucrose/day for 7 consecutive days. During lactosucrose intake, the counts of bifidobacteria were increased significantly (p< 0.001), whereas the counts of clostridia, including Clostridium perfringens, and bacteroidaceae were decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with the values before the intake. The total bacterial counts were decreased significantly (p< 0.05) on day 14 during the intake. The frequency of occurrence of lecithinase-negative clostridia was decreased significantly (p<0.05) when compared with the values before and after the intake. No detectable changes occurred in the counts of other organisms throughout the experimental periods. Fecal concentrations of ammonia, sulfide, phenol, ethylphenol, skatol and indole were decreased significantly (p< 0.05) during lactosucrose intake. Acetic acid and lactic acid were increased significantly (p< 0.05) during the intake. Fecal enzyme activity of β-glucuronidase was decreased significantly (p< 0.05) on day 14 of the intake. Serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was increased significantly (p< 0.01) on day 14 during the intake. Mean fecal pH values decreased from 6.3 to 5.9, and mean water content increased 3.6% during the intake. Fecal weight was increased slightly during the intake. The results obtained showed that the effective dose of lactosucrose for all healthy adults is 3 g/day.
Article
The formation mechanism for the potent antioxidative o-dihydroxyisoflavones, 8-hydroxydaidzein (8-OHD) and 8-hydroxygenistein (8-OHG), was studied by incubating whole soybeans in a solid culture and a soybean extract in a liquid culture with Aspergillus saitoi. Analyses of changes in the isoflavone analogue content, β-glucosidase activity, and isoflavone hydroxylation ability indicated that 8-OHD and 8-OHG were formed from daidzein and genistein, respectively, by microbial hydroxylation, being respectively liberated from daidzin and genistin by β-glucosidase from A. saitoi during incubation. No selective hydroxylation reaction at the 8-position of daidzein and genistein were apparent during the vegetative stage, but were induced at the stage of sporulation.
Article
The recently developed SHIME reactor (Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem) was validated by analysing a number of microorganism-associated activities. Data from the reactor were compared with values from the literature and results obtained from the analysis of faecal material of eight healthy persons. The fermentation patterns of four polysaccharides were studied. Arabinogalactan, xylan and pectin gave fermentation patterns in vitro indistinguishable from in vivo. Five different enzymatic activities were compared with in vivo experiments. All had activities which were of the order of those observed in vitro. The pro-drug sulphasalazine, whose active compound is released through microbial modification in the large intestine, was used as a reference compound. A fair correlation between in vivo and in vitro was found for the latter transformation. In addition the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum on the autochthonous microbial populations was investigated. Administration of L plantarum resulted in an in vitro decrease in gram-negative anaerobic bacteria and total anaerobes. The same effect has been reported in vivo. The results obtained by the various validation experiments indicate that the reactor can be used to study the microbial communities of the gastrointestinal tract.
Article
Flavour, aroma and appearance of milks fermented with commercially available kefir grains were compared with similar characteristics of heat treated (90 ΰC/30 min) milks that had been fermented with aroma producing starters in addition to the kefir grains. The starters used were either a mixture of Streptococcus lactis subsp. diacetilactis and Leuconostoc cremoris (lactic culture) or of Str. thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (yogurt culture). Two methods of fermentation were investigated involving removal of the grains followed by (i) a second fermentation of the kefir with the aroma-producing organisms and (ii) combining the kefir with aroma-producing organisms for use as a starter to ferment a further sample of heat-treated milk. Products were assessed by a taste panel and marked for acceptability. Addition of lactic or yogurt cultures resulted in products with increased mean scores for aroma and more acceptable flavours.
Article
The characteristics of polysaccharides isolated from milk and soymilk kefir grains, and the composition of flavor and volatile compounds from soymilk kefir were investigated. Soymilk kefir grains revealed lower polysaccharide content than milk kefir grains, with a polysaccharide profile consisting primarily of glucose and galactose, with the former predominating. The apparent molecular weight of the polysaccharide was estimated at 1.7 × 106 Da. In comparison to nonfermented soymilk, the concentrations of the key volatile compounds for soymilk kefir (such as acetaldehyde, acetone, diacetyl, and ethanol) increased, while n-hexanal concentration decreased. The acetaldehyde level for soymilk kefir was slightly higher, but levels for the other volatile compounds were lower than for milk kefir.
Article
Interest in the physiological role of the bioactive compounds present in plants has increased dramatically over the last decade. Of particular interest in relation to human health are the class of compounds known as the phytoestrogens, which embody several groups of non-steroidal oestrogens including isoflavones, lignans and stilbenes that are widely distributed within the plant kingdom. These compounds have a wide range of hormonal and non-hormonal activities in animals or in vitro and these suggest plausible mechanisms for potential health effects of diets rich in these compounds in humans. In addition, experimental and epidemiological data are available to support the concept that phytoestrogen-rich diets exert physiological effects, and preliminary human studies suggest a potential role for dietary phytoestrogens in affecting hormone-dependent disease rates.© 2000 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
In the human large intestine bifidobacteria are a numerically important group of micro-organisms which are considered to exert a range of biological activities related to host health. One aspect is the inhibitory effect of these bacteria on other species, possibly excluding long term colonization by invasive pathogens. It has been suggested that the mechanism of inhibition carried out by bifidobacteria is related to the fermentative production of acids such as acetate and lactate. Experiments reported in this paper attemptedto address this theory. Co-culture experiments whereby Bifidobacterium infantis was incubated with Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens, in a varietyof fermentation systems, indicated that the bifidobacterium was able to exert an inhibitory effect not necessarily related to acid production. Further studies showed that eight species of bifidobacteria could variously excrete an anti-microbial substance with a broadspectrum of activity. Species belonging to the genera Salmonella, Listeria, Campylobacter and Shigella, as well as Vibrio cholerae, were all affected. These results show that bifidobacteria are able to exert more than one mechanism of inhibition, which may be of some importance with regard to protection against gastroenteritis.
Article
The effects of added glucose, lactose, and sucrose on microbial growth, acid, and ethanol production, and galactosidase activity in soymilk fermented with kefir grains were studied. Immediately after the addition of kefir grains to soymilk, the lactic-acid bacterial counts were higher, but the yeast counts were lower than in milk kefir. After fermentation for 32 h, the concentrations of yeast, lactic acid, and ethanol in soymilk were significantly lower than those in milk kefir. Addition of 1% glucose to soymilk stimulated growth of lactic-acid bacteria and yeast, the production of lactic acid and ethanol, and the β-galactosidase activity. Nevertheless α- galactosidase activity was suppressed by 1% glucose.
Article
Soybean milk, which serves as a base for a variety of beverages, contains raffinose, stachyose, pentanal and n-hexanal; the former two may be responsible for flatulence after fermentation, whilst the latter two for a beany flavour. Twenty-seven strains of Bifidobacterium were analyzed for their alpha-galactosidase activity and the production of lactic and acetic acids to determine their potential for use in the production of fermented soymilk. The behaviour of three strains in soymilk was studied to determine their ability to reduce alpha-D-galactosyl oligosaccharides and produce lactic and acetic acids. They all were able to reduce stachyose and raffinose. Pentanal and n-hexanal were metabolized by Bifidobacterium breve MB233. These data indicate that bifidobacteria can be used for biotechnological processes that employ soymilk as the substrate. A product with low levels of alpha-D-galactosyl oligosaccharides and alkylic aldehydes may be obtained.
Article
There are several potential health or nutritional benefits possible from some species of lactic acid bacteria. Among these are: improved nutritional value of food, control of intestinal infections, improved digestion of lactose, control of some types of cancer, and control of serum cholesterol levels. Some potential benefits may result from growth and action of the bacteria during the manufacture of cultured foods. Some may result from growth and action of certain species of the lactic acid bacteria in the intestinal tract following ingestion of foods containing them. In selecting a culture to produce a specific benefit it is necessary to consider not only the wide variation among species of the lactic acid bacteria but also that among strains within a given species. With the possible exception of improving lactose utilization by persons who are lactose maldigestors, no specific health or nutritional claims can yet be made for the lactic acid bacteria.
Article
A panel of antigen-specific mouse helper T cell clones was characterized according to patterns of lymphokine activity production, and two types of T cell were distinguished. Type 1 T helper cells (TH1) produced IL 2, interferon-gamma, GM-CSF, and IL 3 in response to antigen + presenting cells or to Con A, whereas type 2 helper T cells (TH2) produced IL 3, BSF1, and two other activities unique to the TH2 subset, a mast cell growth factor distinct from IL 3 and a T cell growth factor distinct from IL 2. Clones representing each type of T cell were characterized, and the pattern of lymphokine activities was consistent within each set. The secreted proteins induced by Con A were analyzed by biosynthetic labeling and SDS gel electrophoresis, and significant differences were seen between the two groups of T cell line. Both types of T cell grew in response to alternating cycles of antigen stimulation, followed by growth in IL 2-containing medium. Examples of both types of T cell were also specific for or restricted by the I region of the MHC, and the surface marker phenotype of the majority of both types was Ly-1+, Lyt-2-, L3T4+, Both types of helper T cell could provide help for B cells, but the nature of the help differed. TH1 cells were found among examples of T cell clones specific for chicken RBC and mouse alloantigens. TH2 cells were found among clones specific for mouse alloantigens, fowl gamma-globulin, and KLH. The relationship between these two types of T cells and previously described subsets of T helper cells is discussed.
Article
To examine the natural history of adverse reactions to foods, 480 children were followed prospectively from birth to their third birthdays. Foods thought to be causing symptoms were evaluated by elimination of suspected foods, open challenges, and double-blind food challenges. Foods producing symptoms were reintroduced into the diet at 1- to 3-month intervals until the symptoms no longer occurred. Of the 480 children completing the study, 28% were thought to have symptoms produced during food ingestion, but in only 8% were these reactions reproduced (excluding fruit and fruit juices). During the first year of life 80% of the initial complaints occurred. The most striking finding was the brief duration during which reactions could be reproduced. The majority of foods were replaced in the diet within 9 months of their incrimination. A long list of foods was reported to produce many symptoms, but only a few foods reproducibly evoked gastrointestinal and skin symptoms, with respiratory symptoms being infrequent. Of great interest was that 75 children were reported to react to fruit or fruit juice, and 56 of these children had reproducible symptoms. This study has found that most food reactions occur during the first year of life, but rechallenge at regular intervals has shown that the food can be reintroduced into the diet by the third year without risk. Almost all reactions that were reproduced appear to be non-immunoglobulin E mediated.
Article
Animal proteins such as casein are more hypercholesterolemic than soy protein or other plant proteins when fed to rabbits in low-fat, cholesterol-free, semipurified diets. A casein-amino acid mixture produces a hypercholesterolemia similar to that of casein. This appears to be mainly due to lysine and methionine, although other essential amino acids probably contribute to the effect. Arginine appeared to counteract the hypercholesterolemic effects of other essential amino acids. Soy protein gave a lower level of serum cholesterol in rabbits than did a soy protein-amino acid mixture, suggesting the presence of factors in soy protein that counteract the effects of hypercholesterolemic amino acids. Soy protein is also less hypercholesterolemic than casein in other animal species, particularly when the diet contains cholesterol, and substitution of soy protein for animal protein in the diet reduces the concentration of serum cholesterol in humans. This effect is somewhat variable but is generally greater in hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic subjects. The differing effects of dietary proteins on serum cholesterol concentrations in humans and in rabbits are primarily due to changes in LDL cholesterol, and the hypercholesterolemia produced by dietary casein is associated with down-regulation of hepatic LDL receptors.
Article
In the human large intestine bifidobacteria are a numerically important group of micro-organisms which are considered to exert a range of biological activities related to host health. One aspect is the inhibitory effect of these bacteria on other species, possibly excluding long term colonization by invasive pathogens. It has been suggested that the mechanism of inhibition carried out by bifidobacteria is related to the fermentative production of acids such as acetate and lactate. Experiments reported in this paper attempted to address this theory. Co-culture experiments whereby Bifidobacterium infantis was incubated with Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens, in a variety of fermentation systems, indicated that the bifidobacterium was able to exert an inhibitory effect not necessarily related to acid production. Further studies showed that eight species of bifidobacteria could variously excrete an anti-microbial substance with a broad spectrum of activity. Species belonging to the genera Salmonella, Listeria, Campylobacter and Shigella, as well as Vibrio cholerae, were all affected. These results show that bifidobacteria are able to exert more than one mechanism of inhibition, which may be of some importance with regard to protection against gastroenteritis.
Article
A large body of evidence suggests the existence of polarized human T cell responses, reminiscent of Th1 and Th2 subsets described for mouse T cells. Human Th1-like cells preferentially develop during infections by intracellular bacteria, protozoa, and viruses, whereas Th2-like cells predominate during helminthic infestations and in response to common environmental allergens. The cytokine profile of “natural immunity” evoked by different offending agents in the context of different host genetic backgrounds appears to be a critical factor in determining the phenotype of the subsequent specific response. Strongly polarized human Th1-type and Th2-type responses not only play different roles in protection, they can also promote different immunopathological reactions. Th1-type responses appear to be involved in organ specific autoimmunity, in contact dermatitis, and in some chronic inflammatory disorders of unknown etiology. In contrast, in genetically predisposed hosts, Th2-type responses against common environmental allergens are responsible for triggering of allergic atopic disorders. Altered profiles of lymphokine production may account for immune dysfunctions in some primary or acquired immunodeficiency syndromes. The role of lymphokines produced by T cells in the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune disorders is less clear. Further work is also required to better clarify the role of T cell-derived lymphokines in protecting against tumors or in favoring their development.
Article
International variations in cancer rates have been attributed, at least in part, to differences in dietary intake. Recently, it has been suggested that consumption of soyfoods may contribute to the relatively low rates of breast, colon, and prostate cancers in countries such as China and Japan. Soybeans contain a number of anticarcinogens, and a recent National Cancer Institute workshop recommended that the role of soyfoods in cancer prevention be investigated. In this review, the hypothesis that soy intake reduces cancer risk is considered by examining relevant in vitro, animal, and epidemiological data. Soybeans are a unique dietary source of the isoflavone genistein, which possesses weak estrogenic activity and has been shown to act in animal models as an antiestrogen. Genistein is also a specific inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases; it also inhibits DNA topoisomerases and other critical enzymes involved in signal transduction. In vitro, genistein suppresses the growth of a wide range of cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 5 to 40 microM (1-10 micrograms/ml). Of the 26 animal studies of experimental carcinogenesis in which diets containing soy or soybean isoflavones were employed, 17 (65%) reported protective effects. No studies reported soy intake increased tumor development. The epidemiological data are also inconsistent, although consumption of nonfermented soy products, such as soymilk and tofu, tended to be either protective or not associated with cancer risk; however, no consistent pattern was evident with the fermented soy products, such as miso. Protective effects were observed for both hormone- and nonhormone-related cancers. While a definitive statement that soy reduces cancer risk cannot be made at this time, there is sufficient evidence of a protective effect to warrant continued investigation.
Article
Sex hormones have profound effects on immune responses and may influence the outcome of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the effect of gonadal steroids on the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6, cytokines believed to be important in the pathogenesis of RA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from healthy male donors and male patients with RA, and were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence of different concentrations of 17-beta-estradiol, progesterone or testosterone. In studies of cells from normal male donors, 17-beta-estradiol at pharmacological concentrations (> or = 10(-6) M) enhanced IL-1 and IL-6 secretion as well as the production of cell-associated IL-1. Progesterone and testosterone at similar concentrations inhibited IL-1 secretion but had no significant effect on IL-6 secretion or on the production of cell-associated IL-1. In studies of male RA donors, 17-beta-estradiol failed to enhance IL-1 or IL-6 secretion and progesterone failed to inhibit IL-1 secretion. The inhibitory effects of testosterone, however, appeared to be similar to that in normal donors. It is suggested that 17-beta-estradiol may promote IL-1 and IL-6 production and release, while gestation hormone, progesterone, and testosterone may inhibit IL-1 release in vivo. These data may partly explain the gender and age differences in the incidence of RA and the development of the disease in men with low and androgen levels.
Article
Ovalbumin-loaded poly (D,L-lactide co-glycolide) [OVA-loaded PLG] microparticles, produced by emulsion/solvent evaporation stimulated the production of high serum IgG antibody levels after a single subcutaneous (s.c.) administration in mice and the duration of the immune response paralleled the degradation rate of the carrier. Formulations based on slow resorbing PLG maintained relatively constant peak antibody levels for 26 weeks and high titres for over 1 year at a level approximating the peak response to the faster resorbing, OVA-loaded particles which was of lower duration. Vaccine formulations prepared by simple mixing of blank PLG microparticles and OVA exhibited low primary immune responses which were only elevated by boosting. OVA-loaded PLG microparticles exhibited a substantial surface protein component amounting to ca 40% and 60% of the total protein loading for slow resorbing and fast resorbing PLG, respectively. These findings suggest that sustained presentation of surface protein to the immune system was a major factor in the induction and long-term maintenance of high antibody titres following a single s.c. administration of OVA-loaded microparticles.
Article
The gastrointestinal microflora is an important constituent of the gut mucosal defense barrier. We have previously shown that a human intestinal floral strain, Lactobacillus GG (ATCC 53103), promotes local antigen-specific immune responses (particularly in the IgA class), prevents permeability defects, and confers controlled antigen absorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and immunologic effects of cow's milk elimination without (n = 14) and with (n = 13) the addition of Lactobacillus GG (5 x 10(8) colony-forming units/gm formula) in an extensively hydrolyzed whey formula in infants with atopic eczema and cow's milk allergy. The second part of the study involved 10 breast-fed infants who had atopic eczema and cow's milk allergy. In this group Lactobacillus GG was given to nursing mothers. The severity of atopic eczema was assessed by clinical scoring. The concentrations of fecal alpha 1- antitrypsin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and eosinophil cationic protein were determined as markers of intestinal inflammation before and after dietary intervention. The clinical score of atopic dermatitis improved significantly during the 1-month study period in infants treated with the extensively hydrolyzed whey formula fortified with Lactobacillus GG. The concentration of alpha 1-antitrypsin decreased significantly in this group (p = 0.03) but not in the group receiving the whey formula without Lactobacillus GG (p = 0.68). In parallel, the median (lower quartile to upper quartile) concentration of fecal tumor necrosis factor-alpha decreased significantly in this group, from 709 pg/gm (91 to 1131 pg/gm) to 34 pg/gm (19 to 103 pg/gm) (p = 0.003), but not in those receiving the extensively hydrolyzed whey formula only (p = 0.38). The concentration of fecal eosinophil cationic protein remained unaltered during therapy. These results suggest that probiotic bacteria may promote endogenous barrier mechanisms in patients with atopic dermatitis and food allergy, and by alleviating intestinal inflammation, may act as a useful tool in the treatment of food allergy.
Article
Animal and human studies have suggested that yogurt containing live active bacteria leads to improved immune and clinical responses. Specific benefits of yogurt containing L. acidophilus on allergic asthma have been hypothesized but not studied. In a crossover double-blinded design, the effect of live active yogurt (225 g twice daily) with or without L. acidophilus was studied in 15 adult patients with moderate asthma. Immune and clinical parameters were measured before and after the two 1-month crossover phases. No significant changes were noted in peripheral cell counts, IgE, IL-2, or IL-4 when comparing the two diets to each other. Concanvalin A-stimulated lymphocytes from patients who consumed yogurt containing L. acidophilus produced borderline elevated interferon gamma levels (P = .054). No differences were noted in mean daily peak flows or changes in spirometric values. Quality of life indices were unchanged when comparing the two groups. Yogurt containing L. acidophilus generated trends in the increase in interferon gamma and decreased eosinophilia; however, we were unable to detect changes in clinical parameters in asthma patients in association with these modest immune changes.
Article
We investigated the effect of oral feeding of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on immunoglobulin E (IgE) production in mice. The strain was orally administered to BALB/c mice that had been preinjected intraperitoneally with ovalbumin, and the level of IgE in serum was determined. Results indicated that the oral feeding of L. casei strain Shirota was effective in inhibiting IgE production in serum, and the IgE production in response to ovalbumin was significantly inhibited in the mice. The in vitro production of IgE by the spleen cells from mice fed L. casei strain Shirota in response to restimulation with ovalbumin was inhibited in contrast to that of spleen cells from the control group. We also examined the pattern of cytokine production by spleen cells from mice fed L. casei strain Shirota followed by restimulation with ovalbumin in vitro. In the mice fed L. casei strain Shirota, the production by the spleen cells of Th1 cell-associated cytokines, such as interferon-gamma and interleukin-2, was higher than that by the spleen cells from the control group. In contrast, the production of Th2 cell-associated cytokines, such as interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10, by spleen cells in the group fed L. casei strain Shirota was lower than that by the cells from the control group. Furthermore, the interleukin-12 production of the spleen cells from mice fed L. casei strain Shirota was also higher than that of the control group.
Article
Lactobacillus casei is a nonpathogenic gram-positive bacterium widely used in dairy products and has been shown to enhance the cellular immunity of the host. To examine the inhibitory effect of L. casei on IgE production, splenocytes obtained from ovalbumin (OVA)-primed BALB/c mice were restimulated in vitro with the same antigen in the presence of heat-killed L. casei. The effect of this bacterium on T helper (Th) phenotype development was also examined with naive T cells from OVA-specific T cell receptor-transgenic mice. L. casei induced IFN-gamma, but inhibited IL-4 and IL-5 secretion, and markedly suppressed total and antigen-specific IgE secretion by OVA-stimulated splenocytes. The inhibitory effect of L. casei on IgE, IL-4, and IL-5 production was partially abrogated by addition of neutralizing antibody to IFN-gamma. Augmented IL-12 production was also observed in the cell cultures containing L. casei, and anti-IL-12 monoclonal antibody completely restored the IgE, IL-4, and IL-5 production to the control levels. The IL-12 augmentation by L. casei was macrophage-dependent. The Th cell development assay showed the ability of L. casei to induce Th1 development preferentially. This effect was also completely blocked by anti-IL-12 antibody. This is the first demonstration that a nonpathogenic microorganism, L. casei, can inhibit antigen-induced IgE production through induction of IL-12 secretion by macrophages. The findings suggest a potential use of this organism in preventing IgE-mediated allergy.
Article
The ingestion of viable bacteria is thought to be required to modify intestinal microflora. In the present study, the effects on fecal flora of consumption of cell-free concentrated whey from milk that had been fermented with Bifidobacterium breve C50 was tested using 10 healthy human volunteers. Results were compared with effects of a commercial milk formula that had been fermented with Streptococcus thermophilus and B. breve C50 and given to 10 control subjects. Nitroreductase and beta-glucuronidase activities were assessed as risk indexes for colon carcinogenesis, and beta-galactosidase was measured as an indicator of the fermentation capacity of the colonic flora. Fecal excretion of Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, and clostridial spores decreased after 7 d of consumption of either preparation; however, counts of bifidobacteria only increased after intake of B. breve whey. Fecal pH was reduced from 7.1 +/- 0.2 to 6.6 +/- 0.3 after intake of whey that had been fermented with Bif. breve. Fecal nitroreductase and beta-glucuronidase significantly decreased, and beta-galactosidase activity increased, after consumption of either preparation. The results indicate that ingestion of viable bifidobacteria was not required to modify intestinal flora of humans. Repression of B. fragilis and clostridia seems to be independent of colonic bifidobacterial overgrowth in humans.
Article
Food allergy is caused by production of IgE against dietary antigen induced by T(H2) response. IL-12 inhibits T(H2) responses and strongly suppresses IgE production. We have recently established a murine model for IgE production with a predominant T(H2) response induced by feeding antigen. We here show a suppressive effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137, a potent inducer of IL-12, on IgE production against naturally fed antigen in a murine model. The ability of L. plantarum L-137 to induce IL-12 production was examined in vitro and in vivo. DBA/2 mice were fed a casein diet and injected intraperitoneally with L. plantarum L-137 from the beginning of feeding or 2 weeks later. Recombinant mouse IL-12 was also injected 2 weeks after the start of feeding. Casein-specific IgE and IgG1 in plasma were determined by ELISA. L. plantarum L-137 directly induced IL-12 production by the peritoneal macrophages and also stimulated spleen cells to produce both IL-12 and interferon-gamma in vitro. In vivo treatment of L. plantarum L-137 also increased the plasma level of IL-12 in mice. Plasma anti-casein IgG1 and IgE levels were gradually elevated in DBA/2 mice fed a casein diet. Administration of L. plantarum L-137 from the beginning of feeding suppressed the elevation of anti-casein IgE levels, whereas the levels of anti-casein IgG1 were rather augmented by L. plantarum L-137. IL-12 production of the peritoneal macrophages was enhanced, but IL-4 production of concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated spleen cells was suppressed in the L. plantarum L-137-treated mice compared with control mice fed a casein diet. When L. plantarum L-137 was given from 2 weeks after the start of feeding, anti-casein IgE levels were also significantly suppressed, which was similar to the result found in mice treated with IL-12. Our results suggest that L. plantarum L-137, a potent IL-12 inducer, is useful for prevention and treatment of food allergy.