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Green Marketing, Public Policy and Managerial Strategies

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Abstract

Green marketing subsumes greening products as well as greening firms. In addition to manipulating the 4Ps (product, price, place and promotion) of the traditional marketing mix, it requires a careful understanding of public policy processes. This paper focuses primarily on promoting products by employing claims about their environmental attributes or about firms that manufacture and/or sell them. Secondarily, it focuses on product and pricing issues. Drawing on multiple literatures, it examines issues such as what needs to be greened (products, systems or processes), why consumers purchase/do not purchase green products and how firms should think about information disclosure strategies on environmental claims. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

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... The more the consumers are socially responsible, the more they care for the environment (Cleveland et al., 2012;Rahimah et al., 2018). However, many consumers are interested in having a non-polluted environment without bearing any excess costs (Prakash, 2002). Green consumers are those who want to satisfy their personal needs and at the same time care for the environment (Akehurst et al., 2012). ...
... Green marketing is facing various obstacles such as the high prices and the unattractive packages of green products (Gur au & Ranchhod, 2005). Lack of trust in companies' green practices is another obstacle that green marketing is facing (Prakash, 2002). Some companies may have eco-labeled products; however, they do not have a real environmental culture (Chamorro & Bañegil, 2006). ...
... Price is an essential element that affects consumer's purchase decision (Codini et al., 2012). The price of green products can be a challenging element that companies face (Prakash, 2002). Companies, that have been examined by Garg (2015) in India, are hesitant to implement green procedures because they think that consumers are not ready to pay high prices for green products. ...
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Green marketing, from the researchers' point of view, can be defined as the equation of achieving profits, satisfying customers, and at the same time keeping the environment safe. There is a great concern about sustainability all over the world, which pushes the researchers to study green marketing in emerging economies. This research study examines how green marketing can affect consumer's purchase decision. Four hundred printed copies of the questionnaire have been collected complete and valid for analysis. Factor analysis, reliability test, and multiple regression analysis have been done using SPSS software. It has been found that consumers can be encouraged to buy green products if they feel that these products will have a positive impact on their health. Business companies need to organize marketing campaigns which highlight the healthy gains obtained from acquiring green products to increase their sales. Eco-labeling and point of purchase of green products are also elements that can affect consumer's purchase decision. This research study can help companies to achieve profits and at the same time keep the environment safe. This research study has the potential for presenting interesting insights into the challenge of influencing consumers in non-Western markets. This research study displays the literature of green marketing in some emerging economies and tests it in a new context (Egypt). It can be concluded that each emerging economy has a unique nature when applying green marketing. KEYWORDS: consumer's purchase decision, eco-labeling, Egypt, emerging economies, green advertising, green marketing, point of purchase, price.
... The concept of green marketing is evolved from the traditional marketing concept since 1980s (Peattie, K. and Crane, A, 2005). According (Prakash, 2002) to relationship between marketing discipline and natural environment is important as organizations perceive it as an opportunity that can be used to achieve their objectives. This relationship has been described by many terms: that is, environmental marketing (Coddington, 1993) ecological marketing (Henion and Kinnear, 1976), green marketing (Mishra and Sharma, 2010) (Ottman, 1992) Environmental Marketing management (Peattie, 1995)sustainable marketing (Fuller, 1999) and greener marketing (Charter and Polonsky, 1999). ...
... The concept later expanded to include not only environmental-friendly activities but also activities which are healthy, conducive, encouraging, advantageous and favorable for the overall benefit of the stakeholders. Further, (Prakash, 2002) explained green marketing as a composite of broad range of activities which include recycling, construction and renovation of building with the marketing mix elements in the manufacturing sector. Later, (Cronin et al., 2011) (Ottoman, 2011) underscored the fact that an organization, to achieve its goals, must pursue green strategies which pave ways for addressing the needs of the various stakeholder groups. ...
... Green marketing involves focusing on promoting the consumption of green products. (Prakash, 2002). ...
... The concept of green marketing is evolved from the traditional marketing concept since 1980s (Peattie & Crane, 2005). According (Prakash, 2002) to relationship between marketing discipline and natural environment is important as organizations perceive it as an opportunity that can be used to achieve their objectives. This relationship has been described by many terms: that is, environmental marketing (Coddington, 1993) ecological marketing (Henion & kinnear, 1976), green marketing (Mishra & Sharma, 2010) (Ottman, J.A., 1992) Environmental Marketing management (Peattie, 1995)sustainable marketing (Fuller, 1999) and greener marketing (Charter, M. and Polonsky, M.J, 1999). ...
... The concept later expanded to include not only environmentalfriendly activities but also activities which are healthy, conducive, encouraging, advantageous and favorable for the overall benefit of the stakeholders. Further, (Prakash, 2002) explained green marketing as a composite of broad range of activities which include recycling, construction and renovation of building with the marketing mix elements in the manufacturing sector. Later, (Cronin et al, 2011). ...
... On the other hand, as people's environmental problems are increasing daily, their ecological awareness needs to be improved (Johri and Sahasakmontri, 1998). This is because customers need the information to make an informed purchase, and a lack of knowledge can prevent them from using the green criteria and features when deciding to buy them (Prakash, 2002). This information is a crucial aspect of green marketing. ...
... This information is a crucial aspect of green marketing. Companies should not express the product's environmental benefits as long as the validity of such claims is proven because it may result in a negative outcome (Prakash, 2002). ...
... Customers become more responsible for the environment when they purchase goods that are environmental friendly (Ayodele, et al, 2017). This demands that consumers must be careful in choosing and assessing products to be purchased, (Prakash, 2002). Moser (2015) maintains that consumers who care about environmental sustainability will change their consumption habits such as making savings or replacing consumer goods with goods that are more environmentally friendly to avoid environmental damage such as global warming, increased environmental pollution, and decline in flora and fauna (Chen & Chai, 2010). ...
Article
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Environmental protection remains fundamental to humans' existence thus mans' activities must be curtailed and directed toward green protection. In recent times, environmental protection has raised serious concern in the global space and human environmental unhealthy activities seriously cautioned. However, the level of green awareness is still minimal in some countries hence affects purchase decision of green products which become a concern. This study investigates the relationship between green awareness and consumer purchasing decision of solar power inverter in Rivers state, Nigeria. The study adopted quantitative research design using a survey method. A total of 362 subjects representing customers of solar power inverters in Rivers state were surveyed through questionnaire administration. Four research questions were posed and eight hypotheses were tested. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation while inferential statistics of Multiple Regression was used to test the stated hypotheses on SPSS version 25. Results from the Multiple Regression analysis reveal a very strong significant linear relationship between green advertisement, green promotion, green public relation, green online media and consumer purchase decision in the measures of repeat purchase and habitual decision making. The study concludes that green awareness positively influences consumer purchase decision of solar power inverter in Rivers State, Nigeria.The study therefore recommends that: The solar power inverter companies in Rivers State should project the environmental benefits of solar power when advertising their products to provoke purchase. That the solar power inverter companies in Rivers State should provide special offers and free installations of solar power to their customers to encourage purchase. More so that the solar power inverter companies in Rivers State hire Green Public Relation officers who will educate the public on green consumption and environmental friendly practices. And finally, that the solar power inverter companies in Rivers State should embark on massive online green campaigns using all available social media platforms to educate the public on the use and benefits of solar power.
... Marketing function, through eco-marketing intentions, allows TPLs to promote market surveillance to identify and foster those green practices that offer opportunities and respond to the expectations and needs of their supply chain partners. In doing so, TPLs can argue for ecopractices in marketing to attract and involve eco-friendly stakeholders which in turn should allow enhanced economic performance (e.g., Rivera-Camino, 2007;Prakash, 2002). For instance, marketing function can base on eco-marketing intentions to meet the needs and expectations of green consumers and gain access to new markets, thereby improving economic outcomes (Journeault et al., 2016;Ambec and Lanoie, 2008). ...
Article
This study investigates the role of eco-control systems in translating the proactive environmental strategies (PES) of third party logistics providers (TPLs) into economic and environmental performances using variance-based structural equation modelling, popularly known as PLS-SEM. Analysis of survey data from 232 French TPLs indicate that improved performance depends on the type of TPL organizational core that is mobilized by the PES. Indeed, while the PES of the operations function can improve both environmental and economic performances, the PES of the marketing function contributes only to improved economic performance. The results also reveal that eco-control systems play a prominent role in fostering TPL environmental performance while economic performance remains unchanged. In this regard, eco-control systems can help TPL managers deploy their strategic environmental intentions and achieve improved environmental performance by motivating and directing employees along environmental purposes, providing key information related to environmental activities, and prompting opportunity-seeking behaviors. Overall, the study answers recent calls for research on the green initiatives of TPLs and provides novel insights that can spur on further research.
... In other words, it is the process of integrating environmental issues into the strategic management process of organisations, involving planning, organising, producing, and satisfying customers' needs in an environmentally sustainable way (Peattie & Charter, 2003). Green marketing requires a proper understanding of public policy processes and managerial strategies, in addition to utilising the traditional marketing mix of product, place, price, and promotion, also known as the 4Ps (Prakash, 2002). Green marketing was born out of the concern by business stakeholders on the need to preserve the environment such that the objectives of satisfying customers' wants profitably are not achieved to the detriment of the long-run best interest of the society and environment (Bell & Emory, 1971). ...
Chapter
Despite the numerous benefits of green marketing to firms, consumers, and society, the implementation of green marketing in emerging markets characterised by high food consumption, greenhouse gas emission, huge markets, market volatility, and environmental pollution increases the desire for more. This is further compounded by a shocking absence of critical engagement on the role of green leadership in the implementation of green marketing in the context of emerging markets. In this chapter, we examined the concept of green marketing, green behaviour, and how to develop green leadership practice leaning on institutional theory and stakeholders’ theory. We highlight some challenges of green marketing implementation in emerging markets bordering on organisational leadership and the failure of corporate governance. Our recommendations suggest the need for green transformational leadership and striking a balance between the twin objectives of profitability and sustainability as well as the need for concerted efforts by stakeholders in the implementation of green marketing in emerging markets.
... Grееn markеting practicеs (GMP) highlight grееn propеrtiеs during salеs and promotion of products/sеrvicеs and еmphasizеs rеducing еnvironmеntal damagе. Thеrеforе, grееn markеting should bеcomе a stratеgic activity, including markеt fragmеntation manipulation, customеr targеting, grееn positioning for logistics, and grееn alliancеs dеvеlopmеnt (Prakash, 2002). Ginsbеrg ...
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ABSTRACT The current competitive condition that reflects the business environment joined with growing pressures on environmental sustainability, requires companies to use strategies to decrease their products and services‘ ecological influences and determine their ecological profile, requiring companies to reconsider their purpose. This study‘s primary purpose is to build and test a model that examines Cihan group managers‘ perceptions regarding the role of effective leadership in improving organizational performance and business competitiveness: Green supply chain management practices act as a mediating mechanism. The study attempted to answer its main research question: to what extent does effective leadership impact organizational performance and business competitiveness, and to what extent does green supply chain management practices mediate the mentioned relationship.
... Eco-brand has not enough strength for customers to engage in green activities without their concern about the environment (Gupta and Ogden, 2009). Otherwise, individuals tend to use green products or services for reducing the amount of energy and generating less disposable waste and pollution, due to their environmental-friendly conception (Prakash, 2002). Hence, the relationship between eco-brand and environment concern appears to a specific dimension of green consumption concern (Sörqvist, 2015). ...
Article
This study examined the impact of eco-brand, eco-label and social media on driving green consumption intention in ecotourism destinations. The mediating influence of motivation and the moderating impact of environment concern on all proposed relationships were also investigated. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire survey at different eco-locations. The research uses the data from 341 valid observations collected in the survey of 550 visitors. The findings indicated the significant association of eco-brand and eco-label with green consumption intention. Eco-brand was revealed as the most important factor impacting green consumption intention. However, the relationship between social media and green consumption intention was mediated by motivation and moderated by environment concern. This study contributes to theoretical and practical implications by proposing the green behavioral model.
... Mandatory information disclosures seek to ensure that sufficient, comprehensible and standardized information is available to all stakeholders, which affords them the opportunity to compare the levels and the quality of greenness across products/organisations. Hence lack of or inadequate information could prevent or discourage consumers from incorporating green considerations in their purchase decisions (Prakash, 2002). Sarkis and Zhu (2015) in an analysis of Green Marketing and Consumerism in China adopted a four-stage maturity model for green consumerism and beliefs, developed in 1999 by Kokkinen. ...
Thesis
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The thesis title is; Multinationals’ Dominance and Operational Performance of Indigenous Firms in the Upstream Sector of the Nigerian Petroleum Industry. This study was motivated by the undercurrents in the petroleum industry and the ongoing divergence in the global energy demand patterns with the attendant ripple effects on the Nigerian economy. The study investigated the prevalent market dominance of the Nigerian upstream sector by multinational oil corporations and the effects of such dominance on the operational competence of indigenous petroleum marketing firms in Nigeria – from the sustainability angle i.e. what happens in the Nigerian Post-Oil economy when the oil multinationals have fully divested from the upstream sector. Observably, the Nigerian economy is heavily reliant on the upstream sector of the petroleum industry, with multinational oil corporations exerting great influence on the sector, which has resulted in unsustainable dependence on foreign firms for crude oil production, at the expense of indigenous petroleum firms. Specifically, the study analysed the effect of technology dominance, human resource dominance, institutional dominance and partnership dominance on asset management and human resource management competencies of indigenous petroleum marketing companies in Nigeria.
... However, these initiatives have economic rewards in a long period [35]. With the motive of profitable ambitions towards the market segment, the study about customers' behavior, and social challenges, and responsibility towards green initiatives has been considered [36]. Employees contribute by giving suggestions for the greenenvironment to its establishment for its successful growth [37]. ...
... In particular, research indicates that sustainability attributes tend to be context specific (Devinney et al., 2006;Schuitema and de Groot, 2015;Prakash, 2002), and it highlights the moderating role of product type on consumers' reactions (Chen and Chang, 2013;Olsen et al., 2014). In the reward-based crowdfunding context, compared with lending and equity models, the consumer plays a central role as a financier of green innovation, and the investment decision is thereby similar to conventional purchasing decisions (Wang and Yang, 2019). ...
Article
Purpose Recognising the growing importance of environmental and sustainable activities and the role of communication strategies in soliciting their financing, this work investigates the influence of message framing, green emphasis and quantitative information on the probability of green crowdfunding campaigns' success. Design/methodology/approach This analysis is based on crowdfunding campaigns published between 2015 and 2020 on the Indiegogo platform in the category “Community projects – Environment”. The study develops an in-depth qualitative content analysis of the projects before performing an empirical examination to determine funding causes. Findings Communication strategies (message framing, green emphasis and quantitative goals) affect funding success. However, project category moderates the impact of message framing and green emphasis on campaign success. While positive framing increases agri-food campaign success, negative framing is more effective for clean energy and climate preservation projects. Moreover, indication of a quantitative goal and a marked green emphasis in a project's presentation increase campaign success, but a too marked green emphasis is only effective for agri-food projects. Practical implications Green entrepreneurs and campaign managers must work carefully on their projects' communication, accounting for the type of product proposed, emphasising green components in its description and utilising quantitative information to present future goals. These strategies maximise backers' responses and enable entrepreneurs to obtain funding. The authors’ findings may be extended to other contexts, including the banking sector, to craft effective communication strategies for green financial products. Originality/value By applying framing theory in a new context (i.e. the online financing of green entrepreneurs), this study identifies new campaign success determinants and provides evidence for the moderating role of project category. Furthermore, the study highlights the need to develop different communication strategies for social and environmental-oriented projects.
... GIC can assure congruency between the strategic choices, the operational side and the culture and values of an organization, and its intangible assets and capability to generate innovation [4,6,28,34,35]. Since GIC deals primarily with non-economic goals, it promotes the company's long-term sustainable thinking [36]. This factor deserves to be underlined since it is difficult for the green management of a company to increase profits in the short term, which discourages the management and stakeholders from taking further steps in the direction of sustainability [14]. ...
Article
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This paper presents a systematic, evidence-based review of Green Intellectual Capital (GIC) management, a construct first introduced in 2008 and increasingly recognized as a management concept in recent years. This review covers the literature on GIC from 2008 to 2020 and addresses the role played by intellectual capital as a framework to promote sustainability in organizations. With the aim of clarifying our knowledge on the application of the GIC paradigm, this paper reviews the findings on the outcomes achieved by organizations that adopt the GIC paradigm, the antecedents and possible mediation-moderation factors that enhance this process, and the contexts in which such outcomes emerge. Findings show that GIC offers a significant framework for promoting sustainability in organizations. However, even though this study underlines the increasing trend of GIC, there remains very little reliable data on the subject, particularly addressing the role played by GIC as a framework to promote sustainability in organizations. This literature review is valuable for both researchers and practitioners. From a theoretical point of view, it allows one to synthesize the outcomes of GIC to better delineate how it affects organizations and the environment. From a practical point of view, opening a debate about the actual outcomes of GIC allows one to overcome the theory–practice divide, making the value of GIC more accessible to practitioners and managers and pushing them to opt for a green shift in their organizations.
... Green marketing is, therefore, including criteria such as socio-environmental responsibility and sustainable development related to marketing (Motta & Oliveira, 2007;Lopes & Pacagnan, 2014). In other words, green marketing can be seen as a strategy set which aims at promoting products that use the environmental responsibility, whether related to its features or its systems and business policy (Prakash, 2002). Thus, one can state that the green marketing main purpose is managing exchange relations among individuals, so that they meet not only consumers´, but also environment´s requirements (Motta & Oliveira, 2007). ...
... According to Jacquelyn Ottman, from an organizational point of view, environmental considerations should be integrated into all marketing aspects (Osman et al. 2016). Prakash (2002) states the term "green marketing" refers to "the strat-egies to promote products by employing environmental claims either about their at-tributes or about the systems, policies, and processes of the firms that manufacture or sell them." Prakash (2002) defines environmental marketing as "gaining profit from identifying and providing for the wants and needs of consumers while recognizing and minimizing impacts to the environment." ...
... Another stream of research states that green energy products offer benefits similar to the advantages offered by conventional energy products. They also offer additional functional benefits, such as reductions in electricity bills and reduction in the production of harmful products (Zeithaml 1988;Prakash 2002;Ibanez et al. 2006;Bozorg et al. 2017;Baležentis and Štreimikien 2019). ...
... In a review of the literature since the 1990s, we found the many businesses [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] and researchers that benefited from green marketing continue to rely on these benefits nearly 30 years later [13][14][15][16]. We define green marketing as the set of activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchange aimed at satisfying human needs or desires, in such a way that these needs and desires are met, with a minimum harmful impact on the natural environment. ...
Article
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The work aims to achieve a better understanding of firms’ green strategy, and specifically, in the false green strategy called greenwashing, and the relationships between greenwashing (GW) and behaviour intention (BI), and how this relationship is affected by word of mouth (WOM) and corporative social responsability (CRS). A survey was conducted and 198 valid and complete online questionnaires were collected from users of urban mobility apps (Blablacar and Amovens) in Spain. The structural equation modeling technique partial least squares (PLS-SEM) was used to test the proposed research model and hypothesized relationships. The results of our study indicate that the direct relationship between GW and BI is not supported, although the indirect relationship through WOM and CRS is significant, so that both become mediating variables of the GW and BI relationship. The paper also analyzes the direct relationships between GW, CRS, WOM and BI, so that the direct effects GW and CRS; CRS and WOM; and WOM and BI are significant. This empirical study analyzes the effect of GW, which has not been studied much, especially in empirical research. The study analyzes several variable consequences of GW and analyzes mediating effects of CRS and WOM on the GW and BI relationship. The study also includes two behavioral indicators, WOM and BI, in a research model, and, additionally, the study demonstrates the relationship between GW and perceived CRS.
... The Transtheoretical model provides a framework for understanding the level of physical activity and behavioral change and provides tangible strategies for how to intervene with speci c individuals (29). In this model, it is assumed that individuals can be prepared in different stages of preparation (30). From the point of view of social marketers, this model has three important features: rst, separating the target groups based on the stages of behavior change by asking a few relatively simple questions, and second, using an appropriate intervention strategy for the target groups according to the stage of behavior change. ...
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Background: A sedentary lifestyle is recognized as a risk factor for chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the factors related to regular physical activity in adolescents. Also design effective social marketing interventions on these factors in primary schools in Kermanshah (western Iran). Method: This study will be a parallel randomised controlled trial (RCT) conducted at a secondary school in Kermanshah. This protocol conforms to the Consolidated Standard of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement and is registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT:IRCT20200621047858N1). This research will be conducted in three phases that correspond to the first to seventh stages of the social marketing operational model, i.e. the SMART model. Given that this study is a three-stage study, an interventional study will be conducted to investigate the effect of educational intervention on regular physical activity behavior among female junior high school students. In this study, we will have an intervention group and a control group. In each area (north and south of the city), using the division by the school education department, is divided into three categories (rich, middle-income and low-income) and a simple random method is selected from each category of one school (3 intervention schools and 3 control schools. The sample size required for the intervention and control group is calculated as 108 people. Individuals are evaluated for regular physical activity according to the stages of behavior change before and after the intervention. Trial registration: IRAN Clinical Trials Register IRCT20200621047858N1 (date of registration: 2020/7/25 randomized controlled trial registered). Ethics approval: IR.UMSHA.REC.1398.952
... Environmental issues are historically regarded as a constraint and cost factor by major firms rather than a marketing function (Porter & Van der Linde, 1995). While being green is not just a past trend but a crucial issue, green marketing-orientated firms have to reconfigure their goals and operations to pursue environmental friendliness (Banerjee et al., 2003;Garg, 2015;Leonidou et al., 2013;Prakash, 2002). They need newer and broader criteria for product development, more investments in reuse and recycling, and greater efforts to convince diverse stakeholders (e.g., channels, suppliers, consumers, and employees) to change in step with them (Baker & Sinkula, 2005b;Kotler, 2011;Zhu & Sarkis, 2016). ...
Article
The march toward marrying good business practice with sustainability in the global marketing contexts is articulated with the hope of decoupling consumption and affluence from environmental deterioration. However, the key question, whether and how chief executive officers' (CEO) psychological characteristics exert its influence on corporate marketing activities with relation to environmental conservation, is still unsolved. The current study aimed at examining how the personality traits of CEOs affect corporate green marketing program (GMP), with primary regard to CEO narcis-sism. On the basis of a moderated mediation analysis on a batch of survey data from a sample of manufacturing firms in China, the findings showed that narcissistic CEOs are often associated with the higher level of the corporate green marketing program. Besides, corporate environmental strategy (ES) plays a role of mediator in the relationship between CEO narcissism and the implementation of green marketing. Furthermore , regulatory pressure not only significantly drives corporate environmental strategy and green marketing program but also moderates the relationships among CEO narcissism, corporate environmental strategy, and green marketing program. This study shines light on the establishment of management mode, which could illuminate both business practitioners and policymakers on the governance of sustainability.
... There is a paucity of research relating to the impact of green marketing on consumers from developing economies like India (Bhattacharya 2011, Prakash 2002. Some researches in the last decade (Lee 2009, Rahbar & Wahid 2011, Lee 2008, D Souza 2004 have shown that consumer are aware and are willing to pay more to shift to green products. ...
... In an emerging country like India, the people's consciousness toward environment and green consumerism have increased significantly over time (Prakash, 2002;Sharma & Sharma, 2013). However, predicting their reactions to green offerings still remains a difficult taks for marketers, particularly in the context of emerging markets (Patel et al., 2017). ...
Article
In the 21st century, environmental problems are wreaking havoc, and sustainability is now of primary importance. Several external factors like population growth, industrialization, development, and overexploitation of natural resources play a crucial role in environmental degradation. Thus, the present study endeavors to explore the impact of price sensitivity, governments green interventions and green product availability on green buying intention through the lenses of the theory of planned behavior and the theory of consumption values. It also intends to examine the moderating effect of demographic factors on green buying intention. A cross‐sectional study was carried out. Responses were gathered through a self‐administered questionnaire‐based survey. The final data set of 708 respondents were subjected to structural equation modeling for hypothesis testing. Price sensitivity, government green interventions, and green product availability show negative and significant interaction effects. Perceived behavioral control shows a relatively more substantial impact on green buying intention. Indian consumers from the age group of 41–50 years relatively have higher intention toward green buying. Overall, gender does not reveal any different approaches to environmentally friendly products. Green marketers must focus on communicating the availability of green products to reduce perceived difficulty.
... The significant effect of green price on purchase intention is consistent with the study of Jiménez et al. (2012) who addressed this issue and concluded that automobile companies have to consider the capacity of price increase when green cars are produced in order to increase demand and purchase intention of customers. Also, the significant effect of green product on customer purchase intention is consistent with the study of Prakash (2002) who considered six characteristics of green products and their effect on customer purchase intention. While previous studies demonstrated customer satisfaction can lead to consumer's purchase intentions (Chen, 2009), in this study, customer trust was found as an important factor influencing purchase intention. ...
... D" Souza et al. (2015) in their study of Australian manufacturing sector explored that businesses incorporating green marketing strategies positively influence green practices of their operations. Prakash (2002) in his conceptual paper identified that effective green marketing practices require upgrading the 4Ps (price, product, promotion, and place) of conventional marketing mix to include the green concept, along with diligent comprehension of public policy process. He focused on greening of the product, affordable pricing, and credible green claims. ...
Article
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Green marketing initiatives focus on the values and efforts that various companies incorporate into their marketing portfolio. This study analyses the green marketing process and practices prevalent in the food industry of India. Green marketing, along with greening the product and the firm by converting the 4Ps (price, product, promotion and place) of marketing into 4Ps of green marketing, involves a careful understanding of consumer preferences and purchase decision process. An in-depth review of the recent literature indicates that most of the aspects of green marketing align synergistically with the framework in the developed nations and, though it may appear to lag behind momentarily, it is catching-up quickly among Asian countries, including India. With the conscious-consumer at the helm, green marketing is increasingly viewed as a relevant marketing strategy in India towards sustainable development of the food industry. A questionnaire-based survey method was used for the data collection from food companies in India. The data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis was also performed. It was found after analysis that the green marketing practices were positively associated with the product quality. It was also found that the green marketing practices have a positive significant impact on the environmental preservation. Hence, it can be suggested that green marketing practices lead to environmental preservation. In the long-term, both the consumers and the food processing industry stand to benefit greatly from such green marketing initiatives and awareness but the policies and strategies need to be formulated and implemented accordingly.
... Terdapat banyak istilah mengenai green marketing, antara lain environmental marketing, ecological marketing, sustainable marketing, greener marketing dan societal marketing "Prakash, 2002". Seiring dengan semakin meningkatnya pencemaran limbah plastik di lingkungan, maka dilakukan upaya untuk mengkonversi bahan pengemas ke bahan yang lebih mudah diuraikan lingkungan. ...
Chapter
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... Terdapat banyak istilah mengenai green marketing, antara lain environmental marketing, ecological marketing, sustainable marketing, greener marketing dan societal marketing "Prakash, 2002". Seiring dengan semakin meningkatnya pencemaran limbah plastik di lingkungan, maka dilakukan upaya untuk mengkonversi bahan pengemas ke bahan yang lebih mudah diuraikan lingkungan. ...
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Indonesia adalah salah satu negara dengan populasi penduduk padat di dunia. Di tahun 2020-2021 Indonesia menduduki urutan ke 4 (empat) dengan kepadatan penduduk sekitar 270 juta jiwa setelah China, India dan Amerika Serikat. Populasi penduduk Indonesia ini memberikan sumbangsi pada pembentukan lingkungan pasar, terutama perusahaan-perusahaan yang terus memanfaatkan jumlah konsumen yang banyak untuk tetap melakukan pemenuhan kebutuhan masyarakat. Tingkat produktifitas penduduk Indonesia menjadi salah satu yang mempengaruhi terbentuknya lingkungan pasar, semakin tinggi produktifitas maka semakin banyak dan cepat lingkungan pasar terbentuk. (Goma, Sandy and Zakaria, 2021) menyatakan bahwa jumlah penduduk Indonesia yang berada pada kelompok usia produktif sebesar 184 juta jiwa penduduk atau 57% dari 270 juta penduduk Indonesia. Dari peryataan tersebut maka lingkungan pasar Indonesia akan mudah terbentuk.
... As mentioned, green marketing is not just about producing and promoting green products, but about all the company's activities to become green. Organizations can be green in three different ways: (Prakash, 2002) One of the most important green marketing tools is environmental advertising. As global green movement's improved and public attention to environmental issues increased, most organizations chose environmental advertising through the media or newspapers as a green technique to introduce their products to environmentally responsible consumers. ...
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The purpose of this study is to measure and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental advertising related to green marketing by organization. In other words, the researcher seeks to find the success rate of environmental advertising in reducing environmental pollution. The type of goal is an application that has been done by descriptive-survey method. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect data. The statistical populations of the study were consumers of environmentally-friendly goods in Tehran. Confirmatory factor analysis method and SPSS, Version21 and AMOS (2016) software were used for data analysis. The results showed that the models for measuring the research variables are appropriate models. Because the value of χ 2 and the value of RMSEA are low and also the values of AGFI, GFI and NFI are greater than 0.9 and the significance level of factor loads is less than 5%, which indicates the significance of the relationship defined in the measurement models. Also, the effect of communication stimuli on the cognitive and emotional response of consumers and then the effect of content stimuli on the cognitive and emotional response of users in this study has the highest influence. However, neither content nor communication stimuli have influenced consumer attitudes.
... Tüketicilerin farklı ve özel isteklilerinin olması ve üreticilerle pazarlamacıların daha spesifik ürün ve hizmetlere yönelmesi niş pazarlamanın uzun yıllar boyunca pazarlama dünyasında var olacağını göstermektedir. (Prakash, 2002). Ağızdan ağıza pazarlama için, tüketiciler arasındaki bir ürün, hizmet veya şirket hakkındaki iletişimdir (Litvin, Goldsmith & Pan, 2008). ...
... Research in the last decade (Lee, 2009, Rahbar and Wahid, 2011, Lee 2008D Souza 2004) has indicated that consumer are aware and are willing to pay more to "go green". There is limited research which has examined the impact of green marketing on consumers from emerging economies like India (Bhattacharya, 2011;Prakash, 2002). Most of the studies related to green consumerism have been conducted in well developed countries. ...
Conference Paper
Increasing awareness on the various environmental problems has led a shift in the way consumers go about their life. There has been a change in consumer attitudes towards a green lifestyle. People are actively trying to reduce their impact on the environment. However, this is not widespread and is still evolving. Organizations and business however have seen this change in consumer attitudes and are trying to gain an edge in the competitive market by exploiting the potential in the green market industry. The current study introduces the concept of green marketing and looks into the various ways in which the different consumer attributes are related to the concept of green marketing. A conceptual framework is presented and the information is analyzed on the basis of the framework.
... Aseem Prakash [5] research examines green marketing strategies where he recalls that societal marketing aimed at social and environmental benefits needs fine structuring and execution of programs that will increase the acceptability of a moral system with social motive among the target group as per Kotler [6]. He stresses that social marketing is the process of determining the needs of the target market and serve such that it achieves consumer satisfaction as well as societal well-being. ...
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The growth and development of the human race are based on the contribution of energy from different sources. Solar energy is an easily available renewable energy source. This study on solar water heater users was carried out in Coimbatore City which has an active local solar water heating industry. This article is an attempt to analyze the consumers' attitude, awareness, and satisfaction levels with regard to the usage of Solar Water Heater (SWH) devices. It emphasizes how a smart marketing strategy is needed to address the barriers in introducing solar energy devices to the public. I. INTRODUCTION Energy is a natural resource and one of the basic prerequisites of life. Growth and development of human race is based on the contribution of energy from different sources. Without energy, our entire civilization and its technical developments such as transport and communication, food production and commercial activities would cease. The two types of energy resources that are widely used by people are non-renewable or conventional energy and renewable or non-conventional energy. Conventional energy resources are the natural resources that are contained in the earth in fixed quantities like coal, oil, wood, fossil fuel, etc.; whereas non-conventional energies are energies from the sun, wind, ocean, etc., which are available naturally and incessantly. Right from ancient days, conventional energy such as the energy from wood, oil, and coal was widely used by people in domestic, industrial, and commercial sectors.
... Consciousness of green products has changed the duty of customers to show responsibility to safeguard the ecosphere prior to acquisitions (Cherian & Jacob, 2012). Customers are sensibly assessing and appreciating the structures of specific green commodities (Gan et al., 2008;Prakash, 2002). For example, green events cover wellcontamination controls, efficient energy processes and reprocessed resources ). ...
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Green products are described as being environmentally friendly, non-toxic, and made from biological materials and components that have a positive impact on societal well-being (Schlegemich et al., 1996). The paper examines the impact of factors (environmental concern, environmental awareness, product awareness, product price), that influence consumer purchase intention during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh's ecological goods condition. The primary goal of this study is to study the elements that influence consumer purchase intention during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh's ecological goods condition. The information was gathered from 205 respondents via a structured questionnaire with five-point Likert scales and multiple items. The approach of convenience and judgmental sampling are applied. Frequency, mean, standard deviation, and regression analysis are used to examine the data. According to the regression analysis, the research identifies that factors environmental concern, environmental awareness, product awareness, product price significantly influence consumer purchase intention during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh's ecological goods condition. This paper may be contributed to this green purchase intention issue. Companies can be profited by knowing the influential factors of consumers' green products purchase decisions. This paper creates consciousness among green consumers, researchers, academicians, politicians, government, and greening practicing firms. Therefore, there is an indispensable need to identify the influential factors of consumers' green products purchase decisions in order to rush into the green purchasing decision among all consumers to save this world for the next generations.
... Additionally, they found that the dimensions of green marketing practices, such as environmental issues in product, price, promotion, and place have a significant relationship with customer satisfaction. However, this is contrary to the results of a field analysis that revealed only environmental issues on promotion of variables that have a significant impact on customer satisfaction (Prakash, 2002). ...
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This study analyses the influence of a green marketing mix method towards customer satisfaction of eco-friendly products in Jakarta, Indonesia. The study focused on beauty and body treatment products. Eight hypotheses were developed to achieve the research objectives by using multiple linear regression to analyse data from 101 respondents in Jakarta using a questionnaire method. The results of this research showed that green marketing mix method have an influence on customer satisfaction simultaneously; people and physical evidence factors were significantly related to customer satisfaction while product, price, promotion, people, and physical evidence were not significantly related to them or only partially related. The results also indicated that physical evidence is the strongest factor, while place has the weakest influence on customer satisfaction among the seven elements of the marketing mix.
... Bu bakıĢ açısı içinde, sürdürülebilirlik çevresel ve etik standartlar yüksek tutarken ekonomik refah amacını göz ardı etmemektedir (Grant, 2012). Prakash (2002) yeĢil pazarlamayı gündeme almak isteyen firmalar için alternatif yol öne sürmüĢtür. Firmalar değer yaratma, yönetme ve yeniden tasarlama yoluyla yeĢil anlayıĢa adapte olabilirler. ...
... Similar to the country of origin cue, quality seals indicating sustainability (in its early stages with a focus on the environmental aspect) attracted researchers' attention for quite some time with a rapid evolvement in the late 1990s (Galarraga Gallastegui, 2002). Early on, such labels were mostly considered as an instrument for dissolving the information asymmetries between companies and consumers (de Boer, 2003;Prakash, 2002;Truffer et al., 2001), whereas other studies questioned their ability to do so (van Amstel et al., 2008). Since higher product quality usually comes along with increased costs, several researchers investigated the willingness to pay (WTP) for products yielding quality seals as well as the oftentimes related importance of quality seals on the purchase decision (inter alia Fotopoulos & Krystallis, 2003;. ...
Thesis
The emergence of e-commerce opened up various benefits for retailers and consumers alike, including the possibility to purchase products from across the world. However, the information asymmetry inherent to online shopping impedes consumers to entirely inspect these products before they are delivered. To mitigate this information asymmetry and thereby reducing the number of product returns, several information cues can serve as signals indicating higher/lower quality. Such information cues encompass (inter alia) online customer reviews, quality seals, and/or information about products’ country of origin, whereby their interaction is assumed to affect their individual importance. Since the way consumers cognitively process such information and their interplay varies based on consumers’ cultural background, this dissertation aims at answering the following research question: How are different extrinsic information cues affecting the online purchase of Chinese and German consumers in an e-commerce context? Additionally, this dissertation seeks to provide a methodological contribution by examining a methodology capable of analyzing the impact of multiple information cues on online purchase decisions simultaneously. Hence, the Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint (ACBC) analysis will be contrasted with its methodological antecedent Choice-Based Conjoint (CBC) analysis to enlighten where the advantages and disadvantages for applying one or the other are situated. After introducing this dissertation’s topic in more detail and providing the theoretical backgrounds for (i) the information cues of interest in an e-commerce context as well as (ii) how different cultural backgrounds affect information processing, a total of six papers intend to answer the research questions. More precisely, paper #1 explores the country of origin effect in an e-commerce context for German low- and high-involvement products from a Chinese consumer’s perspective by taking into account recent findings in country of origin research. In paper #2, the impact of one country of origin dimension (country-of-manufacture) is compared to the influence of online customer reviews based on surveying German and Chinese consumers. Moreover, ACBC’s advantages and disadvantages are juxtaposed to the ones related with CBC investigations. Making use of the ACBC and two of its major benefits (‘summed price’ approach and Calibration section), paper #3 is the first to measure the willingness to pay for sustainable clothing by applying this more realistic methodology. Apart from that, the importance of quality seals and country-of-manufacture are analyzed depending on consumers’ green ori-entation. Paper #4 then explores the same information cues for consumers from Generation Z and X. Focusing on online customer reviews, papers #5 and #6 investigate online customer reviews’ credibility among German and Chinese consumers. While paper #5 examines the effect of video versus purely textual online customer reviews, paper #6 highlights cultural differences and scrutinizes how online customer review components are cognitively processed between German and Chinese consumers. In the last chapter, the dissertation concludes with new insights gained and outlines the derived practical implications.
... Tüketicilerin farklı ve özel isteklilerinin olması ve üreticilerle pazarlamacıların daha spesifik ürün ve hizmetlere yönelmesi niş pazarlamanın uzun yıllar boyunca pazarlama dünyasında var olacağını göstermektedir. (Prakash, 2002). Ağızdan ağıza pazarlama için, tüketiciler arasındaki bir ürün, hizmet veya şirket hakkındaki iletişimdir (Litvin, Goldsmith & Pan, 2008). ...
... Several scholars have investigated sustainability topics using a methodology based on SEM (Mardani et al., 2017). Several authors have investigated various sustainability issues using the SEM method, Marketing (Chin et al., 2016;Llach et al., 2015;Paillé et al., 2014;Prakash, 2002). This methodology has been used to address different sustainability dimensions in several industries, from the automotive industry (Böttcher & Müller, 2015), to assess environmental performance to the manufacturing sector (Lueg et al., 2015) and to analyse the environmental aspects as well as the social and economic implications of sustainability. ...
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In the last years, sustainability has become a successful, relevant, critical factor in several food industries. The adoption of a sustainable marketing strategy contributes positively to changes in society in terms of environmental, social and economic development. The relationship between sustainability and business performance has been widely debated in management and organisational studies. However, despite its importance and relevance, fishery sustainability has not been systematically considered by scientific studies. This paper identifies and analyses the critical factors that describe the propensity towards sustainable development for large companies within the Italian fishery sector. For this purpose, the relationships among the following latent variables were analysed: sustainable social behaviour, sustainable environmental behaviour, sustainable marketing, and return on investment. A theoretical research model has been proposed and empirically tested using a methodology based on structural equation modelling.
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Green issues have become imperative to business decision‐makers as industries face intensifying public sensitivity, stricter regulation, and mounting stakeholder pressures engrossed in preserving the natural environment. This increasing pressure is forcing businesses to the adoption of green marketing practices. In an attempt to revisit present‐day severe environmental issues, this paper studies the significant role of green process innovation in the Indian context. Data was collected from 400 manufacturing firms and was analyzed using the appropriate statistical tools to validate the model. The results suggest green process innovation plays a significant role in the relationship between green marketing practices and firm market performance. The findings contribute to the theory of the green marketing concept. Since this study's results expand the existing literature on the adoption of green marketing practices, valuable insights can be endowed to businesses and regulators for preserving the natural environment by considering green process innovation. Further, it offers wide‐ranging implications for managers, marketers and policymakers, which can help them improve their business operations and provide them with a competitive advantage over their competitors.
Chapter
The development of green energy is a major concern of our time. This area is undergoing a resurgence of interest, due to rising energy prices and the urgent need to find new sources of energy. The objective of this chapter is to examine the determinants that can contribute to the adoption of green energy including economic factors (Perceived Transparency of Business Practices, Willingness to Pay More), social psychological factors (Perceived Value, Social Influence and Contagion), factors related to national culture (Personality Traits, Demographic Aspects), factors related to the environment (Environmental Knowledge, Environmental Awareness). These determinants would help formulate strategies that encourage consumers to voluntarily adopt green energy. This chapter shows that government regulations are not sufficient to adopt green energy. Indeed, consumers are also motivated by emotional, social, cultural, environmental and economic considerations. Likewise, policy makers could formulate mass messages that make consumers feel responsible and develop a green orientation.
Chapter
This study aims to encourage organisational “safeness” during and after the pandemic by integrating green practices and a safe approach for sustainable innovation. The hotel industry was referred considering (1) the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the industry, (2) safe stay is the current trend which is expected will persist for an extended period, and (3) hotel environmental friendliness is a competitive advantage. The pandemic has redirected customer attention away from hotel features and onto the “safest” hotel that is practically Coronavirus-free. While recognising the negative environmental impact created by the industry, this research proposed a GREEFE framework to connect the fundamental elements of hotel marketing (green marketing mix: green products, green price, green promotion; and green place) with safety measures. The systematic review supported that green is associated with being clean and safe. Therefore, the hoteliers are recommended to ensure a safe hotel stay by going green during and after the pandemic.
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This study examines whether environmental‐related innovation moderates the association between environmental and financial performance measured respectively as carbon emissions and return on assets (ROA). The sample comprises 119 companies subject to Australia's National Greenhouse Energy Reporting Act (NGER) for the period 2009–2017. The results show that environmental innovation positively moderates the relationship between environmental performance and financial performance. The findings also imply that the impact of environmental innovation in improving environmental performance is observable with a 1‐year lag. The results are robust to the alternative financial performance measures of Tobin's Q and Altman's Z score. The findings have important implications for company managers and policymakers and provide useful information on innovation's role in enhancing environmental and financial performance.
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The article is a continuation of a number of scientific studies carried out by the authors within the framework of government assignments and grants devoted to identifying the relationship between the economic security of territories and the development of “green” entrepreneurship models on them. Purpose : is to identify the relationship between responsible consumption and ensuring the economic security of subjects of the "green" economy in the context of the global principles of sustainable development and the transformation of consumer preferences. Methods : the study is based on the methodology and principles of sustainable development in "green" entrepreneurship. The use of comparative and comparative analysis methods is due to the need to identify the features of sustainable (responsible) production and consumption in different sectors of the "green" economy. Comparative marketing allows you to clarify the category of "sustainable (responsible) consumption", systematize international experience and best practices of "green" marketing. Results : the authors have identified the most promising market segments of the "green" economy, outlined the advantages of companies that implement the principles of "green" marketing and take into account ESG factors in business models of entrepreneurship. The use of indicative analysis tools made it possible to determine the level of development of individual segments of "green" entrepreneurship in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Based on the results of Russian practice and on the example of the implementation of the national project "Labor Productivity", the effectiveness of the implementation by companies participating in the national project of responsible and lean production is substantiated. The structural components of the "green" economy and economic security are revealed, the differentiation of Russian regions is shown in the context of indicators of the development of individual segments of the "green" economy. It has been determined that all segments of the "green" economy in Russia are covered by the national project "Labor Productivity". Conclusions and Relevance : according to the results of the study, the relationship of macro- and microeconomic factors in achieving SDG 12 "Responsible consumption and production" by the subjects of "green" entrepreneurship was revealed. The authors propose directions for the implementation of educational measures for the business community in the field of "green" marketing, the influence of ESG factors when changing business models, lean manufacturing, which will help ensure the economic security of subjects of "green" entrepreneurship in the new economic conditions.
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Employees are one of the most crucial dimensions of organizational success. For this reason, contemporary HR practices are directed towards the overall well-being of employees for enhancing their productivity as well as emotional health. With the ongoing COVID-19 crisis, employees continue to work on virtual platforms with prolonged distance from their workstations and colleagues. It has resulted in detrimental effects like shock, stress, low morale, poor interaction, and other related factors. Such issues give rise to the need for innovative HR practices to strengthen employee’s value so they are able to survive and flourish during challenging times. In this regard, the role of HR needs to bridge the gap between work balance and negative impacts of global pandemic on employee’s emotional health. With respect to this, employee resilience focuses on developing employee’s capacity to deal with risks and ambiguous situations during the times of crisis that leads to disrupted workplaces. It is necessary for organizations to develop employee resilience for enhancing their competitive advantage, business viability, and employee sustenance in the longer run. This paper aims to explore the different HR practices that can be adopted by the management to improve employee resilience. In addition to this, the paper will highlight the need for innovative HRM practices for building the new-normal at work in the near future. Thus, the paper will contribute towards HRM literature with respect to the role of Human Resources in managing workplace disruptions through developing employee resilience to ensure mental and emotional well-being.
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This study sought to understand the behaviors and attitudes of people in Taiwan as they relate to the government’s RE policies by analyzing data from a questionnaire-based telephone survey conducted between 2013 and 2015. Demographic attributes in people’s behavioral models were analyzed for two variables: attention and support. Based on the findings, people’s behavioral models relating to RE were classified into five categories: key promotional group, promotional seed group, support-strengthening group, attention-strengthening group, and non-key promotional group. The attributes of these five segments were also analyzed and their corresponding promotional strategies were formulated. The overarching goal was to improve precision in marketing RE policies to various target groups in order to maximize impact.
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Purpose – Sustainability principles have been practiced and researched in marketing for nearly five decades, but the challenges we face today are still significant. This context defines the purpose of this paper, which is to find, synthesize and critically evaluate the existing literature on marketing in a sustainability context from 1969 to 2019. The ultimate aim is to provide a unified body of literature on sustainability marketing and classify the extant literature. Design/methodology/approach – The relevant articles from selected journals were identified and manually verified using the Scopus database. The SPAR- 4- SLR protocol provides the framework for the methodology. In total, 749 articles were eligible for inclusion in the study. Findings – The research findings are presented in the form of article categorization into 11 thematic categories. The thematic categories outlined previous studies’ trend and contribution characteristics under the individual category, illustrating their implications. Practical implications – The literature review aids in understanding the current state of research and piques researchers’ interest in sustainability marketing. The findings of the study will be a valuable resource for future scholars, managers and policymakers. Originality/value – This study contributes to the existing literature by providing valuable insights from previous research on the research trend in sustainability marketing and by providing a recommendation for future research avenues. After a long hiatus, this is the most up-to-date comprehensive article, providing a general overview of research trends. Keywords Sustainability marketing, Social marketing, Green marketing, Environmental marketing, Sustainability, Literature review, Bibliometrics
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Eco-friendly refers to goods and materials that are not detrimental to the environment. This product promotes green living and green manufacturing practices that use less or different types of resources. The paper examines the influence of factors like social media, reference groups, promotional activities, and government initiatives that influence consumers buying intention towards eco-friendly products during coronavirus outbreaks in Bangladesh's eco-friendly product condition. The primary goal of this study is to study the elements that influence consumers' buying intentions for eco-friendly products during the coronavirus pandemic from the perspective of Bangladesh. The information was gathered from 205 respondents via a structured questionnaire with five-point Likert scales and multiple items. The approach of purposive sampling is applied. Frequency, mean, standard deviation, and regression analysis are used to examine the data. According to the regression analysis, the research identifies that factors social media, reference groups, promotional activities, and government initiatives significantly influence consumers' green products purchase decisions. This paper may be contributed to this green buying intention and buying decision issues. Companies can be profited by knowing the influential factors of consumers' eco-friendly products buying intention. This paper creates consciousness among environmental consumers, investigators, academicians, officials, government, and greening working companies. Hence, there is an obligatory need to recognize the persuasive aspects of consumers' eco-friendly products buying intention in order to rush into the eco-friendly products buying among all consumers to save this world for afterward generations.
Chapter
The relevant question, “Can we be green and profitable simultaneously?” will continue to arise in the minds of entrepreneurs, investors, and business owners whenever the discussion of green marketing is raised. Ensuring that the business goals of profit maximisation, the health of the populace, and the preservation of environmental resources for future generations are achieved will require an understanding of green marketing practices in organisations and amongst stakeholders. This chapter identifies the drivers of green marketing as a sustainable practice in organisations and the implications for theory and policy formulation in emerging markets. Organisations in emerging markets must integrate green initiative into their strategic business positioning if they desire to achieve operational success in green marketing practices. It is pertinent to note that attaining green marketing goals demands a strategic and operational commitment from organisations in emerging markets.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the conceptualisation of green marketing. Some introductory remarks on the evolution of marketing over the years are provided from the production concept to the green marketing concept. Green marketing, as a concept, has been around for some decades and continues to generate interest in literature and practice. In its formative years, there were a number of failed attempts at green marketing. The chapter also discusses green marketing mix and the external Ps as well as the internal Ps. The green success elements were also discussed. Discussions are also advanced on green tactics and strategies looking at the green marketing activities at the three different levels. The environmental label was also discussed as well as the green product life cycle. The chapter discusses salient points in the conceptualisation of green marketing through time and provides some established tactics and strategies that can be employed to attain green marketing in a real-life situation. Scholars have advanced arguments in line with the concept of green marketing and have provided some sort of blueprint as a conceptualisation of the green marketing concept to serve as a guide. The chapter is an encapsulation of scholarly discussions on the conceptual overview of green marketing.
Chapter
Growing concerns on environmental issues have led to several calls for sustainability practices. Organisations are expected to adopt business-related sustainability practices that meet consumer needs without damaging the environment; one such demand is the call to practice green marketing. The quest for a sustainable environment in emerging markets requires strategic and efficient actions; with practices, such as green marketing, businesses can reduce the hazards they create on the environment. Through a review of related literature, this chapter examines green-marketing planning in an emerging market context. The authors propose that with appropriate investments in production processes and people, green marketing goals and objectives can be achieved for a sustainable economy.
Article
Purpose This study aims to determine the number of segments of green consumer behavior on toiletries products, and the tendency of transition between clusters is estimated. This study also provides recommendations based on the results. Design/methodology/approach This study used primary data collected through an online and offline questionnaire. The questionnaire was intended to identify the socio-demographic characteristics, green consumer behavior state according to the environment as well as the willingness of the respondents to purchase various toiletries products (current, less green, and greener). Prior to segmenting green consumer behavior, scale purification using confirmatory factor analysis was performed to ensure the indicators used were valid. The k-means clustering algorithm was used for the segmentation, while discriminant analysis was used to validate the segmentation result. The Markov chain approach was performed to estimate the tendency of the transition between constructed segments, where the logistic regression model was applied to predict the individual transition probability. Findings The clustering algorithm resulted in three segments: light green, green and dark green. The light green segment has the lowest attitude toward the environmental criteria while the members of the dark green segment have the highest attitude among the other segments. The logistic regression indicated that the tendency of individuals to stay in the current segment or move to the adjacent segment was influenced by socio-demographic factors. The one-step transition probability matrix revealed that the tendency of a particular segment to move to the greener segment was greater than to stay or even move to the less green segment. The Markov chain approach then showed that the steady-state condition will emerge after 18 steps. Research limitations/implications This study was limited geographically and by the criteria used for segmenting the green consumer behavior; therefore, it is recommended that this study be replicated on a greater scale with more criteria. A wider geographic area could be considered, including a national study, and more criteria, such as social influences, could be considered. This study does not focus on specific toiletries products. Selecting more specific toiletries products could be considered to provide a more reliable response from the respondents. Moreover, factors around the willingness to pay for green products were not investigated in greater detail although these factors might become indicators that can distinguish between two or more segments. Practical implications This study empirically supports the theory that consumer environmentally friendly behavior can be used to appropriately categorize consumers into several segments, and thereby guide the development of a more differentiated policy approach for business and government. Social implications Green consumer behavior may help save the environment and it will be beneficial in reducing environmental damage. Originality/value The study extends the existing literature related to green consumer behavior by segmenting the green consumer behavior based on the environmental criteria and applying the Markov chain approach to estimate the tendency of transition between segments.
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Tourism is a major source of revenue for beautiful hill state Himachal Pradesh, India. In 2019, approximately 1.7 crore tourists, including 3.8 lakh international and 1.6 crore domestic tourists, arrived in the state but in 2020, COVID-19 has hit this industry. Chief Minister’s out-of-box idea to promote the hill state as a place where people can come and spend their quarantine days has received a mixed response from all quarters. To understand the public sentiments, tweets were mined. The results found fear along with positivity and anticipation. This idea of “Quarantine Destination” can be explored further for implementation.
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As organizations seek to communicate with consumers who are concerned about the environment, advertisements containing environmental claims are becoming more prominent. While much has been written about environmental advertising, this phenomenon has seldom been examined systematically. This paper presents an empirical study which combines two classification schemes to create a matrix that identifies different types of environmental claims and the likelihood that such claims will be judged as misleading and/or deceptive. Results suggest that those claims which extol the environmental benefits of products and those that are designed to enhance the environmental image of an organization are most prone to be considered misleading and/or deceptive. Methods for improving environmental advertising are suggested.
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This article reports on a pilot study which explored how recyclers and non-recyclers differ. Two hundred households were first identified by direct observation over a series of months being either recyclers or non-recyclers. These households were then contacted and ninety-one respondents agreed to answer a series of verbal questions and complete a short written questionnaire. While from a preliminary study, these data are useful in suggesting that recyclers and non-recyclers are similar in their prorecycling attitudes, extrinsic motivation, and the degree to which they viewed recycling as a trivial activity. They differed significantly, however, in the degree to which they required additional information about recycling. Non-recycling respondents indicated a lack of information on how to carry out the activity. The study is also of interest due to the isolation of attitudinal and behavioral aspects of recycling. Since some form of relationship between these two constructs is so pervasive in the literature, the results are conceptually intriguing. Perhaps more important, however, are the practical implications for enabling non-recyclers to change their behavior independently of their attitudes.
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Information disclosure and labeling policies have been touted as promising tools for addressing environmental problems. These market-oriented approaches seek to use consumer choice to ameliorate environmental effects. In theory, such information enables consumers to account for external costs in their decisionmaking. This article highlights the challenges of pursuing eco-information policies, highlighting the complexity of environmental costs and benefits as well as consumers' cognitive limitations. Based on these challenges, the article offers a comprehensive institutional choice and policy design framework for using information to better environmental protection.
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Over the last several decades, sociologists have investigated the public's increasing concern about the environment, but they have had little success explaining attitudes toward the environment or the adoption of pro-environment behaviors like recycling. We examine the role of social context in the link between individual attitudes about the environment and recycling behavior by comparing communities that vary in their access to recycling programs. Results show that people with access to a structured recycling program have much higher levels of recycling than do people lacking such access. Furthermore, individual attitudes toward the environment affect recycling behavior only in the community with easy access to a structured recycling program. Individual concern about the environment enhances the effect of the recycling program, but does not overcome the barriers presented by lack of access.
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While perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE) has consistently been linked to socially conscious attitudes, the concept appears to have been confounded with other related constructs in the empirical studies measuring its effects on behavior. In addition, the few studies which have considered the effects of PCE on reported behavior have done so only in aggregate. This research demonstrates that PCE is distinct from environmental concern and contributes uniquely to the prediction of certain pro-ecological behaviors. In addition, differences in PCE are shown to be associated with differences in demographics and political affiliation. The results suggest that motivating consumers to express their concern through actual behavior is to some extent a Junction of increasing their perception that individual actions do make a difference.
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Many marketing scholars argue that often the best way to solve a social problem (e.g., litter) is to enlist support for a collective sacrifice (e.g., a bottle bill). The author tests Wiener and Doescher's [1991] propositions that support can be gained by communicating that the person's group has power, nongroup members will sacrifice, and the problem will be solved. His research supports the first two propositions.
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Environmental concerns have begun to reshape the landscape in which global organizations compete. The demands and influences of the environmental movement are evident in the dollar value size of the environmentally conscious marketplace. In addition, the growing regulatory concerns over the environmental impact of corporate practices have begun to influence corporate strategies. The authors discuss the concept of an enviropreneurial marketing strategy, which reflects the confluence of social performance goals, corporate entrepreneurship orientations, and marketing strategy by integrating environmental concerns when developing marketing policies and practices. They provide a brief overview of the emergence of the enviropreneurial strategy paradigm, identify three types of enviropreneurial marketing strategies, and develop a model of the antecedents and consequences of an enviropreneurial marketing strategy. Finally, they conclude with a brief discussion of future research needs.
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Between 1973 and 1983 there was a marked increase in reported research concerning consumer behavior and energy use. The present study evaluates this research, identifies those findings judged most significant, and discusses their theoretical and practical implications for the design and marketing of consumer energy conservation policies and programs.
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While considerable attention is being paid to the environmental concerns of people by consumer marketers, to date little research attention has focused on the identification of market segments for consumer products based upon consumers’ environmental concerns. This article describes possible segments of environmentally concerned consumers and their motivations. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.
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The authors examine the extent to which environmentally sensitive behavior at the workplace facilitates the translation of proenvironmental attitudes into consumer choices. They take advantage of a naturally occurring quasi-experiment in workplace experience and use a conjoint choice task to measure consumer behavior. The results indicate that (1) consumers are influenced by environmental attributes, (2) experience and level of concern moderate the influence of environmental attributes, (3) the effects of experience and concern are more than just additive, and (4) experience can facilitate environmentally conscious behavior among those with high levels of environmental concern by reducing their sensitivity to the effect of brand name. The authors conclude with implications for activists, public policymakers, and marketing managers.
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Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach was first published in 1984 as a part of the Pitman series in Business and Public Policy. Its publication proved to be a landmark moment in the development of stakeholder theory. Widely acknowledged as a world leader in business ethics and strategic management, R. Edward Freeman’s foundational work continues to inspire scholars and students concerned with a more practical view of how business and capitalism actually work. Business can be understood as a system of how we create value for stakeholders. This worldview connects business and capitalism with ethics once and for all. On the 25th anniversary of publication, Cambridge University Press are delighted to be able to offer a new print-on-demand edition of his work to a new generation of readers.
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Stakeholder theory has been a popular heuristic for describing the management environment for years, but it has not attained full theoretical status. Our aim in this article is to contribute to a theory of stakeholder identification and salience based on stakeholders possessing one or more of three relationship attributes: power, legitimacy, and urgency. By combining these attributes, we generate a typology of stakeholders, propositions concerning their salience to managers of the firm, and research and management implications.
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A business strategy must be congruent with the capabilities of a firm as well as both its market and nonmarket environments. The market environment includes those interactions between the firm and other parties that are intermediated by markets or private agreements. The nonmarket environment includes those interactions that are intermediated by public institutions. A business strategy must integrate both market and nonmarket components.
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Whereas some firms embrace and successfully exploit pro-social consumer influence strategies (e. g., environmental positionings, cause-related promotions), other firms tend to downplay their effectiveness and are reluctant to pursue such strategies. The author's research findings reveal that important moderators, namely consumer trust in the marketing source and attributions of consumer responsibility, must be activated for pro-social positioning strategies to work. Moreover, the levels of the moderating variables appear to be critical in determining whether a pro-social positioning strategy achieves the intended effect or backfires, thereby jeopardizing product equity and market share.
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Marketing scholars such as Kotler and Rothschild emphasize that, because "you can't sell brotherhood like soap," there is a need for research that will generate and test social marketing strategies. By drawing on social dilemma theory, the authors identify the barriers to prosocial behavior and the means for overcoming those barriers. Both general propositions and specific marketing strategies are discussed.
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Environmental concerns have begun to reshape the landscape i n~ which global organizations compete. The demands and influences of the environmental movement are evident in the dollar value size of the environmentally conscious marketplace. In addition, the growing regulatory concerns over the environmental impact of corporate practices have begun to influence corporate strategies. The authors discuss the concept of an enviropreneurial marketing strategy, which reflects the confluence of social performance goals, corporate entrepreneurship orienta-tions, and marketing strategy by integrating environmental concerns when developing marketing policies and prac-tices. They provide a brief overview of the emergence of the enviropreneurial strategy paradigm, identify three types of enviropreneurial marketing strategies, and develop a model of the antecedents and consequences of an enviro-preneurial marketing strategy Finally, they conclude with a brief discussion of future research needs. T he natural and physical environment, traditionally dis-cussed as an extemal influence on the process and content of managerial decision making, is now viewed as central to marketing and management strategy (Drumwright 1994; Hart 1995; Shrivastava 1994). Although the idea of integrating environmental issues into the process and the content of marketing strategy is not new (see Henion and Kinnear 1976; Kassarjian 1971), the idea of integrating has moved into mainstream marketing consciousness over the past ten years (cf. Drumwright 1994; McDaniel and Rylaiider 1993; Sheth and Parvartiyar 1995). Similarly, firms have already begun incorporating environmental crite-ria and/or environmental elements into their marketing strategies to remain competitive in the marketplace (cf. Drumwright 1994; Kirkpatrick 1990; Mason 1993). Con-sider the following developments within the investment, competitive, and regulatory arenas that have made environ-mental concems real and immediate for businesses.
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The environment is an increasingly important issue for marketers in all areas of business. Consumer demand for more environmentally friendly products is growing, as is pressure for legislation requiring industry to “clean up its environmental act.” This combined opportunity and threat has led marketers to acknowledge that the green challenge will force businesses to change dramatically. Companies are scrambling to generate or regain competitive advantage by proving their green credentials, and to back up their green rhetoric with improved environmental performance. But going green does not make a company secure from criticism; any “green” company risks an embarrassing unmasking if its suppliers do their dirty work for them. So, environmental performance is a key issue for industrial marketers. This article explores the implications of the green challenge for industrial marketers by examining the chemical industry, a sector facing more than its fair share of green opportunities and threats.
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In Ghana the Presbyterian Church has become deeply interested in and committed to development efforts. It possesses the ideal NGO attributes: it has detailed knowledge of local conditions while being well-known to local people; it works closely with various local groups; it has good opportunities to approach international (and nearby) donor organizations for any necessary money or equipment; and it has a built-in forum in its Sunday services for disseminating information about development projects. -Authors
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The greening of corporate America has added a new and different type of criterion to some organizational buying decisions-social responsibility. Scholars have given little attention to such noneconomic buying criteria. On the basis of a study of 35 buying processes in ten organizations and an in-depth examination of 21 of those processes, the author addresses how and why socially responsible buying comes about in organizations. The findings suggest that two factors have been key to the success of socially responsible buying initiatives. One factor is the presence of a skillful policy entrepreneur. Policy entrepreneurs are found to have many of the same characteristics as business entrepreneurs, but invest their resources in instituting new organizational policies. Their zeal for socially responsible buying is rooted in a commitment based on a complex and often difficult process of moral reasoning. The second factor influencing the success of socially responsible buying is the organizational context within which policy entrepreneurs operate. The author differentiates organizational contexts on the basis of whether the socially responsible buying is part of a deliberate corporate strategy and further classifies them through a framework and identifies themes observed across the contexts. Guidance is offered for vendors marketing socially responsible products and services.
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Responsible Care is a voluntary code of conduct developed, enforced, and monitored by the Chemical Manufacturers Association. Voluntary codes could be designed and enforced by regulators, nonprofit groups, industry associations, and individual firms. They could vary in their scope, focusing on firms around the globe, in a given region, within a country, or in a given industry. This article focuses on Responsible Care’s self-regulatory services that pertain to establishing, monitoring, and enforcing industry-wide environmental, health, and safety standards. Employing insights from the club theory, stakeholder theory, institutionalist theory, and the corporate social performance perspective, it examines the demand and supply sides of voluntary codes. Finally, it discusses theoretical implications and the key challenges faced by Responsible Care in the future.
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Case-Studies of the policy-making process constitute one of the more important methods of political science analysis. Beginning with Schattschneider, Herring, and others in the 1930's, case-studies have been conducted on a great variety of decisions. They have varied in subject-matter and format, in scope and rigor, but they form a distinguishable body of literature which continues to grow year by year. The most recent addition, a book-length study by Raymond Bauer and his associates, stands with Robert A. Dahl's prize-winning Who Governs? (New Haven 1961) as the best yet to appear. With its publication a new level of sophistication has been reached. The standards of research its authors have set will indeed be difficult to uphold in the future. American Business and Public Policy is an analysis of political relationships within the context of a single, well-defined issue—foreign trade. It is an analysis of business attitudes, strategies, communications and, through these, business relationships in politics. The analysis makes use of the best behavioral research techniques without losing sight of the rich context of policies, traditions, and institutions. Thus, it does not, in Dahl's words, exchange relevance for rigor; rather it is standing proof that the two—relevance and rigor—are not mutually exclusive goals.
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Considers reasons why consumer response has, at best, been mixed with regard to “Green” marketing. Proposes reasons why consumer response has not been overwhelmingly positive and then, based on a review of key research findings, presents guidelines for the development of three components of environmental product advertising: the specificity of the environmental claim, the level of emphasis given the environmental claim and the context for presenting the claim.
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Manufacturers of consumer goods face various problems when they attempt to integrate environmental attributes into their marketing mix. In many cases the inclusion of environmental issues in the marketing mix is largely motivated by the organization's desire to address consumers' increasing level of environmental awareness. However, producers face three problems when they attempt to utilize environmental marketing: a lack of credibility; consumer cynicism; consumer confusion over claims. Strategic alliances with environmental groups can assist manufacturers of consumer goods to overcome these problems, as well as provide other advantages. These other advantages are: increased consumer reliability in green products and their claims; increased access to environmental information; increased access to new markets; publicity and reduced public criticism; and education of consumers about key environmental issues relating to a firm's product. To achieve these benefits, producers need to follow a careful selection process when choosing an environmental strategic alliance partner. This selection process includes: determine alliance objectives; specify outcomes desired; and determine the fit between the organization, environmental group, and target market.
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This paper uses a stakeholder framework to review the empirical literature on corporate social performance (CSP), focusing particularly on studies attempting to correlate social with financial performance. Results show first that most studies correlate measures of business performance that as yet have no theoretical relationship (for example, the level of corporate charitable giving with return on investment). To make sense of this body of research, CSP studies must be integrated with stakeholder theory. Multiple stakeholders (a) set expectations for corporate performance, (b) experience the effects of corporate behavior, and (c) evaluate the outcomes of corporate behavior. However, we find that the empirical CSP literature mismatches variables in terms of which stakeholders are relevant to which kind of measure. Second, only the studies using market-based variables and theory show a consistent relationship between social and financial performance, particularly those showing a negative abnormal return to the stock price of companies experiencing product recalls. Although this paper shows that the CSP construct is not yet well-specified enough to produce stronger results, recent research suggests that much progress is being made both empirically and theoretically in developing valid and reliable measures of corporate social performance.
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Examined the interactive effects of economic, demographic, structural, and psychological variables on 4 behaviorally distinct types of reported conservation response involving energy efficiency improvements or curtailment of the services that energy provides, using data collected from 478 residential customers in 1980. The causal model assumed that contextual variables (i.e., demographic, economic, and structural) may affect behavior indirectly through personal variables (e.g., attitudes, beliefs, norms) and that between personal variables, causality moves from the general through the specific to reported behavior. A path analysis incorporating these assumptions suggested that although behaviors that are relatively unconstrained for most households (such as temperature settings) are strongly influenced by norms, personal variables have much less influence on more constrained actions (such as major insulation activity). The effect of high and rising fuel prices was stronger in producing economic sacrifice than in producing energy savings. The 15 variables used in analysis and their intercorrelations are appended. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recent concern with environmental problems has rekindled interest in energy conservation. To illustrate how psychologists can make useful contributions and how a changed energy situation calls for different interventions, this article reviews knowledge from past research and draws lessons from past experiences of psychologists working in the politicized environment of utility regulation. Because low energy prices have weakened immediate financial motives for conservation, to produce consumption change one must now add incentives, appeal to nonfinancial motives, and make available more choices that are consistent with proconservation attitudes. Psychologists can help make the policy levers available more effective, but to be effective themselves they must consider the reinforcement contingencies that govern the behavior of decision makers who might use their advice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Comments on the W. Kempton et al (see record 1993-07794-001) analysis of the role of financial self-interest in energy consumption (EC). Kempton et al provided a misleading treatment of consumption behaviors, leading readers to underweigh the importance of the consumer's financial self-interest in determining EC. Although social psychological variables are important in EC behavior, efforts need to focus on designing the most effective contingencies of financial self-interest. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)