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We Know Some Things: Parent–Adolescent Relationships in Retrospect and Prospect

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Abstract

This article examines the most important ideas to have emerged from the last 25 years of research on adolescent development in the family context and suggests some directions for the future. Two major sets of questions organize the review. First, how can we best characterize normative family relationships during adolescence, and, more specifically, is adolescence a time of parent Ð child conflict? Second, how do variations in parent – child relationships affect the developing adolescent? The answer to the first question depends on what is meant by conflict and, more importantly, from whom one gathers data. There is a need for a new perspective on the family, one that emphasizes the different viewpoints and stakes that parents and adolescents bring to their relationship with each other. Special attention should be paid to studies of the mental health of parents of adolescents. With regard to the second question, it is argued that there is enough evidence to conclude that adolescents benefit from having parents who are authoritative: warm, firm, and accepting of their needs for psychological autonomy. Therefore, it would seem most beneficial to institute a systematic, large-scale, multifaceted, and ongoing public health campaign to educate parents about adolescence, one that draws on the collective resources and expertise of health-care professionals, scientists, governmental agencies, community organizations, schools, religious institutions, and the mass media.

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... Adolescence is typically characterized by psychological and emotional change when adolescents' are to establish their own identity separate from their parents (Kroger, 2007). Hence, many parents perceive this period as a challenging time in their parenting (Steinberg, 2001). For immigrant mothers who live in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, parenting adolescents is likely to be perceived as even more demanding due to additional factors involving acculturation (Berry, 2003) and area deprivation (Erfelt & Abdirahman, 2019). ...
... Considering the extensive research showing that parenting plays a significant role in adolescents' development (e.g. Koehn & Kerns, 2017;Steinberg, 2001), such information is imperative so that policy and practice can adequately support families in promoting their adolescents' psychosocial adjustment and wellbeing. Thus, against this background, and adopting an intersectional perspective, this study aims to contribute to the literature by examining challenges and needs among immigrant mothers of adolescents, living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Sweden. ...
... Empirical findings consistently show that adolescents benefit from authoritative parenting, which means that parents are warm and responsive to the child's emotional needs, while at the same time standing firm and being consistent in establishing and enforcing guidelines, limits, and appropriate expectations (Steinberg, 2001). When the balance of power between parents and children changes, with parents being scared to properly foster their children, the opportunity to establish and maintain such guidelines and limits may be diminished. ...
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Parenting is arguably the most critical factor in protecting teenagers from problem behaviors, such as delinquency and substance use. For immigrant mothers, however, the ability to care for their children might be negatively affected by challenges related to acculturation and area deprivation. The aim of this study was to raise this issue by examining parenting challenges and needs among immigrant mothers of teenagers living in disadvantaged neighborhoods in Sweden. Such knowledge is crucial for society to be able to adequately support families in promoting their teenagers well-being. Based on an intersectional framework and qualitative interviews with 14 mothers, four themes related to challenges and needs emerged: structural challenges, cultural transition, psychosocial problems, and social support. The themes were highly intertwined and demonstrated substantial distress among immigrant mothers in relation to their parenting and protecting their children. Mothers’ were, therefore, highly engaged in parenting and expressed a desire and motivation to improve their parenting through social support. The introduction of culturally sensitive parenting support specifically aimed at this marginalized group of parents is encouraged.
... Due to the prevalence of anxious-depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and its possible consequences, research on internalizing problems in the adolescent population has focused on the identification of contributor factors that could exacerbate or ameliorate these problems. Among these factors, a large part of the literature has highlighted the role of parental competences as a critical target for the prevention of these problems (e.g., Pinquart, 2017;Steinberg, 2001). Nevertheless, although the association between parental competences and both internal problems is well-documented, there is no conclusive evidence on the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. ...
... However, in the last decades, there has been a shift in the research approach concerning family context, with studies focusing on the preventive role of some parental competences (Pinquart, 2015;Soenens et al., 2019). Within this positive framework, the evidence has identified specific parental practices that are involved in the prevention of internalizing problems (e.g., Pinquart, 2017;Steinberg, 2001). Prior research has paid particular attention to three parental competences: parental warmth, family communication, and autonomy support. ...
... These findings highlight the importance that the family continues to have for the well-being of youths while implying the need to develop parent-based interventions that focus on equipping them with adequate parental competences to foster positive adolescent development. Indeed, multiple systematic reviews and meta-analyzes have shown that these interventions are not only effective in improving positive parenting behaviors in the short term (Barlow et al., 2012;Florean et al., 2020) but also in reducing the occurrence of internalizing problems in their children (Dardas et al., 2018;Yap et al., 2016) and contributing to the development of a variety of adolescents' competences and resources (Chu et al., 2015;Steinberg, 2001). Second, the prominent role of mindfulness in our model implies the importance that this competence could have in reducing internalizing problems. ...
Article
Anxious-depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation are common phenomena during adolescence. Ample research has evidenced that certain parental competences (i.e., parental warmth, autonomy support, and family communication) play a key role in the prevention of both internalizing problems. However, the mechanisms that explain the preventive effects of these parental competences are little understood. For those mechanisms to be explained, the present study aimed at investigating the mediating role of adolescent mindfulness on the association between parental competences, anxious-depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation. It was also explored whether these relations were (dis)similar across gender. A total of 1405 adolescents (53.1% girls) aged between 12 and 17 years (M = 14.79, SD = 1.54) participated in the research. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire during school hours. Structural equation models analysis showed that the association between parental competences and anxious-depressive symptoms was partially mediated by adolescent mindfulness. Meanwhile, the association between parental competences and suicidal ideation was mediated through a double indirect effect via mindfulness and anxious-depressive symptoms. Gender did not moderate previous associations. This study offers evidence of the contribution of mindfulness in explaining the processes that underlie the relationship between parental competences and certain internalizing problems in adolescents. Further, these findings emphasize the need for future interventions to foster both positive parenting and adolescents’ mindfulness to prevent anxious-depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation.
... Moreover, I examine how immigrant adolescents' perceptions of intergenerational relations are related to their adaptation in Finland. Adolescence is an age phase that is characterized by identity negotiations and pursuits of autonomy in relation to one's parents (Greenfield, Keller, Fuligni, & Maynard, 2003;Jugert & Titzmann, 2019;Kagitcibasi, 2013;Steinberg, 2001). After migration, however, these negotiations often become more complex. ...
... Similarly, quantitative research pointing out the important role of perceived parental support in adolescents' psychological and school adaptation is wide-ranging (e.g., García Coll et al., 2012;Jasinskaja-Lahti, 2000;Liebkind et al., 2004;Motti-Stefanidi et al., 2012;Sabatier & Berry, 2008;Schachner, van de Vijver, & Noack, 2014;Walsh, Kolobov, & Harel-Fisch, 2018). Additionally, adolescents' strong sense of family obligations (Fuligni & Telzer, 2012;van Geel & Vedder, 2011) and open adolescent-parent communication (Qin, 2008;Steinberg, 2001) support adolescents' school adjustment and psychological well-being. Studies on adolescents' adaptation have also shown how perceived discrimination is closely related to difficulties in the adaptation of immigrants (Kosonen, 2008;Liebkind et al., 2004;Motti-Stefanidi et al., 2012;Sabatier & Berry, 2008) and that social relationships support adolescents' adaptation by easing the stress of the acculturation process, including experiences of discrimination (Liebkind et al., 2004;Sabatier & Berry, 2008;Walsh et al., 2018). ...
... Two perspectives have been common in psychological and sociological studies on intergenerational relations in the United States and Europe in the 20th century: conflict and solidarity frameworks (Connidis & McMullen, 2002;Silverstein & Bengtson, 1997;Steinberg, 2001). Interpersonal conflict between adolescents and their parents has dominated the studies on intergenerational relations particularly in the migration context (Glick, 2010;Kwak, 2003;Telzer, 2010), although there is also a growing body of research concerning intergenerational solidarity and mutual support in immigrant families (Albertini et al., 2019;Fuligni & Telzer, 2012). ...
... My motivation for this research investigation began in that Year 10-level class, and I sought out research in this area. A review of international sources (e.g., Barber & Olsen, 2004;Martino & Pallotta-Chiarolli, 2005;Mooney et al., 2007;Scales et al., 2011;Steinberg, 2001) in postgraduate research provided confirmation of my intuitive understanding that ongoing parent support for their early adolescent children in secondary school makes a significant difference to the ongoing life outcomes, including school outcomes, for these young students. ...
... Twenty-first century research has affirmed that the relationship between parent and child through the key transition points into emerging adulthood has important links to the child's ongoing positive development (e.g., Arnett & Hughes, 2012;Scales et al., 2011;Steinberg, 2001). These investigations provide conclusions that contrast with earlier views about how adolescents progress in their relationships with parents. ...
... Parent engagement with the adolescent and their schoolwork provides emotional and behavioural strengths, as well as support for continuing positive school outcomes and wellbeing Hill, Liang et al., 2018; Internal and sometimes behavioural changes exhibited by adolescents have led in the past to a deficit view of adolescence itself, and it was viewed as a time of difficulty and reaction, of "storm and stress" (Arnett & Hughes, 2012, p. 9). Research in recent decades, however, demonstrates that while changes and some stress occur in early adolescence, adjustments in approaches by parents and other adults can offset behavioural difficulties (Arnett & Hughes, 2012;Benson et al., 2007;Jeynes, 2010Jeynes, , 2014Steinberg 2001 (Deslandes & Cloutier, 2002;Hill & Chao, 2009b). In fact, Jeynes (2014) states that the benefits of appropriate engagement between parents and adolescents are "substantial and statistically significant" (p. ...
... Because adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood, this transformation in parentadolescent relationships means that the parent-adolescent relationship differs from the parent-child relationship, involves adult roles, and evolves to a more equalitarian form. The parent-adolescent relationship is one of the most studied topics in adolescent development (Steinberg, 2001;Steinberg & Silk, 2002). Since the 1990s, there has been a surge of interest in the parent-child relationship, especially the parent-adolescent relationship in the field of developmental psychology. ...
... Peer relationship affects and is affected by family relationships and is one of the factors outside the family system, which is associated with the parent-adolescent relationship. Although it is controversial that the influence of parents on adolescents decreases and peers become more dominant during adolescence, peer relationships still hold an essential place in the lives of adolescents and their families and, by extension, in the parent adolescent-relationship (Steinberg, 2001). There is a large volume of published research that reveals the association between the parent-adolescent relationship and the peer relationship (Dekovic & Meesus, 2002;Farrell & White, 1998;Schneider & Younger, 1996;Shomaker & Furman, 2009;Wainright & Patterson, 2008). ...
... Ergenliğin çocukluk dönemi ve yetişkinlik dönemi arasında bir geçiş dönemi olması nedeniyle, ergen-ebeveyn ilişkisindeki bu dönüşüm, ergen-ebeveyn ilişkisinin çocukluk döneminde kurulan ilişkiden farklılaşarak yetişkin rollerini barındırması ve daha eşitlikçi bir yapıya evrilmesi anlamına gelmektedir. Ergen-ebeveyn ilişkisi ergen gelişiminde en çok araştırılan konuların başında gelmektedir (Steinberg, 2001;Steinberg ve Silk, 2002). Alanyazında 90'lı yıllardan itibaren çocuk-ebeveyn ilişkisi, özellikle de ergen-ebeveyn ilişkisi gelişim psikolojisinde büyük bir ilgiyle incelenmektedir. ...
Article
Bu çalışmada ebeveyn-ergen ilişkisini etkileyen faktörleri belirlemeye odaklanan bir model geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu faktörlerin belirlenmesi amacıyla yapısal eşitlik modeli kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada ekolojik yaklaşım temelinde ebeveyn-ergen ilişkisini etkileyen değişkenlerden eş desteği, kardeş ilişkileri, akran ilişkileri ve ebeveyn öz-yetkinliği değişkenleri ele alınmıştır. Çalışma grubu 14-17 yaşları arasında 391 ergen ve ebeveynlerinden oluşmaktadır (n=782). Model testi sonuçları, eş desteği, akran ilişkisi ve kardeş ilişkisinin ebeveyn-ergen ilişkisi üzerinde olumlu, ebeveyn öz-yetkinliğinin ise ebeveyn-ergen ilişkisi üzerinde olumsuz etkisi olduğunu göstermiştir. Ayrıca ebeveyn öz-yetkinliği, kardeş ilişkisi aracılığıyla ebeveyn-ergen ilişkisini etkilemiştir. Bu bulgular sonucunda ekolojik sistem yaklaşımı temelinde belirlenen değişkenlerin söz konusu ilişkinin niteliği üzerinde doğrudan ve dolaylı etkilerinin olduğu görülmektedir. İleride yapılacak araştırmalarda bu değişkenlerin ebeveyn-ergen ilişkisine yönelik müdahale programlarında ele alınması ve bu ilişkinin diğer yönlerinin ortaya çıkarılması için nitel yöntemlerle incelenmesi önerilebilir.
... There is considerable empirical evidence demonstrating that authoritative parenting characterized by high levels of parental warmth combined with behavioral control is associated with positive child outcomes (e.g., school achievement, psychological well-being), whereas the lack of warmth; coercive, authoritarian parenting; and uninvolved or neglectful parenting predict more negative developmental outcomes (Luo et al., 2021;Pinquart, 2016;Rose et al., 2018;Smetana, 2017;Smetana & Ahmad, 2018). Although some cross-cultural differences in these associations have been reported in the field of children's educational attainment and school achievement (for a review, see Chen et al., 2019), the benefits of authoritative parenting have been demonstrated across different cultures (Liu & Merritt, 2018;Luo et al., 2021;Smetana & Ahmad, 2018;Sorkhabi & Mandara, 2013;Steinberg, 2001). The fact that knowledge about optimal parenting styles is constantly growing (Larzelere et al., 2013;Nelson-Coffey & Stewart, 2019) can affect how common the different parenting styles are among contemporary parents. ...
... Finally, rejectingneglecting parenting (also known as neglectful, disengaged or uninvolved parenting; see for example, Maccoby & Martin, 1983;Baumrind, 2013;Kuppens, & Ceulemans, 2019) is characterized by the lack of both demandingness and responsiveness. This four-fold typology of parenting styles has been widely used in the research literature (e.g., Larzelere et al., 2013;Steinberg, 2001). ...
Article
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In the present study, we examined what kind of parenting style groups (defined by parental warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control) can be identified among contemporary Finnish mothers and fathers and how these parenting style groups are associated with parents’ symptoms of parental burnout. Gender differences in parenting style groups, and in their associations with parental burnout, were also investigated. The survey data were gathered from 1,471 Finnish parents (91.2% mothers). The results of k-means cluster analysis identified six different parenting style groups: authoritarian (13.5%), permissive (15.2%), psychologically controlling (19.4%), uninvolved (14.4%), controlling (12.4%), and authoritative (25.1%), with the authoritative parenting style being the most common. The identified parenting style groups were equally common for mothers and fathers. The results showed further that, independently of gender, parents applying the authoritarian parenting style experienced symptoms of parental burnout the most, whereas those with the authoritative or permissive style reported these symptoms the least. Based on the results, it is suggested that child health care and family centers should pay particular attention to potential risk groups such as parents reporting symptoms of parental burnout and parents characterized by an authoritarian parenting style.
... Örneğin, bazı araştırmacılar otoriter, demokratik ve izin verici olmak üç tür anne baba tutumunu tanımlarken, diğer bazıları ise otoriter, demokratik, izin vericihoşgörülü ve izin verici-ihmalkâr anne-baba tutumları şeklinde sınıflama yapmışlardır (Sarı ve Özkan, 2016). Steinberg (2001) ise literatürden hareketle açıklayıcı otoriter, otoriter, ilgisizkayıtsız ve izin verici olmak üzere yaygın dört anne-baba tutumunun olduğunu belirtmektedir. Bu bağlamda, anne-baba tutumlarına ilişkin yapılan sınıflandırmalarda ortak bir görüşün olmadığı söylenebilir. ...
... Yapılan bu çalışmalardan elde edilen sonuçlar, anne-baba tutumları ile depresyon ve kaygı arasında anlamlı düzeyde bir ilişki olduğu, anne-baba tutumları otoriter olan kişilerin daha fazla duygusal sorunlar yaşadıklarını göstermiştir (Adubale, 2017;Sharma, Sharma ve Yadava, 2011;Sümer, Gündoğdu Aktürk ve Helvacı, 2010). Steinberg (2001) yaptığı derleme çalışmasında, demokratik/dengeli anne-baba tutumunun çocuğun psiko-sosyal gelişimi üzerindeki olumlu etkileri üzerinde durmuştur. Yetkili (açıklayıcıotoriter) ev yaşantısına sahip olan bireylerin, otoriter, izin verici veya ilgisiz-kayıtsız evlerde büyüyenlere göre psiko-sosyal açıdan daha yeterli, özgüvenlerinin ve akademik başarılarının daha yüksek olduğu, daha sorumlu, uyumlu, yaratıcı, meraklı ve sosyal becerilerinin daha fazla olduğu belirtilmektedir. ...
Article
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En küçük toplumsal birim olarak ifade edilen aile, içerisinde biyolojik, ekonomik, psikolojik ve sosyolojik olmak üzere birçok işlevi barındıran bir yapıdır. Bu açıdan bireyin psiko-sosyal gelişimini etkileyebilecek önemli faktörlerden biride anne baba tutumlarıdır. Bu araştırmanın amacı ergenlerde görülen problem davranışlar ile psikolojik belirtiler üzerinde anne-baba tutumlarının rolünü incelemektir. Veri toplama araçları, 238 (%39,7) kız ve 362 (%60,3) erkek olmak üzere 600 lise öğrencisine uygulanmıştır. Verilerin analizince çok değişkenli varyans analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçları, ergenlerde psikolojik belirtilerin ve problem davranışların anne-baba tutumlarına bağlı olarak anlamlı düzeyde farklılaştığını göstermiştir. İlgisiz aile ortamında büyüyen ergenlerin daha fazla problem davranışlara yönelirken psikolojik belirtileri yüksek olan katılımcıların otoriter anne-baba tutumuna sahip oldukları bulunmuştur. Demokratik anne-baba tutumu hem problem davranışlar için hem psikolojik belirtiler için koruyucu faktör olarak görülmektedir. Sonuç olarak, bu çalışmadan elde edilen bulgular anne-baba tutumlarının psikolojik belirtiler ve problem davranışlar üzerindeki etkisinin farklı olduğu ve demokratik tutumun koruyucu bir faktör olduğunu göstermektedir. Elde edilen bulgular literatür çerçevesinde tartışılmış ve bazı önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
... This trajectory of increasing emotional and behavioural autonomy from parents continues into adolescence, where the parent remains an important attachment figure amongst others such as peers and romantic partners (Allen & Tan, 2016). Within this framework, healthy development occurs within the context of close and warm relationships that foster increasing levels of autonomy as the child matures through childhood into adolescence (Steinberg, 2001), whilst parent-child relationships characterised by over-control, rejection and hostility are thought to lead to problems with children's adjustment (Collins & Steinberg, 2008). Thus, in theory, paternal depression could be associated with changes in parenting style, for example by limiting father's responsiveness, warmth, and appropriate behavioural monitoring, which may be a risk factor for internalising problems in adolescence. ...
... More specifically, it was expected that fathers with higher levels of depression, would have lower levels of paternal responsiveness and autonomy granting, which in turn would confer higher risks for elevated adolescent internalising symptoms. These paths were expected within the theoretical framework of attachment theory and existing evidence that positive child and adolescent outcomes are associated with family environments that are characterised by warmth, connectedness and encouragement to express individuality (Collins & Steinberg, 2008;Gray & Steinberg, 1999;Steinberg, 2001). Whilst both the paths from paternal depression to paternal responsivity and autonomy granting operated as expected in terms of directionality, surprisingly neither path reached statistical significance. ...
Article
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Whilst there is a large evidence base demonstrating the impact of maternal depression on the development of adolescent internalising problems, less is known about the association between paternal depression and adolescent internalising problems, and the mechanisms through which risk is conferred. This study examined the association between paternal depression and adolescent internalising problems, investigating parenting style as a pathway through which this association may be mediated. Participants included 4048 families taking part in the Growing Up in Ireland child cohort study. Self-report measures of paternal depression were completed when the study child was aged 9. Adolescents assessed paternal demandingness, responsiveness and autonomy granting at the age of 13. Adolescent internalising symptoms were measured at the age of 17/18 by the primary caregiver. A parallel multiple mediator model was used to test the total and specific indirect effects of the three parenting styles, whilst controlling for covariates and other mediators in the model. A direct effect of paternal depression on adolescent internalising problems was found (B = .051, 95% CI: 0.020, 0.083). However, no support for mediation via any of the paternal parenting styles (i.e., responsiveness, demandingness, or autonomy-granting) were found. These findings build on an emerging evidence-base demonstrating a specific direct association between paternal depression and adolescent internalising problems, and suggest that interventions ought to also target fathers suffering from depression to help reduce the risk of adolescent internalising problems.
... Despite the importance of peer relationships on adolescent outcomes, some parenting theories suggest that parents continue to have an impact on their adolescent's well-being (Inguglia et al., 2015;Steinberg, 2001). The parent-child relationship may serve as a protective factor against negative outcomes that arise from stressors (Bowes et al., 2010;Cohen and Wills, 1985). ...
... A close parent-child relationship (above and beyond shared activities and regular communication) may provide opportunities for parents to model healthy conflict resolution and emotion regulation skills for their children. A close parent-child relationship can also foster many protective variables such as assertiveness, internalization of self-worth, and general emotional support (e.g., Steinberg, 2001). ...
Article
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As children enter adolescence, the importance of peer relationships and exposure to peer stressors increases. Previous research suggests that cyber dating abuse (CDA) has become more prevalent during this developmental period, but parent–child relationships can serve as a protective factor against negative effects from peer stressors. The following study examined whether aspects of parent–child relationship quality (communication, closeness, and activities) served as a protective factor in the relationship between CDA victimization and mental health of adolescents. The sample included 1960 adolescents (55% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 who were currently in a romantic relationship. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses suggested that parent–child closeness moderated the effect of CDA on adolescents’ symptoms of depression and anxiety; however, parent–child communication and activities were not moderators. This suggests that the quality of parent–child relationships may be salient in moderating the effects of CDA while the quantity of interactions is not. Both practical and clinical implications of the findings are further discussed. Cyber dating abuse (CDA) is a significant health concern among adolescents.Parent-child closeness moderates negative effects of CDA on mental health.Emotionally close parent–child relationships protect against depression and anxiety. Cyber dating abuse (CDA) is a significant health concern among adolescents. Parent-child closeness moderates negative effects of CDA on mental health. Emotionally close parent–child relationships protect against depression and anxiety.
... Equal prioritization of self-and mother-association holds greater weight as 9-13-year-old children are considered closer with their mother than teenagers and young adults. For example, developmental studies have shown that children of age 6-13 years are very attached to their mother (Buist et al., 2002;Ruhl et al., 2015), and this attachment tends to decrease once they reach teenage (age 14-17; Steinberg, 2001;Smetana et al., 2006;Van Doorn et al., 2008;Asher et al., 2020). This personal closeness (and thus familiarity) with the mother might have influenced the strength of mother-association and thus modulated the perceived saliency of shape-label associations. ...
... For example, from the age of 13-14 years (teenager), children tend to become more independent, and during this period, relationship with their parents (specifically the mother) changes at a great length (Laursen et al., 1998(Laursen et al., , 2010Karabanova and Poskrebysheva, 2013;Branje, 2018). The conflicts between parent and child increase as they move into the teenage (Noller and Callan, 1986;Larson et al., 1996;Steinberg, 2001;Steinberg and Morris, 2001;Allen et al., 2004;Smetana et al., 2006;Van Doorn et al., 2008;De Goede et al., 2009). In the teenage years' gradual focus toward 'self ' starts, and children become more self-conscious (Steinberg, 2005). ...
Article
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Self-related information is processed with priority, an effect known as the self-prioritization effect (SPE). Recent studies on SPE show enhanced cognitive processing of the newly learned self-association compared to non-self (such as mother, friend, and stranger) associations among younger and older adults. However, developmental influences on the magnitude of SPE remain poorly understood. In order to examine the developmental impacts on the SPE, in the present study, we recruited participants ranging from 9–22 years of age and divided them into three age groups: older children (age 9–13), teenagers (age 14–17), and young adult (age 18–22) and compared their performance in the matching judgment task. Our results show more significant bias toward self than mother, friend, or stranger condition in all the three age groups, showing robust SPE in the 9-22-year-old age group. We also observed a more significant bias toward mother-association than friend and stranger-association in all the age groups showing an enhanced bias toward mother. Our study extends the SPE in older children and teenagers and shows that SPE remains robust and stable throughout childhood.
... According to Steinberg (2001), authoritative parenting is an effective form of parenting that should be advocated for use globally. This is because the high degree of parental involvement and structuring provide good support for children's ongoing development of self-regulation, while the nurturance and verbal give-and-take create a warm emotional climate that enhances the effectiveness of parenting behaviours. ...
... The advantages of authoritative parenting are evident through its associations with better intrapersonal, interpersonal and behavioural outcomes among children in Singapore. Although authoritative parenting was found to be less clearly predictive of children's academic performance in Singapore, this is consistent with Steinberg's (2001) observations of the Asian parenting literature. ...
Article
Cross-cultural studies on parenting have identified cultural nuances that may impact the form and functions of parenting styles and practices in different contexts. This scoping review is undertaken with the aim of identifying such nuances in an under-studied culture, as a starting point to understand and compare the forms and functions of parenting in Asia and beyond. A review of 27 studies showed that optimal parenting styles and practices were associated with positive child development outcomes in Singapore, similar to what has been observed in Western contexts. However, some parenting behaviours that were typically considered to be sub-optimal were not invariably related to poorer child outcomes in Singapore, indicating that there may be protective cultural factors related to the interpretation of parental control. Adopting an emic approach to parenting research would deepen our understanding of the cultural generality and specificity of practices, ensuring that the design and implementation of parenting interventions are culturally appropriate and effective.
... Örneğin, bazı araştırmacılar otoriter, demokratik ve izin verici olmak üç tür anne baba tutumunu tanımlarken, diğer bazıları ise otoriter, demokratik, izin vericihoşgörülü ve izin verici-ihmalkâr anne-baba tutumları şeklinde sınıflama yapmışlardır (Sarı ve Özkan, 2016). Steinberg (2001) ise literatürden hareketle açıklayıcı otoriter, otoriter, ilgisizkayıtsız ve izin verici olmak üzere yaygın dört anne-baba tutumunun olduğunu belirtmektedir. Bu bağlamda, anne-baba tutumlarına ilişkin yapılan sınıflandırmalarda ortak bir görüşün olmadığı söylenebilir. ...
... Yapılan bu çalışmalardan elde edilen sonuçlar, anne-baba tutumları ile depresyon ve kaygı arasında anlamlı düzeyde bir ilişki olduğu, anne-baba tutumları otoriter olan kişilerin daha fazla duygusal sorunlar yaşadıklarını göstermiştir (Adubale, 2017;Sharma, Sharma ve Yadava, 2011;Sümer, Gündoğdu Aktürk ve Helvacı, 2010). Steinberg (2001) yaptığı derleme çalışmasında, demokratik/dengeli anne-baba tutumunun çocuğun psiko-sosyal gelişimi üzerindeki olumlu etkileri üzerinde durmuştur. Yetkili (açıklayıcıotoriter) ev yaşantısına sahip olan bireylerin, otoriter, izin verici veya ilgisiz-kayıtsız evlerde büyüyenlere göre psiko-sosyal açıdan daha yeterli, özgüvenlerinin ve akademik başarılarının daha yüksek olduğu, daha sorumlu, uyumlu, yaratıcı, meraklı ve sosyal becerilerinin daha fazla olduğu belirtilmektedir. ...
... Moreover, few other researchers found that parents who were warm, responsive to children's questions and emotions had children who were more likely to succeed in the early years of school (Steinberg, 2001;Baumrind, 1980). Family involvement is a powerful predictor of high student achievement. ...
... Results of this study also supports the view of Steinberg, who stated that parents who were warm (having welcoming attitude towards their children), responsive to children's questions and emotions, provide structure, set limits and make demands for competence had children who are more likely to succeed in the early years of school and got along successfully with peers (Steinberg, 2001). Means that the parents who are more involved in children academic and non-academic activities have children showing greater academic success. ...
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The current study revolves around examining the relationship of various dimensions of parental support and academic achievements of their children. Study provides a guideline to the parents least involved in their children educational brought up. A cross-sectional data of 150 children was gathered; screened and analyzed via Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Several statistical tests were applied to the data including descriptive statistics and hierarchical regression by using step wise regression method. Step wise regression analysis was used to determine whether the increased aspects of parental support help in increasing the educational success of their children or otherwise. The multiple regression analysis, on the other hand, was employed to identify the most important factor in the educational success of the children. The researcher found assistance in academic success (ASIS) to be the most crucial factor affecting perceived academic success (PAS) of children. The results determine that the higher parents' involvement in their children's educational brought up, the better is their children performance at school. The results are discussed following the conclusion of the study. Suggestions are also made for the betterment of children in the light of results of the current study.
... Consistent with study findings, research suggests that internalizing conditions involving social withdrawal, including depression and social anxiety, appear to peak in adolescence in ASD (Ghaziuddin et al., 2002). This peak coincides with the natural increase in the social demands of adolescence and young adulthood as youth gain more independence in social situations and receive less structure and guidance from caregivers (Hume et al., 2014;Steinberg, 2001). An analysis of a sample that overlaps with the one used for the present study found that social withdrawal at age 18 was associated with greater difficulties with friendships, increased feelings of loneliness, and more depressive symptoms (Anderson et al., 2011). ...
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People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently exhibit challenging behaviors throughout the lifespan, which can have pervasive effects on quality of life. Challenging behaviors have been shown to change over time as a function of various individual-level factors (e.g., cognitive ability), yet research is primarily limited to parent-reported measures. To expand upon this work, the present study aimed to examine trajectories of teacher- and parent-reported challenging behaviors (i.e., hyperactivity, irritability, social withdrawal) and to test whether predictors including ASD features, verbal intelligence quotient, and consistency in reporter impact these trajectories among individuals with ASD or non-spectrum delays from ages 9 to 18. Multilevel models revealed that, according to both teacher and parent report, participants showed the greatest improvement in hyperactivity, less but still notable improvement in irritability, and stable levels of social withdrawal over time. Higher cognitive ability and fewer ASD features emerged as important individual differences related to fewer challenging behaviors. The multi-informant perspective and longitudinal design provide novel insight into the manifestations of these challenging behaviors across different contexts and across time. Findings highlight the importance of addressing challenging behaviors as these behaviors tend to persist throughout development in both home and school contexts, especially for children with particular diagnostic and cognitive profiles. Lay Summary According to both teacher and parent report, youth with autism showed the greatest improvement in hyperactivity, less but still notable improvement in irritability, and stable levels of social withdrawal from school-age to adolescence. Fewer autism features and greater cognitive ability were related to fewer challenging behaviors. This study’s use of multiple reporters (e.g., teachers and parents) across time provided insight into the persistence of challenging behaviors in the home and school settings and across development.
... Interestingly, these normative messages can be made explicit through the establishment of specific rules, but also learned through more implicit forms of communication, such as storytelling, conversing and modeling (Maccoby, 1992). In addition, although children will sometimes comply with parental expectations to avoid punishment (Hinduja & Patchin, 2013), they will do so at other times to seek affinity with and approval from their parents (Steinberg, 2001). The key role of parental norms is well illustrated by research on risky behaviors: previous studies have proven that norms of parents can be effective in deterring problematic conduct such as smoking (Hiemstra et al., 2017), alcohol drinking (Wood et al., 2004), unsafe sex practices (Jaccard & Dittus, 2000), as well as delinquency and aggression (Windle et al., 2010). ...
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To understand the development of cyber aggression during adolescence, it is important to consider the temporal variability of its potential predictors. This study uses a four-wave survey to investigate how changes in peer norms, parental norms, and parental communication are associated with two-year trajectories of online peer aggression. The sample includes 1521 Swiss middle school students (M age T1 = 11.54, SD = 0.40; 48% female). The results showed that over time a better parental communication quality and anti-aggression norms predicted lower rates and slower development of cyber aggression. Moreover, parental variables emerged as a quite stable deterrent of aggressive conduct. Although entrance into adolescence is characterized by the rise of peer influence, results from this study suggest that parents maintain an important protective role.
... Este estilo se ha mostrado eficaz en familias estadounidenses de clase media de origen europeo. Debido a las diferencias en valores culturales, Steinberg (2001) señala que los beneficios del estilo parental autorizativo se extienden a través de los límites de los orígenes étnicos, del estado, de la estructura del hogar, desde una perspectiva de la sociedad industrializada. En este sentido, ya se habló de que los hijos socializados en hogares autorizativos presentan mejores resultados que los hijos de hogares permisivos y autoritarios, en diversas medidas de ajuste psicosocial como competencia, logros, desarrollo social, autoestima y salud mental (Maccoby y Martin, 1983). ...
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La presente obra emerge como resultado del trabajo colaborativo y sinérgico construido por educadores/as e investigadores/as pertenecientes a diferentes universidades en el contexto iberoamericano, todos ellos interesados en la comprensión y estudio de la generatividad a lo largo del ciclo vital, con un interés particular en las implicaciones socioeducativas de dicho constructo para el desarrollo de la profesionalidad docente en diversos ambientes y contextos histórico-culturales. Para cumplir con estos objetivos descritos, se han organizado los capítulos en 4 partes temáticos. Todos ellos, en su conjunto, favorecen un abordaje diverso, complejo y profundo de la generatividad, fundamentado en el desarrollo de investigaciones recientes en Iberoamérica, favoreciendo una sistematización actualizada y versátil sobre el desarrollo humano en el campo de las ciencias sociales y de la educación.
... And the health outcome was even better for adults with indulgent parenting styles in the case of cognitive function and depressive symptoms. This is different from our hypothesis and inconsistent to previous research on children and adolescents, which suggests that indulgent style was associated with fewer positive outcomes compared Ding and He BMC Geriatrics (2022) 22:463 to authoritative style [42]. However, our result was similar to one study focusing on health in mid-and late adulthood from United States [11]. ...
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Backgrounds The impact of relationships in early childhood may be long-lasting and reaching to mid to late life. Limited studies have investigated the associations between parenting style and different aspects of well-being beyond adolescence. The current study aims to examine the association between parenting styles and multiple dimensions of functioning in mid-and later-life adults. Methods We used data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was applied to examine the association between retrospective parenting styles/behaviors in childhood and health outcome. Results Compared with authoritative style, authoritarian style predicted worse self-rated health (coefficient = − 0.13, P < 0.001), cognitive function (− 0.23, P < 0.05) and depressive symptom (0.87, P < 0.001). Paternal affection was associated with more health outcome in mid- and late life than maternal affection. Only paternal affection was a significant predictor of mid- and late life health among male adults, while both paternal and maternal affection were strong predictors among female adults. Authoritative style was associated more positive health outcomes in mid- and late life among adults with literate parents than those with illiterate parents. Conclusion This study provides evidence for the link between parenting behaviors in early life stage and physical and psychological functioning in mid- to late adulthood. Authoritative style, and the memory of parental affection, particularly from father and educated parents, could have long-lasting positive influence on children’s physical and mental well-being, which further support the life-course perspective on human development.
... Instead they would co-occur with other dimensions of socialization . Many researchers have indeed suggested that it is the constellation of parenting and teacher style variables that will impact adolescents' functioning, rather than the unique impact of one dimension (Baumrind, 1989;Steinberg, 2001). Future research examining the link between control and coping, should ideally also include other socialization practices, such as warmth or structure, as this may yield more insight into the associations between controlling socialization and oppositional defiance, compulsive compliance, and negotiation. ...
... The protective role of families in influencing children's behavior and mental health outcomes has been well documented [28]. Studies have shown that quality of family relationships predict child mental health functioning and overall adjustment, and that when families are consistently involved in children's lives, children experience a more positive transition through adolescence [29,30]. Parental skills have been associated with children's psychological adjustment, less risky sexual behavior, and less susceptibility to peer pressure [31,32]. ...
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Background Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is heavily burdened by HIV, with 85% of the global new infections among adolescents happening in the region. With advances in medication and national policies promoting antiretroviral therapy (ART), children < 15 years living with HIV (CLWH) continue to grow with a chronic, highly stigmatized disease. Unfortunately, the stigma they experience results in much lower quality of life, including poor mental health and treatment outcomes. Family members also experience stigma and shame by virtue of their association with an HIV-infected family member. Yet, stigma-reduction interventions targeting CLWH and their families are very limited. The goal of this study is to address HIV-associated stigma among CLWH and their caregivers in Uganda. Methods This three-arm cluster randomized control trial, known as Suubi4Stigma, will evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary impact of two evidence-based interventions: (1) group cognitive behavioral therapy (G-CBT) focused on cognitive restructuring and strengthening coping skills at the individual level and (2) a multiple family group (MFG) intervention that strengthens family relationships to address stigma among CLWH (N = 90, 10–14 years) and their families (dyads) in Uganda. Nine clinics will be randomized to one of three study arms (n = 3 clinics, 30 child-caregiver dyads each): (1) usual care; (2) G-CBT + usual care; and (3) MFG + usual care. Both treatment and control conditions will be delivered over a 3-month period. Data will be collected at baseline (pre-intervention) and at 3 months and 6 months post-intervention initiation. Conclusion The primary aim of the proposed project is to address the urgent need for theoretically and empirically informed interventions that seek to reduce HIV-associated stigma and its negative impact on adolescent health and psychosocial well-being. As several countries in SSA grapple with care and support for CLWH, this study will lay the foundation for a larger intervention study investigating how HIV-associated stigma can be reduced to foster healthy child development—especially for CLWH as they transition through adolescence. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04528732; Registered August 27, 2020
... Yaklaşım alkol ve uyuşturucu kullanımı, suç, akranlarla anti sosyal ilişki gibi sorunlu davranışları olan çocuk ve ergenlerin ailelerine yönelik kısa süreli aile tedavisi modelidir. Kısa süreli aile terapisine dayanan müdahaleler çocukların ve ergenlerin gelişiminde en önemli güç unsurunun aile olduğu varsayımına dayanmaktadır (Gorman-Smith vd., 2000b;Steinberg, 2001;Szapocznik ve Coatsworth, 1999). Aile sistemi içerisinde her aile üyesinin deneyimleri ve davranışları diğer aile üyelerinin deneyimleri ve davranışları ile etkileşim halindedir. ...
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Erken çocukluk döneminde baba-çocuk ilişkisinin önemini açıklayan çalışmalar artsa da bu ilişkiyi feminist bakış açısı ile açıklayanlar çok sınırlı sayıdadır. Özellikle, geleneksel toplumlarda çocuk bakımından yıllar boyunca anne sorumlu tutulmuştur ve bu ilişkinin kalitesinin önemi belirtilmiştir. Kitabın bu bölümünde çocuk bakımı ile ilgili çağdaş bir anlayış olan profeminist babalık üzerinde durulmuştur. Ayrıca kolektivisttik ve bireyselci toplumların arasında yer alan Türk kültüründe çocuk bakımı ve baba-çocuk ilişkisi profeminist bakış açısı ile açıklamıştır. Profeminizm ‘’cinsiyetçilik karşıtı’’ ve/veya erkeğin kadının üzerindeki gücünü göz ardı eden bir anlayıştır. Böylelikle, Türk kültüründe erken çocukluk dönemindeki baba-çocuk ilişkisini bu bakış açısı ile anlamak için toplam 76 erken çocukluk döneminde (iki ve dört yaş) çocuğu olan Türk ve Kıbrıslı Türk babalar ile çevrimiçi görüşme yapılmıştır. Genel olarak, babalar çocuk bakımında profeminist bakış açısı ve eşitlikçi bir anlayışı benimsediklerini belirtseler de ebeveynlik uygulamalarında bu anlayışı sınırlı olarak ortaya koydukları raporlanmıştır. Bir başka deyişle, babalık kültüründe değişimler olsa da babalık icrasında halen ataerkil anlayış benimsediği söylenebilir. Babaların çocuk bakımı hizmetinde profeminist ve toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliği perspektifinden sorumluluğu üstlenmesinin teşviki büyük önem taşımaktadır.
... Intra-family relationship, according to Steinberg (2001), is a relationship that individuals experience within the family members such as the kinship relation between children with father, mother, and siblings and family environment with regards to their relationship with entire members of the family as well as their business. Caldwell and Bradley(1984) view edintra-family relationship as a promotion of two important climates that individuals need most which are: first, building up of a good relationship among each member of the family with love, affection, caring, belong and belongingness sense and mutual understanding which are very important for the family. ...
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ne major problem faced by many businesses and indeed family-owned O businesses is the issue of transition. For a family-owned business, generational change is a matter of concern as a small mistake in the selection of a successor could seriously affect the survival and performance of the business. This study examined the effect of intra-family relationship on the post-succession performance of selected family-owned businesses in the North East Nigeria. The study used primary data with the aid of questionnaire collected from one hundred and nine (109) family-owned businesses. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The study found that intra-family relationship is a significant determinant of post-succession performance of family-owned businesses in the North East on aggregate level. On the specific level, both level of trust and lack of conflict have significant effects while, personal quality of family members though exerting positive influence, has no statistical significance. These findings imply that when a family has a close relationship, members work weather to improve the performance of their family business. In line with the findings, this study recommends for a closer tie among family members in a succession period. This could create better ideas for a better business performance after succession.
... Securely attached children and adolescents are more open to communication, emotionally balanced and their relationships depend on mutual trust (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987). It was found that securely attached individuals were less frequently faced with depression, anxiety, antisocial behaviors and delinquency than insecurely attached individuals (Claes et al., 2005;Steinberg, 2001). Consistently, Kerr, Statin and Burk (2010) emphasized that emotional ties reduce juvenile crime. ...
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With the acceleration of internet use, social media addiction is included in our lives. When looking at the antecedents of SMA, being young has been found to be a risk factor for SMA. It is more important to investigate the effects of SMA on adolescents because, in addition to being in the risk group, adolescents adopt the latest technologies more easily and they are vulnerable to the negative effects of these technologies. The internet is not always used for "innocent" purposes such as self-entertainment or getting information; sometimes it can also be used for malicious purposes, such as humiliating or bullying others. In addition to the benefits of technological advances in education and training, rapid technological developments may also result in problematic behaviors especially among children and young and recently, possibilities brought by technology and more widespread use of technology by young people have created a new concept, namely, cyberbullying, which expands the concept of traditional bullying and that includes using technology for bullying others. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance on SMA and cyberbullying as distal outcome variables and partial mediating effects of the Dark Triad (DT) personality v traits, angry rejection sensitivity (RS) and anxious RS, and friendship quality in the links of attachment anxiety and avoidance among adolescences. In general, the findings supported the proposed theoretical model. The findings revealed that attachment anxiety was found to be a significant predictor of SMA among adolescent sample. The effect of attachment anxiety on cyberbullying was found to be insignificant. However, angry RS and anxious RS mediated the link between attachment anxiety and cyberbullying. Angry and anxious RS also fully mediated the link between attachment anxiety and friendship quality. The association between attachment avoidance and cyberbullying was mediated by psychopathy. Machiavellianism and psychopathy partially mediated the link between attachment avoidance and friendship quality. The results are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications along with suggestions for future research.
... Young people spend more time with friends, less with their parents. Adolescents need to individuate by gaining more independence from their parents (Steinberg, 2001;Steinberg and Morris, 2001). Moreover, adolescents also need to express emotional and sexual feelings and enjoy physical contact with others. ...
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Parents sharing information about their children on social network sites (SNSs) (i.e., sharenting) is common today. However, previous work confronting parents’ and adolescents’ views on sharenting and related privacy concerns is limited. Therefore, the present study scrutinizes parents’ motives for sharenting and adolescents’ attitudes toward sharenting and negotiated privacy management strategies. Communication Privacy Management (CPM) was used as a theoretical framework. Based on 30 semi-structured interviews, two motives for sharenting were identified. Parents share information about their adolescent children because they are proud of their offspring or to inform family and friends. In turn, adolescents’ approval of their parents’ sharenting behavior depends on the content parents disclose online. Adolescents perceive sharenting as positive as long as they are nicely portrayed and positive events are shared. Additionally, both adolescents and parents are concerned about the child’s online privacy. They adopt several strategies to respect privacy boundaries and to avoid privacy turbulence.
... This can be attributed not only to the generation gap as mentioned above but also to less time spent together and increased conflicts between family members and the adolescent. Parents often experience the period of adolescence as more challenging than other stages in their child's life [85]. ...
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Asthma is a heterogeneous disease usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation and recognized as the most prevalent chronic illness among children. Despite this, the knowledge as to how asthma affects adolescents is still scarce. One of the main management problems of asthmatic adolescents is the poor adherence to pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. The assessment of respiratory function and the impact on quality of life are still two crucial challenges in the management of asthmatic adolescents. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted physicians to explore complementary management strategies including telemedicine technologies. This review aims to provide an update on the contribution of respiratory functional tests, how asthma affects quality of life of adolescents and, finally, how telemedicine contributes to the management of adolescent asthmatics during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... To distinguish between the different responsivity patterns (Belsky & Pluess, 2009;, we measured both adverse parenting (i.e., psychological control) and supportive parenting (i.e., emotional support/warmth). Based on developmental theories, such as the self-determination theory (SDT; Soenens et al., 2015Soenens et al., , 2017 and the interpersonal acceptance-rejection theory (IPARTheory; Rohner, 2016), we choose psychological control and emotional support as two key parenting dimensions (Rohner et al., 2005;Soenens & Vansteenkiste, 2010;Steinberg, 2001). Psychological control is characterized by intrusiveness, criticism, and manipulation, which undermines adolescents' autonomy and can negatively impact their children's psychological functioning (Barber et al., 2012;Soenens & Vansteenkiste, 2010). ...
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According to environmental sensitivity models, children vary in responsivity to parenting. However, different models propose different patterns, with responsivity to primarily (1) adverse parenting (adverse sensitive) or (2) supportive parenting (vantage sensitive), or (3) to both (differentially susceptible). This preregistered study tested whether these three responsivity patterns coexist. We used intensive longitudinal data of Dutch adolescents (N = 256, Mage = 14.8, 72% female) who bi-weekly reported on adverse and supportive parenting and their psychological functioning (t = 26). Dynamic Structural Equation Models (DSEM) with more than 4,600 observations indeed revealed differential parenting effects. As hypothesized, we found that all three responsivity patterns coexisted in our sample: 5% were adverse sensitive, 3% vantage sensitive, and 26% differentially susceptible. No adolescent appeared unsusceptible, however. Instead, we labeled 28% as low-perceptive, because they did not perceive any changes in parenting and showed lower trait levels of environmental sensitivity than others. Additionally, unexpected patterns emerged, with 37% responding contrary to parenting theories (e.g., decreased psychological functioning after more parental support). Overall, findings indicate that theorized responsivity-to-parenting patterns might coexist in the population, and that there are other, previously undetected patterns that go beyond environmental sensitivity models.
... An important question, therefore, is whether having more children helps parents in their parental adjustment or whether it is not beneficial and might even be detrimental [18,21]. In general, most parenting studies have focused on the consequences of parenting on child and adolescent adjustment [24,25], but less is known about the relationship between parents' decisions and parental adjustment. ...
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The fertility deficit in many European countries is related to a low rate of second births. Understanding the factors associated with the predisposition of one-child parents to have more children could contribute to the search for solutions to this social problem. Although previous evidence highlights the role of employment and social factors, psychological factors have been poorly investigated. This study examines the relationship between different psychosocial factors (rumination, personality, life satisfaction, perfectionism, social support, parental stress, guilt linked to work–family conflict, age and child temperament) and parents’ predisposition to have more children. The sample consisted of 96 one-child Spanish parents whose child was in early childhood education (59.3% women; Mage = 37.41). The results show that one-child parents with the predisposition to have more children, compared to those without a predisposition to have more children, showed higher levels of life satisfaction, extroversion and adaptive perfectionism but lower levels of rumination and parental stress. The social implications of these findings and how they may affect parenting today are discussed.
... Even when depression occurred in the past, it may continue to impair mother-child relationships over time. In turn, poor mother-child relationships are associated with negative outcomes for children and youth (Laursen & Collins, 2009;Steinberg, 2001). One study found that optimism was positively associated with parent-child communication and negatively associated with parent-child disagreements (Orejudo et al., 2012). ...
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The life course perspective posits that parents' and children's lives are linked through shared experiences and interdependent contexts such as the household. In this paper, we draw on the life course perspective to examine the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent optimism, an important trait that reflects adolescents' positive expectations for the future, and how features of the family context explain this association. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3013), taking advantage of the study's longitudinal measures of maternal depression that span a 15-year period. First, we find that current maternal depression is negatively associated with optimism among adolescents. Second, we find that the family environment and parent-child relationships, but not economic wellbeing, explain the association between maternal depression and adolescent optimism. These findings inform our understanding of how parent and adolescent wellbeing are linked and, importantly, how the family environment conditions how adolescents envision their futures.
... When looking at the direct association of parenting on academic performance, our results show that authoritative parenting had the most positive influence on academic achievement compared to all the other styles. This in line with previous research, even though there are some discrepancies in the findings, the majority of studies report a beneficial effect of authoritative parenting on academic outcome of adolescents [57,58] and a negative effect of neglectful parenting [19]. Our results indicate that this association is also true for the Lebanese context. ...
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Background The aim of this prospective study is to examine how parenting style relates to academic achievement of Lebanese adolescents and test the mediating effect of self-efficacy and intention towards getting good grades. Potential moderation by demographic factors (age, gender, school type, religion and parents’ education) was also examined. Methods Students (n = 345) from private and public schools in Mount Lebanon and Beirut area, aged between 15 and 18, participated in a two-wave longitudinal study and completed a self-administered questionnaire based on the I-Change Model assessing socio-demographics (age, gender, school type, parents’ education, family structure, religion), socio-cognitive factors (attitude, social norms, self-efficacy, intention), parenting styles and academic achievement. Adolescent were surveyed at two time points, six months apart. A multiple linear regression was carried out to identify baseline factors independently associated with academic achievement 6 months later. Moderation was examined using Hayes’s SPSS macro PROCESS. A serial mediation model was employed to test for the sequential mediating effect of self-efficacy and intention between parenting style and academic achievement. Results Authoritative parenting was prospectively associated with better academic achievement and higher self-efficacy and intention at 6 months follow up. In addition, self-efficacy and intention towards getting good grades were found to mediate the relationship of parenting style to academic achievement. Adolescents who perceive their parents as authoritative are more likely to develop high efficacy beliefs and higher intention and subsequently are more likely to achieve better in school compared to peers of neglectful parents. Socio-demographics did not moderate the effect of parenting on academic achievement. Conclusion Authoritative parenting influenced both directly and indirectly the academic achievement of their children. Interventions aiming at improving academic performance of adolescents should also encompass positive parenting style strategies.
... For instance, the increasing number and intensity of parent-adolescent conflict may be a risk factor for adolescent psychosocial adjustment, well-being, externalizing and internalizing problems Cooper, 1988, Mills & Grusec, 1988Yeh, 2011), lower level of social competence (Ahmad & Amin, 2019), negative mental health (Repetti et al. 2002) and risk-taking (Hollenstein & Lougheed, 2013). In contrast, some conflicts may be functional in adolescent's autonomy (Laursen & Collins, 2009;Steinberg, 2001). For instance, parent-adolescent who are able to state both positive and negative emotions during conflicts may be able to put across their point of view; thus, adolescents' autonomy may develop. ...
Article
The parent-adolescent relationship is getting more complicated during adolescence. Adolescents demand more autonomy; parents try to balance between adolescents’ demands and their own expectations. These changes may cause more frequent and intense conflict between parent-adolescent, which in turn would affect adolescents’ problematic behaviour. The present study has two parts: Study 1 aims to examine the impact of demographic variables, more specifically parent and adolescents’ gender, on conflict and Study 2 investigates the impact of conflict on PIU. The sample of Study 1 consisted of 173 adolescents (101 girls, 58.4%; 72 boys, 41.6%). The main and interaction effect of gender was analysed in the detailed conflict using two-way ANOVA. The sample of Study 2 consisted of 221 adolescents (107 girls, 48.4%;113 boys, 51.4%). The predicted role of the amount of time parents and adolescents spend together and conflict issues with problematic internet usage (PIU) was examined using the hierarchical regression model. Results revealed an interaction effect of parents’ and adolescents’ gender on conflict. Daughter-mother and son-father conflicts were resolved in more positive ways. Besides, adolescents who spent time with their parents had less PIU, but conflict about the internet was related to higher PIU. The study revealed that the duration of interaction between adolescents and their same-gender parents is critical for conflict resolution. Moreover, the interaction had a buffer role and the conflict on the internet was a risk factor for adolescents’ PIU.
... Open communication fosters development of skills and strengthening of the feeling of self-esteem of children, supports independence and autonomy and leads to pursuance of new developmental tasks (Napora, 2013) and cultivation of the emotional intelligence (Błażek, Kaźmierczak, 2009). It also has a preventive importance: it fosters conformity of young people (Steinberg, 2001) and is regarded as a factor which prevents addiction and crime of juveniles (Thoyibah, Nurjannah, Smarni, 2017). The study by Radochoński (2007) on the relationship between family relations and criminal behavior demonstrated that the families of notorious offenders are characterized by a lower level of communicative skills than the families of the respondents from the control group. ...
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Communication in the family fulfills a number of important functions: it enables the transfer of information and acquiring knowledge, fosters building bonds and strengthening relationships, and helps build self-esteem and identity. It also serves to convey patterns of social functioning and the value system.The aim of this study is to show the relationship between the preferred values and the assessment of communication in the generational family. 200 people aged 17 to 23 were included in the study. The research used the Short Schwartz Value Scale (SSVS) and the G scale (communication) from the FACES IV by D. Olson. The analysis of the research results shows that people who assess communication in their family best, attach great importance to such values as: benevolence, tradition, conformity and security. The k-means analysis made it possible to distinguish three clusters of the respondents, of which communication in their family is best assessed by people belonging to the second cluster, for which the highest scores regarding the preference for values related to a conservation, openness to change and self-transcendence are characteristic. The surveyed women assess communication in their families better than men. They also more often choose values that are associated with self-transcendence. Men, on the other hand, prefer values related to self-enhancement, mainly power.
... Le premier contact que l'on a avec les autres est l'interaction entretenue avec les parents. En effet, dès la naissance, cet échange va influencer et prédire l'adaptation des enfants et adolescent·e·s dans une multiplicité de domaines (Collins et al., 2000;Steinberg, 2001). Une bonne relation enfant-parent aide les enfants à se sentir soutenu·e·s et libres d'exprimer leurs émotions ce qui serait une composante fondamentale pour une régulation affective efficace (Morris et al., 2017). ...
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La régulation émotionnelle est de plus en plus considérée comme une composante essentielle pour la réussite du développement de l’enfant. Il a été montré que ce processus influence et est influencé par différents aspects comme l’estime de soi, les interactions sociales, les problèmes comportementaux et le style parental. La présente étude vise à approfondir la recherche dans le domaine en considérant les variables de régulation émotionnelle, de qualité des amitiés et de style parental pour mieux comprendre s’il existe un lien entre elles. Quarante-neuf enfants de deux écoles primaires tessinoises (CH), âgé·e·s de 8 à 11 ans, ainsi que leurs parents ont pris part à l’étude. Les résultats ont mis en évidence la présence d’une corrélation positive significative entre la qualité des amitiés et les compétences de régulation émotionnelle, ce qui est en lien avec la littérature existante. De plus, les résultats ont montré l’existence d’un lien positif entre les dimensions de proximité et de sécurité dans les amitiés avec le score de régulation émotionnelle. Le style parental n’a quant à lui montré aucun lien avec les variables de régulation émotionnelle et de qualité des amitiés. Enfin, une nouvelle vue sur le lien entre le genre de l’enfant et le style parental est discutée.
... This shift places higher demands on parents to provide a beneficial context for child development, as a child's voice is assigned greater importance, and family rules are increasingly negotiated. It has been argued that compared to authoritarian, neglectful, but also indulgent parenting, authoritative parenting is particularly beneficial for promoting positive child development, as it combines parents being responsive to their child's needs, while also demanding that the child exhibits competent behavior (Baumrind 2013;Steinberg 2001). Thus, authoritative parenting has become the standard for "ideal parenting". ...
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Drawing on the international discourse on the intensification of parenting and new data from Germany, this paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the unique challenges that parents face in the 21st century. We used data from the survey “Parenthood Today”, which was conducted in 2019 to examine parents’ views on parenting in Germany. The data comprised standardized interviews with 1652 mothers and fathers. We focused on three dimensions of parental pressures: namely, time pressure, financial pressure, and pressure that emanates from the educational system. Time pressure referred to the pressure currently felt, whereas financial pressure and pressure from the educational system referred to changes across time. In each of these domains, more than 60% of the parents experienced high (time) or increasing (education and financial) pressure. Binary logistic regressions showed that while parental education was a strong predictor of experiencing an increase in financial pressure, parental education did not matter for other realms of parenting. However, employment and family form were strongly related to parental time pressure. Full-time employed lone mothers, but also non-resident fathers, reported experiencing heavy pressure when trying to balance their roles as a worker and as a carer. Our results draw attention to the importance of better integrating the needs of post-separation families, including of non-resident fathers, in the debate on the “intensification of parenting”.
... The interviewees' accounts find some common ground with Michel Foucault's theory of knowledge and power, which asserts that 'identities are socially constructed and not a purely natural phenomenon' (see Fraser, 1981, p.272-3). . The significant influences that are said to shape our identities include family, peer groups, powerful institutions such as governments, media, the social environment, (Steinberg, 2001p.19: Cerulo, 1997 A minority of professionals in this study inferred that Prevent in the pre-emptive crime space risks othering anyone who is identified as a radical because they might be critical of the status quo. ...
Thesis
The Prevent strategy is one of the four delivery strands for countering domestic and international terrorism under the United Kingdom’s (UK) national counter terrorism-strategy, Contest (HM Government, 2018). This qualitative study of Prevent focuses on the periods between 2011 to 2021 when the government shifted the focus of the Prevent strategy as initially being a community-level intervention from 2007 until 2011. From 2011 Prevent transitioned from being a strategy that addressed external threats believed to cause citizens to become radicalised to safeguarding the individual who was pathologised as a national security threat on account of their vulnerability to radical influences. Another change came to Prevent when the Prevent Duty was introduced under the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act (CTSA) in June 2015, which imposed a statutory reporting obligation on many professionals working across various public institutions, including social services, health care, and the education sectors. The purpose was also to ensure that adequate reporting structures for data collection were put in place to report behaviours and attitudes of individuals that might indicate their leaning towards identifying with radical or extremist ideologies. Since the transition of Prevent in 2011 and the introduction of the Prevent Duty in 2015, few empirical studies have examined the lived experiences and perceptions of those delivering Prevent alongside members of community groups who have been or are likely to be subject to Prevent interventions. This thesis addresses the identified research gap by analysing a corpus of Prevent documents collected from official government and ministerial web portals and by interviewing participants who deliver Prevent with members of community groups. The document and interview data were analysed using Thematic Analysis (TA), guided by four research questions which are presented in chapter one. The aim of this thesis is to understand further how Prevent affects the interviewees' social identities, how they build trust relations with others relative to their positions of power, and how social identity and trust affect the successful delivery of Prevent. This study found three major themes from the analysis of the collected data as crucial to delivering Prevent. First, how do interviewees understand the meanings and perceptions of “risk.” The second concerns the different dimensions of “power” among interviewees. Third, how “trust” is constructed between participants. The data analysis methods include the Braun and Clarke six-stage process of Thematic Analysis within a broader Foucauldian Discourse Analysis (FDA) framework. This thesis examines why risk, power, and trust are amongst the most prominent interconnected issues that affect intergroup relations when delivering the Prevent strategy.
... Ti istraživački nalazi potvrđuju temelj Adlerove psihologije na koji se oslanja model pozitivne discipline, a to je da takav pristup vaspitanju ne podrazumeva ni preteranu popustljivost, ali ni preteranu kontrolu (Vittie, 2003). U prilog toj tezi govore i istraživanja (Fan & Chen, 2001;Steinberg, 2001) kojima je utvrđeno da postoji korelacija između akademskog uspeha i integracije u zajednicu adolescenata sa načinom na koji opažaju vaspitni stil svojih roditelja. Naime, pokazalo se da učenici koji opisuju svoje roditelje kao brižne, tople i demokratske imaju bolji akademski uspeh i bolju integraciju u zajednici te da je uključenost roditelja u školske aktivnosti deteta veća ukoliko njegov vaspitni stil karakterišu brižnost i odlučnost. ...
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U radu se polazi od pretpostavke da primena osnovnih polazišta pozitivne discipline u porodici može da obezbedi značajan potencijal za razvoj samopoštovanja adolescenata. Takva pretpostavka ce temelji na razumevanju pozitivne discipline kao pristupa vaspitanju koji obezbeđuje jasna pravila i ravnopravan dijalog između roditelja i adolescenata, čime se razvija odgovornost adolescenata i povećava njihova sposobnost da prevazilaze rizične situacije. Na toj osnovi sprovedeno je istraživanje pitanja povezanosti između procene indikatora pozitivne discipline u porodici i nivoa samopoštovanja adolescenata. Uzorkom je obuhvaćeno 195 učenika iz novosadskih srednjih škola, a za prikupljanje podataka korišćene su Rozenbergova skala za procenu nivoa samopoštovanja i skala procene indikatora pozitivne discipline u porodici, koja je konstruisana za potrebe ovog istraživanja. Rezultati su pokazali da je primena osnovnih polazišta pozitivne discipline u porodici procenjena kao umerena, pri čemu su stavke koje se odnose na usmerenost na dugoročne ciljeve u vaspitanju, individualni pristup i oslanjanje na pozitivno u adolescentu procenjene kao najzastupljenije. Utvrđeno je da ispitani adolescenti generalno imaju visok nivo samopoštovanja i da procena indikatora pozitivne discipline u porodici i nivo samopoštovanja adolescenata međusobno pozitivno koreliraju. Takođe, dobijeni rezultati sugerišu da se procena indikatora pozitivne discipline u porodici može posmatrati kao dobar prediktor nivoa samopoštovanja adolescenata. Na osnovu iznetih nalaza zaključuje se da primena osnovnih polazišta pozitivne discipline u porodici može da bude resurs za osnaživanje i učvršćivanje samopoštovanja tokom adolescencije, štoukazuje na značaj i potrebu osnaživanja roditelja u ovom domenu.
... Accordingly, a vast amount of research has investigated early protective factors that help adolescents become psychologically functional and healthy adults (Ellis et al., 2017;Göbel & Cohrdes, 2021;Masten, 2018;Rutter, 1987;Schulenberg et al., 1999). There is increasing evidence indicating how certain family characteristics can sustainably affect adolescent development and successful transition to adulthood (Fosco et al., 2012;Moreira & Telzer, 2015;Pomerantz et al., 2005;Steinberg, 2001). Seiffge-Krenke et al. (2010), for example, showed how family characteristics during adolescence can influence emerging adults' ability to develop stable romantic partnerships (Seiffge-Krenke et al., 2010). ...
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Experiences from major life events (MLEs; e.g., starting work or living independently) accumulate in the transition to emerging adulthood. Adaption to such events, often operationalized as responses in subjective well-being (SWB), is highly diverse. This observation has prompted attempts to explain differences in SWB responses among individuals as well as events. Early family characteristics have been discussed as potentially enduringly beneficial or harmful for successful adaption to MLEs in emerging adulthood. In the current study, we investigated adolescent family characteristics as longitudinal predictors of emerging adult mental and physical SWB (direct associations) and their explanatory value for SWB differences after the experience of MLEs (indirect associations). Analyses were based on data from a German national cohort study of 6255 emerging adults (KiGGS survey; 46.6% male; mean age = 22.78 years, standard deviation = 3.26 years) who had participated in the baseline study 11 years prior. Results showed that, while experiencing unemployment or severe illness was most negatively related to SWB, high educational attainment had the most positive correlation. Adolescent family characteristics were longitudinal predictors of emerging adult SWB and partially explained differences in SWB after the experience of several MLEs. Most notably, adolescent family characteristics were indirectly associated with emerging adult SWB via permanent relationships, educational attainment, and unemployment. The results provide a basis for the better understanding and further development of research and targeted intervention or prevention measures to facilitate adaptive capacity and reduce adverse effects from certain events on SWB in the transition to emerging adulthood.
... Once established, active effort is required to maintain a relationship. Without proactive maintenance, relationship quality can deteriorate over time as the ratio of positive to negative interactions naturally diminishes (Steinberg, 2001). The primary practice associated with the Maintain Phase is the 5-to-1 ratio of positive to negative interactions. ...
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Student–teacher relationships are important to student outcomes and may be especially pivotal at the high school transition and for minoritized racial/ethnic groups. Although interventions exist to improve student–teacher relationships, none have been shown to be effective among high school students or in narrowing racial/ethnic disparities in student outcomes. This study was conducted to examine the effects of an equity-explicit student–teacher relationship intervention (Equity-Explicit Establish Maintain Restore, or E-EMR) for high school teachers and students. A cluster-randomized pilot trial was conducted with 94 ninth grade teachers and 417 ninth grade students in six high schools. Teachers in three schools were randomized to receive E-EMR training and follow-up supports for one year. Teachers in three control schools conducted business as usual. Student–teacher relationships, sense of school belonging, academic motivation, and academic engagement were collected via student self-report in September and January of their ninth-grade year. Longitudinal models revealed non-significant main effects of E-EMR. However, there were targeted benefits for students who started with low scores at baseline, for Asian, Latinx, multicultural, and (to a lesser extent) Black students. We also found some unexpected effects, where high-performing and/or advantaged groups in the E-EMR condition had less favorable outcomes at post, compared to those in the control group, which may be a result of the equity-explicit focus of E-EMR. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
Helicopter parenting is defined by popular culture as a set of parenting practices characterized by overinvolvement. However, empirical research has not adequately defined the construct, and it is unclear how helicopter parenting may relate to existing parenting behaviors and parenting styles. Participants included 341 caregivers from across the United States who completed a survey about their parenting beliefs and behaviors. Latent class analysis was used to determine combinations of parenting behaviors, and the identified classes of parents were then used to conduct one-way ANOVAs to examine differences in helicopter parenting between the different classes. Results suggest that parents who fit the authoritative parenting profile endorse greater helicopter parenting. Further research needs to be conducted to determine the “tipping point” for when positive parenting practices, which are often associated with positive outcomes, begin to produce negative outcomes.
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Background The prevalence of adolescent alcohol use continues to be a public health concern. Although adolescents spend an increasing amount of time with their friends, parents remain an important source of support and continue to play a key role in the lives of their adolescents. Extensive research in this area has resulted in parent-based intervention (PBI) efforts to prevent or reduce adolescent alcohol use. However, one major limitation of PBIs is that they do not currently consider the large role that social media plays in adolescents’ lives and in relation to their alcohol use. We will add to the literature by developing and refining a web-based PBI designed to reduce both high-risk social media cognitions and alcohol use among adolescents. Objective The central goal of the proposed study is to develop, refine, and pilot a web-based PBI to reduce both high-risk social media cognitions and alcohol use among adolescents. Methods A total of 100 parent-teen dyads will be randomly assigned to one of the following 2 conditions: intervention or control. Parents in the intervention group will be given access to the web-based PBI and suggestions for working through the PBI modules with their teens. The parent-teen dyads will fill out 3 questionnaires: a baseline questionnaire, 1-month questionnaire, and 6-month questionnaire. Results Recruitment and enrollment will begin in August 2022. Upon completion of the intervention trial, we will examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effect sizes of the newly developed web-based PBI. Conclusions This study has the potential to open doors for future studies examining the clinical implications of an efficacious web-based PBI to reduce alcohol use and high-risk cognitions about alcohol displays on social media. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04333966; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04333966 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) PRR1-10.2196/38543
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Parenting adolescents requires parents to display diverse competencies, and parenting competence i.e. «caregiving» may be affected differentially by the underlying dimensions of an individual's «care seeking» behaviour, i.e. their own attachment style. Twenty five mothers of adolescent daughters were recruited in a cross-sectional design for this pilot study. Mothers aged between 32-51 years with a mean (± SD) age of 44.72 (± 5.47) years and each completed the Parenting Role Interview, which provides an «investigator-based» as-sessment of their parenting competence, as well as self-report measures of attachment style, stress, depression and well-being. Results revealed that greater parenting competence was associated with higher levels of the specific attachment construct of proximity-seeking, but not attachment security. In addition, worse maternal psychological health was associated with attachment insecurity, but not proximity-seeking. The underlying attachment dimension of proximity-seeking may hold particular significance for mothers of adolescent daughters and may be a viable resilience target for parenting interventions.
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This study examined family cohesion in adulthood as a function of both parenting style in childhood and enduring personality traits. One hundred and ninety eight college freshmen completed measures assessing their parents’ communication strategies during childhood, the strength of their families’ cohesion during adulthood, and their enduring personality traits. Authoritative parenting was positively associated with family cohesion; this association was stronger for individuals with higher scores of conscientiousness and nonsignificant for individuals with higher scores for neuroticism. In addition, authoritarian parenting was only significantly and negatively associated with family cohesion at high levels of conscientiousness.
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Objective: According to the reward- stress dysregulation model of addiction and parenting, parenting stress may play a critical role in the etiology and maintenance of substance misuse. To date, limited work has examined how parenting stress may relate to hazardous alcohol use among mothers of adolescents. The present study examined if parenting stress interacted with maternal stress responses (i.e., disengagement coping, involuntary disengagement stress responses) in relation to maternal hazardous alcohol use. Method: Two hundred and fifty-three mothers (n = 147 hazardous alcohol users; 58% of the sample) of adolescents between the ages of 12 and 16 years participated in the current study. Mothers were recruited using Qualtrics panel services. Mothers reported on their parenting stress, strategies for managing parenting stress, and use of alcohol. Mothers also reported basic demographic information (Mage = 41.10 years, 86.6% identified as white, 81.1% of mothers were married). Interaction analyses were used to test hypotheses. Results: Maternal parenting stress interacted with maternal involuntary disengagement stress responses in relation to maternal hazardous alcohol use, such that at average and high levels of disengagement stress responses, parenting stress was associated with hazardous alcohol use. These results were robust to covariates (i.e., family income, maternal anxiety symptoms, maternal depressive symptoms, general levels of maternal stress, maternal cigarette use). Maternal disengagement coping strategies were not related to maternal hazardous alcohol use. Conclusion: Results suggest that parenting stress and involuntary disengagement stress responses may be associated with hazardous alcohol use among mothers of adolescents.
Chapter
Behavioral pediatrics is a multidisciplinary field that involves many healthcare specialists revolving around the practicing pediatrician and primary care clinician; also, various additional, associated fields of training have developed such as developmental-behavioral pediatrics, neurodevelopmental pediatrics, pediatric psychodermatology and medical care for those of all ages with developmental disabilities (1-16). Experts in psychiatry and psychology work closely with pediatric clinicians in a variety of professional relationships, including co-located and non-co-located mental health settings (17-24). Pediatricians can provide a wide variety of care to children and adolescents with complex disorders, depending on their training as well as interests, and this book seeks to provide au courant perspectives in behavioral pediatrics (25-29). Behavioral health screening remains an important task of pediatricians and behavioral pediatricians as they evaluate their pediatric patients (30-40).
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Across adolescence and into young adulthood, as youth experience both normative developmental and stressful life changes, close and supportive relationships are essential for healthy adjustment. Supportive relationships may be especially important for protecting Mexican-origin youth from developing depressive symptoms and engaging in risky behaviors given the emphasis within Mexican culture on close relationships, especially in families. With longitudinal data, we examined the associations between Mexican-origin youth’s relationships with mothers, fathers, siblings, and best friends and their adjustment across adolescence and into young adulthood. Participants were 246 Mexican-origin families with a 7th grader (younger sibling) and at least one older sibling, a mother, and a father at Time 1 (T1). Youth participated in home interviews at T1 and again five (T2) and eight (T3) years later. At T1, younger siblings were 12.55 (SD = .60) and older siblings were 15.48 (SD = 1.57) years old. Findings indicated that, with sibling and friend characteristics in the models, mother and father acceptance and conflict were significantly linked to youth positive and negative adjustment, respectively. Both sibling conflict and, consistent with a “partners in crime” process (Slomkowski et al., 2001; p. 273), sibling intimacy (of younger adolescents only), were linked to risky behavior. Same-gender friend conflict also was linked to risky behavior, but neither sibling nor friend relationships were linked to depressive symptoms. Some relationship effects were moderated by gender and age. Together, our findings have implications for programs aimed at preventing adjustment problems.
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This study investigated the associations between parental monitoring, peer pressure, and motivations for responsible drinking, while also taking the mediating role of positive alcohol expectancies into account. The participants were 579 Italian adolescents, aged 14-20 years (M = 16.39 years, SD = 1.27; 55.3% females), involved in a cross-sectional survey. They were administered online self-report questionnaires. Structural equation modeling revealed both direct and indirect positive associations between study variables. Parental monitoring was positively associated, both directly and indirectly, with adolescents’ motivations for responsible drinking through the mediation of positive alcohol expectancies; peer pressure was negatively and indirectly associated with adolescents’ motivations for responsible drinking, via the mediating role of positive alcohol expectancies. Findings highlighted the importance of environmental factors with regard to motivations for responsible drinking, suggesting the opportunity to implement prevention programs to improve parental monitoring and increase adolescents’ skills to manage peer pressure and to develop realistic expectancies about drinking.
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Social support is important for the average incarcerated person, although variation exists. The amount of support received and whether improvements in support are made over confinement can vary across numerous factors including sentence length and quality of family relationships. Preliminary evidence suggests that risk level might also be an important factor to consider, though no study has examined this possibility. Accordingly, the current study examines whether access to social support (family contact, willingness to support, treatment participation, and non-family support) differs based on risk level classification (low, moderate, moderate-high, high). Additionally, we assess how risk level is associated with changes in social support during confinement. Using a sample of incarcerated youth, results show that access to social support, and to a lesser extent changes in social support during confinement, differ across risk level. The findings have important implications for juvenile justice system responses and efforts to promote support.
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This chapter identifies the most robust conclusions and ideas about adolescent development and psychological functioning that have emerged since Petersen's 1988 review. We begin with a discussion of topics that have dominated recent research, including adolescent problem behavior, parent-adolescent relations, puberty, the development of the self, and peer relations. We then identify and examine what seem to us to be the most important new directions that have come to the fore in the last decade, including research on diverse populations, contextual influences on development, behavioral genetics, and siblings. We conclude with a series of recommendations for future research on adolescence.
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Approximately 4,500 14- to 18-year-olds completed questionnaires concerning their parents' practices and their academic achievement, psychosocial competence, behavior problems, and internalized distress. Independent reports from participants' friends were used to measure authoritativeness in the peer network. Parental authoritativeness in the network benefits adolescents above and beyond the positive impact of parental authoritativeness at home. Network authoritativeness was associated with lower levels of delinquency and substance use among all participants, lower levels of school misconduct and peer conformity for boys, and greater psychosocial competence and lower levels of psychological distress among girls. The beneficial impact of network authoritativeness on adolescent behavior is (a) mediated mainly through its effect on adolescents' peers and (b) greatest among adolescents who perceive their own parents to be relatively more authoritative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Studied social networks and aggressive behavior in school in 2 cohorts of boys and girls in the 4th and 7th grades ( N = 695). Measures of social networks yielded convergent findings. Highly aggressive subjects (both boys and girls) did not differ from matched control subjects in terms of social cluster membership or in being isolated or rejected within the social network. Peer cluster analysis and reciprocal "best friend" selections indicated that aggressive subjects tended to affiliate with aggressive peers. Even though highly aggressive children and adolescents were less popular than control subjects in the social network at large, they were equally often identified as being nuclear members of social clusters. Aggressive subjects did not differ from matched control subjects in the number of times they were named by peers as "best friend," nor did the two groups differ in the probability of having friendship choices reciprocated by peers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Despite broad consensus about the effects of parenting practices on child development, many questions about the construct parenting style remain unanswered. Particularly pressing issues are the variability in the effects of parenting style as a function of the child's cultural background, the processes through which parenting style influences the child's development, and the operationalization of parenting style. Drawing on historical review, the authors present a model that integrates 2 traditions in socialization research, the study of specific parenting practices and the study of global parent characteristics. They propose that parenting style is best conceptualized as a context that moderates the influence of specific parenting practices on the child. It is argued that only by maintaining the distinction between parenting style and parenting practice can researchers address questions concerning socialization processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The purpose of this study was to examine associations among perceived parenting variables (warmth, parental knowledge of their child's daily activities, shame induction and autonomy-granting), and psychosocial outcomes in Pakistan, a culture about which little information is available in the psychological literature. Participants were early and late adolescent Pakistani boys (N = 156) and girls (N = 148). Girls perceived their parents as being warmer, more knowledgeable about their child's activities and whereabouts, and more autonomy-granting than did boys. Warmth and parental knowledge associated with positive outcomes for girls, but not boys. Autonomy-granting associated with positive outcomes in bivariate and multivariate correlations for both genders. In causal models, perceptions of parents influenced well-being partly through the mediators of selfdenigration, positive self-image and relationship harmony, explaining up to 21% of the variance in outcomes. The results are discussed in the light of Western findings and the social context of middle-class urban Pakistan. The findings provide some support for self-determination theory, which states that autonomy-granting by parents facilitates offspring adjustment through internalization of parental values, even in non-Western cultures.
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This article examines the impact of authoritative parenting, parental involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent school achievement in an ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous sample of approximately 6,400 American 14-18-year-olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their parents' general child-rearing practices and on their parents' achievement-specific socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive impact of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental involvement in schooling. In addition, nonauthoritativeness attenuates the beneficial impact of parental involvement in schooling on adolescents achievement. Parental involvement is much more likely to promote adolescent school success when it occurs in the context of an authoritative home environment.
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This paper attempts to review and integrate existing research findings on Chinese adolescent mental health. Based on a comprehensive survey of the relevant studies in the literature, several conclusions can be drawn: a) most of the studies on Chinese adolescent mental health have been geared toward the study of adolescent psychopathology rather than adolescent positive mental health; b) the existing studies are seldom guided by well-articulated theoretical models; c) although the data arising from the existing studies do not lend strong support for the hypothesis that a majority of Chinese adolescents are 'tumultuous', the available evidence generally suggests that one-tenth to one-third of Chinese adolescents might be psychologically 'at-risk'; d) while Chinese adolescent mental health has been found to be related to a number of personal, psychological, stress-related, family-related, education-related and societal factors, there is a severe lack of integrative models to accommodate the observed relationships; and e) most of the existing studies on Chinese adolescent mental health are plagued with methodological problems. Possible directions for future research are discussed.
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Current findings on parental influences provide more sophisticated and less deterministic explanations than did earlier theory and research on parenting. Contemporary research approaches include (a) behavior-genetic designs, augmented with direct measures of potential environmental influences; (b) studies distinguishing among children with different genetically influenced predispositions in terms of their responses to different environmental conditions; (c) experimental and quasi-experimental studies of change in children's behavior as a result of their exposure to parents' behavior, after controlling for children's initial characteristics; and (d) research on interactions between parenting and nonfamilial environmental influences and contexts, illustrating contemporary concern with influences beyond the parent-child dyad. These approaches indicate that parental influences on child development are neither as unambiguous as earlier researchers suggested nor as insubstantial as current critics claim.
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High school students reported separately on mothers' and fathers' responsiveness and demandingness and their own academic achievement and engagement, involvement in problem behavior, psychosocial development, and internalized distress. Mothers and fathers were classified as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or indifferent, and adolescents from homes characterized by different types of interparental consistency were compared with those from homes where parents were not consistent. Adolescents with one authoritative parent exhibited greater academic competence than did peers with parents who were consistent but nonauthoritative. Adolescents with one authoritative and one nonauthoritative parent exhibited greater concurrent internalized distress than did youth from consistent homes, but these findings were not observed longitudinally.
Article
This study examines the independent and joint contributions of three core dimensions of authoritative parenting - acceptance-involvement, strictness-supervision, and psychological autonomy granting - to adolescent adjustment. A sample of 8,700 14- to 18-year-olds completed questionnaires that included indices of authoritative parenting and a set of instruments assessing different aspects of adjustment. Behavior problems were related more strongly to behavioral control than to psychological autonomy granting. Psychosocial development and internal distress were more strongly associated with both psychological autonomy granting and acceptance-involvement than with behavioral control. Academic competence demonstrated significant relations with all three parenting variables. Curvilinear and interactive relations between parenting practices and adolescent adjustment were observed, but the specific pattern varied as a function of outcome assessed.
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This paper explores the phenomenological and psychodynamic differences between girls who score at the high and low extremes of the Psychosocial Maturity Inventory. Ability to tolerate anxiety and the developmental use of interpersonal relationships are discussed as central to identity formation among these girls.
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This paper explores the phenomenological and psychodynamic differences between adolescent boys who score at the high and low extremes of the Psychosocial Maturity Inventory. The development of psychosocial maturity is viewed against the background of adolescent ego development. The freedom from impulse, the gains in self-esteem, the resolution of sexual identity, and the growth of autonomy that are the outcomes of the adolescent process all contribute to a higher degree of individual and social adequacy. The growth of heterosexuality, however, is shown to have a complex and nonlinear relationship to psychosocial maturity.
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The present study examines whether parents' reports of well-being are related to the level of parent-adolescent conflict in the family and their youngsters' level of emotional autonomy. The sample is composed of 129 intact families with a first-born child between the ages of 10 and 15. Measures included parents' reports of midlife identity concerns, self-esteem, life satisfaction, psychological symptoms, and parent-adolescent conflict, as well as youngsters' reports of emotional autonomy vis-à-vis parents. Findings indicate that (1) parents' experience of midlife identity concerns is positively related to the level of emotional autonomy reported by same-sex children; (2) mothers', but not fathers', well-being is negatively related to the intensity of parent-adolescent conflict; and (3) socioeconomic status moderates the relation between parental well-being and parent-adolescent relations. These results are discussed in terms of psychoanalytic and parental stress perspectives on parental well-being during the adolescent years.
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Cluster analysis of nine dimensions of the social environments of 200 junior high and high school classrooms yielded five distinctive groups of classes: control oriented, innovation oriented, affiliation oriented, task oriented and competition oriented. The last three types were composed of structured and unstructured subtypes, and the competition oriented classes also had a subtype characterized by an emphasis on student affiliation. The clusters showed systematic differences in student satisfaction and mood, and in teacher satisfaction.
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Longitudinal sociometric data on adolescent friendship pairs, friends-to-be, and former friends are examined to assess levels of homophily on four attributes (frequency of current marijuana, use, level of educational aspirations, political orientation, and participation in minor delinquency) at various stages of friendship formation and dissolution. In addition, estimates are developed of the extent to which observed homophily in friendship dyads results from a process of selection (assortative pairing), in which similarity precedes association and the extent to which it results from a process of socialization in which association leads to similarity. The implications of the results for interpreting estimates of peer influence derived from cross-sectional data are discussed.
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Tenth and 11th grade boys and girls in Hong Kong ( N = 141), Australia (N = 155), and the United States (N = 155) completed questionnaires about their misconduct, family environments, and values. Relative to Australian and American youth, Hong Kong adolescents reported less misconduct; described their families as less accepting/engaged and less demanding; and placed less value on general individualism, outward success, and individual competence, and more value on tradition, prosocial outcomes, and the family as living unit. However, despite these differences, levels of adolescent misconduct were related in similar ways to family environments and adolescent values in all three cultures. Valuing outward success, on the part of the adolescent, and low levels of monitoring, on the part of parents, were associated with misconduct. In regression analyses, family environments and adolescent values were better predictors of misconduct than was cultural group; each contributed approximately twice the amount of var...
Article
Examined various homophilic mechanisms by which adolescents affect, and are affected by, levels of internalized distress within their immediate peer groups. The sample included approximately 6,000 14- to 18-yr-olds who were assessed twice over a 1-yr period. Results showed that adolescents tend to associate with peers who report similar levels of internalized distress and that internalizers are no less successful than others at establishing friendships. Moreover, homophily of internalizing symptoms develops from 3 distinct sources: (1) Adolescents tend to choose friends who possess similar levels of internalized distress (selection effect); (2) in male, but not female, peer groups, individual distress levels grow increasingly similar to peer levels over time (socialization effect); and (3) peer group distress levels vary according to the distress of individual members (contagion effect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
This chapter discusses the influence of friends on achievement and affective outcomes. The structure of a student's friendship group is identified on the basis of the student's scores on initial Time 1 measures. Four friendship group structures are identified: LL (low student, low friends); LH (low student, high friends); HL (high student, low friends); and HH (high student, high friends). The first letter of the category tells whether the student's own score on a measure at Time 1 is above or below the mean score, and the second letter tells whether the average of the student's friends' scores on the same measure at Time 1 is above or below the mean. Students who are initially low or high with high-scoring friends have, with two exceptions, significantly higher scores one year later than similar students with low-scoring friends. The within-sex comparisons suggest that the influence process works similarly for males and females, with both sexes positively influenced by high-scoring friends on a variety of achievement and affective outcomes. The results suggest that an emphasis on participation in classroom decisions affects student satisfaction, self-reliance, social status, and perceived rewards for self-reliance of initially low self-reliant students if they have initially high self-reliant friends.
Article
Some of the differences in conclusions on whether schooling influences pupil progress have stemmed from the use of difference concepts of school "effects." These are reviewed in terms of the proportion of the variance accounted for, the reduction of inequality, and the raising of standards. It is argued that multiple indicators of school effectiveness are required; these should include scholastic attainment, classroom behavior, absenteeism, attitudes to learning, continuation in education, employment, and social functioning. The methodological issues inherent in the determination of school effects in raising standards are reviewed, with an emphasis on the need to control for variations in intake and to determine whether the differences among schools in pupil outcome are attributable to measured features of the schools themselves. It is concluded that there are important school effects that probably represent causal influences. The school features that might be responsible for beneficial effects on pupil progress are reviewed in terms of resources and physical plant, size of school and class, organizational structure, composition of student body, degree of academic emphasis, classroom management, discipline and pupil conditions, pupil participation and responsibility, and staff organization. The policy implications that stem from the research findings are considered.
Article
Attempted (a) to replicate or modify parent-child relationships found in 2 previous studies by D. Baumrind (see record 1967-05780-001) and D. Baumrind and A. E. Black (see record 1967-10271-001); and (b) to differentiate further among patterns of parental authority and measure their effects upon the behavior of preschool children. Data were based upon observational procedures, and were analyzed for boys and girls separately. Ss were 146 white preschool children and their families. Results include the following: (a) authoritative parental behavior was clearly associated with independent, purposive behavior for girls but only associated with such behavior for boys when the parents were nonconforming; (b) authoritative parental control was clearly associated with all indexes of social responsibility in boys compared to authoritarian and permissive parental control, and with high achievement in girls, but not with friendly, cooperative behavior; and (c) contrary to expectations, parental nonconformity was not associated with lack of social responsibility in either boys or girls. (45 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The author argues that it is what children experience outside the home, in the company of their peers, that matters most. Parents don't socialize children: children socialize children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
the major findings regarding age differences and age-related changes in parent-child relationships associated with the transition to adolescence are reviewed / the focus of the review will be the characteristic patterns of relations between parents and their offspring initial studies in a program of research on processes of change in parent-child relationships during the transition to adolescence are described changes in interaction / changes in affective expression and experience / changes in perception and cognition adaptation to developmental change: the role of expectancies / research on expectancies and related processes / adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding the other's behavior (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined whether the positive relation between authoritative parenting and adolescent adjustment is moderated by the ecological context in which adolescents live. A socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of approximately 10,000 high school students completed measures concerning their family background; their parents' behavior; and 4 indicators of adjustment: school performance, self-reliance, psychological distress, and delinquency. The Ss were grouped into 16 ecological niches defined by ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and family structure, and analyses were conducted within each niche to contrast the adjustment scores of adolescents from authoritative vs nonauthoritative homes. Analyses indicate that the positive correlates of authoritative parenting transcend ethnicity, SES, and family structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recently there has been concern over the need for developmental research within ethnic minority populations and interest in socialization and family variables within, and variability across, ethnic groups. This study reports analyses designed to: compare several socialization, family, and mental health variables among Hispanic and Anglo American 8–14-year-old children and mothers; examine the regression equations predicting mental health indicators with the socialization and family variables; and evaluate the cross-ethnic scalar equivalence of these socialization and family measures. The findings indicate that there are ethnic differences in several socialization and family variables; several of the socialization and family variables are related to the mental health variables, and these relations are very similar across ethnic groups; and the socialization and family measures appear to have sufficient cross-ethnic scalar equivalence for English-speaking, largely Mexican American Hispanic samples. Further, these findings suggest some caution regarding the use of the Child Depression Inventory in Hispanic samples.
Article
Social scientists have often assumed that parental influence is sharply curtailed at adolescence because of the rising counterinfluence of peer groups, over which parents have little control. The present study tested a conceptual model that challenged this view by arguing that parents retain a notable but indirect influence over their teenage child's peer associates. Data from a sample of 3,781 high school students (ages 15–19) indicated that specific parenting practices (monitoring, encouragement of achievement, joint decision making) were significantly associated with specific adolescent behaviors (academic achievement, drug use, self-reliance), which in turn were significantly related to membership in common adolescent crowds (jocks, druggies, etc.). Findings encourage investigators to assess more carefully parents' role in adolescents' peer group affiliations.
Article
This article examines the impact of authoritative parenting, parental involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent school achievement in an ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous sample of approximately 6,400 American 14–18-year-olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their parents' general child-rearing practices and on their parents' achievement-specific socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive impact of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental involvement in schooling. In addition, nonauthoritativeness attenuates the beneficial impact of parental involvement in schooling on adolescent achievement. Parental involvement is much more likely to promote adolescent school success when it occurs in the context of an authoritative home environment.
Article
The paper sets out to consider models of parenting and parent-child relationships in early to middle adolescence. The principal concern is to examine the implications of various approaches to parenting for adolescent functioning, including school integration and psychological well-being. Particular emphasis is given to locating parenting styles and their impact on young people within a wider social context, including the composition and the socio-economic circumstances of the family. The analysis is based on data drawn from a longitudinal study of adolescent socialization (the Young People's Leisure and Lifestyles project), and replicates, with a U.K. sample, studies in the U.S. by Lamborn et al. (1991) and Maccoby and Martin (1983). The results identify four distinct types of parenting style characterized by different degrees of acceptance and control of young people's behaviour. Permissive parenting styles predominate in the sample. However, the most effective style (judged against measures of school integration and mental well-being) is an authoritative one which is characterized by raised levels of both acceptance and control. Within a minority of families there are significant problems with adolescent—parent relations. These parent-child interactions are associated with low levels of acceptance and control, with school disaffection and with poor psychological outcomes for the young people involved.
Article
Examines the ways in which the nature of the family and its functions in a changing society have evolved between 1800 and the present. Particular attention is paid to the development of individualistic patterns of family behavior and the rise of the nuclear family in the face of increased urbanization and geographic mobility, greater age segregation, lessened economic interdependence of family members, and increasingly depersonalized relations between the family and other social institutions. (34 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
One of the most important findings that has emerged from human behavioral genetics involves the environment rather than heredity, providing the best available evidence for the importance of environmental influences on personality, psychopathology, and cognition. The research also converges on the remarkable conclusion that these environmental influences make two children in the same family as different from one another as are pairs of children selected randomly from the population. The theme of the target article is that environmental differences between children in the same family (called “nonshared environment”) represent the major source of environmental variance for personality, psychopathology, and cognitive abilities. One example of the evidence that supports this conclusion involves correlations for pairs of adopted children reared in the same family from early in life. Because these children share family environment but not heredity, their correlation directly estimates the importance of shared family environment. For most psychological characteristics, correlations for adoptive “siblings” hover near zero, which implies that the relevant environmental influences are not shared by children in the same family. Although it has been thought that cognitive abilities represent an exception to this rule, recent data suggest that environmental variance that affects IQ is also of the nonshared variety after adolescence. The article has three goals: (1) To describe quantitative genetic methods and research that lead to the conclusion that nonshared environment is responsible for most environmental variation relevant to psychological development, (2) to discuss specific nonshared environmental influences that have been studied to date, and (3) to consider relationships between nonshared environmental influences and behavioral differences between children in the same family. The reason for presenting this article in BBS is to draw attention to the far-reaching implications of finding that psychologically relevant environmental influences make children in a family different from, not similar to, one another.
Article
This study examined whether parents' reports of midlife identity concerns and psychological well-being are related to signs of their youngster's transition to adolescence, including pubertal status, involvement in mixed-sex social relations, and persuasive reasoning skills. The sample was composed of 129 families with a firstborn child between the ages of 10 and 15. Findings indicate only very modest direct relations between parental well-being and signs of adolescent development; instead, the relations are moderated by the strength of the parent's orientation toward his or her paid work role. Among parents with a weak orientation toward work, signs of adolescent development are negatively associated with well-being; among parents with a relatively strong orientation toward work, the associations are often positive.
Article
The concept of adolescent turmoil is considered in the context of findings from a total population epidemiological study of Isle of Wight 14–15-yr-olds. It is concluded that parent child alienation is not a common feature unless the adolescents are already showing psychiatric problems. Inner turmoil, however, as represented by feelings of misery and self-depreciation is quite frequent. Psychiatric, conditions are only slightly commoner during adolescence than in middle childhood but the pattern of disorders changes in terms of an increase in depression and school refusal. Many adolescent psychiatric problems arise in early childhood but conditions arising for the first time during adolescence differ in important respect from those with an earlier onset.
Article
Using data collected from a large sample of high school students, the authors challenge three widely held explanations for the superior school performance of Asian-American adolescents, and the inferior performance of African- and Hispanic-American adolescents: group differences in (a) parenting practices, (b) familial values about education, and (c) youngsters' beliefs about the occupational rewards of academic success. They found that White youngsters benefit from the combination of authoritative parenting and peer support for achievement, whereas Hispanic youngsters suffer from a combination of parental authoritarianism and low peer support. Among Asian-American students, peer support for academic excellence offsets the negative consequences of authoritarian parenting. Among African-American youngsters, the absence of peer support for achievement undermines the positive influence of authoritative parenting.
Article
In order to test Maccoby and Martin's revision of Baumrind's conceptual framework, the families of approximately 4,100 14-18-year-olds were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) on the basis of the adolescents' ratings of their parents on 2 dimensions: acceptance/involvement and strictness/supervision. The youngsters were then contrasted along 4 sets of outcomes: psychosocial development, school achievement, internalized distress, and problem behavior. Results indicate that adolescents who characterize their parents as authoritative score highest on measures of psychosocial competence and lowest on measures of psychological and behavioral dysfunction; the reverse is true for adolescents who describe their parents as neglectful. Adolescents whose parents are characterized as authoritarian score reasonably well on measures indexing obedience and conformity to the standards of adults but have relatively poorer self-conceptions than other youngsters. In contrast, adolescents from indulgent homes evidence a strong sense of self-confidence but report a higher frequency of substance abuse and school misconduct and are less engaged in school. The results provide support for Maccoby and Martin's framework and indicate the need to distinguish between two types of "permissive" families: those that are indulgent and those that are neglectful.
Article
The over-time relation between 3 aspects of authoritative parenting--acceptance, psychological autonomy, and behavioral control--and school achievement was examined in a sample of 120 10-16-year-olds in order to test the hypothesis that authoritative parenting facilitates, rather than simply accompanies, school success. In addition, the mediating role of youngsters' psychosocial maturity was studied. Results indicate that (1) authoritative parenting facilitates adolescents' academic success, (2) each component of authoritativeness studied makes an independent contribution to achievement, and (3) the positive impact of authoritative parenting on achievement is mediated at least in part through the effects of authoritativeness on the development of a healthy sense of autonomy and, more specifically, a healthy psychological orientation toward work. Adolescents who describe their parents as treating them warmly, democratically, and firmly are more likely than their peers to develop positive attitudes toward, and beliefs about, their achievement, and as a consequence, they are more likely to do better in school.