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Abstract

This article investigates the hypothesis that child labour is compelled by poverty. It shows that a testable implication of this hypothesis is that the wage elasticity of child labour supply is negative. Using a large household survey for rural Pakistan, labour supply models for boys and girls in wage work are estimated. Conditioning on non-labour income and a range of demographic variables, the article finds a negative wage elasticity for boys and an elasticity that is insignificantly different from zero for girls. Thus, while boys appear to work on account of poverty compulsions, the evidence for girls is ambiguous.

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... Until now, a common belief is that child labourers engage in low-paid work, primarily in the informal sector as a survival strategy driven by necessity (Amin et al., 2004;Anker, 2000;Bhalotra, 2007;Fors, 2012;Grootaert and Kanbur, 1995;Rahman et al., 1999;Rahman and Khanam, 2012;Ranjan, 2001;Rogers and Swinnerton, 2004;Khan, 2003). It is widely assumed that when children engage in the informal economy, as a means for survival, they usually take up menial, low-paid and exploitative kind of work due to poverty. ...
... Lower household income (at survival condition) Amin et al. (2004), Bhalotra (2007), Fors (2012), Grootaert and Kanbur (1995), Rahman and Khanam (2012), Rahman et al. (1999), Ranjan (2001), Rogers and Swinnerton (2004), Bonomelli Carrasco (2017) Structuralist perspective ...
... Vulnerability of household Anker (2000), Khan (2003) Structuralist perspective Family head has taken a loan Basu and Chau (2004), Siddiqi (2013) Structuralist perspective Low quality of education and schooling system Bellamy (1998), Bhalotra (2007), Chaudhury et al. (2006, Fors (2012), Dreze and Kingdon (2001), Emerson and Knabb (2006), Leclercq (2002), Rahman and Khanam (2012), Ray (2001Ray ( , 2003 Neo-liberal perspective Lower income of the family head (opportunity increases earning) Basu and Van (1998), Basu (2000) Neo-liberal perspective Many families living in a single household (engaged in their own business) Kornstad and Thoresen (2006), Siddiqi (2013), Khan and Lyon (2015) Post-structuralist perspective Family size Kornstad and Thoresen (2006), Rahman and Khanam (2012), Siddiqi (2013) Structuralist perspective Unemployment of adults Duryea et al. (2007) Structuralist perspective Government policy Rahman and Khanam (2012) Neo-liberal perspective Residence in the industrial area Siddiqi (2013) Neo-liberal perspective Economic growth (increase the demand for child labour) Basu and Tzannatos (2003), Dessy and Knowles (2001), Edmonds (2001), Kambhampati and Ranjan, 2006, Swaminthan (1998), Tzannatos (2003 Neo-liberal perspective Parents' education and authority Basu and Ray (2002), Fors (2012), Emerson and Souza (2007), Kurosaki et al. (2006), Rahman and Khanam (2012), Strauss and Thomas (1995) Structuralist perspective Parents act altruistically Bhalotra (2007), Emerson and Knabb (2006) Post-structuralist perspective Source(s): Author Table I. Determinants of child labour workers are working in the informal economy instead of the formal economy, as a matter of choice. ...
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Purpose Conventionally, the marginalised population was considered to engage in child labour due to poverty, education or lack of other options, but indeed, a few children work voluntarily. However, a growing number of scholars, in recent years, have drawn their attention to the valuable question, “why children are engaged in child labour in the informal economy”. Even though a few studies have explored the motives of informal workers, to our knowledge not a single paper has explored the motives of child labourers working in the informal economy. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap by evaluating the motives of child labourers, through three competing theorisations of the informal economy. Design/methodology/approach In this study, face-to-face structured interviews of 45 child labourers were conducted, who worked in different automobile workshops in the city of Lahore, Pakistan. Respondents were selected using the snowball sampling technique as this strategy is suitable for researching sensitive issues and is feasible for small sample sizes. Findings The main finding is that no single explanation is universally applicable to all child labourers. Some (27 per cent) justify their participation in the informal sector as driven by necessity (structuralist perspective), majority (40 per cent) explain their participation in the informal economy as a rational economic choice (neo-liberal perspective) and finally, more than a quarter of respondents (31 per cent) engaged in child labour due to their own free will or voluntarily to work for their family (post-structuralist perspective). This study also revealed that entrepreneurial spawning is a key determinant of child labour as the majority of children, in our study, working in automobile workshops intended to start their own workshop business in the future. Research limitations/implications This article shows that children early engaged in work with entrepreneurial intention/spawning. Entrepreneurial education is very important in a child’s life. Entrepreneurial education will be a ticket to fulfill their dreams and learn new things with entrepreneurial attitude. Practical implications Government should develop the vocational training institutes for children who left the schools. Originality/value This study contributes to the body of literature by providing a better understanding of why children work in informal employment, an occupation generally perceived as constituting exploitative working conditions. This study also contributes to the wider literature of entrepreneurship by exploring “entrepreneurial spawning” as one of the major reasons underlying the participation of children in informal work.
... Parental levels of education of both mothers and fathers are included to allow for their possible impact on child schooling and employment [Strauss and Thomas (1995); Bhalotra (2007)]. Educated mothers have a greater say in household decision making and may increase the efficiency of household resource allocation towards child schooling [Bhalotra (2007)]. ...
... Parental levels of education of both mothers and fathers are included to allow for their possible impact on child schooling and employment [Strauss and Thomas (1995); Bhalotra (2007)]. Educated mothers have a greater say in household decision making and may increase the efficiency of household resource allocation towards child schooling [Bhalotra (2007)]. Also, they may be more altruistic towards their children [Strauss and Thomas (1995)]. ...
... Parental income or wealth is measured by household level income (also known as 'household income net of child earnings') as calculated by Bhalotra (2007). This excludes income from child employment to measure household poverty more accurately and to avoid endogeneity with child labour, but includes non-labour earnings and savings income. ...
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This study uses the Pakistan Rural Household Survey 2004-5 (PRHS), a rich set of households and school data, to examine parents’ schooling decision in rural Pakistan. Nested logit regressions are used to quantify the determinants of child school attendance. The analysis confirms that the greater the number of schools (public or private) in the local communities the higher is the attendance. Lower school attendance of boys seems to be the outcome of lower school quality more than it is for girls. A marginal increase in school quality correlates with increased school attendance in government schools more than in private schools. Nearly all school quality variables including control for number of schools in a community stand insignificant for girls. This shows that other factors might be of more importance than school quality of local schools for girl’s low attendance in rural Pakistan. Besides, parental education, especially mother’s education, and household income have strong positive impact on child school attendance. The greater the number of children in the household the lower is the child school attendance. Credit constraint seems not to be problematic as the estimated effect is statistically insignificant. The size of landholding seems to be important only in the case of girls schooling. JEL Classification: I21, I25, D13, C25 Keywords: Demand for Schooling, Public Education, Private Education, Pakistan
... The analysis is carried out for children aged between 10 and 14. Moreover to check the robustness of results and more particularly the sign and significance of mother's bargaining power (MBP), I will run the regressions for a broad definition of child labour aged between 10 and 17 (as Bhalotra 2007;Ersado 2005). The estimations also are carried out for two separate years (2005 and 2010) to check for the likely structural changes in the pattern of children's time allocation that occurs during the years. ...
... The majority of the applied studies base their theoretical setting on the unitary household framework of Becker (1965). Becker's model assumes the same preferences for all family members; or equivalently, one of the family members makes decision for everyone else (Baland and Robinson 2000;Basu and Van 1998;Bell and Gersbach 2001;Bhalotra 2007;Dessy 2000;Emerson and Souza 2007;Jensen and Nielsen 1997;Ray 2000). In contrast to the traditional economic models of household behaviour, economists have recently ascertained that spouses' bargaining power may affect the household's resource allocation and their demand for commodities (Basu and Ray 2001;Koolwal and Ray 2002;Maitra and Ray 2002;Reggio 2011). ...
... As a result, I disaggregate school enrolment and labour force participation likelihoods by gender and their area of residence. Various studies specify separated models for female and male child time allocation, (Bhalotra (2007) and Bhalotra and Heady (2000)). A part of the results for MBP and the interaction of family's poverty and MBP are presented in Table 6 for broad definition of child labour. ...
Article
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In the framework of a household’s collective decision processes, this study presents a structural empirical model to test the hypothesis that child labour is compelled by household’s poverty and parent’s bargaining power against one another. To this end, a measure for mother’s intra-household bargaining power is developed. I use Iranian Household’s Income and Expenditures Surveys (2005 and 2010). Estimation method used in this study is multinomial logit. Findings indicate that household’s poverty is not the sole cause of child’s work incidence. Instead, given the other factors such as poverty, being the first born, local labour market prospect and gender fixed, mother’s bargaining power is found as a significant determinant of child’s work and school attendance. However, the magnitude of its marginal effects vary by gender and across geographical areas.
... Regarding the educational milieu, there is a general consensus regarding the importance that the household plays in predicting children's educational outcomes (Dostie and Jayaraman 2006;Connelly and Zheng 2003;Bhalotra 2007). The level of education of the parents has been hypothesised to have a positive effect on children educational outcomes because more educated parents value education more, are more involved in their children school activities and they expose their children to intellectually stimulating material (Grolnick and Slowiaczek 1994;Davis-Kean 2005;Green et al. 2007;Hornby and Lafaele 2011). ...
... The implicit stance behind the luxury axiom is that once the economic status box is ticked then the child will be automatically be enrolled in school. However, while undoubtedly important, the economic constraints limiting access to education account for only for part of the story (Ray 2000; Cameron and Heckman 2001;Bhalotra 2007). A crucial aspect which needs to be taken into account is the educational milieu the child is surrounded by. ...
... The role of relative deprivation as a determinant of school enrolment is explored through logit models where the dependent variable is the dichotomous status of being enrolled/not being enrolled in school for children aged 6-18. We include a set of regressors which are typically used in literature on school enrolment in developing counties -see the work by Connelly and Zheng (2003), Dostie and Jayaraman (2006), Bhalotra (2007), De Carvalho Filho (2012 and Gumus (2014), as well as work on school enrolment in Mexico by López Acevedo (2004) and De la Cruz Tovar and Díaz . As we discussed in the introduction, household wealth is well-known to be a strong determinant of school. ...
... En este modelo, también se analiza el efecto de cambios en los salarios de los niños y la madre sobre lo que la autora llama "el tiempo total dedicado a la producción en el hogar", el cual incluye el tiempo dedicado al cuidado de los niños pequeños, los quehaceres domésticos y las horas de estudio, lográndose la descomposición en efectos sustitución e ingreso. Bhalotra (2001) centra su atención en las elasticidades del salario de la oferta de trabajo infantil. Utilizando el enfoque de asignación del tiempo pero sin incluir producción en el hogar, Bhalotra propone que la oferta de trabajo de lo niños depende de su salario, del salario de los padres y del ingreso familiar no relacionado al trabajo, así como de características del hogar. ...
... Explicaciones para este resultado escapan al ámbito de la economía, pues el sentido 41 La teoría económica del trabajo infantil sugiere que inclusive la pendiente de la oferta podría ser negativa si el objetivo de la familia es que el niño consiga un ingreso fijo. Véase Bhalotra (2001). común económico predeciría que a mayor ingreso laboral del jefe debería reducirse el trabajo infantil. ...
... 24 y sigue la corriente de los modelos de "utilidad familiar-presupuesto familiar", similar a Levison (1991),Bhalotra (2001) y Brown, Deardorff y Stern (2003. Asumamos que la familia tiene tres miembros: un jefe de hogar, un cónyuge y un hijo. ...
... It is normalized by dividing all the elements it contains by the highest module among the modules of its eigenvalues. 12 The two other spatial weighting matrices are used for robustness checking purposes. ...
... In addition, we control for the regional level of infrastructure using nightlight data as a proxy. 13 Indeed, households 12 This action guarantees the symmetry and the general character of the spatial weighting matrix by opposition to the "row-normalised" matrix. Kelejian and Prucha (2010) consider that the adoption of a "row-norm alized" weighting matrix must be strictly justified by the theory. ...
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The paper attempts to assess whether expected returns to education affect the incidence of child labour in Côte d’Ivoire using the 2008 Households Living Standard Survey (ENV 2008) and the 2013 National Survey on Employment and Child Labour Status (ENSETE 2013). Nationally, approximately a quarter (1/4) of children belonging to the 5 to 17 age group are involved in economic activities. Child labour is a matter of concern in Côte d’Ivoire, as it interferes with schooling. We find evidence that improvement in the expected returns to education leads to regression of the likelihood that both boys and girls be involved in child labour, while it only increases girls’ probability of attending school. This result suggests that households' decisions to provide their children with schooling or to involve them early on in the labour market are sensitive to the expected returns to education. A potential explanation of this could be found in the low expected returns to education. Indeed, many educated people in this country experience difficulties in finding decent jobs. Therefore, sound educational system and labour market reforms likely to improve the return to education could help reduce child labour and improve girls' schooling.
... Estimating the contemporaneous relationship between the labour market status of the child or hours worked by a child and child health is not an easy task (Guarcello et al., 2004). It requires dealing appropriately with flooded statistical issues like potential endogeneity of child labour decision and hours worked, unobserved heterogeneity in an individuals' health endowment (O'Donnel et al., 2003;Bhalotra, 2000) and intra-household correlation related issues (Arceneaux, 2005). ...
... Both child labour and health status are, at least to some extent, the results of household decisions and preferences that are not observable to the econometrician (Guarcello, et al., 2004). A healthy worker selection effect (Guarcello et al., 2004 andBhalotra, 2000) may arise due to unobserved heterogeneity when parents decide to send the healthiest child to work. If this is the case, there will be a positive effect of child labour on health. ...
Article
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This study attempted to investigate the contemporaneous effect of child labour on child health, using individual records of the 2007 Cameroon household consumption survey. Specifically, the study aimed at; investigating whether child labour effectively displaces excellent or good health, scrutinizing the extent of the contemporaneous effect of child labour on child health and investigating the sector where children can work in order to enhance family income without jeopardizing their health if they must work. In order to resolve in a step wise manner, potential estimation related problems, use was made of the bivariate probit model, the ordered probit model and the two-stage residual inclusion technique. Among the several econometric results, the correlation coefficient suggested the absence of any trade-off relationship between child labour and health status. In addition, though working children were more likely to report better self-assessed health status as a whole, those working in the agricultural sector were more likely to report poorer health status. This results policy wise, suggests that if children must work, then they should be oriented toward non-agricultural related activities.
... Le travail des enfants est sujet à controverse notamment à cause de sa définition (Bhukuth, 2009). Certains travaux fondent leur analyse sur les activités relevant du domaine de la production du système de la comptabilité nationale (Bhalotra, 2007 ;Amin, et al., 2004;Bhalotra et Heady, 2003). D'autres par contre prennent en compte les activités domestiques (Beegle, et al., 2006 ;Kurosaki, et al., 2006). ...
... La définition du travail des enfants présente une certaine ambiguïté (Fafchamps et Wahba, 2006;Blunch, et al., 2005 ;. Néanmoins, la plupart des études définissent ce concept comme un travail économique (Bhalotra, 2007 ;Edmonds, 2008). Autrement dit, un enfant travailleur est celui qui exécute ses activités en dehors ou dans le ménage pour un salaire ou autre forme de rémunération en nature. ...
Thesis
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Despite continued economic progress in developing countries in recent years, the child labour is still widespread. However, all activities performed by the children do not necessarily fall into the category of "child labour". In this research, child labour is defined in relation to its dangerous nature and the number of hours devoted to activities. Several causes are the basis of early employment of children. Thus, in conventional models, lack of parental income is the main factor of child labour (Basu and Van, 1998). However, non-poor households also put their children on the labour market and showing the limits of traditional models (Bhalotra and Heady, 2003). Therefore more and more, studies addressing child labour in a dynamic making the capital market imperfection a determinant of child labour (Ranjan, 2001; Baland and Robinson, 2000). In this vision, these studies seek to identify the reasons why households do not invest in the education of their children. In other words, education is an alternative to child labour because it increases the productivity of individuals and reduces inequalities (Couralet, 2002). However, graduate unemployment and inadequate school infrastructure are negative for the schooling of children from vulnerable households. Furthermore, the quality of school is inadequate. Unfortunately, studies rarely consider that quality. However, it is closely related to academic achievement and subsequent success in the labour market. So it is important to reconsider the determinants of child labour, taking into account the quality of the school. The general objective of this study is to highlight the interaction between child labour and education. Therefore, theoretically, we considered the model of Bacolod and Ranjan (2008) which allowed an econometric analysis from two models: The bivariate probit model and the Heckman selection model. From the 2010 data on the local survey on child labour and education policy, the results showed that parental income deficiency and poor school quality explain child labour. In addition, asset ownership such as livestock is beneficial to the education of children in the rural savannah zone. Thus, policymakers should focus on improving the learning environment for children. This policy in synergy with poverty reduction credit to household’s access and the development of livestock will significantly reduce child labour. Keywords: Education, Child labour, school quality, Heckman, Biprobit
... Bhalotra (2004) has also explored the impact of altruistic behaviour by parents on child labour; Hou (2009) has explored the relationship between wealth, child labour and schooling, while Iram and Fatima (2008) have explored the links among trade liberalisation, foreign direct investment and child labour. The relatively few articles exploring demand side factors include the following: Ghayur (1996); Hussain (1998); Bhalotra (2007) and Bhalotra and Heady (2003). Ghayur (1996) worked on data from the Child LFS of 1996 and concluded that the labour market in Pakistan is unable to absorb the current labour force, causing problems of both unemployment and underemployment. ...
... Thus, asset-rich households may have more children in work than asset-poor households. Bhalotra (2007) estimated the wage elasticity of child labour supply using data for rural households for the period 1991. She tested the hypothesis that children work because their household's income falls below subsistence requirements. ...
Article
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This article uses empirical evidence, based on labour market indicators, to analyse the factors influencing the incidence of child labour in Pakistan, from both supply and demand sides. The level of demand for child labour is shown to be linked mainly to adult wage levels, the adult unemployment rate in an area, and the size of the informal and agriculture sectors. The supply of child labour is seen to be positively linked to the proportion of adult unemployment in the household. Unlike previous studies, the article analyses both demand and supply side factors in a context of poverty and takes account of the co-existence of formal and informal labour markets. Furthermore, to generalise the issue for a longer span of time (which previous studies fail to do), it adopts the methodology of a pseudo-panel approach based on that proposed by Deaton. This approach makes it possible to pinpoint more accurately the factors, and their interaction, that need to be considered in any effective policy approach to the issue of child labour. To prevent unintended consequences, a multi-faceted development approach is required.
... Other studies argue that certain factors affect family income without also affecting the time allocation of children except through family income. Examples include Bhalotra (2007), Bhalotra & Heady (2003), and Ersado (2005). Note that the assumptions required for identification are often quite strong in these studies, as almost anything that affects the family's economic environment should also influence the value of child time in one activity (schooling, work outside the home, market work in the home, domestic chores). ...
... Pakistan is suffering from extremely tender socio-economic and political chaos. There are many reasons why share of child labor is increasing such as poverty, large family sizes, social attitudes and low literacy rate, worst economic crises, symmetry of natural disasters; devastation of infrastructure due to country-wide floods, earthquake, and large increase of unemployment (Human Rights Report, 2010;Bhalotra, 2007;Ahmed, 1991). Awan et al. (2011) argued that the factors are absence of education of the mother, household heads education, large family size, low level of family income and less education of child pushed children into work that often damage to their development. ...
Article
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The present study was aimed to find out some measures of child labour in the capital of Pakistan (Islamabad). Study explored some parental factors like (socioeconomic status, criminal tendency of parents, their physical health, parental pressure, age of the parents as well as social acceptance of the parents) related to child labour. Child labor was one of the oldest curses that still refused to fade away in our part of the world. The main objective of the study was to determine the characteristics of working children in automobile workshops and to bring out those associated factors leading to child labor in automobile workshops in Islamabad. For the said purpose, 250 working children were then purposively drawn and attributed with less than 18 years of age in the locality of Islamabad. The information was obtained from the respondents by using interview schedule as a tool for the present study. Children were facing many problems at work such as cuts and burns (48%), muscles pain (28%), eyes infection and different orthopedic injuries (10%) and (14%) respectively. Results showed that a negative correlation existed between the variables (child labour and socioeconomic status, physical health of parents) while all other variables such as age of the parents, social acceptance, criminal tendency and parental pressures were positively correlated with the measure (child labour).
... A sense of gratitude connects the will to deliver care with the ability to supply care. One difference between this perspective and existing models of child labor (among others, Basu and Van, 1998;Baland and Robinson, 2000;Ravallion and Wodon, 2000;Bhalotra, 2007;Basu et al., 2010) is that the emphasis here is not on how current consumption needs lead to child labor but, rather, on how the need for future care and support leads to withdrawal of child labor. ...
Article
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We study a parent's demand for gratitude from his child. We view this demand as an intervening variable between the parent's earnings and the incidence of child labor. The demand for gratitude arises from the desire of a parent to receive care and support from his child late in life, while the inclination of the child to provide this support during his adulthood is determined by how the child was treated by his parent during childhood. Specifically, we model the child's gratitude as an inverse function of the intensity of his labor in childhood. We show that when we keep the child's (imputed) wage constant, the intensity of child labor decreases with the parent's earnings. However, when we make the child's (imputed) wage a function of the parent's earnings, then the outcome can be different. With the help of a numerical example, we show that the pattern of child labor related to the parent's earnings can be U-shaped.
... Edmonds (2005) concluded that expansions in per capita expenditure can describe 80 percent of the decrease in child labor that arises in households whose expenses increase enough to move out of poverty in Vietnam Amon et al. (2012) found the improper finding and addressing of issues related to child labor in different government ministries, international treaties, and United Nations and donor funding programs and initiatives, are more often creating obstacles to operative and immediate action, while evaluating case studies of human rights investigations in Kazakhstan and Mali. Bhalotra (2007) analyzed and concluded that child labour is obliged by poverty in Pakistan, because wage is elastic to child labour negatively. In addition, he found a significant difference between girls and boys in term of child labour tendencies ...
Article
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Child labour is a severe problem and a big obstacle in development of under-developed countries, and Pakistan is one of them. This study sought to explore the determinants and factors that affect the child labour. This is an empirical study on the population of underdeveloped city Badin. Data were collected from 50 employees and employers with the use of closed-ended questionnaires. Data were analyzed in terms of frequencies and percentages. Lack of education and poverty were found to be determinant of child labour. Since the parents are poor, children need to work and mostly drop out school, and eventually remain poor for their lifetime. Moreover, parents are also responsible to make them work. Furthermore, the response of the employers is also consistent with the employed children. Child labour is found to be exploitive, their ability to work is utilized by both parents and employers. The innocents who needed to be cared are made protect and serve others. The corrective actions should be taken by government, NGOs and civil society to abolish child labour in Pakistan.
... Nevertheless, there are other social and cultural forces which influence the rise of child labor in developing countries including Pakistan (Irfan & Hamid, 1981;Khan, 1982;Ali & Hamid, 1999;and Basu & Kaushik, 1999). Bhalotra (2007) has examined the association between poverty and child labor. She had used a large household survey from rural Pakistan and estimated labor supply models for boys and girls in wage work. ...
... Further comparative results reveal that the income is strongly associated with a decrease in remaining inactive in the case of boys compared to girls, suggesting that attending school and remaining inactive has more social rather than pecuniary reasons for girls. These findings complement those of Bhalotra (2007), who found that boys in Pakistan appear to work due to poverty while such evidence for girls is ambiguous. ...
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Education is essential for human resource development and sustainable socio-economic development of a society, as it can facilitate economic growth through the broader application of knowledge, skills, and the creative strength of a society. The other positive and long-term outcomes of education include the reduction of poverty and inequality, improvement of health status and good governance in the implementation of socio-economic policies. Keeping in view the role that education through human capital formation can play in the development of Pakistan where the population of the children below 14 years old is about 35 percent of the total population; this study aims at delineating the factors that are obstructing the educational activities of the children below the age of 14 years. Furthermore, the main research interest in this study was to see how pecuniary and non-pecuniary factors are impeding the process of human capital formation. The results indicate that variables such as parental education and perceptions of secular and non-secular education, role of mother in domestic authority, believe in tribal norms, religiosity of the head-of-household, child age and gender, and proximity to school are playing a significant role in the choice of childhood activities.
... -213 -finding the relationship between ongoing and increasing trend of the child labour would be explored and analyzed. (Bhalotra, 2007) This has been the case of many children of Pakistan since the old times and because of the technological advancements and globalization, this problem is now highlighted and officials are reacting to it, but we are just at the first step of progress for the reason that a lot needs to be done about it. The citizens of Pakistan need to work on this problem together and sort it out and the situation is not possible only on the reliance on the government officials. ...
Article
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This study aims to find out the causes that are involved with the inclination of the practice of child labour in Pakistan. This study was exploratory in nature and the factors that were identified to have a relation with the child labour in Pakistan with the help of this study; were found to be poverty, lack of resources and bigger sizes of the families. Through qualitative research method of unstructured interviews and conversations and with the use of snowball sampling technique; children that were involved in labour were asked questions and interviewed about the work that they were doing and the reasons behind it. About 30 children (20 boys and 10 girls, aged 6 to 17 years) were approached and a compensation amount was also given to them so that their time does not get wasted and they could also earn a little amount within that time. Another factor that was also found in this study was that the boys were found a lot more in number as compared to the girls that were involved in the child labour for the reason that girls were mostly associated with helping with the house chores and care after the animals that were also a source of food.
... -213 -finding the relationship between ongoing and increasing trend of the child labour would be explored and analyzed. (Bhalotra, 2007) This has been the case of many children of Pakistan since the old times and because of the technological advancements and globalization, this problem is now highlighted and officials are reacting to it, but we are just at the first step of progress for the reason that a lot needs to be done about it. The citizens of Pakistan need to work on this problem together and sort it out and the situation is not possible only on the reliance on the government officials. ...
Preprint
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This study aims to find out the causes that are involved with the inclination of the practice of child labour in Pakistan. This study was exploratory in nature and the factors that were identified to have a relation with the child labour in Pakistan with the help of this study; were found to be poverty, lack of resources and bigger sizes of the families. Through qualitative research method of unstructured interviews and conversations and with the use of snowball sampling technique; children that were involved in labour were asked questions and interviewed about the work that they were doing and the reasons behind it. About 30 children (20 boys and 10 girls, aged 6 to 17 years) were approached and a compensation amount was also given to them so that their time does not get wasted and they could also earn a little amount within that time. Another factor that was also found in this study was that the boys were found a lot more in number as compared to the girls that were involved in the child labour for the reason that girls were mostly associated with helping with the house chores and care after the animals that were also a source of food.
... Moreover, there are other social and cultural forces which influence the rise of child labour in developing countries including Pakistan ( Irfan and Hamid, 1981;Khan, 1982;Basu andKaushik, 1999 andAli & Hamid, 1999). Bhalotra (2007) has examined the association between poverty and child labour. She had used a large household survey from rural Pakistan and estimated labour supply models for boys and girls in wage work. ...
Article
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Purpose : The purpose of this paper was to investigate the impacts of bonded child labour in the brick kiln industries. It aimed to analyse that how these children are exploited for less wages and increased work hours so that to highlight the complete violation of human rights in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach : The paper analyses the literature on the socioeconomic conditions of the children particularly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and engages its theoretical development. Findings : The paper analyses that the socio-economic conditions of the poor masses especially the children in KP, Pakistan are deteriorating day by day. Moreover, the poor policies of the government both federal and provincial to cater the needs of the underprivileged class are further worsening the situation. Research limitations/implications : The research uses an analytical approach based on some empirical data to probe into the heart of this issue. Originality/value : This paper traces out the policies being formulated by the government of Pakistan from time to time. However, there is a strong dichotomy between what the government is trying to convey and the ground realities in different parts of the country. This paper, therefore, investigates four distinguishing points: social conditions of bonded labour, exploitative strategies used for bonded labour, the extent of bonded child labour, pessimistic effects of hazardous child labour on the personality of the affected children. Paper type : Mixed Method Approach (Quantitative and Quantitative data collection) has been adopted in this Paper. © 2018 E-Journal of International and Comparative Labour Studies.All right reserved.
... Child wage is one of the best candidates but, unfortunately, it is only available for some working children. Bhalotra (2007) attempts to overcome the problem by proxying child wages in community-level agricultural wages. However, she provides no justification for this strong and arbitrary assumption. ...
Article
This study attempts to investigate the effect of incidence and duration of child labour on schooling using the 2016 Indonesia’s National Labour Force Survey (SAKERNAS). The study uses instrumental variable (IV) technique where access to clean water, good sanitation and access to electricity serve as instruments. The finding suggests that the incidence of child labour is negatively and significantly correlated with enrolment, while there is no effect of duration on schooling. In addition, schooling is significantly influenced by sex, some income and household characteristics and area.
... Child wage is one of the best candidates but, unfortunately, it is only available for some working children. Bhalotra (2007) attempts to overcome the problem by proxying child wages in community-level agricultural wages. However, she provides no justification for this strong and arbitrary assumption. ...
... -213 -finding the relationship between ongoing and increasing trend of the child labour would be explored and analyzed. (Bhalotra, 2007) This has been the case of many children of Pakistan since the old times and because of the technological advancements and globalization, this problem is now highlighted and officials are reacting to it, but we are just at the first step of progress for the reason that a lot needs to be done about it. The citizens of Pakistan need to work on this problem together and sort it out and the situation is not possible only on the reliance on the government officials. ...
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ABSTRACT This study aims to find out the causes that are involved with the inclination of the practice of child labour in Pakistan.This study was exploratory in nature and the factors that were identified to have a relation with the child labour in Pakistan with the help of this study;were found to be poverty, lack of resources and bigger sizes of the families. Through qualitative research method of unstructured interviews and conversations and with the use of snowball sampling technique;children that were involved in labour were asked questions and interviewed about the work that they were doing and the reasons behind it. About 30 children (20 boys and 10 girls, aged 6 to 17years) were approached and a compensation amount was also given to them so that their time does not get wasted and they could also earn a little amount within that time.Another factor that was also found in this study was that the boys were found a lot more in number as compared to the girls that were involved in the child labour for the reason that girls were mostly associated with helping with the house chores and care after the animals that were also a source of food.
... The importance of the educational environment surrounding the child in the household is well documented. Connelly and Zheng (2003), Dostie and Jayaraman (2006) and Bhalotra (2007), among others, provide sound quantitative evidence from developing countries that parents' education is a strong predictor of children's educational outcomes. Handa (2002) finds that increasing parents' education has a far greater potential for boosting enrolment in a developing setting than raising household income. ...
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Using data from the extended section of the 2010 Mexican census (2.9 million households), we study how school enrolment is associated with wealth inequality and with the educational environment the child is exposed to at the household and municipal levels. We provide robust evidence of wealth inequality as a negative predictor of school enrolment for children in primary, secondary and high school age ranges while a positive role is played by the educational environment. Through the introduction of interaction terms, we account for how economic and educational variables are intertwined at both the household and the municipal level, and we are able to illustrate the considerable heterogeneity in the role of adult education for households at different standards of living.
... The literature that has analyzed the causes associated to school dropouts indicates that they are mainly due to the lack of financial resources to cover the direct (enrollment and tuition fees) and indirect (work materials, uniforms and transport) costs of attending school, as well as the perception of a low educational quality (Baschieri & Falkingham, 2007;Ersado, 2005;Morrisson, 2002;Rosati & Rossi, 2007;Rumberger, 1995;Yuren, de la Cruz, Cruz, Araújo-Olivera, and Estrada, 2005). Those students who have lesser abilities are the most likely to drop out of school (Bacolod and Ranjan, 2008), and having work activities could also affect attendance, school results and, ultimately, the permanence at the educational institution (Basu & Van, 1998;Basu, 1999;Beegle, Dehejia, & Gatti, 2005;Bhalotra, 2007;Edmonds & Pavcnik, 2005;Gunnarsson, Orazem, & Sánchez, 2006;Orazem & Gunnarsson, 2003). ...
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As a result of the financial crisis of 2008, the macroeconomic adjustment has affected Mexican homes through greater unemployment and a drop in purchasing power. Moreover, families had to keep financing education costs, sometimes going into debt in the formal or informal financial market. The hypothesis of this article proposes that the access and use of formal and informal financial products makes it possible to reduce financial problems associated to education expenses at the basic education levels. The probit model is estimated with a sample comprised of four hundred homes in the municipality of San Pedro Cholula (state of Puebla). The results indicate that a worsening in the work conditions and the loss of employment are associated to a greater probability of facing financial difficulties. Likewise, the access to the formal financial market allows reducing the probability of facing these difficulties, whereas for the informal market the results are a function of the characteristics of each financial intermediary.
... La literatura que ha analizado las causas asociadas con la deserción escolar señala que esta se debe principalmente a la falta de recursos económicos para cubrir los costos directos (inscripción y colegiaturas) e indirectos (materiales de trabajo, uniformes y transporte) para poder asistir, así como a la percepción de una baja calidad educativa (Rumberger, 1995;Morrisson, 2002;Ersado, 2005;Yuren, de la Cruz, Cruz, Araújo-Olivera y Estrada, 2005;Baschieri y Falkingham, 2007;Rosati y Rossi, 2007). Los estudiantes que tienen menores habilidades son los más propensos a abandonar la escuela (Bacolod y Ranjan, 2008), y realizar actividades laborales también puede perjudicar la asistencia, los resultados escolares y, en última instancia, la permanencia en la institución educativa (Basu y Van, 1998;Basu, 1999;Orazem y Gunnarsson, 2003;Beegle, Dehejia y Gatti, 2005;Edmonds y Pavcnik, 2005;Gunnarsson, Orazem y Sánchez, 2006;Bhalotra, 2007). ...
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Resumen A raíz de la crisis financiera del 2008, el ajuste macroeconómico ha afectado a los hogares mexicanos a través de un mayor desempleo y una caída del poder adquisitivo. También, las familias tenían que seguir financiando los gastos en educación, a veces endeudándose en el mercado financiero formal o informal. La hipótesis de este artículo propone que el acceso y el uso de los productos financieros formales e informales permiten reducir los problemas financieros asociados con los gastos escolares en los niveles de educación básica. El modelo probit se estima con una muestra constituida por cuatrocientos hogares que residen en el municipio de San Pedro Cholula (estado de Puebla). Los resultados indican que un empeoramiento de las condiciones laborales y la pérdida del empleo se asocian con una mayor probabilidad de enfrentar dificultades financieras. Asimismo, el acceso al mercado financiero formal permite reducir la probabilidad de enfrentar estas dificultades, mientras que para el informal los resultados están en función de las características de cada intermediario financiero.
... It predicts that children may work because the net returns relative to alternative uses of time such as school attendance are low (compared with its cost) and the returns to work experience are relatively larger. The second vein highlights the effect of various constraints on the allocation of children's time between schooling and labour (Bhalotra 2007, Grimm 2011. Imperfections in the markets for labour and land (Bhalotra and Heady 2003), poverty (Basu and Van 1998) and credit market imperfections (Jacoby and Skoufias 1997, Ranjan 2001, Cigno and Rosati 2006 are the main set of constraints explaining the emergence of child labour and the concomitant fall-off in school attendance (De Vreyer et al. 2013). ...
... In the literature, several studies have identified the determinants of child labor [9][10][11][12]. Among these causes, income poverty is considered the most critical. ...
Article
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Child labor remains a concern for policy makers considering its interrelations with human capital formation. Indeed, in Sub-Saharan Africa and particularly in Cote d'Ivoire, children are still on the labor market. Several factors explain this fact of setting children to work. Given this diversity of determinants of child labor, this study aims to show the effects of school resources on child labor. Therefore, we use the 2010 national survey data on child labor and education policies. From a bivariate probit model, the results showed that the availability of certain school resources as a canteen and a drinking water point in the school promotes the education of children and especially girls. On the contrary, their unavailability forces parents to put their children on labor market. Therefore, one of the major policies to be implemented is to improve the learning environment of children by building school canteens and drinking water point in schools. It's a new challenge for policy makers to effectively fight against child labor and reach the goal of education for all and of quality in 2030.
... They similarly suggest that child labor is a by-product of lack of family resources and a potential challenge to receiving formal education (Walters & Briggs, 1993). The exploitation view is often studied within the context of developing countries such as Pakistan (Bhalotra, 2007), Kenya (Buchmann, 2000), Zambia (Jensen & Nielsen, 1997), Peru (Patrinos & Psacharopoulos, 1997), and Bolivia and Venezuela (Psacharopoulos, 1997) where many children are required to participate in the labor market. ...
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PurposeTheories of income inequality frequently cite child and adolescent labor as a societal problem. In contrast to such theories, we propose that path dependency coupled with enhancement of human and social capital enables some adolescents who work to find more attractive jobs later in life. MethodologyUsing the longitudinal Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) spanning over 10 years, we find support for a positive relationship between adolescents’ number of work hours and future desirable professional outcomes such as being employed, income, person-organization fit, knowing where to look for a job, and career networking. FindingsThe positive relationship, in many instances, is curvilinear and highlights the downfall of working excessive hours. We also explore whether adolescent work for a stranger or family member leads to different outcomes, and find that working in a family business leads to enhanced later life utilization of career networks as well as better person-organization fit. Social implicationsWhile we find that adolescent work intensity is linked to positive later life outcomes such as higher income, better fitting jobs, and better career networks, we also find maxima whereby additional hours worked have a diminishing effect on the outcomes. This suggests the need for societal norms and/or laws to avoid excessive adolescent work. Value of chapterThe findings in this chapter shed light on the role of early life work experiences in future professional outcomes. We show that certain types of adolescent employment can enhance future career prospects, counter to much of the established literature on the detrimental impact of youth labor.
... Consequently, when families have been able to overcome poverty constraints or satisfied a certain level of subsistence needs, 27 those high levels of returns to education generate incentives to send children to school instead of work. Bhalotra (2003) have found evidence that the boy's income in Pakistan is necessary to reach the subsistence expenditures of the households. This implies that if a household cross this "subsistence frontier" boy's child labour is not necessary and they can perform activities related to childhood. ...
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El artículo examina la relación entre crecimiento económico, ingresos de las familias, empleo infantil y asistencia escolar en Colombia. También analiza el impacto de la recesión económica de 1999 en la educación y empleo infantil. Una importante contribución del artículo es el uso de datos microeconómicos y macroeconómicos en la estimación de los modelos empíricos, ya que nos permiten analizar los determinantes micro y macroeconómicos del empleo infantil. Los resultados muestran que el ingreso de las familias y el crecimiento económico son relevantes para el proceso de decisión de las familias sobre educación y empleo de los niños. Encontramos que en Colombia el empleo infantil es contra cíclico y la educación es pro cíclica respecto al crecimiento económico. En consecuencia, mayores niveles de ingreso social aumentan el bienestar de los niños ofreciéndoles mayor educación y menores responsabilidades económicas. Esto implica que la principal razón por la cual los niños trabajan en Colombia es la pobreza. El impacto de la crisis de finales de los años 90 sobre el empleo infantil y la educación fue un incremento fuerte de niños en la fuerza laboral y una leve reducción en la asistencia escolar.
... A repeated reason is that the base of child-labor is poverty (Doepke and Zilibotti, 2010). It seems that Boys are engaged in work as a result of poverty, but the evidence for girls is still unclear (Bhalotra, 2007). ...
Article
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Children are the future of our dreams and guarantee of their prosperity and success but they are exploited in the form of child labor. Child labor is the employment of children those are too young to work for wages in field jobs that are unsuitable or unsafe for them. It is a fact that, child labour has become a burden for every economy. Even though child labour is considered illegal in most societies and it is still a serious problem in a large number of nations. There are a number of factors which give rise to child labor. These include poverty, illiteracy, job opportunities, family provision and dissatisfaction from education structure. By conducting an extensive literature review, this paper attempts to highlight all the major causes of child labor and their consequences. Furthermore this paper explores and postulates the Child Trade-off theory which discusses the tradeoff between education of children and child labor. This paper also discusses factors which may play crux in the eradication of this problem.
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The issue of child work has remained a contentious theme of research due to the large socioeconomic costs associated with it. Despite significant efforts to eliminate child labour, it is deep-rooted in many parts of the world. About 9.6 per cent of children are engaged in some form of work or another the world over. India is home to about 10.1 million child workers. The paper reviews their status across the states and the industries, where the incidence of working children is high. An attempt is also made to review the underlying causes of this phenomenon, including the association of child work and underage marriage. The findings indicate that a diverse array of social and economic factors exacerbates child labour. In addition to poverty alleviation, a wholistic combination of interventions like school retention and compulsory primary and middle education for children, productive employment avenues, and education for parents is likely to lead to a more realistic policy response.
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Child labour can deprive children of the right to a normal childhood and impair their productivity and earning capacity in later life. The relationship between child labour and cognitive development is central to these effects but has not yet been a focus of empirical research. Using panel data from Ethiopia and applying an instrumental variables estimator, we find a strong association of cognitive development with the amount of time previously spent by children on income-generating work, and with the amount of time spent on household chores. Existing levels of child labour in Ethiopia are thus demonstrably harmful.
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Background: The problem of students dropping out of school is one of the barriers to improving educational outcomes in poor and developing countries. Purpose: This small scale, in-depth study sought to explore the phenomenon of students who drop out from secondary education, through the perspectives of fathers of such students in a rural district of Pakistan. Method: Primary data were collected through detailed, individual interviews with 14 fathers whose sons had dropped out from secondary education. The study adopted a framework involving push and pull factors to analyse qualitatively the processes and examine the reasons for dropping out that prevailed inside and outside school. Findings: The analysis suggested that, from the perspectives of the fathers, family poverty, poor academic performance and issues relating to teachers’ engagement with teaching at school were main factors involved in a student dropping out of school. Conclusions: The findings from this small scale, detailed analysis of data draw attention to the issues arising from a tension in mainstream teachers’ educational roles in and beyond the school. It further highlights the need for greater investment in secondary education, in order to help to reduce rates of student drop out in the remote rural areas of Pakistan.
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This article analyzes the behavioral effects of cash transfer programs when jobless people need to have access to a minimum consumption level. Our model reconciles recent evidence about negligible or favorable effects of cash transfers on job-finding rates and the more standard view of negative effects. When unemployment compensation, if any, is low enough, we argue that cash transfer programs can raise the hiring probability. Our framework is flexible enough to generate the standard conclusion as well. Looking specifically at unemployment compensation, its optimal level is generally higher than when a lower bound on consumption is ignored.
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Although bans against child labor are a ubiquitous policy tool, there is very little empirical evidence on their effectiveness. In this paper, we examine the consequences of India’s landmark legislation against child labor, the Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986. Using data from employment surveys conducted before and after the ban, and using age restrictions that determined whom the ban applied to, we show that the relative probability of child employment increases and child wages (relative to adult wages) decrease after the ban. Our main specification relies on comparing changes in work probabilities over time for children of the same age but with siblings who are rendered either eligible or ineligible for legal work when the ban is implemented. The increases in the probability of economic activity are largest for children (i) in areas where the industries targeted by the ban play a larger role in local labor markets, (ii) in areas where the probability of employer inspections is higher, and (iii) in families that are poorer. These results are consistent with a theoretical model building on the seminal work of Basu and Van (1998) and Basu (2005), where families use child labor to reach subsistence constraints and where child wages decrease in response to bans, leading poor families to utilize more child labor. We also find decreases in child participation in schooling (for younger children only) and no economically meaningful change in household outcomes like assets or calorie intake.
Chapter
Achieving gender equality in education is an important goal for a development agenda. Despite major progress, notably with regard to basic education, equal access to education, for all and at all levels, remains a huge challenge facing sub-Saharan African countries. Based on a systematic review, this chapter examines the current state of knowledge regarding gender inequalities in education in the region since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals. The review shows how achieving parity is challenging for countries because the schooling gap between boys and girls results from broader gender inequalities in the family and the communities at school and in society. The chapter argues the need to consider and implement important transformative actions for gender equality at large to achieve inclusive and equitable quality education for all.
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In the empirical literature on child labour and income transfer programmes, evidence has been lacking on whether (and how) the size of transfer influences the impact on child labour. This paper finds significant size effects in the impact of scholarship-based transfers on child labour in Nepal. High-value scholarships decrease 8–16 year-old girls’ total work hours by one-third, largely reducing their hours in paid and unpaid economic activities with little impact on domestic chores. Low-value scholarships have no impact at all. The findings elucidate the scope for calibrating transfer size to achieve greater child labour impacts in developing countries.
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I find that childhood exposure to the Dust Bowl, an environmental shock to health and income, adversely impacted later-life human capital—especially when exposure was in utero —increasing poverty and disability rates, and decreasing fertility and college completion rates. The event's devastation of agriculture, however, had the beneficial effect of increasing high school completion, likely by pushing children who otherwise might have worked on the farm into secondary schooling. Lastly, New Deal spending helped remediate Dust Bowl damage, suggesting that timely and substantial policy interventions can aid in human recovery from natural disasters.
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This paper estimates the impact of the 2010 Haiti earthquake on the household decision about children’s time allocation. Using original data and objective geological measures, we exploit the fact that the earthquake might affect the decision about children’s time through its magnitude and household’s revealed vulnerability. Separated measures of the earthquake magnitude and its damage allow us to estimate the impact of the household’s vulnerability on the decision about the time allocation of children 10 to 17 years old. We are also able to analyze the differentiated effect on market and domestic work. Our results show that vulnerability at the time of the earthquake severely affects investments in children’s human capital almost 3 years after the shock, which increases the household’s risk of staying in poverty.
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Using a large dataset (2.9 million households), we provide solid evidence of relative deprivation as being a negative predictor of school enrolment in Mexico. This result is robust to a number of specifications, and to the use of linear and less than linear indices of relative deprivation. In addition, we find that marginal effects of relative deprivation are stronger at higher standards of living and for older children.
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Empirical evidence of the role played by relative deprivation as an explanatory variable for social outcomes other than subjective wellbeing is still rather scarce. Using data from the extended-questionnaire section of the 2010 Mexican census (2.9 million households), we provide solid evidence of relative deprivation as being a negative predictor of school enrolment, a finding which is in line with sociological and child development research. Marginal effects of relative deprivation are found to be stronger at higher standards of living and for older children. This is the first paper employing both linear and distribution-sensitive indices of relative deprivation as explanatory variables; an analysis of these indices in the cases of underlying distributions with different levels of skewness is provided.
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Child labour is pervasive across sub-Saharan Africa. The common assumption is that monetary poverty is its most important cause. This paper investigates this hypothesis with empirical evidence by exploring structural, geographic, monetary, demographic, cultural, seasonal and school-supply factors simultaneously that can influence child labour. It is a first attempt in the literature to combine quantitative with qualitative methods to identify a broader range of potential factors—on the demand- and supply-side and at the micro and macro levels—for why children work in agrarian economies like Ghana. Interviews with the Minister of Education and with children enrich the multivariate regression results. The multiple sources of child labour appear to include, in particular, the structure of the economy, social norms and no returns to rural basic education. Policy responses are outlined especially on the demand side that are needed to help reduce harmful child labour that affects children’s education and later opportunities.
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The dissertation aims to explore the supply and demand side determinant of child labour at macro, meso and micro level. At macro level it explores the effect of globalization (defined as openness to trade and inflow of foreign direct investment) and credit market imperfections on child labour. At meso level it explores the effect of labour market conditions on child labour. As the above two levels of analysis are mainly concerned with the demand for child labour, the micro level analysis explores the supply side determinant of child labour. At micro level this dissertation explores the effect of intrahousehold distribution of power on child related outcome. Specifically it explores the effect of mother’s decision making power on her child’s labour and schooling. The macro level analysis is based on cross country regression framework while meso and micro level analysis is based on the data from Pakistan. At macro level, this dissertation points out that trade openness and FDI inflow raise the standard of living in an economy thereby reducing child labour incidence. As the channel through which trade could affect child labour is by increasing income of the poor, credit market imperfection shows insignificant effect. At meso level, this dissertation points out that high adult wages in an area increase demand for child labour while presence of adult unemployed proportion in an area reduces demand for child labour. However, presence of unemployed adult in a house increases supply of child labour. Exports, on one hand, reduce supply of child labour by affecting the income of poor at macro level while on the other hand at meso level, subcontracting of production process to small informal sector increases demand for child labour. The informal sector being unprotected by law employs a high proportion of child labour. At micro level mother’s decision making power significantly decreases child labour supply and increases child schooling. The effect is significant in case of girls but not in case of boys. This study also shows that whether children work for generating income or as family helpers, mothers are equally concerned for their welfare. Their decision making power significantly reduces labour among children.
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A study was conducted to examine child labor in Punjab taking into account factors like household poverty, household literacy level and household demography. The target population in the survey is province Punjab, Pakistan, while the actual survey is conducted only in two of its districts, Lahore and Bahawalpur. The discriminant analysis used in the survey uses some pre-defined explanatory variables to determine the dynamics of a categorical variable. The number of girls is the most useful determinant variable in distinguishing households for child labor status. The chances of child labor in a household having an increased percentage of girls gets increased in the tune to 114%. A percent increase in the number of boys in the household increases the chances for child labor in the household by 102%. Having more kids in the household increases the chance of child labor in the household by many times.
Chapter
The responsibility for child labour is often cast as resting with (exploitative) employers. This creates a demand for legislation that bars employers from employing children. However, a careful look at household survey data suggests that the majority of employers are parents and, when not, parents have volunteered the child for work. This chapter focuses on the majority case of children working to help the family survive. It briefly discusses the role of legislation in curbing child labour, while arguing that it is not a substitute for efforts directed at creating income-generating opportunities amongst the poor and improving their access to education. Even when legislation is effective in lowering the incidence of child labour, it remains relevant to consider where children removed from the labour market go, which is why so much of the emphasis in the contemporary development literature is on education.
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A limited body of literature explores the relationship between changing household structure and childhood investments from the perspective of subgroups of children that are subject to marginalization due to external factors. This relationship is explored in the context of orphan children in Tanzania in the context of their participation in work versus schooling decisions, taking into consideration that this sub-population may be subject to lower investments, potentially through the channel of reduced altruism, if Hamilton’s Rule of biological proximity and altruism is proven true. A panel of 3,457 orphan and non-orphan children obtained from a nationally representative survey collected in 2008 and 2010 in Tanzania is exploited to predict activity selection and participation as a function of the role of orphan status in connection with parental, caretaker and household characteristics, in tests of Hamilton’s Rule, and intra-household bargaining in the child time use decision-making process. Orphan children are found to be marginalized within their households in terms of human capital investments vis-à-vis work responsibilities, potential channels pointing towards labour-substitution effects. Results are found to favour Hamilton’s Rule, but bargaining is not consistently observed. The longitudinal analysis does reveal evidence of the inter-generational transmission of education from parent to child.
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There are about 215 million children in the world who are working as labourers. They are engaged in various activities that range from light housework to hazardous and exploitative work like mining or prostitution. Poverty, socio-cultural practices, natural calamities and social unrest and availability of a large informal economy that facilitates unregulated labour are said to be the main causes of child labour. As a result, most of the time children suffer physically as well as mentally and remain illiterate. This affects their well-being and their future capacities as adult workers. It also negatively impacts the economy because there is a large pool of unskilled labour living below the poverty line. Further, illiteracy, population growth, malnutrition and frequent deaths become causes for child labour and also its effects because child labour perpetuates poverty. Considering the efforts that are being made to address this issue, the current work aims to provide a possibly different set of solutions by taking an actor-based approach where children are considered most important. It is hypothesised that there is a habitus of working among child labourers because of which they do not see their work as a problem. Their habitus equips them with a certain type of dispositions that make them feel that they are meant to work or labour and not study or relax. When same situations and contexts continue over generations, then this habitus becomes a trans-generational reality which cannot be broken unless there are internal or external changes. Since the main idea was to understand how children talked about their lives, the society of their origin became the point of analysis as well. Using a qualitative approach that included participant observation and in-depth interviews with children, the work also explored the discourses maintained by parents, teachers, employers, policy makers, journalists and social workers to deconstruct the child labourers’ thought processes and ideas about working. Purulia and Kolkata, two districts in the Indian state of West Bengal, were chosen for this work. Through narrative and discourse analysis it was discovered that a set of indirect mechanisms, that is, the physical environment, the societal divisions, the attitudes of the major actors in their lives and the age-old perceptions grounded in the grand discourses of the Indian culture provide a child labourer the rationale to work.
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In this paper we investigate whether a conditional cash transfer program such as the Programa Nacional de Educación, Salud y Alimentación (PROGRESA) can simultaneously combat the problems of low school attendance and child work. PROGRESA is a new program of the Mexican government aimed at alleviating extreme poverty in rural areas. It combats the different causes of poverty by providing cash benefits that are targeted directly to households on the condition of children attending school and visiting health clinics on a regular basis. Some of the questions addressed are as follows: Does the program reduce child labor? Does it increase participation in school activities? Does the latter occur at the expense of children's leisure time? And how do the effects of the program vary by age group and gender? Our empirical analysis relies on data from a quasi-experimental design used to evaluate the impact of the program involving a sample of communities that receive PROGRESA benefits (treatment) and comparable communities that receive benefits at a later time (control). We estimate the effect of “treatment on the treated” using both double-difference and cross sectional difference estimators. Our estimates show significant increases in the school attendance of boys and girls that are accompanied by significant reductions in the participation of boys and girls in work activities. We also find that the program has a lower impact on the incidence of work for girls relative to boys.
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Using unique retrospective data from Brazil, we explore the relationship between child labor and future adult earnings and poverty status. We find entry in the workforce before age 13 results in a reduction in adult wages of 13 -20 percent, and an increase in the probability of being in the lowest two income quintiles of 13 -31 percent. Results suggest that policies which delay age of entry into the labor market may have significant impacts on adult incidence of poverty. In addition, while child labor reduces the productivity of schooling, the net effect of an additional year of schooling on adult wages is still positive, even if the child works while in school. Consequently, policies which delay drop out even as the child works would also appear to be effective at mitigating adul t poverty.
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Offering a unifying theoretical perspective not readily available in any other text, this innovative guide to econometrics uses simple geometrical arguments to develop students' intuitive understanding of basic and advanced topics, emphasizing throughout the practical applications of modern theory and nonlinear techniques of estimation. One theme of the text is the use of artificial regressions for estimation, reference, and specification testing of nonlinear models, including diagnostic tests for parameter constancy, serial correlation, heteroscedasticity, and other types of mis-specification. Explaining how estimates can be obtained and tests can be carried out, the authors go beyond a mere algebraic description to one that can be easily translated into the commands of a standard econometric software package. Covering an unprecedented range of problems with a consistent emphasis on those that arise in applied work, this accessible and coherent guide to the most vital topics in econometrics today is indispensable for advanced students of econometrics and students of statistics interested in regression and related topics. It will also suit practising econometricians who want to update their skills. Flexibly designed to accommodate a variety of course levels, it offers both complete coverage of the basic material and separate chapters on areas of specialized interest.
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David Lam is Professor of Economics and Director of the Population Studies Center at the University of Michigan. Kermyt Anderson is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Population Studies Center at the University of Michigan. Support for this research was provided by the U. S. National Institutes of Health (NICHD), Grant Number R01HD039788, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Excellent research assistance was provided by Christine Sarenland.
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This paper analyses child labour participation and its key determinants using data sets from Peru and Pakistan. The results include tests of the `Luxury' and `Substitution' hypotheses that play key roles in recent studies on child labour and child schooling. The results reject both hypotheses in the context of child labour in Pakistan and suggest that income and related variables do not have the expected negative effect on children's work input. Rising wages of adult female labour in Pakistan, and falling adult male wage in Peru lead to increased participation of children in the labour market. The results on the combined country data formally establish the presence of strong individual country effects in the estimated regressions. For example, ceteris paribus, a Peruvian child is more likely to experience schooling than a Pakistani child. However, both countries agree on the positive role that adult female education and infrastructure investment in basic amenities can play in discouraging child labour and encouraging child schooling.
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"This paper develops a model of the transmission of earnings, assets, and consumption from parents to descendants. The model assumes utility-maximizing parents who are concerned about the welfare of their children. The degree of intergenerational mobility is determined by the interaction of this utility-maximizing behavior with investment and consumption opportunities in different generations and with different kinds of luck. We examine a number of empirical studies for different countries. Regression to the mean in earnings in rich countries appears to be rapid. Almost all the earnings advantages or disadvantages of ancestors are wiped out in three generations." A comment by Robert J. Willis is included (pp. 40-7).
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Intergenerational relationships within late nineteenth-century industrial families are analyzed using several large-scale, contemporary household surveys. Nonaltruistic behavior by parents was pervasive. Even among families with positive assets, child labor was common in certain industrial settings, suggesting that child labor (or nonschooling) did not simply reflect parental borrowing constraints. Neither did physical asset transfers offset human capital losses among working youth. A quantitative estimate of parental nonaltruism is derived from an equilibrium labor market model: approximately 90 percent of all child earnings was implicitly competed away through lower adult wages as families migrated to areas with abundant child labor opportunities. Copyright 1989 by Oxford University Press.
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This paper presents an overview of child labour in Africa. It discusses the incidence and nature of child labour, possible causes, and actual and potential policy instruments. It answers some questions and raises others. Africa has the highest incidence of child labour in the world. While child labour has been declining in Asia and Latin America, economic decline, war, famine and HIV/AIDS have combined to prevent this in Africa. Contrary to the popular image of child labour in factories managed by Dickensian employers, the overwhelming majority of working children in Africa are employed on household-run farms and enterprises. Recent theoretical and policy-level discussion has neglected to recognise the implications of this fact. Thus, for example, considerable attention has been dedicated to consideration of the impact on child labour of minimum wages or trade sanctions when, given the nature of work performed by most children in Africa (and, indeed, by the majority in other ... Le présent document donne une vision d’ensemble du travail des enfants en Afrique. On y examine l’incidence et la nature de ce travail, les causes possibles de ce phénomène, ainsi que les instruments en place ou potentiels d’action des pouvoirs publics dans ce domaine. En Afrique, l’incidence du travail des enfants est supérieure à celle que l’on observe dans n’importe quelle autre région du monde. Si le taux d’activité des enfants a diminué en Asie et en Amérique latine, la conjonction du marasme économique, des guerres, des famines et de la pandémie VIH/sida a empêché l’Afrique d’évoluer dans la même direction. Contrairement à l’image que l’on se fait habituellement des enfants travaillant dans des usines dirigées par des patrons tout droit sortis des romans de Charles Dickens, l’écrasante majorité des petits travailleurs africains sont employés dans des exploitations agricoles ou des entreprises familiales. Sur le plan théorique comme sur celui de l’action des pouvoirs ...
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This paper reviews the theoretical arguments for and against linking international labor standards to trade. Based on theory alone it is difficult to generalize about the effect of labor standards on efficiency and equity. Some economists have argued that international labor standards are merely disguised protectionism. An evaluation of determinants of support for legislation that would ban imports to the United States of goods made with child labor provides little support for the prevailing political economy view. In particular, members of Congress representing districts with relatively many unskilled workers, who are most likely to compete with child labor, are less likely to support a ban on imports made with child labor. Another finding is that the prevalence of child labor declines sharply with national income. Last, an analysis of compulsory schooling laws, which are often suggested as an alternative to prohibiting child labor, finds a tremendous amount of noncompliance in developing nations.
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