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Are highly structured interviews resistant to demographic similarity effects?

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Abstract

This study examines the extent to which highly structured job interviews are resistant to demographic similarity effects. The sample comprised nearly 20,000 applicants for a managerial-level position in a large organization. Findings were unequivocal: Main effects of applicant gender and race were not associated with interviewers’ ratings of applicant performance nor was applicant–interviewer similarity with regard to gender and race. These findings address past inconsistencies in research on demographic similarity effects in employment interviews and demonstrate the value of using highly structured interviews to minimize the potential influence of applicant demographic characteristics on selection decisions.

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... Researchers often focus on categorization of race (and gender) because of the "strong tendency of employees to categorize themselves and others" and the "consequent strong influence of these categories on social identities" (Chattopadhyay, Tluchowska, & George, 2004: 181). Although structuring selection devices can minimize or eliminate similarity effects (e.g., McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010;Sacco, Scheu, Ryan, & Schmitt, 2003), we again note that SM assessments are not readily amenable to standardization and structure. ...
... The amount of individuating information is also an important issue. Individuating information is defined as the identification of job-related KSAs or other individual differences that help predict subsequent outcomes such as job performance or withdrawal (McCarthy et al., 2010). A meta-analysis of experimental research found that individuating information explained approximately 8 times more variance in hiring recommendations than did gender (Olian, Schwab, & Haberfield, 1988; see also Burke, 2000, andLocksley, Borgida, Brekke, &Hepburn, 1980). ...
... A meta-analysis of experimental research found that individuating information explained approximately 8 times more variance in hiring recommendations than did gender (Olian, Schwab, & Haberfield, 1988; see also Burke, 2000, andLocksley, Borgida, Brekke, &Hepburn, 1980). This is important as individuating information has been theorized to help "fight" stereotypes (e.g., Landy, 2010) and can reduce ethnic group differences and similarity effects (McCarthy et al., 2010;Sacco et al., 2003). ...
... In the employment research literature, the superiority of structured interviews over unstructured interviews is well-established. For example, a recent large-scale field study of nearly 20,000 applicants (McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010) concluded that high-structure interviews are useful to "minimize the potential influence of applicant demographic characteristics on selection decisions" (p. 325). ...
... Our review of the literature shows that all studies of racial similarity bias in interviews were conducted either in high-or low-structured conditions. For example, the aforementioned study (McCarthy et al., 2010) investigated similarity biases using only highstructured interviews (see also Melchers, Lienhardt, Von Aarburg, & Kleinmann, 2011;Sacco et al., 2003). This trend is understandable, as practical and ethical issues make comparative studies of the effects of high-versus lowstructure interviews in field studies largely impossible. ...
... Most of these (De Meijer, Ph. Born, Van Zielst, & Van Der Molen, 2007;McCarthy et al., 2010;McFarland, Ryan, Sacco, & Kriska, 2004;Sacco et al., 2003) have shown trivial or no racial similarity bias effects in interview ratings when high-structured interviews were used. For example, Buckley et al. (2007) divided 20 assessors into racially balanced panels and asked them to rate applicants in video-taped interviews. ...
Article
We used a quasi-experiment to examine the relationship between interview structure and racial bias in simulated employment interviews. Although recent meta-analytic findings suggest that high-structure interviews (as compared to low-structure interviews) reduce same-race bias in interview ratings, this claim has not been tested using research designs that allow for stronger inference about the potential links between interview structure and bias. We showed videotaped interviews to 386 business students and, within both high- and low-structure conditions, determined levels of racial similarity bias using multilevel analysis. Our study used a fully-crossed design within each condition, where all raters evaluated all applicants. As we expected, findings indicated that interviewers favored racially similar applicants less in high structure interviews than in low structure interviews. Our findings provide quasi-experimental evidence that increased interview structure may be effective to suppress racial similarity bias in employment interview ratings.
... During the screening stage, applicants with ethnic names, such that they are discernable on their resumes, are less likely to be selected to continue in the hiring process (King et al., 2006). When interviewing, perceived demographic similarity between hiring managers and applicants was shown to increase perceptions of applicant liking (García et al., 2008) and hiring manager ratings (McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010). Taken together, applicant demographic characteristics and the demographic similarity between applicants and hiring managers are extremely relevant throughout all stages of the hiring process. ...
... Hiring managers have the opportunity to analyze and assess applicants more in depth (Bowen et al., 1991), allowing hiring managers to develop subjective interpretations of job applicants (Rivera, 2012). Although the interviewing stage typically occurs at the end of the hiring process, it is the most common tool used by organizations to assess applicants (McCarthy et al., 2010) and is often considered the most relevant to the actual hiring decision (Graves & Powell, 1995). While the information obtained during this stage will have likely remained unchanged from the prior stages, it is the richness of the information that is different and may substantially impact the hiring manager. ...
... Within the selection literature, demographic similarity between hiring managers and applicants on the basis of race and ethnicity (e.g., Avery, McKay, & Wilson, 2008;Cunningham & Sagas, 2004;McCarthy et al., 2010;McFarland et al., 2004), gender (e.g., García et al., 2008;Goldberg, 2003Goldberg, , 2005Huffcutt, 2011), and age (e.g., García et al., 2008;Goldberg, 2003Goldberg, , 2005Macan, 2009) have been considered relevant to perceptions of applicant fit. However, research has yielded mixed findings. ...
Article
Social class describes individuals’ possession of economic, social, and cultural capital, and their subjective social rankings relative to others (Bourdieu, 1984). As social class can be easily detected, it is quite likely that it plays a significant role in many workplace processes, such as selection. By considering the context of the hiring process, my dissertation explores the impact of social class from the perspective of hiring managers. First, I conducted a construct clarity study to clarify the multidimensional nature of the construct of social class. Second, using the factors found from my construct clarity study, I developed applicant stimulus materials (e.g., referral email, resume, video interviews) representative of three stages of the hiring process (e.g., acquiring, screening, and interviewing). Stimulus materials were presented to 78 participants in the acquiring stage, 105 participants in the screening stage, and 220 participants in the interviewing stage. Results of this dissertation find that hiring managers’ perceptions of applicant P-O fit are influenced by applicants’ social class. These effects are found during the acquiring stage and decrease in significance and prevalence as the hiring process progresses. Implications to research and practice as well as future directions for continued research on social class in the management literature are presented.
... To accomplish this goal, we draw on a number of related literatures to explain the logic and links of our model, as well as to provide a research agenda for these relationships. We integrate theories that have been used in organizational research, such as similarity-attraction (e.g., Byrne, 1971), identification (Kreiner & Ashforth, 2004), theoretical notions related to individuating information (from applied psychology, as per McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010 and sociology, as per Reskin, 2000), and person-organization fit (Kristof- Brown & Guay, 2011), with work in political science and communications (e.g., Abramowitz & Spencer, 2015b, 2015a. Our major contributions include: (a) introducing the variables of political affiliation and political affiliation similarity to applied psychology and management research (fields with virtually no published research on this topic); (b) outlining the importance of the variables of identification and disidentification in capturing key affect-laden dynamics in the current political environment (variables needed in political science and applied psychology); and (c) describing the process by which political affiliation similarity might relate to organizational personnel actions (e.g., hiring decisions) and individual reaction decisions (e.g., continuing the job application process) for which there is very little work in any field. ...
... Several studies focused on sex similarity. Two large scale studies of structured interviews found no effects for sex similarity (McCarthy et al., 2010;Sacco, Scheu, Ryan, & Schmitt, 2003). Two other studies of a variety of interview types, likely including unstructured interviews, showed nonsignificant sex similarity effects or a negative relationship between sex similarity and interview ratings such that dissimilarity was associated with slightly higher ratings than similarity (Goldberg, 2005;Graves & Powell, 1996). ...
... An overlapping set of studies addressed race/ethnicity similarity. Again, several large studies of structured interviews (designed to elicit job-related information) found no statistical relationship and an HLM pseudo R 2 of zero (McCarthy et al., 2010;Sacco et al., 2003). Another pair of studies found relatively small effects for race similarity, with Black-majority interview panels preferring Black applicants or, in one of two samples, Hispanic interview panels preferring Hispanic applicants (Lin, Dobbins, & Farh, 1992), though the percentage of variance explained by similarity effects was only 1%-3% (and in some samples 0% for White panels and White applicants). ...
Article
Recent research in political science, along with theory in applied psychology, has suggested that political affiliation may be associated with substantial levels of affect and, thus, might influence employment decision-makers. We designed 2 experiments using social media screening tasks to examine the effects of political affiliation similarity on ratings of hireability. Our findings in both studies suggest that the identification (capturing positive affect) and disidentification (capturing negative affect) of a decision-maker with a job applicant's political affiliation were important variables that influenced perceived similarity. Consistent with the similarity-attraction paradigm, perceived similarity was related to liking and, in turn, liking was related to expected levels of applicant task and organizational citizenship behavior performance. Further, in both studies, political affiliation related variables influenced hireability decisions over and above job-relevant individuating information. Future research should continue to examine political affiliation similarity, particularly in light of its frequent availability to decision-makers (e.g., via social media websites). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... However, despite continued research interest, employment discrimination persists to this day. To discourage acts of employment discrimination, a large body of work has promoted the use of structured interviews, which previous research supports as being relatively resistant to discrimination (Levashina et al., 2014;McCarthy et al., 2010;Pogrebtsova et al., 2020). For example, when examining individual ratings and panel consensus ratings for public transit operators, Pogrebtsova et al. (2020) found that structured interviews were resistant to gender bias-even when hiring for a position that was largely dominated by men. ...
... On the whole, our results support the structured interview's general resistance to discrimination (in terms of rating scales), even when selecting for highly gendered jobs (Davison & Burke, 2000;Koch et al., 2015;Levashina et al., 2014;McCarthy et al., 2010;Pogrebtsova et al., 2020). Moreover, our results highlight the distinction that needs to be made between candidate ratings of specific competencies, global candidate ratings, and final hiring decisions, as the effects of discrimination were different for each of these outcomes. ...
... Stereotypes undoubtedly exist (e.g., Eagly et al., 2019); however previous research suggests that the structured interview is fairly resistant to acts of employment discrimination (McCarthy et al., 2010;Pogrebtsova et al., 2020). Our studies build on previous findings by Pogrebtsova et al. (2020) in two key ways. ...
Article
Job interviews are cognitively demanding tasks for interviewers. However, it is unclear whether the high cognitive load (CL) that interviewers face will ultimately compromise the resistance to discrimination that otherwise distinguishes structured interviews from other selection methods. Using a two-study experimental design, we explored the effect of cognitive load on gender discrimination in structured job interviews. In Study 1, participants completed an online interview simulation in which they assessed both a male and a female candidate applying for either a male- or female-dominated job, while under either a high or low degree of cognitive load. Participants provided ratings of each candidate's suitability for the job as well as a final, ipsative hiring decision. Study 2 served as a larger replication of Study 1. Overall, CL was not found to affect candidate ratings. These results support the structured interview's general resistance to discrimination. Practitioner points • Previous research supports structured interviews' relative resistance to discrimination. • Our research demonstrates that structured interviews can minimize discrimination, even when hiring for highly “gendered” jobs. • The (small) effects of discrimination were different in our study for each of the following outcomes: ratings of specific competencies, global candidate ratings, and final hiring decisions. • Certain competencies themselves may be gender-typed. Using structured ratings can mitigate the extent to which stereotypes ultimately translate into discriminatory candidate ratings. • Across the two studies, there was some reliance on heuristic decision-making under conditions of high cognitive load. • The overall weak effects of cognitive load on participants' overall hiring decisions highlights the structured interview's resistance to discrimination.
... Use the same questions for all applicants. (Huffcutt & Roth, 1998;McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010;McDaniel, Whetzel, Schmidt, & Maurer, 1994) Regularly Assess Recruitment and Selection Techniques (long-term plan) ...
... Since interviews are the most common technique used to hire employees, it is important to focus on reducing the likelihood of a similar-to-me bias and making the interviews more predictive of future performance. Interviewers should use structured interviews, asking job-related and situational questions (McDaniel et al., 1994), which can eliminate racial similarity bias (McCarthy et al., 2010), along with increasing the likelihood of finding the most qualified applicants for job vacancies. Choosing the most qualified person is particularly important to small firms who have few employees and are less able to afford hiring mistakes. ...
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capitalAlthough human resource managers have long realized the impact of diversity on organizational outcomes, most of the research to date has focused on large organizations. Very little consideration has been given to small firms in the United States with fewer than 15 em-ployees, which are not required to comply with federal Equal Employment Opportunity legislation. We propose that by valuing racial diversity and creating an inclusive organizational climate from inception, new small firms with growth objectives can increase their competitiveness, leading to better performance and long-term survival. Anchoring our arguments in intellectual capital theory, coupled with Cox and Blake’s seminal work on valuing diversity, we provide testable propositions that detail why new small firms should pursue and view racial diversity as a strategic business tool, even when they are not legally required to attend to these issues. We offer practical recommendations for small firms seeking to create an affirming climate for racial diversity and strategies that can be used to recruit, select, retain, and benefit from a racially diverse workforce.APA Citation Information:Sequeira, J. M., Weeks, K. P., Bell, M. P., & Gibbs, S. R. (2018). Making the case for diversity as a strategic business tool in small firm survival and success. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 28(3), 31-47. 32J
... The interviewer(s) will be responsible for interpreting the content and evaluating the content to allow the interviewer(s) to properly score the candidate. Most organizations do not provide any type of interview training to the interviewer(s) who will be responsible for selecting the next employee or selecting the next promotion for the agency (McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010;Terpstra, & Rozell, 1997). Given the importance, why are so few agencies unwilling to provide such critical training? ...
... The reality is that most employees lack the advanced skills and knowledge to conduct interviews. A number of research studies have shown that providing interviewer training significantly increases the quality of the final selection (McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010;Terpstra, & Rozell, 1997;Woehr, & Huffcutt, 1994). ...
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The employment interview screening process is the most widely used process to screen employment and promotional candidates. The purpose of this article was to explore the employment and promotional screening process with a focus on structured and unstructured interviews; steps to conducting employment screening training for public sector organizations. The article is based on current literature on employment and promotional screening procedures. By sharing this content, public sector organizations are better prepared to take the necessary steps to minimize legal challenges to the employment interview process, increase process validity and credibility, and show the need for interview individual rating scales. The article calls for agencies to move towards a formal training program that an individual must take to participate as an employment & promotional interviewer.
... Research by Williamson (1997) examining why structured interviews are more defensible in Canadian court highlights this finding, as she uncovered that interview questions that were behavior-based and specific were significant reasons why tribunals ruled in favor of selection decisions that relied on structured interviews (Hackett et al., 2004). In addition, structured interviews also avoid racial and gender similarity issues between the interviewer and applicant that are more likely to occur in unstructured interviews where jobrelated characteristics are not directly measured (McCarthy et al., 2010). In an unstructured interview, an interviewer may rely more on intuition or stereotypes, to guide their decision making on whether to hire an applicant (Buckley et al., 2007;McCarthy et al., 2010;Terpstra et al., 1999). ...
... In addition, structured interviews also avoid racial and gender similarity issues between the interviewer and applicant that are more likely to occur in unstructured interviews where jobrelated characteristics are not directly measured (McCarthy et al., 2010). In an unstructured interview, an interviewer may rely more on intuition or stereotypes, to guide their decision making on whether to hire an applicant (Buckley et al., 2007;McCarthy et al., 2010;Terpstra et al., 1999). Implementing structure in an employment interview is not just a legal defense buffer, but a legal defense necessity (Moscoso, 2000;Terpstra et al., 1999;Walter, 2017;Williamson et al., 1997). ...
Thesis
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Despite the numerous benefits structured interviews offer, prior research and literature has shown that hiring professionals are inclined to use unstructured interviews over structured interviews. While unstructured interviews are convenient, they pose several severe limitations when compared to structured interviews. Namely, unstructured interviews can result in adverse legal outcomes, significantly worse predictive validity, and difficulty in comparing applicants. Our research examines if three variables: Interviewer conventional personality, interviewer training, and recording improve the acceptance and use of structured interviews. Our study included 171 hiring managers from the SIOP user directory, SIUE alumni from the I/O psychology program, Human Resource managers from the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM), and managers recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Our survey found that interviewer training helped improve acceptance and content standardization of the interview. Neither interviewer conventional personality nor recording of the interview improved structured interview acceptance or use. However, our results did find that structured interviews are used more often than previously thought and that recording was used by a third of respondents to compare applicants or for legal defense. We found marginal support that interviewers who recorded their interviews reported using lower content standardization. Given our findings, we recommend that interviewer training be used to improve structured interview acceptance and use above and beyond recording.
... The interviewer(s) will be responsible for interpreting the content and evaluating the content to allow the interviewer(s) to properly score the candidate. Most organizations do not provide any type of interview training to the interviewer(s) who will be responsible for selecting the next employee or selecting the next promotion for the agency (McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010;Terpstra, & Rozell, 1997). Given the importance, why are so few agencies unwilling to provide such critical training? ...
... The reality is that most employees lack the advanced skills and knowledge to conduct interviews. A number of research studies have shown that providing interviewer training significantly increases the quality of the final selection (McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010;Terpstra, & Rozell, 1997;Woehr, & Huffcutt, 1994). ...
Article
Tense relations between law enforcement and fire departments have long been a fact of life in many cities often leading to animosity and conflict. Some experts opine that this is emerging as a serious domestic preparedness problem. While NIMS/ICS was intended to provide a framework under which all responders could operate in a structured and coordinated management system many departments only use ICS on large incidents. Conflict between law enforcement and fire still exist on routine incidents and how these departments respond to routine incidents is a reflection of how they will respond to larger incidents. With many law enforcement and fire departments developing joint operating task forces to respond to terrorist and natural disaster events has the time come for law enforcement and fire departments to develop joint operating policies? Research indicates there is a slowly developing trend for law enforcement and fire departments to work together more closely including the development joint operating policies that clarify roles, responsibilities, and authority at incidents. Key Words: Fire, Collaboration, Law enforcement, Policies, Procedures, Training, NIMS/ICS
... First, most of this research has examined African Americans as the non-White subgroup instead of Hispanic Americans. Second, there is some evidence that more structured evaluation processes, such as structured interviews (McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010), may reduce performance rating discrepancies across race and ethnicity. 5 Although not the main focus of our meta-analysis, we also encountered a few studies that reported Hispanic-White mean differences for employees on work samples or job knowledge. ...
Article
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Previous studies have concluded that cognitive ability tests are not predictively biased against Hispanic American job applicants because test scores generally overpredict, rather than underpredict, their job performance. However, we highlight two important shortcomings of these past studies and use meta‐analytic and computation modeling techniques to address these two shortcomings. In Study 1, an updated meta‐analysis of the Hispanic‐White mean difference (d‐value) on job performance was carried out. In Study 2, computation modeling was used to correct the Study 1 d‐values for indirect range restriction and combine them with other meta‐analytic parameters relevant to predictive bias to determine how often cognitive ability test scores underpredict Hispanic applicants’ job performance. Hispanic applicants’ job performance was underpredicted by a small to moderate amount in most conditions of the computation model. In contrast to previous studies, this suggests cognitive ability tests can be expected to exhibit predictive bias against Hispanic applicants much of the time. However, some conditions did not exhibit underprediction, highlighting that predictive bias depends on various selection system parameters, such as the criterion‐related validity of cognitive ability tests and other predictors used in selection. Regardless, our results challenge “lack of predictive bias” as a rationale for supporting test use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Daarnaast blijkt dat open interviews het proces in de hand werken dat mensen geneigd zijn om mensen die op hen lijken positiever te evalueren, terwijl dit proces in gestructureerde interviews juist wordt tegengegaan (Kock en Hauptfleisch 2018;McCarthy et al. 2010). ...
... Cross-classified data structures commonly exist in context of panel employment interviews, when different applicants for a job opening are being interviewed by different interviewers, depending on their individual availabilities. In this context, the study by McCarthy et al. (2010) can be seen as exemplary. They studied demographic similarity effects in highly structured interviews. ...
Article
Cross-classified models accommodate data structures that have more than one cluster variable, which are not nested in each other but overlap. They simultaneously consider all clustering variables. This allows one to study effects on several levels at once. Cross-classified data structures are common in various field of applied research (e.g., research on teams, career paths, interventions). The present article demonstrates modeling options and specifications for cross-classified data to be used within these different research strands. For more specific demonstration purposes, we use a data set on rater variance in assessment centers. Commonly, raters observe only a subset of participants and hence ratings are both nested in participants and raters, but participants and raters are not nested in each other. Using cross-classified models allows studying sources of rater variance (e.g., professional expertise) and interactions between cluster level variables, for example, interactions between participants' and raters' personality and sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., gender). From a practical research point of view and to ease application, we deliver a step-by-step overview of modeling procedures and power analysis including software code.
... 3. Consider how to reduce bias and stigma in evaluation across interviewers. Some steps that have been suggested include interviewer training, Some steps that have been suggested include interviewer training, building structure into both the interview content and the evaluation components , and using multiple structured interviews in the selection process (McCarthy et al., 2010). ...
Technical Report
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Although they can take on a wide variety of forms and can occur at different parts of a selection process, job interviews are perhaps the most common method used to select employees across cultures. Although research has examined best practice solutions for maximizing the utility of interviews in general (e.g., increasing interview structure; Huffcutt et al., 2013), the importance of cross-cultural considerations has often been overlooked in both research and practice, with much of the best practice research being informed by a more “Western-centric” approach. The purpose of the present white paper is therefore to describe some of the research to date on the role of culture in job interviews, practices in different regions, practical considerations, and next steps. We describe the research on interviews around the world and the implications of these findings in terms of applicant reactions, behaviors, interview use and design, and bias and stigma.
... However, the outcome of conducting interviews is acceptable if the stakeholders are able or willing to share their objective for the project (Jepsen & Eskerod, 2009). Also, it might be expected that the information from the interviews would be restricted to the limited interviewees' experiences and knowledge (Mccarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010). Thus, it is important to note the importance of each interviewee in terms of education, experience and position (Hartwell, Johnson, & Posthuma, 2019), and differences and biases regarding gender and prior information of the interviewees (Alonso & Moscoso, 2017) to ensure the validity of data and information gathered. ...
Article
The dynamic and ever-increasing complex nature of a port system involves a variety of stakeholders with a broad spectrum of involvement and objectives. In the port master planning, to fulfill the objectives of the various stakeholders and manage conflicts and controversies, a stakeholder analysis is carried out. However, effective and timely engagement of the key stakeholders in the planning process is not an easy task. This paper presents a framework of stakeholder analysis for the case study of the Multi-Purpose Port of Isafjordur in Iceland to underpin the master planning process. The framework deals with a systematic procedure of identification, grouping and then static mapping of stakeholders by means of the power-interest matrix. Further, the fuzzy logic 3-dimensional decision surface was adopted for dynamic salience mapping of the stakeholders. A survey and face-to-face interviews were conducted as tools to collect input for the stakeholder analysis based on the elements of the port master planning. The elements include competitiveness, land use, environmental implication, safety and security, hinterland connection, economic and social impact, financial performance, and flexibility. This paper reveals that dynamic mapping provides a more accurate stakeholder analysis in the field of port master planning than do other methods. The result of the decision surface shows different saliences of key stakeholders, including legislation and public policy, and internal and external stakeholders in the master planning. Thus, in order to have effective and timely stakeholder inclusion throughout the port planning process, a different strategy of engagement with them should be applied.
... Multilevel modeling results show no significant differences in scores across applicant gender, irrespective of various attributes of the interview: the interviewer gender, whether interviewers received formal structured interview training, or whether individual or consensus panel scores were evaluated. These findings support previous research on the efficacy of structured interviews (viz., McCarthy et al., 2010;Sacco et al., 2003) with a conservative field test in a male-dominated position of public transit operators. ...
Article
Research suggests that the use of structured interviews can reduce gender bias in hiring. However, studies have been limited to gender‐neutral professions or laboratory simulations. The current study evaluated two components of the structured interview in a field sample of 691 applicants interviewing for a male‐dominated position of public transit operator. Multilevel modeling results show no significant differences in ratings across applicant gender with this highly structured interview. This relation was found in individual interviewer ratings and consensus panel ratings, as well as irrespective of interviewer gender and interviewer participation in comprehensive versus minimal training in structured interviewing. This study provided a conservative test in a male‐dominated profession to further validate the value of the structured interview for promoting equal hiring practices.
... In concert with training, hiring committees should openly discuss their intention to create an equitable process before it begins, including the conditions for being a qualified job candidate prior to formally or informally reviewing applications. Having highly structured interviews designed by the selection committee in place before selecting among applicants can also reduce demographic biases in the interview process (e.g., McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010). ...
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In light of recent heightened attention to equity, justice, and race in society and organizations, in this commentary, we focus on the experiences of Black management faculty from job search to promotion and tenure. In formulating our ideas, we draw from diversity research conducted within and outside of the management field, including research on minority faculty, coupled with experiences of our own and of Black colleagues. We discuss race-based disparities in such areas as mentoring, social networks, job market experiences, classroom management and student evaluations of teaching, and service demands. We offer suggestions for allies to pursue equity, justice, and inclusion in management departments and business schools.
... There is ample evidence that interviews are more reliable, valid, and fair when interviewers prepare questions ahead of time and base them on a job analysis, ask more sophisticated questions (e.g., past-oriented or situational), ask the same questions to all applicants, in the same order, and without prompts, use a panel of interviewers, and rate each response using anchored rating scales (e.g., Campion, Campion, & Hudson, 1994;Huffcutt & Arthur, 1994;McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010). Campion et al. (1997) described the structured interview as composing up to 15 dimensions with different levels of structure for each dimension. ...
Article
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The employment interview remains a unique paradox. One the one hand, decades of research demonstrates that using more structured components (e.g., question consistency, evaluation standardization) can largely improve the psychometric properties of interviews. On the other hand, although interviews are almost universally used, many interviewers still resist using structured formats. We examined the use of seven structure components by 131 professional interviewers, and their association with three types of antecedents: interviewers’ background (e.g., experience, training), the focus of the interview (selection vs. recruitment), and interviewers’ personality (based on the HEXACO model). Interviewers’ background (i.e., training) and the focus of the interview were largely associated with the use of question sophistication, question consistency, note-taking, or evaluation standardization. Personality (i.e., extraversion) was mostly associated with rapport-building or probing. Our findings highlight the importance of providing formal training to interviewers, but suggest that attempting to eliminate less-structured components could encounter resistance from some interviewers.
... Hence, scholars within this field also argue that within traditional male-dominated organizations, male leaders should be inclined to select potential successors for managerial positions with whom they share social similarities (McCarthy et al., 2010). A recent network study among scientists suggests that this pattern may indeed exist, showing that men, compared to women, build professional networks with a higher proportion of male to female supporters (both inside and outside their academic institution), and this proportion, subsequently, relates to higher scores of men on perceived career success and mobility (Spurk et al., 2015). ...
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This paper examined the existence of gender differences in the degree to which leaders’ perceptions of successor potential is influenced by interpersonal fit. In Study 1 (N = 97 leaders, N = 280 followers), multi-source field data revealed that for male leaders, ratings of followers’ potential as successors were positively related to interpersonal fit, measured by the degree to which followers’ saw their leadership as being close and interpersonal (i.e., being coaching, transformational, and leading by example). For female leaders, these relationships were absent, suggesting that they are less influenced by interpersonal fit. In Study 2 (N = 311 leaders), a scenario study provided causal evidence that male leaders rated potential successors more positively when they perceived greater interpersonal fit with followers, whereas female leaders’ successor ratings were not informed by perceptions of fit. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications for gendered leadership successor perceptions in organizations.
... Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010). However, the way job applicants are treated during the interview and the aspects of interviewer's behavior that influence applicant reactions and decision making have not received the attention one would expect. ...
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The current research explores applicants' reactions to the employment interview and how these are associated with core self-evaluations and proactivity along with perceptions of the interviewer and interview's justice perceptions of post-interview outcomes (behavioral intentions, job attractiveness, and organizational attractiveness). We also explored the role of perceived organizational support (POS) in these relationships. We employ a cross-sectional approach, with the participation of 238 actual job applicants, using a survey methodology. We demonstrated the important role of core self-evaluations in fairness perceptions of the interview, along with the significant role of some interview characteristics, more importantly informativeness and personableness. Finally, applicants' perceptions of the employer were also strongly associated with interview's justice perceptions and post-interview outcomes. This is one of the first and very few studies exploring this topic in a non-English culture (in Greece), with actual job applicants, not students. © 2018 Colegio Oficial de Psicologos de Madrid. All rights reserved.
... Daarnaast blijkt dat open interviews het proces in de hand werken dat mensen geneigd zijn om mensen die op hen lijken positiever te evalueren, terwijl dit proces in gestructureerde interviews juist wordt tegengegaan (Kock en Hauptfleisch 2018;McCarthy et al. 2010). ...
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The book provides an overview of the empirical knowledge on promising (and less promising) policies to improve the labour market outcomes for individuals with a migration background.
... Our meta-analytic findings also have implications for practitioners (Le, Oh, Shaffer, & Schmidt, 2007): First, the results reiterate that it is important for managers to have as much information as possible when assessing subordinates, so that managers can rely more on relevant job-performance-related information than on stereotypes and biases. Prior research has noted that jobperformance-related information is important for employment interviews (Goldberg & Cohen, 2004;McCarthy et al., 2010), and we reiterate its importance for performance appraisals. Working to ensure job-performance-relevant information is available may be particularly important in settings where managers may not have direct contact with their workers on a regular basis (e.g., police work per Landy, Farr, Saal, & Freytag, 1976; see also Cascio & Aguinis, 2011). ...
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Critical mass theory and the tokenism hypothesis propose that females’ job performance is adversely affected by perceptions and experiences that stem from females comprising a smaller proportion of organizations than males. Although belief in the gender token effect appears to be widely held, empirical evidence of this effect is relatively scarce; furthermore, the evidence that does exist is somewhat inconsistent. The purpose of the present study was to provide a meta-analytic test of the gender token effect by examining the extent to which the proportion of females in organizations relates to male–female differences in job performance. Meta-analytic results based on data from 158 independent studies (N = 101,071) reveal that (a) females tend to demonstrate higher job performance than males (d = −.10), and (b) this difference does not appear to vary based on the proportion of females in organizations. We found similar results for subjective task performance (e.g., supervisory ratings), organizational citizenship behaviors, and objective task performance (e.g., sales). Overall, this study’s results demonstrate almost no support for the gender token effect on job performance, which challenges the prevailing assumptions of critical mass theory and the tokenism hypothesis.
... Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010). However, the way job applicants are treated during the interview and the aspects of interviewer's behavior that influence applicant reactions and decision making have not received the attention one would expect. ...
Preprint
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The current research explores applicants' reactions to the employment interview and how these are associated with Core-Self Evaluations and Proactivity along with perceptions of the interviewer and interview's justice perceptions on post-interview outcomes (behavioural intentions, job attractiveness and organizational attractiveness). We also explored the role of Perceived Organizational Support (POS) on these relationships. We employ a cross-sectional approach, with the participation of 238 actual job applicants, using a survey methodology. We demonstrated the important role of Core-Self Evaluations on fairness perceptions of the interview, along with the significant role of some interview characteristics, more importantly informativeness and personableness. Finally, applicants' perceptions of the employer were also strongly associated with interview's justice perceptions and post-interview outcomes. This is one of the first and very few studies exploring this topic in a non-English culture (in Greece), with actual job applicants and not students.
... In unstrukturierten Bewerbungsinterviews (im Vergleich zu strukturierten) wählen Personalverantwortliche zudem eher Personen aus, die ihnen selbst ähnlich sindbeispielsweise in Bezug auf das Geschlecht (McCarthy et al. 2010). Häufig lassen sich Interviewende auch von einem ersten positiven Eindruck leiten und gehen dann weniger genau bei der Auswahl vor. ...
Chapter
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Frauen sind im Vergleich zu Männern gerade auf hohen Karrierestufen unterrepräsentiert. Die Frage nach dem Warum wird kontrovers diskutiert. Viele Unternehmen äußern eine Absicht, mehr Frauen in Führungspositionen zu befördern. Vor diesem Hintergrund hat das Kapitel zwei Zielsetzungen. Erstens sollen Ursachen für die Ungleichverteilung der Geschlechter auf hohen Karrierestufen, insbesondere in Führungspositionen, identifiziert werden. Wir unterscheiden Ursachen auf drei Ebenen: Gesellschaft (z. B. Geschlechterstereotype, Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und Familie), Organisation (z. B. Rekrutierung über Netzwerke, unstrukturierte Auswahl- und Beurteilungsprozesse) und der Person selbst (z. B. Motivation zu Führen). Zweitens sollen Möglichkeiten zur Förderung der Karriereentwicklung von Frauen aufgezeigt werden. Dabei beschreiben wir Möglichkeiten für Organisationen (z. B. Mentoring, Professionalisierung der Personalauswahl) und für Frauen selbst (z. B. gezielte Netzwerkbildung). Es fließen aktuelle Forschungsbefunde sowie praktische Beispiele in das Kapitel ein, um Herausforderungen und Lösungsansätze sowohl für Forschende als auch für Praktiker_innen wissenschaftlich fundiert und anschaulich darzustellen.
... Standardized processes help recruiters and hiring managers avoid conscious and unconscious biases. For instance, highly structured interviews minimize the possible infuence of applicant demographic characteristics on hiring decisions (McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010). ...
Article
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Research shows using assessments with precise measurement leads to better hiring practices. So why are some organizations still resistant?
... Structured interviews are designed to eliminate potentially discriminatory discretion by having decision makers precommit to decision-appropriate and objectively specified qualification criteria before evaluating applicants competing for a position. The ideal structured interview (see McCarthy et al., 2010) has three components that should be administered as identically as possible to all applicants: (a) a set of questions selected because the answers should be informative about qualifications for the available position; (b) interviews conducted by asking these questions in the same fashion of all applicants, with responses fully recorded; and (c) a standard protocol for scoring interview responses to produce summary measures that have been established (empirically) as predictive of successful job performance. These ideal characteristics are simultaneously the main virtues and the main difficulties of the structured-interview method. ...
Article
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Accumulated findings from studies in which implicit-bias measures correlate with discriminatory judgment and behavior have led many social scientists to conclude that implicit biases play a causal role in racial and other discrimination. In turn, that belief has promoted and sustained two lines of work to develop remedies: (a) individual treatment interventions expected to weaken or eradicate implicit biases and (b) group-administered training programs to overcome biases generally, including implicit biases. Our review of research on these two types of sought remedies finds that they lack established methods that durably diminish implicit biases and have not reproducibly reduced discriminatory consequences of implicit (or other) biases. That disappointing conclusion prompted our turn to strategies based on methods that have been successful in the domain of public health. Preventive measures are designed to disable the path from implicit biases to discriminatory outcomes. Disparity-finding methods aim to discover disparities that sometimes have obvious fixes, or that at least suggest where responsibility should reside for developing a fix. Disparity-finding methods have the advantage of being useful in remediation not only for implicit biases but also systemic biases. For both of these categories of bias, causes of discriminatory outcomes are understood as residing in large part outside the conscious awareness of individual actors. We conclude with recommendations to guide organizations that wish to deal with biases for which they have not yet found solutions
... Besides highlighting relevant information to support unbiased evaluations of women, process standardization has been offered as an intervention for reducing biases in decision-making processes such as in hiring. For example, joint evaluations (in which information for all candidates is presented simultaneously and evaluated comparatively; Bohnet et al., 2015) and highly structured interviews (McCarthy et al., 2010) have been found to be effective in eliminating the gender gap in job candidate evaluations. Yet biases are embedded in every stage of the hiring and promotion process. ...
Article
Despite the mounting research on gender inequality in the workplace, progress toward gender parity in organizational practice has stalled. We suggest that one reason for the lack of progress is that empirical research has predominately focused on the antecedents and manifestations of gender inequality in the workplace, paying inadequate attention to the solutions that could potentially improve gender equality and women’s experiences at work. Indeed, we report here that less than 5% of the relevant studies published in preeminent management, psychology, and diversity journals since the turn of the century identify practical interventions for solving gender inequality in organizations. To advance gender equality at work, we argue that a paradigm shift from problems to solutions is critical and urgent. Using ecological systems theory (EST; Bronfenbrenner, 1977) as our guiding framework, we present an integrative review of gender equality interventions spanning across the management, psychology, and feminist literature over the past two decades at the ontogenic system, interpersonal microsystem, and organizational microsystem levels of analysis. We subsequently provide an overview of domains not currently addressed in extant research (meso‐, macro‐, and chronosystems) and identify future research directions to spur progress towards workplace gender equality.
... Structured interviews are designed to eliminate potentially discriminatory discretion by having decision makers precommit to decision-appropriate and objectively specified qualification criteria before evaluating applicants competing for a position. The ideal structured interview (see McCarthy et al., 2010) has three components that should be administered as identically as possible to all applicants: (a) a set of questions selected because the answers should be informative about qualifications for the available position; (b) interviews conducted by asking these questions in the same fashion of all applicants, with responses fully recorded; and (c) a standard protocol for scoring interview responses to produce summary measures that have been established (empirically) as predictive of successful job performance. These ideal characteristics are simultaneously the main virtues and the main difficulties of the structured-interview method. ...
Article
Full-text available
Accumulated findings from studies in which implicit-bias measures correlate with discriminatory judgment and behavior have led many social scientists to conclude that implicit biases play a causal role in racial and other discrimination. In turn, that belief has promoted and sustained two lines of work to develop remedies: (a) individual treatment interventions expected to weaken or eradicate implicit biases and (b) group-administered training programs to overcome biases generally, including implicit biases. Our review of research on these two types of sought remedies finds that they lack established methods that durably diminish implicit biases and have not reproducibly reduced discriminatory consequences of implicit (or other) biases. That disappointing conclusion prompted our turn to strategies based on methods that have been successful in the domain of public health. Preventive measures are designed to disable the path from implicit biases to discriminatory outcomes. Disparity-finding methods aim to discover disparities that sometimes have obvious fixes, or that at least suggest where responsibility should reside for developing a fix. Disparity-finding methods have the advantage of being useful in remediation not only for implicit biases but also systemic biases. For both of these categories of bias, causes of discriminatory outcomes are understood as residing in large part outside the conscious awareness of individual actors. We conclude with recommendations to guide organizations that wish to deal with biases for which they have not yet found solutions.
... We suggest that qualifications viewed as individuating information 1 also influence hiring-related ratings (McCarthy et al., 2010, see also Brown & Campion, 1994;Cole et al., 2007;Nemanick, & Clark, 2002;Thoms et al., 1999). We adopt the definition of individuating information as job-related information such as knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAOs; Derous et al, 2015;McCarthy et al., 2010). Individuating information is important in selection studies for a variety of reasons. ...
Article
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A significant percentage of veterans suffer from post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Veterans are often directed to social media platforms to seek support during transition to civilian life. However, social media platforms are increasingly used to aid in hiring decisions, and these platforms may make veterans’ PTSD more discoverable during the hiring process. Based on social identity theory and identity management theory, the integrated suspicion model, and the stigma literature, we conducted four studies that examine veterans’ PTSD disclosures on social media and the consequences in the hiring process. Study 1 suggests that 16% to 34% of veterans included cues related to PTSD status on social media. Study 2, based on 290 upper‐level business students, shows that veterans with PTSD were more stigmatized than veterans without PTSD, and stigmatization is associated with more suspicion and lower hiring‐related ratings (of expected task performance, expected organizational citizenship behaviors, expected counterproductive work behaviors, and intention to interview). Study 3, based on 431 working professionals with hiring experience, further supports relationships from Study 2. Study 4, based on 298 working professionals, identifies peril (i.e., perceptions regarding danger associated with veterans with PTSD) as an additional mediator for the effects of PTSD on hiring‐related ratings. In sum, we identify and explore the identity management conundrum that social media disclosure poses for veterans with PTSD in the hiring process and discuss potential remedies and avenues for future research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Moreover, in this context, relying more heavily on other common selection instruments such as the interview to counteract the potential adverse impact that could result from the use of GMA tests has its own problems. Although several large sample studies ( McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, & Campion, 2010;Sacco, Scheu, Ryan, & Schmitt, 2003) support the absence of racial bias in structured interviews with U.S. samples, several experimental studies have found that candidates with non-native accents frequently result in lower interview evaluations compared with candidates with native accents (Deprez Sims & Morris, 2013;Rakić, Steffens, & Mummendey, 2011;Timming, 2017). Therefore, future research needs to explore immigrant and non-immigrant differences in other selection tools such as the structured interview to assess their viability as an alternative to GMA testing. ...
Article
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Globalization has led to increased migration and labor mobility over the past several decades and immigrants generally seek jobs in their new countries. Tests of general mental ability (GMA) are common in personnel selection systems throughout the world. Unfortunately, GMA test scores often display differences between majority groups and ethnic subgroups that may represent a barrier to employment for immigrants. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in GMA based on immigrant status in 29 countries (or jurisdictions of countries) throughout the world using an existing database that employs high-quality measurement and sampling methodologies with large sample sizes. The primary findings were that across countries, non-immigrants (n = 139,464) scored approximately half of a standard deviation (d = .53) higher than first-generation immigrants (n = 22,162) but only one-tenth of a standard deviation (d = .12) higher than second-generation immigrants (n = 6,428). Considerable variability in effect sizes was found across countries as Nordic European and Germanic European countries evidenced the highest non-immigrant/first-generation immigrant mean differences and Anglo countries the smallest. Countries with the lowest income inequality tended to evidence the highest differences in GMA between non-immigrants and first-generation immigrants. Implications for GMA testing as a potential barrier to immigrant employment success and the field's current understanding of group differences in GMA test scores will be discussed.
... Use the same questions for all applicants. Huffcutt and Roth 1998;McCarthy et al. 2010;McDaniel et al 1994 Regularly Assess Recruitment and Selection Techniques (long term plan) ...
Conference Paper
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By valuing racial diversity and creating inclusive organizational climates from inception, new small firms with growth objectives can increase their competitiveness. Anchoring our arguments in intellectual capital theory, we provide testable propositions that detail why new small firms should pursue racial diversity as a strategic business tool. PRESS PARAGRAPH Although human resource managers have long realized the impact of diversity on organizational outcomes, most research has focused on large organizations. Very little consideration has been given to small firms in the U.S. with fewer than 15 employees. We propose that by valuing racial diversity and creating an inclusive organizational climate from inception, new small firms with growth objectives can increase their competitiveness, leading to better performance and long term survival. We also offer practical recommendations for small firms seeking to create an affirming climate for racial diversity and strategies that can be used to recruit, select, retain, and benefit from a racially diverse workforce.
... As such, quality of work life should be considered when examining the potential effects of political affiliation. This idea is similar to research showing that individuating information about job applicants (e.g., job-related qualifications) tends to have a greater impact on hiring decisions than demographic similarity between applicants and hiring officials (e.g., McCarthy et al., 2010;McFarland et al., 2004;Olian et al., 1988;Sacco et al., 2003). ...
Article
Political divisions appear to be relatively frequent in today's world. Indeed, individuals on opposing sides of these divisions often view each other very negatively. The present multi-study investigation contributes to the nascent literature on organizational political affiliation by examining how job seekers view organizations with political affiliations, a practice that is becoming more prevalent. Studies 1 and 2 indicated that many job seekers are aware of organizations' political affiliations or stances, and that they often considered these affiliations and stances during recent job searches. For example, nearly one-third of participants said they did not apply to an organization because of its political affiliation or stances. Study 3 showed that the extent to which job seekers identified with the organization's party affiliation positively influenced their reactions toward the organization (e.g., perceived similarity and liking), as well as their intention to pursue employment with the organization. In contrast, job seekers' disidentification with the organization's affiliation decreased their feelings of perceived similarity and liking. Study 4 demonstrated that organizational affiliation with a political issue (i.e., gun control/second amendment) also influenced perceptions of similarity and liking. Taken together, results suggest that organizations' affiliations with political parties or their stances on political issues can influence the amount and types of potential employees that organizations attract. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Daarnaast blijkt dat open interviews het proces in de hand werken dat mensen geneigd zijn om mensen die op hen lijken positiever te evalueren, terwijl dit proces in gestructureerde interviews juist wordt tegengegaan (Kock en Hauptfleisch 2018;McCarthy et al. 2010). ...
Book
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De verschillen in arbeidsparticipatie tussen personen met en zonder migratieachtergrond zijn groot en hardnekkig. Op dit moment werkt 61% van de personen met een niet-westerse migratieachtergrond (15-74 jaar). Bij personen zonder migratieachtergrond werkt 69%. Het verschil dreigt door de coronacrisis verder op te lopen. Overheden en werkgevers kunnen met gerichte maatregelen deze ongelijkheid tegengaan. Kansrijk zijn onder andere: het eerder toegang geven van migranten tot de arbeidsmarkt, een slimmer plaatsingsbeleid, sterkere financiële prikkels voor zowel werkgevers als werknemers. Een neutraler wervings- en selectieproces is belangrijk om arbeidsdiscriminatie tegen te gaan. Dit blijkt uit de publicatie Kansrijk integratiebeleid op de arbeidsmarkt van het Centraal Planbureau (CPB) en het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (SCP) die op 15 oktober is gepubliceerd.
... A wealth of research has found that homophily preferences exist in workplace social relations (see Byrne, 1971;McPherson et al., 2001). Although studies of homophily preferences in hiring have revealed mixed results (e.g., Goldberg, 2005;Graves & Powell, 1996;McCarthy et al., 2010;Sacco et al., 2003), demographic similarity does seem to influence hiring decisions in some instances. In fact, and as suggested by Sacco et al. (2003), the presence of mixed results further underscores the importance of research like ours in understanding the boundary conditions (e.g., hiring context and applicant humor) that shape the effects of demographic (dis) similarity on work outcomes (e.g., hiring). ...
Article
Interpersonal anxiety (i.e., the fear of negative consequences from interacting with someone) may be more prominent in post-#MeToo organizations when interacting with someone of a different gender. Initial exchanges may particularly trigger this anxiety, obfuscating key organizational decisions such as hiring. Given humor’s positive, intrapersonal stress-reduction effects, we propose that humor also reduces interpersonal anxiety. In three mixed methods experiments with hiring managers, we examined the effects of applicant and evaluator gender (i.e., same-/mixed-gender dyad), positive applicant humor (i.e., a pun), and context (i.e., gender salience) in job interviews. Results showed that mixed-gender (vs. same-gender) interactions elicited more interpersonal anxiety, particularly when gender was more salient; mixed-gender interactions also predicted downstream attitudinal outcomes (e.g., social attraction and willingness to hire) and hiring decisions (e.g., selection and rejection) via interpersonal anxiety. Although humor reduced interpersonal anxiety and its consequences for female applicants, the opposite was true for male applicants when gender was salient, because it signaled some of the same expectations that initially triggered the interpersonal anxiety: the potential for harmful sexual behavior. In sum, we integrated diversity and humor theories to examine interpersonal anxiety in same- and mixed-gender interactions, then tested the extent to which humor relieved it.
... In terms of the interview format, the use of structured interviews aims to minimize the influence of demographic factors and physical appearance on interview outcomes, given that such interviews have predetermined content and rating system, and focus on obtaining relevant job information, such as job-relevant knowledge and skills (McCarthy et al., 2010;Sacco et al., 2003). At the same time, structured interviews are perceived as less favorable compared to unstructured interviews and relate to candidate feelings of anxiety (McCarthy & Goffin, 2004). ...
Article
Interview anxiety is common among interviewees and has the potential to undermine an applicant's interview performance. Nevertheless, there is much that we do not understand about the role of anxiety in job interviews. In this paper, we advance a conceptual model that highlights the multidimensional nature of interview anxiety by incorporating its cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components, termed the Tripartite Interview Anxiety Framework (TIAF). This model highlights the role of person, interviewer, and contextual characteristics in shaping interview anxiety, elucidates the underlying relations between interview anxiety and performance, and delineates critical moderators of these important relations. In doing so, the TIAF simultaneously advances the theory of interview anxiety, promotes further work in this area, and highlights implications for practice.
... Third, interviewer feedback was limited to ensure consistency across participants, thus restricting the social dynamics of the interview and, arguably, ecological validity. Yet, previous research has shown that highly structured employment interviews are more reliable and valid than unstructured interviews as they control different biases, making the same job-related information salient to all interviewers and helping to ensure that applicants are rated consistently across interviewers (Levashina et al., 2014;McCarthy et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Lay abstract: Despite possessing valuable skills, differences in the way that autistic people understand and respond to others in social situations mean that they are frequently disadvantaged in job interviews. We examined how autistic and non-autistic adults compared on standard (unmodified) job interview questions, and then used these findings to develop and evaluate supportive adaptations to questions. Fifty adults (25 autistic, 25 non-autistic) took part in two mock job interviews. Interview 1 provided a baseline measure of performance when answering typical, unmodified interview questions. Employment experts (unaware of participants' autism diagnoses) rated all interviewees on their responses to each question and their overall impressions of them and then provided feedback about how interviewees could improve and how questions could be adapted to facilitate this. Interviewees also provided feedback about the interview process, from their perspective. Adaptations to the questions were developed, with Interview 2 taking place approximately 6 months later. Results demonstrated that, in Interview 1, employment experts rated autistic interviewees less favourably than non-autistic interviewees. Ratings of both autistic and non-autistic participants' answers improved in Interview 2, but particularly for autistic interviewees (such that differences between autistic and non-autistic interviewees' performance reduced in Interview 2). Employers should be aware that adaptations to job interview questions are critical to level the playing field for autistic candidates.
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This research examined three issues: (1) the degree to which interviewers feel confident about their decisions when they use a specific type of interview (behavioral vs. conventional), (2) what interview type shows better capacity for identifying candidates' suitability for a job, and (3) the effect of two biases on interview ratings: a) the sex similarity between candidate and interviewer and b) having prior information about the candidate. The results showed that the SBI made raters feel more confident and their appraisals were more accurate, that prior information negatively affects the interview outcomes, and that sex similarity showed inconclusive results. Implications for theory and practice of personnel interview are discussed.
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he information revolution is sweeping our economy; no company can avoid its effects. Information workers collect and interpret information in order to provide valuable information as a basis for making critical decisions and judgments at work, this process is very important for the success of the Organization's process. Information is used to achieve competitive advantage, and employers recognize the importance of the need to involve information in the management of modern technology. This study aims to investigate the role of restructuring in enhancing the information experience. To achieve the purpose of this study and to answer its questions, the researchers develop a questionnaire which was distributed to a sample consisted of 250 employees from Social Security Corporation in Jordan, 187 questionnaires were collected, and that is 74.8% of the total sample. The research results indicated that there is significant impact of applying restructuring in Social Security Corporation on employees information experiences.
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Discrimination constitutes a sticky phenomenon in corporations despite decades of anti-discrimination initiatives. We argue that this stickiness is related to the complex relations between various factors on the micro level in organizations, which determine and stabilize each other. Based on a systematic literature review comprising empirical studies on discrimination due to age, gender, race, and ethnicity/nationality, we find eight general mechanisms which can be further clustered into an economic, a behavioral, and a socio-structural domain. While mechanisms in the behavioral domain form the roots of discrimination, the economic and the socio-structural mechanisms stabilize each other as well as the behavioral ones. Thus, the analysis shows that the various building blocks on the micro level are entangled with each other and suggests a structured way by identifying a problem hierarchy to manage this complexity.
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Mülakat, çalışan seçim sürecinde en uygun adayların işe alınması için başvuruda bulunan adayların kişiliği, akademik geçmişi, iş deneyimi, bilgi birikimi ve kariyer hedefleri gibi konuların gözden geçirildiği görüşmedir. Çalışan seçim sürecinde en yaygın kullanılan yöntem olan mülakatların, her zaman en uygun adayın seçimi ile sonuçlanmadığı bilinmektedir. Mülakatların geçerliliğinin ve güvenilirliğinin sorgulanmasına neden olan bu durum, mülakatı yapan görüşmeci kaynaklı olabilmektedir. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı; çalışan seçme sürecinde yararlanılan bir araç olan mülakatlarda en sık karşılaşılan görüşmeci kaynaklı mülakat hatalarını ortaya koymaktır. Bu doğrultuda, karşılaşılan hatalar, insan kaynakları ve istihdam çözümleri konusunda hizmet veren uluslararası bir danışmanlık şirketinin Bursa ilindeki müşteri veri tabanı kullanılarak araştırılmıştır. Araştırma için hazırlanan soru formu yardımıyla, işletmelerin seçme sürecinde görev alan sorumlularla görüşülmüş ve elde edilen bulgular değerlendirilmiştir. Abstract The interview is a meeting where the candidates who are applying for the job are reviewed about their personality, academic background, work experience, knowledge and career goals for recruitment of the most suitable candidates in the selection process. It is known that interviews which are the most commonly used method in the employee selection process, do not always result in the selection of the most appropriate candidate. This situation, which causes the questioning of the validity and reliability of the interviews, can be derived from the interviewer. The main purpose of this study is to state the interviewer based mistakes encountered in the interview when selecting employees. Accordingly, interview mistakes were investigated in an international consulting firm's customer database that providing services on human resources and employment solutions in Bursa. Interviews were held with the responsible persons in the selection process of the business using the questionnaire and the findings were evaluated.
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This research contributes to the interviewing literature via an empirical study that includes all four major structured interview question types: past behavioral, situational, background, and job knowledge. The latter two question types are often used in practice but have received little scholarly attention, and no research has looked at all four in the same study. We theoretically derive a conceptual model comparing and contrasting all four question types, with each being hypothesized to predict job performance directly and predict turnover (as mediated by job performance) indirectly. Results indicated that ratings of background, situational, and past behavioral interview questions significantly predicted job performance. Further analysis revealed that both past behavioral and background ratings had a significant indirect relationship with turnover, as mediated by job performance ratings.
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Although graduate employability is an increasingly important issue, job interview formats and techniques specific to sport students’ prospective careers are not explicitly taught, practiced or assessed. Yet, successful interviews are pivotal in transitioning from education to employment. We report on a teaching intervention with final year sport students who undertook mock job interviews as an assessment. Evaluative data suggests students initially felt underprepared for job interviews. The assessment allowed students to adapt and practice their skills in this context and receive feedforward-focused feedback. From this work, we provide recommendations on how this activity might be implemented in other higher education curricula.
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The in‐person interview is a critical component of resident recruitment and selection. For programs, it is one of the most important factors in consideration when forming a rank list.¹ Applicants and programs commit significant time and money to the interview process.2,3 In the authors’ collective experience, most emergency medicine (EM) residency interviews are unstructured. They typically consist of informal conversations on a variety of topics (e.g. hobbies, activities, and experiences shared by interviewer and applicant).
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Samenvatting en Sacco et al. (2003) vonden geen effect van demografische gelijkenis tussen beoordelaar en kandidaat op beoordelingen van het selectie-interview. Beide studies onderzochten hiërarchisch lineaire modellen (HLM). Gebruikmakend van eenzelfde HLM-procedure is binnen het huidige onderzoek nagegaan wat het effect is van gelijkenis op scores die gegeven zijn aan cultureel diverse kandidaten tijdens de selectie van politieagenten op een ander veelgebruikt instrument, namelijk het assessment center (AC). Meer specifiek onderzochten we het similar-to-me -effect van demografische gelijkenis (d.w.z. culturele gelijkenis van de beoordelaar ten aanzien van de kandidaat) en van waargenomen gelijkenis (d.w.z. gelijkenis ten aanzien van specifieke culturele groepen, zoals waargenomen door individuele beoordelaars) op scores op het AC. Demografisch similar-to-me bleek gerelateerd te zijn aan Agency -scores van autochtoon Nederlandse kandidaten en kandidaten met een migratieachtergrond, maar niet aan Communion -scores. Waargenomen similar-to-me had geen effect op de beoordelingen van het AC (d.w.z. Agency en Communion ). In zijn algemeenheid bleken de effectgrootten erg klein ( R ² < .015). Derhalve kan worden geconcludeerd dat we geen bewijs vonden voor een differentieel effect van gelijkenis op de beoordeling van het AC van cultureel diverse kandidaten, wat bevindingen van McCarthy et al. en Sacco et al. repliceert en uitbreidt.
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The COVID‐19 pandemic, an external stressor with multiple stressful sequelae, has fundamentally changed people's lives over multiple years. In this article, we first review research demonstrating that the pandemic has negatively impacted people's sense of belonging and health over time. Next, we draw upon decades of theoretical and empirical work demonstrating that threats to belonging and mental health problems are highly interrelated, with increases in the former driving increases in the latter. We then extend this discussion to physical health, drawing upon a wealth of theoretical and empirical work demonstrating that threats to belonging are a risk factor for longer term health problems and premature mortality. We also highlight potential mechanisms linking threats to belonging and health, with a focus on sleep and immune function. Throughout, we review how pre‐existing vulnerabilities may moderate these processes. We conclude with empirically supported recommendations for policymakers interested in addressing these issues.
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Recent research has highlighted the fact that narrative letters of recommendation in employment references could contribute to gender bias in personnel selection. Structured, quantitative employment references, however, may limit the opportunity for such biases to emerge. In a sample of nearly one million applicants and ratings by over four million employment reference providers, we found no meaningful effect of gender bias in highly structured, quantitative employment references across job levels and a wide variety of industries. Interestingly, and in contrast to existing theory, the effect of gender bias remained negligible across both stereotypically masculine and feminine jobs. Similarly, in a subsample of 5000 job applicants and 20,000 employment reference providers, coded verbatim comments of reference providers showed little practical gender differences in the frequency with which various comment types are made. These results suggest that highly structured, quantitative and semi‐structured, verbatim employment references are an effective tool in the advancement of fair and equitable personnel selection practices. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research is proposed.
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In two experimental studies, we investigate how being sick with a common cold in a selection context influences the appraisals that evaluators form and how, in turn, people appraisal dimensions influence evaluators’ hiring recommendations and leadership evaluations. Grounded in people appraisal theory (Cuddy et al., 2008; Fiske et al., 2007), we assess the universal evaluative dimensions of warmth and competence to explain detriments in hiring recommendations and leadership evaluations for applicants with a common cold. Further, we investigate whether a theoretically‐grounded individual difference variable, namely the degree to which evaluators take others’ perspective, influences the appraisals and subsequent judgments of sick applicants. Results across the two experimental studies, using students and professionals with selection experience, suggest that showing signs of being sick (i.e., presenteeism) had a negative impact on competence appraisals but not warmth appraisals. In addition, attending a job interview while sick had a significantly stronger negative effect on competence appraisals when the rater had a low as opposed to a high level of perspective‐taking. These effects in turn predicted hiring recommendations and leadership evaluations. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory and practice.
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This narrative and integrative literature review synthesizes the literature on when, where, and how the faculty hiring process used in most American higher education settings operates with implicit and cognitive bias. The literature review analyzes the “four phases” of the faculty hiring process, drawing on theories from behavioral economics and social psychology. The results show that although much research establishes the presence of bias in hiring, relatively few studies examine interventions or “nudges” that might be used to mitigate bias and encourage the recruitment and hiring of faculty identified as women and/or faculty identified as being from an underrepresented minority group. This article subsequently makes recommendations for historical, quasi-experimental, and randomized studies to test hiring interventions with larger databases and more controlled conditions than have previously been used, with the goal of establishing evidence-based practices that contribute to a more inclusive hiring process and a more diverse faculty.
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As research in psychology becomes more sophisticated and more oriented toward the development and testing of theory, it becomes more important to eliminate biases in data caused by measurement error. Both failure to correct for biases induced by measurement error and improper corrections can lead to erroneous conclusions that retard progress toward cumulative knowledge. Corrections for attenuation due to measurement error are common in the literature today and are becoming more common, yet errors are frequently made in this process. Technical psychometric presentations of abstract measurement theory principles have proved inadequte in improving the practices of working researchers. As an alternative, this article uses realistic research scenarios (cases) to illustrate and explain appropriate and inappropriate instances of correction for measurement error in commonly occurring research situations.
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This meta-analytic review presents the findings of a project investigating the validity of the employment interview. Analyses are based on 245 coefficients derived from 86,311 individuals. Results show that interview validity depends on the content of the interview (situational, job related, or psychological), how the interview is conducted (structured vs. unstructured; board vs. individual), and the nature of the criterion (job performance, training performance, and tenure; research or administrative ratings). Situational interviews had higher validity than did job-related interviews, which, in turn, had higher validity than did psychologically based interviews. Structured interviews were found to have higher validity than unstructured interviews. Interviews showed similar validity for job performance and training performance criteria, but validity for the tenure criteria was lower.
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The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effect of race on employment interview evaluations. A mete-analysis of 31 studies found that both Black and Hispanic applicants received interview ratings that on average were only about one quarter of a standard deviation lower than those for White applicants. Thus, interviews as a whole do not appear to affect minorities nearly as much as mental ability tests. Results also suggested that (a) high-structure interviews have lower group differences on average than low-structure interviews, (b) group differences tend to decrease as the complexity of the job increases, and (c) group differences tend to be higher when there is a greater proportion of a minority in the applicant pool. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
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The ability of accuracy-motivated perceivers to form individuated impressions of targets and to avoid creating self-fulfilling prophecies is hypothesized to depend on sufficient attentional resources. Accuracy-motivated interviewers were led to believe that their applicants were either well suited for the job or not and were given either no task or a mildly or highly distracting task to complete during the interview. Consistent with past research, nondistracted accuracy-motivated interviewers neither created self-fulfilling prophecies nor formed expectation-consistent impressions. In contrast, highly distracted accuracy-motivated interviewers both created self-fulfilling prophecies and formed expectation-consistent impressions. Without sufficient attentional resources, even well-intentioned accuracy-motivated perceivers can fall prey to their inaccurate expectations and create inappropriate self-fulfilling prophecies.
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This study examines whether recruiter-applicant demographic similarity affects selection decisions. In addition, the mediators proposed by the similarity-attraction paradigm were tested. However, consistent with Graves and Powell’s (1995) findings and with the propositions of social identity theory, I also proposed that female recruiters would prefer male applicants. Significant race similarity effects were observed for White recruiters on overall interview assessments and offer decisions, sex dissimilarity had a significant direct effect on overall interview assessments, and age similarity was not related to either criterion. In addition, there was some evidence that the significant direct effects were mediated by perceived similarity and interpersonal attraction. The sex dissimilarity effect appeared to be the result of male recruiters’ preference for female applicants. Post hoc analyses revealed that this relationship was mediated by applicant appearance.
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Examines why stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination are enduring phenomena. Social psychological research, reviewed here in 4 major sections, explains that stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination have (1) some apparently automatic aspects and (2) some socially pragmatic aspects, both of which tend to sustain them. But, as research also indicates, change is possible, for (3) stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination seem individually controllable, and consequently, (4) social structure influences their occurrence. Past and present theoretical approaches to these issues are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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As research in psychology becomes more sophisticated and more oriented toward the development and testing of theory, it becomes more important to eliminate biases in data caused by measurement error. Both failure to correct for biases induced by measurement error and improper corrections can lead to erroneous conclusions that retard progress toward cumulative knowledge. Corrections for attenuation due to measurement error are common in the literature today and are becoming more common, yet errors are frequently made in this process. Technical psychometric presentations of abstract measurement theory principles have proved inadequate in improving the practices of working researchers. As an alternative, this article uses realistic research scenarios (cases) to illustrate and explain appropriate and inappropriate instances of correction for measurement error in commonly occurring research situations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The situational interview is based on the critical-incident technique. The incidents are turned into interview questions in which job applicants are asked to indicate how they would behave in a given situation. Each answer is rated independently by 2 or more interviewers on a 5-point Likert-type scale. To facilitate objective scoring, job experts develop behavioral statements that are used as benchmarks of illustrations of 1, 3, and 5 answers. In Studies 1 and 2, the interobserver reliability coefficients for situational interviews of 49 hourly workers and 63 foremen were .76 and .79, respectively. Similarly, the internal consistencies of the interview questions for the hourly workers and foremen were .71 and .67, respectively. The respective concurrent validity coefficients were .46 and .30. In Study 3, predictive validity coefficients of .39 and .33 were obtained with 56 women and Blacks, respectively. All of these values were significant at the .05 level. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Three studies examined the moderating role of motivations to respond without prejudice (e.g., internal and external) in expressions of explicit and implicit race bias. In all studies, participants reported their explicit attitudes toward Blacks. Implicit measures consisted of a sequential priming task (Study 1) and the Implicit Association Test (Studies 2 and 3). Study 3 used a cognitive busyness manipulation to preclude effects of controlled processing on implicit responses. In each study, explicit race bias was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice, whereas implicit race bias was moderated by the interaction of internal and external motivation to respond without prejudice. Specifically, high internal, low external participants exhibited lower levels of implicit race bias than did all other participants. Implications for the development of effective self-regulation of race bias are discussed.
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The possibility of predictive bias by race in employment tests is commonly examined by across-group comparisons of the slopes and intercepts of regression lines using test scores to predict performance measures. This research assumed that the criteria, primarily supervisory ratings, were unbiased. However, a concern is that the apparent lack of differential prediction in cognitive ability tests may be an artifact of the predominant use of performance ratings provided by supervisors who are members of the majority group; a criterion that is potentially biased against members of the minority group. We posited that ratings by a supervisor of the same race as the employee being rated would be less open to claims of bias. We compared ability-performance relationships in samples of Black and White employees that allowed for between-subjects and within-subjects comparisons under 2 conditions: when all employees were rated by a White supervisor and when each employee was rated by a supervisor of the same race. Neither analysis found evidence of predictive bias against Black employees.
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This study examined the relationship between race and interview ratings in a structured selection panel interview. Data from 1,334 police officer applicants who were interviewed by three-person panels were examined to explore how applicant race, rater race, and panel racial composition related to interview ratings and change from initial to final ratings. Results revealed the largest effect was for panel racial composition, such that predominately White panels provided significantly more favorable ratings to applicants of all races compared to panels composed of predominately Black raters. However, a significant three-way interaction between rater race, applicant race, and panel composition was also found. Specifically, Black raters evaluated Black applicants more favorably than White applicants only when they were on a predominately Black panel. These results may help explain past inconsistencies in the literature regarding the effects of rater race and applicant race on ratings.
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We examined the effects of interviewer and interviewee race and age similarity on interview outcomes under two different interview formats: a conventional structured panel interview and a situational panel interview. A total of 2,805 applicants were interviewed. The panels consisted of same-, mixed-, or different-race and same-, mixed-, or different-age groups. Analyses revealed stronger same-race effects with the conventional structured interview than with the situational interview. Furthermore, these same-race effects could be avoided by using mixed-race interview panels. No age similarity effects were detected with either interview procedure. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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The effects of stereotypes on attributions, predictions, and evaluations were examined in 2 experiments. Black out-group targets and White in-group targets were described in stereotype-consistent or stereotype-inconsistent ways. Stereotype-inconsistent behavior (a) was attributed to external causes or to effort, an internal stable cause for the out-group; (b) undermined predictions of future similar behavior, but only for the out-group; and (c) resulted in more extreme evaluations in the direction of the inconsistency. Attributions mediated the relationship between race and target evaluations. A model is presented that emphasizes the importance of distinguishing among different types of social judgments in assessing stereotype effects.
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The effects of rater source, rater and ratee race, rater and ratee sex, and job type were investigated on ratings collected for 8,642 first-term Army enlisted personnel. Ratings were made on 10 behaviorally based dimensions developed for evaluating all first-term soldiers. Results of between-subjects analyses similar to those conducted in past research revealed significant main effects and interactions for sex, race, rater source, and job type, but the variance accounted for by these effects was minimal. Repeated measures analyses were also performed, with each ratee evaluated by one Black and one White rater for the race effects analyses and one female and one male rater for the sex effects analyses. These analyses, which unconfounded rater bias and actual performance differences, yielded results similar to those obtained with the between-subjects design. Implications of the findings are discussed.
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This study investigated the effects of interviewer race, candidate race, and racial composition of interview panels on interview ratings. Data were collected on 153 police officers applying for promotion. Results confirmed a same-race rating effect (i.e., candidates racially similar to interviewers received higher ratings) for Black and White interviewers on racially balanced panels. A majority-race rating effect (i.e., candidates racially similar to the majority race of panel interviewers received higher ratings) existed for Black and White interviewers on primarily White panels. Rating patterns of Black and White interviewers on primarily Black panels also suggested a majority-race rating effect. Racial composition of selection interview panels in combination with interviewer and candidate race were proposed as variables affecting candidates' ratings.
Chapter
This chapter presents an integrated understanding of various impression formation processes. The chapter introduces a model of impression formation that integrates social cognition research on stereotyping with traditional research on person perception. According to this model, people form impressions of others through a variety of processes that lie on a continuum reflecting the extent to that the perceiver utilizes a target's particular attributes. The continuum implies that the distinctions among these processes are matters of degree, rather than discrete shifts. The chapter examines the evidence for the five main premises of the model, it is helpful to discuss some related models that raise issues for additional consideration. The chapter discusses the research that supports each of the five basic premises, competing models, and hypotheses for further research. The chapter concludes that one of the model's fundamental purposes is to integrate diverse perspectives on impression formation, as indicated by the opening quotation. It is also designed to generate predictions about basic impression formation processes and to help generate interventions that can reduce the impact of stereotypes on impression formation.
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We used self-categorization theory--which proposes that people may use social characteristics such as age, race, or organizational membership to define psychological groups and to promote a positive self-identity--to develop and test hypotheses about the effects of demographic diversity in organizations on an individual's psychological and behavioral attachment to the organization. Individual-level commitment, attendance behavior, and tenure intentions were examined as a function of the individual's degree of difference from others on such social categories as age, tenure, education, sex, and race. We expected that the effect of being different would have different effects for minorities (i.e., women and nonwhites) than for members of the majority (i.e., men and whites). Analyses of a sample of 151 groups comprising 1,705 respondents showed that increasing work-unit diversity was associated with lower levels of psychological attachment among group members. Nonsymmetrical effects were found for sex and race, with whites and men showing larger negative effects for increased unit heterogeneity than nonwhites and women. The results of the study call into question the fundamental assumption that underlies much of race and gender research in organizations--that the effect of heterogeneity is always felt by the minority.
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To throw light on the effects of sex on the judgements made in the employment interview a study was carried out on the interview results of 200 male and 200 female candidates for work in a bank. Interview records showed significant differences between male and female interviewers: the latter saw candidates as better dressed, better groomed, more cooperative, more alert and more cheerful. However, on three evaluative scales—impact on workmates, impact on customers, and an overall rating—there was no difference between them. Knowledge of test results played a significant, though small, part with male interviewers but not with female interviewers. The implications of the findings are discussed.
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Two studies examined the contribution of biased information search and bi- ased information processing to stereotyping of individual group members. Par- ticipants were free to ask any question they thought would help them make an accurate judgment about a target person's attitudes. Despite this opportunity to acquire individuating information, participants' judgments about group members were strongly influenced by their stereotypes. The findings further show that both the content of the questions addressed to stereotyped targets and the manner in which the answers to these questions were processed con- tributed to stereotyping. It is argued that biased information search is a major obstacle to the reduction of stereotyping in many real-life situations.
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When stereotypes affect judgment about individuals in the presence of individuating information, they may do so by affecting the construal of that information. Therefore stereotypes may affect judgment even if perceivers subsequently neglect the stereotypes or base rates and base their impressions only on these stereotype-driven construals of the individuating information. Too experiments showed that stereotypes affected judgments about targets in the presence of the same ambiguous individuating information that was open to multiple construals, but not in the presence of the same specific disambiguated construals of that information. A third experiment showed that the effects of stereotypes on target ratings in the presence of ambiguous individuating information were mediated by the construals of this information. Thus all subjects relied predominantly on the individuating information, but when it was ambiguous, it was construed differently, depending on the stereotype.
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Several studies have evaluated the effects of sex and race on performance ratings in general, and ratings in assessment centers in particular. However, the relationship between Hispanic origin and assessment center ratings has not been studied. To investigate the relationship between Hispanic origin and assessment, data were collected from an assessment center that had both Hispanic and non-Hispanic candidates. This investigation has revealed a main effect for assessee origin (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic) and a nonsignificant interaction between the ethnic composition of the assessor team and the ethnicity of the assessees.
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This study examined the relationship between race and interview ratings in a structured selection panel interview. Data from 1,334 police officer applicants who were interviewed by three-person panels were examined to explore how applicant race, rater race, and panel racial composition related to interview ratings and change from initial to final ratings. Results revealed the largest effect was for panel racial composition, such that predominately White panels provided significantly more favorable ratings to applicants of all races compared to panels composed of predominately Black raters. However, a significant three-way interaction between rater race, applicant race, and panel composition was also found. Specifically, Black raters evaluated Black applicants more favorably than White applicants only when they were on a predominately Black panel. These results may help explain past inconsistencies in the literature regarding the effects of rater race and applicant race on ratings.
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The Black-White gap in test scores on cognitive ability tests has been the subject of much research effort. This article critically evaluates the literature regarding one potential contributor to the gap: test perceptions. A model of how these perceptions affect test performance is presented, and the literature linking them to test performance and race is evaluated. Directions for future research and intervention are discussed.
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In this article, we review and evaluate recent management research on the effects of different types of diversity in group composition at various organizational levels (i.e., boards of directors, top management groups, and organizational task groups) for evidence of common patterns. We argue that diversity in the composition of organizational groups affects outcomes such as turnover and performance through its impact on affective, cognitive, communication, and symbolic processes.
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A meta-analysis of the employment interview was carried out to investigate the impact of interview format (individual vs. board interviews) and interview structure (unstructured vs. structured) on the validity of interviews. A thorough review of the unpublished and published literature worldwide yielded 150 usable validity coefficients for the meta-analysis. Contrary to the predominantly pessimistic views of previous researchers, the interview was found to be a generally good selection instrument. These findings suggest that the ' received doctrine' of interview invalidity is false. However, interview structure moderated predictive validity coef- ficients to a considerable extent. In fact, structured interviews produced mean validity coefficients twice as high as unstructured interviews. Although considerable variance in structured interviews remained unaccounted for after adjustment for statistical artifacts, all of the variation in observed validity coefficients for unstructured inter- views was accounted for. It was concluded that a number of social psychological processes examined in previous interview research would have little effect in moderat- ing the validity coefficients of the unstructured interview. The results also suggest that higher validity coefficients are associated with more reliable interviews and the use of formal job-analytic information in developing interview questions. Implications for research and practice in personnel psychology are explored.
Article
The influence of relational demography (assessor race, candidate race, and the racial composition of rating panels) was examined in a structured interview setting. Twenty assessors (10 White and 10 Black) comprising five, 4-person panels of all possible racial compositions, evaluated videotaped responses of police officers participating in a promotion process. Each panel rated the same 73 (36 White and 37 Black) candidates' responses to a complex, structured interview question. An examination of mean overall ratings revealed a same race bias and a significant difference between panels based upon the relational demography of the interview panel; nevertheless, the size of these effects was small. Net reconciliation (i.e., between initial and final scores) differed significantly between minority and majority panel conditions for only Black assessors and, again, the effects here were very small. The practical implications of these findings are discussed.
The theory of relational demography within groups has generated considerable interest because of its importance for understanding the meaning and impact of demographic diversity within work organizations. Specifically, relational demography suggests that the more similar an individual is to a social unit in demographic characteristics, the more positive will be his/her work-related attitudes and behaviors. However, previous research has not produced a clear and consistent pattern of results supporting the idea that demographic similarity positively affects individuals' attitudes and behaviors or, conversely, that demographic dissimilarity negatively affects individuals' attitudes and behaviors. It is an appropriate time in the life cycle of relational demography research to conduct a systematic review of the literature. As such, the purposes of this chapter were to describe the theoretical foundations of relational demography, review previous research and identify contradictions, and discuss new directions for future research.
Article
Investigated the role of authoritarianism in Ss' judgments of male and female candidates in a job selection interview. Male and female personnel officers were randomly selected from a pool of 144 volunteers (males' ages 23–58 yrs, females' 21–50 yrs) and were assigned on the basis of Revised California F Scale scores to high, moderate, and low authoritarian groups, until 14 males and 14 females constituted each group. It was hypothesized that high authoritarian Ss of both sexes (a) would rate male job applicants more favorably than females when they were presented in simulated videotaped recruitment interviews and (b) would subsequently make more job offers to male than female job applicants. Results support both hypotheses and indicate the usefulness of extending this approach to other aspects of the employment setting and to other nonemployment settings, such as vocational counseling. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the effect of sex similarity (SSM) on interviewers' evaluations of actual applicants and assessed whether interview quality mediated this effect. It was hypothesized that SSM would positively affect interview quality, which, in turn, would affect interview outcomes. Interviewers were expected to view interactions with same-sex applicants as higher in quality than those with opposite-sex applicants. As a result, same-sex applicants were expected to receive more favorable outcomes than opposite-sex applicants. Analysis of data from 680 campus interviews provides partial support for this hypothesis. SSM did not affect male recruiters' perceptions of interview quality or evaluations of applicants. As hypothesized, female recruiters reported better interview experiences with female applicants than male applicants and evaluated them more favorably. Possible explanations for the disparate results for male and female recruiters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The possibility of predictive bias by race in employment tests is commonly examined by across-group comparisons of the slopes and intercepts of regression lines using test scores to predict performance measures. This research assumed that the criteria, primarily supervisory ratings, were unbiased. However, a concern is that the apparent lack of differential prediction in cognitive ability tests may be an artifact of the predominant use of performance ratings provided by supervisors who are members of the majority group; a criterion that is potentially biased against members of the minority group. We posited that ratings by a supervisor of the same race as the employee being rated would be less open to claims of bias. We compared ability-performance relationships in samples of Black and White employees that allowed for between-subjects and within-subjects comparisons under 2 conditions: when all employees were rated by a White supervisor and when each employee was rated by a supervisor of the same race. Neither analysis found evidence of predictive bias against Black employees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)