Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

Journal of Food Science Education 03/2007; 6(2):30 - 37. DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4329.2007.00021.x


  Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior change theories to identify the psychosocial factors associated with personal health choices and 3 psychosocial factors were identified: beliefs, locus of control, and self-efficacy. Development of items for the belief questionnaire began by identifying the belief constructs that could provide insight into how food safety behavior change programs should be framed to evoke improved behaviors and drafting items. The locus of control questionnaire was modeled after the Health Locus of Control Questionnaire. Self-efficacy questionnaire development included defining self-efficacy, identifying environmental contexts affecting self-efficacy, and constructing an item pool. The questionnaires were pretested with young adults (n= 180) and refined. A pilot test (n= 77) was conducted to further refine the beliefs and self-efficacy questionnaires. Finally, young adults (n= 4343, mean age 19.9 ± 1.7 SD y) from 21 universities and colleges across the country completed the questionnaires. Analysis of their responses revealed that these questionnaires met or exceeded standards indicative of high-quality psychosocial food safety measures. These questionnaires should be useful in generating baseline data from adults as well as establishing the value of these measures in assessing the effectiveness of food safety interventions.

Download full-text


Available from: Carol Byrd-Bredbenner
  • Source
    • "Previous studies have indicated that locus of control and self-efficacy have an important impact on whether individuals take on recommended safe behaviors. Previous studies have indicated that locus of control and self efficacy have an important impact on whether individuals take on recommended safe behaviors or abstain from behaviors not recommended.[4] "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Effective safety education can prevent many occupational accidents. To -educate the public about safety effectively, determinants of safe behavior must be addressed. Personality constructs are among the most important determinants of safe behavior. One of the personality constructs that has been studied recently in relation to accidents is locus of control. The main aim of this study was designing, validating, and determining the reliability of safety locus of control scale. This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The "forward-backward" procedure was applied to translate safety locus of control scale (Jones and Becker 1985) from English to Persian. To determine the scientific validity of the scale, face validity and content validity by expert judgments were used. Internal consistency was determined using Cronbach's α-coefficient. Questionnaires were distributed to a group of 400 workers from different parts of Isfahan Steel Company. Finally, 317 workers completed the questionnaires. Exploratory factor analysis was performed with software SPSS13, and confirmatory factor analysis was performed with software LISREL8.8. The exploratory factor analysis results revealed that the three components of the items can be extracted from the scale including internal control (4 questions), environmental and equipment control (4 questions), and chance and fate (4 questions). Confirmatory factor analysis using maximum likelihood estimation results indicated that the data had good fit with three-component scale and fit indices were acceptable: χ(2)/df=3.96, df=41, χ(2) =120.59, RMSIA=0.080, 95% Confidence Interval=0.64-0.097, CFI=0.96, GFI=0.94, AGFI=0.89. The internal control components and equipment and environmental control were negatively correlated with each other (P≤0.05, r=-0.41). Also, a weak correlation between chance and fate and environmental and equipment control was seen (P≤0.05, r=0.31). In most studies, designing a scale and determining its validity and reliability is costly and time consuming. The available reliable and valid scale leads to reduced costs and accelerated research. In other words, duplication will be avoided. The scale obtained in this study can be used in safety and industrial psychology research.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: form only given. The new conjugated polymer poly(tetraphenylquinodimethans) (PTPhQ) with degenerate ground state has been obtained in linear (presumably 10) and not-work (presumably 2D) modification by the method of oxidative condensation of diphenylmethane or its chlorine derivatives in the presence of Lewis acids. The PTPhQ has all properties characteristic for conjugated polymers. The neutral form of 1D PTPhQ is soluble and films can be obtained from solutions. Transformation of PTPhQ from neutral to doped form is accompanied by changes in optical spectra and increasing of its conductivity. The doping of PTPhQ by Lewis acids is accompanied by appearance and growth of ESR signal. For example when the 1D PTPhQ is doped by SbCl/sub 5/ the ESR signal with g - value about 2, /spl Delta/ H = 7,2/sup 5/ - 7,9 Gauss and spin concentration more than 10/sup +22/ spins/mo] is observed. The very wide line ( > 5000 Gauss) without fine structure in spectra ESR is also observed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1994
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With limited opportunities to learn safe food handling via observation, many young adults lack the knowledge needed to keep them safe from foodborne disease. It is important to reach young adults with food safety education because of their current and future roles as caregivers. With a nationwide online survey, the demographic characteristics, self-reported food handling and consumption behaviors, food safety beliefs, locus of control, self-efficacy, stage of change, and knowledge of young adults with education beyond high school (n = 4,343) were assessed. Young adults (mean age, 19.92 +/- 1.67 SD) who participated were mainly female, white, never married, and freshmen or sophomores. Participants correctly answered 60% of the knowledge questions and were most knowledgeable about groups at greatest risk for foodborne disease and least knowledgeable about common food sources of foodborne disease pathogens. They reported less than optimal levels of safe food handling practices. Young adults generally had a limited intake of foods that increase the risk of foodborne disease, positive food safety beliefs, an internal food safety locus of control, and confidence in their ability to handle food safely, and they were contemplating an improvement in, or preparing to improve, their food handling practices. Females significantly outperformed males on nearly all study measures. Future food safety educational efforts should focus on increasing knowledge and propelling young adults into the action stage of safe food handling, especially males. Efforts to improve knowledge and, ultimately, food safety behaviors are essential to safeguard the health of these young adults and enable them to fulfill the role of protecting the health of their future families.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · Journal of food protection
Show more