Article

The Proteus Effect: The Effect of Transformed Self‐Representation on Behavior

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Abstract

Virtual environments, such as online games and web-based chat rooms, increasingly allow us to alter our digital self-representations dramatically and easily. But as we change our self-representations, do our self-representations change our behavior in turn? In 2 experimental studies, we explore the hypothesis that an individual’s behavior conforms to their digital self-representation independent of how others perceive them—a process we term the Proteus Effect. In the first study, participants assigned to more attractive avatars in immersive virtual environments were more intimate with confederates in a self-disclosure and interpersonal distance task than participants assigned to less attractive avatars. In our second study, participants assigned taller avatars behaved more confidently in a negotiation task than participants assigned shorter avatars. We discuss the implications of the Proteus Effect with regards to social interactions in online environments.

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... Because avatars constitute "our entire self-representation" and virtual contexts emphasize reliance on cues related to the visual appearance of one's avatar, the Proteus effect leads users to exhibit behaviors and rationalize them so as to remain consistent with the avatar's identity (Yee and Bailenson 2007). Instances of the Proteus effect have been found in various avatar-based systems, influencing a diverse range of decisions and behaviors (for a recent review, see Ratan et al. 2019): for example, attractive avatars lead to behave in a more intimate way in terms of selfdisclosure and interpersonal distance (Yee and Bailenson 2007; see also Waddell and Ivory 2015). ...
... Because avatars constitute "our entire self-representation" and virtual contexts emphasize reliance on cues related to the visual appearance of one's avatar, the Proteus effect leads users to exhibit behaviors and rationalize them so as to remain consistent with the avatar's identity (Yee and Bailenson 2007). Instances of the Proteus effect have been found in various avatar-based systems, influencing a diverse range of decisions and behaviors (for a recent review, see Ratan et al. 2019): for example, attractive avatars lead to behave in a more intimate way in terms of selfdisclosure and interpersonal distance (Yee and Bailenson 2007; see also Waddell and Ivory 2015). It should be noted that this phenomenon results from the mere exposure to a virtual mirror allowing the participant to see his/her avatar for about 1 min. ...
... In this respect, it can be considered that the Proteus effect is initiated almost instantly. In another study, Yee and Bailenson (2007), ) have shown that tall avatars lead to more confident behavior than short avatars in a negotiation task. Recent studies have also shown that the appearance of the avatar may affect subsequent behavior in the real world Rosenberg et al. 2013;Yoon and Vargas 2014). ...
Chapter
Action research is an approach to research which aims at both taking action and creating knowledge or theory about that action as the action unfolds. It starts with everyday experience and is concerned with the development of living knowledge. Its characteristics are that it generates practical knowledge in the pursuit of worthwhile purposes; it is participative and democratic as its participants work together in the present tense in defining the questions they wish to explore, the methodology for that exploration, and its application through cycles of action and reflection. In this vein they are agents of change and coresearchers in knowledge generation and not merely passive subjects as in traditional research. In this vein, action research can be understood as a social science of the possible as the collective action is focused on creating a desired future in whatever context the action research is located.
... Learners feel agency to complete a set of tasks when they are given a clear role to carry out consequential tasks. In IVR environments, virtual body ownership-one of the most distinguishing and intriguing features of IVR-facilitates learners to become someone else and draw them deeply into the made-up world (Slater, 2017;Yee & Bailenson, 2007). When designed well with plausible scenarios and comprehensive motion tracking, learners could see their body movement mirrored in the form of avatars, to assume a new role readily and experience the consequences of their actions as real. ...
... When designed well with plausible scenarios and comprehensive motion tracking, learners could see their body movement mirrored in the form of avatars, to assume a new role readily and experience the consequences of their actions as real. This feature has been reported to be successful in helping users question their assumptions and change behaviours (Jacobson, 2017;Slater, 2017;Yee & Bailenson, 2007). ...
... Yet, seeing virtual worlds as someone and navigating the virtual worlds with specific goals compelled them to complete the tasks with more emotional and intellectual engagement. IVR researchers recognise that experiencing virtual worlds as someone else is one of the most powerful features of IVR (Slater, 2017;Yee & Bailenson, 2007). It is worth pointing out that learners did not have much freedom to change the course of actions or events within the virtual environments, unfortunately. ...
Article
To investigate how learning in immersive Virtual Reality was designed in contemporary educational studies, this systematic literature review identified nine design features and analysed 219 empirical studies on the designs of learning activities with immersive Virtual Reality. Overall, the technological features for physical presence were more readily implemented and investigated than pedagogical features for learning engagement. Further analysis with k-means clustering revealed five approaches with varying levels of interactivity and openness in learning tasks, from watching virtual worlds passively to responding to personalised prompts. Such differences in the design appeared to stem from different practical and educational priorities, such as accessibility, interactivity, and engagement. This review highlights the diversity in the learning task designs in immersive Virtual Reality and illustrates how researchers are navigating practical and educational concerns. We recommend future empirical studies recognise the different approaches and priorities when designing and evaluating learning with immersive Virtual Reality. We also recommend that future systematic reviews investigate immersive Virtual Reality-based learning not only by learning topics or learner demographics, but also by task designs and learning experiences.
... Moreover, recent technological advancements opened novel ways to design fully detailed avatars to be embodied, making the virtual bodies more and more realistic, and allowing researchers to study the implications of getting specific physical connotations. In fact, attributes that characterize virtual bodies have been shown to considerably influence people's perceptions, attitudes and behaviours, a tendency referred to as "Proteus effect 24 ". Specifically, in their seminal work the authors observed that embodying an attractive or a tall avatar elicited, respectively, more intimate attitudes during social interactions and more dominant behaviours during a negotiation task as compared to an unattractive or smaller avatar. ...
... Although researchers are still debating on the mechanisms which may drive this effect, a commonly accepted explanation states that people might feel de-individuated in the virtual environments where they are immersed without one' own body and, in turn, they may adhere to a new identity that is inferred from the avatar they are embodying. In other words, the avatar becomes a primary identity cue, capable of reshaping one's own self representation 24 . ...
... Following the Yee and Bailenson's work 24 , important studies have documented the transformative effects of embodying different virtual bodies, sensing the potential positive outcomes at both individual and social level. For instance, white people embodying a dark-skinned avatar have shown to decrease their implicit racial bias 17,25 , and offenders embodying a female victim of domestic abuse improved their ability to recognize fearful female faces, reducing their tendency to code them as happy 18 . ...
Article
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Immersive virtual reality can give people the illusion of owning artificial bodies (i.e., avatars) and controlling their actions. Tellingly, people appear to adhere to the newly embodied entities not just on the basis of physical traits but also behaving accordingly with the hallmarks of the represented characters. In two studies we pushed the limits of this process by testing if one’s own sense of power could be affected by embodying the anthropomorphic representation of the Christian God, that is considered an omnipotent entity. A human Muscled and a Normotype avatar were used as controls. Results showed that participants embodying the God-avatar: (i) reacted to a threatening event compromising their physical safety by exhibiting a lower skin conductance response and heart rate deceleration compared to the Normotype-control avatar (Study 1); (ii) estimated they had more physical abilities compared to both the Normotype-control and the Muscled-control avatars (Study 2). Taken together, our findings suggest that embodying an omnipotent agent may exert an influence on people’s perception of their own limits and capabilities, nourishing feelings of physical invulnerability and strength. Our study indicates that effectively embodying virtual role models may boost achievements and have translational implications in the field of empowerment.
... As the focus of this study is to explore the effects of the avatar's facial similarity to the user's own face, it is important to summarize studies that have explored the avatar's appearance in the context of embodiment. Studies related to the Proteus effect [20,21], a phenomenon in which the user's avatar's appearance affects their attitude and behavior, have been actively conducted, and it has been found that the avatar's age [22][23][24], race [25], gender [17], and body type [20,22] affect such attitude and behavior. Yee and Bailenson [22] confirmed the difference in negative bias toward non-persons according to the age of the users' avatars. ...
... Implementation of rich social interactions in the metaverse and social VR applications entail the use of avatars to represent human users and autonomous virtual characters. As previous research has shown, an avatar's appearance (e.g., body type, body part visibility, and realism) can have various impacts on the user's experience in a virtual environment, such as on their emotional engagement [19], attitude and behavior [20,21], and social interactions [22]. Moreover, an avatar's appearance can influence embodiment [11] and presence [9][10][11]33], which are among the key components of immersive VR environments and have been identified as research issues to be solved [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Immersive virtual reality (VR) based on head-mounted displays has been identified as one of the key interaction technologies of the future metaverse, which comprises diverse interconnected virtual worlds and users who traverse between those worlds and interact with each other. Interaction in immersive VR entails the use of avatars that represent users. Previous research has shown that avatar appearance (e.g., body type, body visibility, and realism) affects the senses of embodiment and presence, which are among the key indicators of successful immersive VR. However, research on how the similarity between an avatar’s face and the user’s face affects embodiment and presence is lacking. We conducted a mixed-method experiment with 23 young adults (10 males, 13 females, mean age: 25.22) involving a VR scene with rich embodiment, a virtual mirror, and interaction with a virtual character. The participants were assigned to two groups: Group 1 had avatars based on their own faces, and Group 2 had avatars based on a stranger’s face. The results indicated that Group 1 experienced higher embodiment with no significant differences in presence scores. Additionally, we identified moderate and significant correlations between presence and embodiment, including their subscales. We conclude that the realism and similarity in an avatar’s appearance is important for embodiment, and that both embodiment and presence are intertwined factors contributing to immersive VR user experience.
... In contrast to the "classical" RHI paradigm, the participants could move their virtual arms while being embodied in a full-body avatar. The embodiment of a full-body avatar with features and characteristics that deviate from the users' real physical body can evoke perceptual and attitudinal changes [34,36,39,79]. Thus, it is impossible to isolate the effects caused by the limb ownership of one body part, such as a virtual arm, from effects caused by the body ownership of an entire body, which addresses the bodily self as a whole [7]. ...
... Such effects may also be explained within the theoretical framework of the Proteus effect that describes behavioral, perceptual, and attitudinal changes caused by an avatar's stereotypical visual appearance [32,34,37,79]. The embodiment of a virtual hand whose rubbery appearance is associated with artificiality and inanimateness may potentially could cause participants to move their hand less in terms of micromovements than they would with a vital and lifelike hand resulting in a drop in skin temperature. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Feeling ownership of a virtual body is crucial for immersive experiences in VR. Knowledge about body ownership is mainly based on rubber hand illusion (RHI) experiments in the real world. Watching a rubber hand being stroked while one's own hidden hand is synchronously stroked, humans experience the rubber hand as their own hand and underestimate the distance between the rubber hand and the real hand (proprioceptive drift). There is also evidence for a decrease in hand temperature. Although the RHI has been induced in VR, it is unknown whether effects in VR and the real world differ. We conducted a RHI experiment with 24 participants in the real world and in VR and found comparable effects in both environments. However, irrespective of the RHI, proprioceptive drift and temperature differences varied between settings. Our findings validate the utilization of the RHI in VR to increase our understanding of embodying virtual avatars.
... Interestingly, the embodiment of avatars with stereotypical characteristics can even change users' behavior, attitude, and perceptiona phenomenon known as the Proteus effect [100,101]. Kocur et al. [49], for example, found that the embodiment of muscular avatars increased users' grip strength and reduced their perceived exertion while holding weights. Similarly, Kocur et al. [46] revealed that users who embodied an athletic avatar had a lower perceived exertion and heart rate (HR) response while cycling in VR than those who embodied a non-athletic avatar. ...
... Previous work demonstrated that embodying avatars with salient characteristics can change users' behavior, attitude, and perception due to their stereotypical assessments. Yee and Bailenson [101] found that users behaved more confidently when embodying an attractive avatar compared to a non-attractive avatar. Similarly, the authors showed that users negotiated more aggressively when embodying tall avatars compared to smaller ones. ...
Conference Paper
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Avatars are used to represent users in virtual reality (VR) and create embodied experiences. Previous work showed that avatars' stereotypical appearance can affect users' physical performance and perceived exertion while exercising in VR. Although sweating is a natural human response to physical effort, surprisingly little is known about the effects of sweating avatars on users. Therefore, we conducted a study with 24 participants to explore the effects of sweating avatars while cycling in VR. We found that visualizing sweat decreases the perceived exertion and increases perceived endurance. Thus, users feel less exerted while embodying sweating avatars. We conclude that sweating avatars contribute to more effective exergames and fitness applications.
... In the aftermath of COVID-19 pandemic, individuals were advised to use online platforms for interactions, ratcheting up the number of both professional as well as casual and friendly online meetings and social interactions. While individuals are able to adjust their interpersonal distances in an in-person interaction (e.g., Cartaud et al., 2018Hammes, 1964;Iachini et al., 2016;Pazhoohi et al., 2019;Rapuano et al., 2021;Ruggiero et al., 2017;Smith, 1953;Yee & Bailenson, 2007), the question of what the appropriate distance is for online dyadic interactions remains unknown. In other words, individuals have preferential comfort distances in their in-person interparental interactions, as well as in virtual interactions (Buck et al., 2020;Olivier, Ondrej, Pettré, Kulpa, & Cretual, 2010, July;Ruggiero et al., 2017Ruggiero et al., , 2021. ...
... In the current study, we aimed to investigate individuals' preferred distance from a camera for themselves and others while in an online interaction. While there are studies for testing the preferred distances for interpersonal interactions in different contexts (e.g., Cartaud et al., 2020;Iachini et al., 2016;Pazhoohi et al., 2019;Ruggiero et al., 2017;Yee & Bailenson, 2007), to the best of our knowledge no research has explored the distance preference in an online interaction. This question acquired momentum during the COVID-19 pandemic as many people were required -and since may have chosen -to change many social interactions from in-person to online. ...
Article
Humans maintain distance from others in their interpersonal interactions and this has been documented in previous research in real-world scenarios. However, thanks to telecommunication technologies, humans are also interacting online with each other. While individuals are competent in adjusting their interpersonal distance based on their own preferences and others' considerations in a real-world situation, they might not be as competent in their online interactions. The aim of the current study is twofold: a) to investigate individuals’ preferred distance from a camera both for themselves and others while in an online interaction, and b) to test whether individual differences in pathogen sensitivity influence their preferred distances in an online interaction. Participants (N = 159) were asked to indicate their comfort distance from a camera for themselves and others while interacting in an online scenario. The distance from the camera varied systematically from 50 cm to 200 cm. Results showed that participants preferred to stand 80 cm–120 cm from a camera. As for the avatars that the participants viewed online, men and women preferred female avatars to stand between 80 cm to 130 cm from a camera, and male avatars to stand between 80 cm to 150 cm from a camera. And although the chances of contracting a disease online is zero, we found that germ aversion and concern about contracting COVID-19 were associated with the preferred distances from the camera. We attribute this result to a false positive error in social cognition.
... It is noted here that behavior of the users is changed by the characteristics of their body. This phenomenon has been recognized and is known as the Proteus effect [1]. Similarly, a theory of embodied cognition (EC) has been studied so far [2]. ...
Article
The progress of immersive technology enables researchers and developers to construct work spaces that are freed from real-world constraints. This has motivated us to investigate the role of the human body. In this research, we examine human cognitive behaviors in obtaining an understanding of the width of their virtual body through simple yet meaningful experiments using virtual reality (VR). In the experiments, participants were modeled as an invisible board, and a spherical object was thrown at the participants to provide information for exploring the width of their invisible body. Audio and visual feedback were provided when the object came into contact with the board (body). We first explored how precisely the participants perceived the virtual body width. Next, we examined how the body perception was generated and changed as the trial proceeded when the participants tried to move right or left actively for the avoidance of collision with approaching objects. The results of the experiments indicated that the participants could become successful in avoiding collision within a limited number of trials (14 at most) under the experimental conditions. It was also found that they postponed deciding how much they should move at the beginning and then started taking evasive action earlier as they become aware of the virtual body.
... En particulier, le genre ainsi que les proportions de l'avatar doivent être choisis en accord avec les applications souhaitées. Par exemple, représenter un avatar plus grand que l'utilisateur a pour effet de réduire l'auto-perception négative (Freeman et al., 2014) et d'augmenter la confiance en soi (Yee and Bailenson, 2007). Modifier la corpulence de l'avatar permet d'adresser des problèmes de surpoids (Gutiérrez-Maldonado et al., 2016;Rubo and Gamer, 2019;Scarpina et al., 2019) ou d'anorexie (Keizer et al., 2016;Porras-Garcia et al., 2020;Serino et al., 2019). ...
Thesis
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L’Homme fait naturellement l’expérience d’un soi conscient, localisé à l’intérieur de ses frontières corporelles. Cette conscience de soi corporelle peut être manipulée à l’aide de stimulations multisensorielles, combinant des signaux extéroceptifs et intéroceptifs. En particulier, l’usage d’un avatar en réalité virtuelle (VR) se substituant au corps du participant permet d’induire des illusions corps entier grâce à l’induction de signaux physiologiques, et d’exploiter des phénomènes cognitifs et moteurs liés à l’identification au corps virtuel.Les progrès de la réalité virtuelle et des technologies de capture du mouvement permettent aujourd’hui à un utilisateur de contrôler un avatar en temps réel, perçu à la troisième personne. Conscience de soi, cognition et comportement visuomoteur agissent alors de concert, créant de nouvelles interactions pouvant donner naissance à l’incarnation de l’avatar.L’objectif final de ce travail était de concevoir un cadre expérimental permettant de mesurer et de comprendre les relations entre l’utilisateur et son avatar, et d’étudier leur impact sur ses performances. Les travaux menés s’intéressent à la fois à la mesure des performances et de la conscience de soi corporelle en VR, mais aussi à l’application d’une nouvelle méthode de mesure des adaptations visuomotrices et du sentiment d’incarnation via la complexité des signaux du mouvement humain.L'activité motrice volontaire est organisée autour du sentiment d'agentivité, qui décrit la conscience d'un corps agissant, et la coordination de systèmes complexes impliquant perception, cognition et mouvement, autour de la conscience d’un soi ancré dans un corps physique. Des études récentes suggèrent qu’il est possible d’obtenir des informations sur les interconnexions entre le cerveau, le corps et l’environnement en s’intéressant aux propriétés non-linéaires du mouvement émergeant des interactions entre ces différents composants. Sur la base de signaux moteurs échantillonnés à haute fréquence, la multifractalité des séries temporelles se révèle être un indicateur pertinent pour évaluer ces interactions.Dans ce travail nous avons transposé une tâche de temps de réponse visuomoteurs en VR, et conduit une analyse multifractale des mouvements des mains (enregistrés avec les contrôleurs VR) pour caractériser les adaptations fines provoquées par différents espaces visuels d’intervention, ainsi que les différences de contrôle entre les mains dominante et non-dominante. L’analyse multifractale a également été appliquée aux mouvements d’une souris d’ordinateur pour étudier le phénomène d’incarnation d’un outil, littéralement l’incorporation d’un outil dans un système cognitif étendu. Enfin, nous avons étudié l’influence de stimulations multisensorielles sur le sentiment d’incarnation d’un avatar vu à la troisième personne, statique ou mobilisé par le participant.Les résultats de ces expériences permettent de mieux comprendre le phénomène d’incarnation impliquant la conscience de soi corporelle, et de proposer l’analyse des interactions non-linéaires entre l’utilisateur et son avatar pour rendre compte du phénomène de cognition étendue. En combinant ces phénomènes avec des dispositions individuelles des utilisateurs, nous avons tenté d’éclairer un champ transdisciplinaire, nécessaire à l’approche de systèmes complexes dont les propriétés émergentes sont fondamentales pour appréhender les interactions permanentes entre perception, cognition et action.
... These are the same parameters which had already been identified in the studies on the illusion of the Rubber Hand carried out by Botvinick in 1998. According to Yee and Bailenson (2007) and Carter (2013), the use of an avatar with certain characteristics can change the behavior and self-perceptions of the individual (phenomenon named "Proteus effect") and modify their agency (that is a fundamental variable in the field of Didactics) (Aiello, 2019). In synthesis, as Peter Sloterdijk claims, "Dasein ist Design" -existence is design - (Latour, 2008). ...
Article
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In the past year the word "metaverse" seems to have become ever more present in an array of publications and projects in different fields spanning from economics, psychology, education, and philosophy to engineering and computer sciences. The founder of Meta has claimed that the metaverse is the future of internet and has described it as "a set of virtual spaces which you can create and explore with other people who aren't in the same physical space as you […] it will be an embodied internet operated by many different players in a decentralized way". During the Meta Connect conference in October 2022, Microsoft announced their collaboration with Meta for the development of Microsoft Teams Mesh to bring Teams into the metaverse. In addition, Meta has launched Horizon Workspace, Zoom has created Zoom VR, there are different releases of Moodle VR, Google AR/VR division is working on features of Workspace for Virtual Reality whereas the majority of Learning Management Apps have already developed features and versions for VR or for metaverse. This massive use of Extended Reality (with the metaverse or with other similar technologies) will have a high impact on the way we teach today and in the future. To date, it seems that we do not have sufficient lexis to analyze the implications of the use of this kind of technology in relation to teaching learning processes, and in this perspective simplex didactics seems to offer a possible path to initiate this debate.Nell'ultimo anno il termine "metaverso" sembra essere diventato sempre più presente nella letteratura scientifica in ambiti fra loro anche molto diversi quali quello economico, psicologico, educativo, filosofico ,ingegneristico, informatico ecc. Il fondatore di Meta ha affermato che il metaverso è il futuro di Internet e lo ha descritto come "un insieme di spazi virtuali che puoi creare ed esplorare con altre persone che non si trovano nel tuo stesso spazio fisico […] sarà un internet incarnato gestito da molti attori diversi in modo decentralizzato". Molti dei software più usati per l'erogazione della didattica a distanza stanno già sviluppando features specifiche per il metaverso. Durante la conferenza Meta Connect nell'ottobre 2022, infatti, Microsoft ha annunciato la collaborazione con Meta per lo sviluppo di Microsoft Teams Mesh per portare Teams nel metaverso. Inoltre, Meta ha lanciato Horizon Workspace, Zoom ha creato Zoom VR, ci sono diverse versioni di Moodle VR attualmente disponibili, la divisione AR/VR di Google sta lavorando sulle funzionalità di Workspace per la realtà virtuale. Questo uso massiccio della Realtà Estesa (con il metaverso o con altre tecnologie simili) avrà probabilmente un forte impatto sul modo in cui facciamo e faremo didattica. Ad oggi, sembra che non si disponga di un lessico sufficientemente sviluppato per analizzare le implicazioni che l'uso di questa tecnologia potrebbe avere in relazione ai processi di apprendimento/insegnamento, e in questa prospettiva, la didattica semplessa offre una possibile via per avviare la riflessione scientifica in relazione a questa tematica.
... Virtual mirrors are used to make users aware of their altered appearance by providing a holistic third-person perspective on their virtual body (Inoue and Kitazaki, 2021). The observed modified selfappearance can induce human perceptual or behavioral changes based on the Proteus Effect (Ratan et al., 2020), which originally describes the phenomenon that users adapt their behavior according to the behavior they expect from the appearance of their embodied avatar (Yee and Bailenson, 2007). ...
Article
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Virtual reality applications employing avatar embodiment typically use virtual mirrors to allow users to perceive their digital selves not only from a first-person but also from a holistic third-person perspective. However, due to distance-related biases such as the distance compression effect or a reduced relative rendering resolution, the self-observation distance (SOD) between the user and the virtual mirror might influence how users perceive their embodied avatar. Our article systematically investigates the effects of a short (1 m), middle (2.5 m), and far (4 m) SOD between users and mirror on the perception of their personalized and self-embodied avatars. The avatars were photorealistic reconstructed using state-of-the-art photogrammetric methods. Thirty participants repeatedly faced their real-time animated self-embodied avatars in each of the three SOD conditions, where they were repeatedly altered in their body weight, and participants rated the 1) sense of embodiment, 2) body weight perception, and 3) affective appraisal towards their avatar. We found that the different SODs are unlikely to influence any of our measures except for the perceived body weight estimation difficulty. Here, the participants perceived the difficulty significantly higher for the farthest SOD. We further found that the participants' self-esteem significantly impacted their ability to modify their avatar's body weight to their current body weight and that it positively correlated with the perceived attractiveness of the avatar. Additionally, the participants' concerns about their body shape affected how eerie they perceived their avatars. The participants' self-esteem and concerns about their body shape influenced the perceived body weight estimation difficulty. We conclude that the virtual mirror in embodiment scenarios can be freely placed and varied at a distance of one to four meters from the user without expecting major effects on the perception of the avatar.
... The lack of the human body in the communication process also affects the presentation of the self, which becomes something with which one can play by representing oneself through nicknames and later through avatars. Yee and Bailenson (2007) documented the alteration of self-representations happening in virtual environments and the consequent changes in behavior and perception that this entails: the so-called Proteus effect. This phenomenon of altering behavior based on the characteristics of one's avatar was investigated further by Sherrick et al. (2014) who analyzed the role of stereotypical beliefs in gender-based activation of this effect. ...
Article
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In this introduction to the fifth volume of the journal Human-Machine Communication, we present and discuss the five articles focusing on gender and human-machine communication. In this essay, we will analyze the theme of gender, including how this notion has historically and politically been set up, and for what reasons. We will start by considering gender in in-person communication, then we will progress to consider what happens to gender when it is mediated by the most important ICTs that preceded HMC: the telephone, mobile phone, and computer-mediated communication (CMC). We outline the historical framework necessary to analyze the last section of the essay, which focuses on gender in HMC. In the conclusion, we will set up some final sociological and political reflections on the social meaning of these technologies for gender and specifically for women.
... Older people tend to create younger avatars and people with a higher body mass index -likely overweight or obese -create more physically idealized avatars, which are taller or thinner (Bessiere et al., 2007;Carrasco et al., 2017;Stavropoulos, et al., 2018). The compensation effect also regards the psychological feature, bringing people who are depressed or have low self-esteem create avatars with more idealized traits, such as being more gregarious and conscientious (Yee & Bailenson, 2007). ...
Chapter
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Avatars are an important feature of digital environments. Existing both in social networks and webchats (usually as static images) and in single-player and online video games (as dynamic characters, often humanoid), avatars are meant to represent users' action and communication within digital environments. Research has shown that, when they are customized by users, avatars are not created “randomly,” rather they maintain some kind of relationship with users' actual self-representation and identity. However, more recent studies showed that users may have multiple digital representations: the same person could create multiple avatars depending on which facet of the self is primed by an experimental manipulation, or on which aims they have to pursue in the given virtual environments (e.g., to seduce, to play, to work). With this background, this contribution explores the possibility to use customized avatars within psychological assessment, as adjunctive assessment tools useful to get information on patients' self-representation(s) and communicative intentions.
... For decades, the emotional attachment between the avatar and user has been considered via the Proteus Effect, which describes a condition in which a user changes their off-line behaviour in response to the actions of their digital selves (Yee and Bailenson 2007). Should the avatar become increasing embodied and relevant, the potential of the Proteus Effect in the hypervirtual Spatial Web should be thought of as a serious health concern. ...
Article
Umberto Eco presented an analysis of contemporary culture in the 1970s that has increasingly become cemented within the zeitgeist of society over the following decades. Eco’s writing depicted America as a civilisation of fakes that simulates and replicates a past reality that never truly existed. However, the mere existence of this phenomena creates a sense of nostalgia and desire for this “fake” past that was—for Eco—no longer a false reality or an unreality but a hyperreality. Eco, along with others like Jean Baudrillard, came up with the concept of the hyperreal as something other than an inauthentic lie or an overtly different place that exists only to entertain. Rather they felt that it must be a simulation of a reality that is itself complete. It is indistinguishable from “true” reality, but it has no grounding—that is, it is the authentic simulation of something that did not exist, but could have, and now does via the proxy of the simulation. However, while virtual reality (VR) is often held as the epitome of the hyperreal in our digitised society, this article considers the future, as mixed reality (MR) experiences become increasingly mainstream.
... VR users often feel that they embody the avatar whose firstperson perspective they share, rather than merely controlling a character from a third-person viewpoint. This sense of embodiment can result in intensive forms of the 'proteus effect' (Yee & Bailenson, 2007): given a high sense of presence in a VR experience, users do not mimetically 'act as if' they are that avatar, they are that avatar in that particular time and space. ...
Chapter
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The 2022 EUROCALL conference was held in Reykjavik on 17-19 August 2022 as a fully online event hosted by the Vigdís Finnbogadóttir Institute for Foreign Languages, the University of Iceland, and the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies. The conference theme was Intelligent CALL, granular systems and learner data. This theme reflects the newest developments in the field of technology for language learning. Subfields such as natural language processing and machine learning not only enable smoother spoken and written communication between human learners and computers, but also offer ways in which language learning can be tailored to the needs of individual learners. By adding components of automatic speech recognition, text-to-speech systems, automatic feedback mechanisms, and tracking systems monitoring learners’ progress and their use of tools, applications are becoming better targeted. All of this is used to optimise the learning experience of individual learners. This volume includes 66 short papers by some of the EUROCALL 2022 presenters and it offers a combination of research studies and theoretical papers reflecting the subthemes of the conference. The articles are ordered alphabetically.
... 4 As virtual world behaviours can translate into realworld behaviours and actions, and as these experiences become increasingly immersive, the Proteus effect, where users take on the attributes of their virtual incarnations, could be a progressively important and powerful way of changing the global health dialogue and health attitudes in the future. 5 There have already been numerous attempts to use more immersive, dynamic and mobile computing experiences to revitalise healthcare services and delivery. Accelerated by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, telehealth has seen considerable growth and illustrates some of the concerns and barriers of technological adoption. ...
... If the EPT component is identified as a key element of the training, future research should disentangle the role of embodiment by comparing a group of residents that will be subjected to EPT to residents who will simply be inserted in a random first-person virtual avatar to test for the Proteus Effect [47]. In addition to this, in the current protocol we did not include a control condition for specific features of EPT (e.g., synchronous vs non-synchronous perspective-taking experience), which for this reason may be analyzed in future studies. ...
... Certaines études montrent que les caractéristiques de l'avatar que l'on incarne (morphologie, carrure, habits) influencent directement le comportement et l'estime de soi des utilisateurs (Ratan et al., 2019). Il s'agit de l'effet Proteus (Yee & Bailenson, 2007) qui conforte l'idée que les représentations psychiques et affectives du corps numérique, ici de l'avatar, modifient les faits, gestes et pensées de l'individu. ...
... Studies have shown that avatar features (shape, build, clothes) have a direct impact on users' behavior and selfesteem (Ratan et al., 2019). This is referred to as the Proteus effect (Yee & Bailenson, 2007), which supports the idea that mental and affective representations of the digital body, in this case the avatar, alter an individual's actions, movements, and thoughts. 15 The avatar, as a corporeal mediator connecting the individual to the immersive digital world, doubles the individual's "own body," in the sense of Merleau-Ponty (1945): the carnal body is doubled by a virtual body, which is the medium the subject relies on to exist in the immersive context. ...
... VR represents a powerful tool for embodying people into a "different" body (virtual embodiment) and changing their body representation. When people are virtually embodied with a body different from their own, they tend to exhibit behaviors associated with attributes and characteristics of that body (Banakou et al., 2013): An effect known as Proteus Effect (Yee and Bailenson, 2007). ...
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Introduction Recent studies showed that VR is a valid tool to change implicit attitudes toward outgroup members. Here, we extended this work by investigating conditions under which virtual reality (VR) is effective in changing implicit racial attitudes. Methods To this end, participants were embodied in a Black or White avatar and we manipulated the perspective through which they could see their virtual body. Participants in one condition, could see their virtual body both from a first-person perspective (i.e., by looking down toward themselves) and reflected in a mirror placed in front of them in the VR environment. Participants in another condition could instead see their virtual body only from a first-person perspective (i.e., by looking down toward themselves) as no mirror was placed in the VR environment. Implicit racial attitudes were assessed using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) before and immediately after the VR intervention. Results Results showed that when White participants were embodied in a Black avatar compared to a White avatar, they showed a decrease in their implicit pro-White attitudes but only when they could see their virtual body both from a first-person perspective and in a mirror. Discussion These results suggest that, in immersive virtual reality interventions, the possibility for participants to see their body also reflected in a mirror, might be a critical factor in changing their implicit racial attitudes.
... Apart from being an interesting psychological e ect, virtual body ownership also offers various benefits to the VR application, such as boosting presence [144] and game experience [88] or improving distance estimations [123] and spatial knowledge [39,81]. Lastly, embodiment is often connected to the so-called Proteus e ect [182], which describes the unconscious projection of avatar characteristics on self-perception. Prior literature demonstrated the e ect by evoking childish feelings when controlling a child avatar [7], increasing perceived strength when playing tough characters [90], or reducing the racial bias when embodying black people [114]. ...
Thesis
Once a topic only for researchers and enthusiasts, virtual reality (VR) has recently developed into a widely available platform with huge potential. However, we are still far from tapping the full potential of virtual environments. Whereas one might argue that the reasons reside in the low prevalence of headsets or the necessity for further technical advancements, we see a primary reason in the expectations for VR. Often, it is tempting to copy tried-and-tested interactions and interfaces from non-VR applications or replace established approaches and workflows that work well without a VR headset. Instead, we want to think outside the box and design techniques "VR-first" that leverage the unique advantages VR oers. In this dissertation, we explore how to design the interaction with virtual worlds to achieve a natural and fluent VR experience. Our work spans four essential aspects of VR research: locomotion, interaction, perspectives, and applications. First, we contribute to the field of locomotion research by establishing four unique navigation concepts that either target decisive gaps in the literature or improve existing approaches. Next, we focus on the interaction within the VR environment by presenting our eorts in un- derstanding user behavior, imagining novel input modalities, and structuring interface design. Afterward, we extend the sensation of owning a virtual body in VR to animal avatars and investigate the potential of multiprotagonist narratives where users switch between dierent characters. In the last part, we cover the general use of VR in every- day life. Therefore, we explore how non-VR audiences can watch the user’s experience in the virtual world. We also demonstrate the potential of full-body exercises in VR by designing an exergame for safe and engaging jump training. Finally, we conclude the dissertation with a general discussion of the presented concepts and a critical look at our research and its potential impact.
... 356). This definition of identification resonates closely with Yee and Bailenson's (2007) description of the Proteus effect, a phenomenon wherein a user's attitudes and behaviors align with the characteristics of their avatar (for a recent meta-analysis see Ratan, Beyea, Li, & Graciano, 2019). The Proteus effect is more pronounced if users perceive the body of their avatar as their actual body (Yee & Bailenson, 2008). ...
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Alongside the development of VR technology, empirical research and theorizing on VR entertainment is also expanding. Currently missing is an integrative conceptual framework that identifies properties of VR that distinguish it from other currently available entertainment media. In the present chapter we attempt a step in this direction. After reviewing recent trends in VR entertainment, we identify key affordances and characteristics of the VR experience. Subsequently, we discuss how these elements may shape the entertainment experience and how existing entertainment theories may be elaborated or challenged by VR. We offer five guiding propositions for future research. We conclude with a brief discussion of the complexities of creating and studying VR entertainment.
... However, to boost the sense of immersion, all these applications have been implemented using standard VR design, which primarily depends on the translation of user viewpoints into a first-person perspective. The goal of the metaverse platform is to improve the "embodiment illusion" to produce a new, multi-sensory sense of the physical and self-presence (Spanlang et al., 2014), and the "Proteus Effect" (Yee and Bailenson, 2007) which takes place when participants experience or use a virtual body (Heydrich et al., 2013). ...
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Since Mark Zuckerberg's announcement about the development of new three-dimensional virtual worlds for social communication, a great debate has been raised about the promise of such a technology. The metaverse, a term formed by combining meta and universe, could open a new era in mental health, mainly in psychological disorders, where the creation of a full-body illusion via digital avatar could promote healthcare and personal well-being. Patients affected by body dysmorphism symptoms (i.e., eating disorders), social deficits (i.e. autism) could greatly benefit from this kind of technology. However, it is not clear which advantage the metaverse would have in treating psychological disorders with respect to the well-known and effective virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy. Indeed, in the last twenty years, a plethora of studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of VR technology in reducing symptoms of pain, anxiety, stress, as well as, in improving cognitive and social skills. We hypothesize that the metaverse will offer more opportunities, such as a more complex, virtual realm where sensory inputs , and recurrent feedback, mediated by a "federation" of multiple technologies-e.g., artificial intelligence, tangible interfaces, Internet of Things and blockchain, can be reinterpreted for facilitating a new kind of communication overcoming self-body representation. However, nowadays a clear starting point does not exist. For this reason, it is worth defining a theoretical framework for applying this new kind of technology in a social neuro-science context for developing accurate solutions to mental health in the future.
Article
Technology has been expanding the service encounter concept. Avatars, including virtual and robotic avatars, have been gaining popularity as an emerging technology to generate more human-like and even enhanced remote interactions in technology-mediated service encounters. However, service researchers have paid lesser attention to human-controlled avatar technologies compared to service robots as autonomous avatars. In response to the emerging business and research interests, the technology-mediated service encounter model needs to be updated by integrating avatar technologies. To address this gap, this study develops a conceptual framework of avatar-mediated service encounters. This concept amalgamates features of traditional technology-mediated service encounters and service robots from the aspects of service flexibility and interaction modality. The applications of avatar technologies are categorized based on two axes – user type and avatar embodiment type – and the impacts and research agenda are outlined for each category. The proposed framework contributes to improving remote service experiences and realizing resilient service workplaces.
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The touchless economy of the pandemic era includes a network of virtual communities in which people participate as they conduct their everyday lives in a low-exposure-risk fashion. To help understand and put these communities in context, this entry describes a typology of virtual communities adapted from Porter (2004). The five elements of the proposed typology include (1) purpose (content of interaction), (2) population (participants in the interaction), (3) platform (design of interaction), (4) place (location of interaction), and (5) profit model (return on interaction). This five-element typology facilitates recognition of essential elements and differences between the many virtual communities that are becoming part of people’s lives in the pandemic era and helps frame and put in context (a) likely new practices and technology applications and (b) new topics for future post-pandemic research in the social, business, and computing sciences.
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Avatars are virtual characters that now belong to the popular culture around video games, social networks, and digital applications in general. However, using an avatar may not be as insignificant as it seems, because avatars, by providing us with a fresh new appearance, may impact the very perception of our own identity. The aim of this entry is to offer an overview of the sociocognitive processes influenced by the use of avatars and illustrate them with empirical findings from the literature, including examples related to the Proteus effect. Finally, we will open avenues as to what could become possible through avatars, in particular in the field of avatar-mediated creativity.
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Though human-like design can increase favorable social behaviors like familiarity and acceptance, it can also question the technology's effectiveness, rationality, and functionality. With capabilities that allow technology to become more and more human-like, researchers and practitioners continue to delve over the efficacy and deployment of humanness in design. In this research paper, we measure positive and negative perceptions towards different levels of humanness among an emerging form of digital character: the virtual influencer. In doing so, we assess the efficacy of human-like design among virtual influencers by manipulating their visual realism and measuring the effect of this manipulation on their credibility and persuasiveness. Our experimental design also allows us to explore the existence of the uncanny valley in a novel technological context.
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This handbook focuses on the development and nurturance of creativity across the lifespan, from early childhood to adolescence, adulthood, and later life. It answers the question: how can we help individuals turn their creative potential into achievement? Each chapter examines various contexts in which creativity exists, including school, workplace, community spaces, and family life. It covers various modalities for fostering creativity such as play, storytelling, explicit training procedures, shifting of attitudes about creative capacity, and many others. The authors review research findings across disciplines, encompassing the work of psychologists, educators, neuroscientists, and creators themselves, to describe the best practices for fostering creativity at each stage of development.
Article
The ease with which we can now create digital selves means that virtual environments such as video games can be playgrounds for experimenting with alternative identities. Extensive experimental research exists examining what determines our virtual selves’ (avatar’s) appearance and impact, but relatively few studies addresses this in detail using qualitative methods. There is also very little research which focuses specifically on female gamers and how they may experience avatar choices, which is especially important given the hostile environment they may face in public gaming spaces. The present study aimed to examine avatar decisions of women gamers with the use of semi-structured gaming interviews, where participants were interviewed while creating an avatar in a popular action adventure game. The data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis and three themes were extracted. The women interviewed expressed frustration having to ‘pretend to be a guy’ due to lack of choice and motivation to avoid harassment online. However, when discussing environments where they were free to customise their character, participants both adhered to prescriptive norms for women to avoid being a ‘bigger girl’, while rejecting traditionally feminine appearance to avoid being ‘a stereotype’. Findings show that despite using avatars to be someone else, the women were often constrained in their choices by the male-centric context of gaming, and reactions to this context which involved eschewing femininity in their avatar choices.
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p>Una simulación de la realidad puede ilustrar e ilusionar pero no debe de despistar, ya que por muy espectaculares, accesibles o realistas que se presenten esos mundos de posibilidades, no hay que olvidarse de su construcción ficcional. El objetivo principal de este estudio, es analizar estrategias que a veces pasan desapercibidas en la simulación de la realidad: desde la intencionalidad del creador, la dependencia de un mal uso o la influencia que puede tener el diseño del avatar para la propia persona. Se hace referencia al procedimiento metodológico utilizado para un filme desde las teorías sobre la narra­tiva fílmica, la semiótica del relato (Sulbarán Piñeiro, 2016) y la teoría de la hiperrealidad (Baudrillard, 1984) debido a que cuanto más está avanzando la tecnología más distancia se está creado con respecto a la realidad. Este estudio está dirigido a estudiantes adolescentes de edades comprendidas entre 12 y 18 años. Y adquirir, a través de la alfabetización digital, aprendizajes ele­mentales en relaciones con conceptos, apren­dizajes superiores convergentes referentes en generar ideas, análisis y síntesis.</p
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The article examines the impact of social networks and their messengers’ applications on political, educational, and routine life in Ukraine and Poland. The statistics of the number of users of social networks and messengers in Ukraine and in Poland are shown and analyzed. Also, the article shows social networks that are getting new users, and other ones that are losing. It is shown how social networks, as instagram and youtube have become a tool for the financial independence of the younger generation. The political aspect of the network is highlighted, namely, how politicians use social networks for their own purposes. It was also noted how the facebook social network was used to organize people during the «Revolution of Dignity» in Ukraine and in the further development of civil society. The role of facebook and instagram in the presidential election campaigns of 2019 in Ukraine has also been demonstrated.
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Virtual reality (VR) impacts students’ emotions in learning situations. Psychopedagogy is an integrative approach to emotions and learning that could help protect students’ emotions in VR. Based on the challenges of developing VR experiences for natural disaster preparedness that remain emotionally healthy, this chapter introduces the concept of Psychopedagogy by Design. KeywordsDesigning virtual environmentsEducational virtual realityEmotionsPedagogyPsychopedagogyVirtual reality learning environments
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The concept of the metaverse dates to 1992; however, the popularity of this concept has gained increased attention in 2021 following the announcement by Mark Zuckerberg. The topic of the metaverse is a new and attractive topic that is gaining increased insight from researchers. The paper focuses on a broader evaluation of the metaverse and web 3.0 technologies. Moreover, an assessment of the history and potential of these technologies is considered. Additionally, an evaluation of the available literature reviews between 1992 and 2022 was conducted. The assessment identified enormous attention on this scope from diverse multidisciplinary fields ranging from virtual reality, augmented reality, quantum communication, and blockchain. In the next ten years, expected progress is expected concerning metaverse and web 3.0 technologies. Consequently, these technologies will significantly impact how users interact with one another and how they associate with the internet. In this paper, we address the current security challenges and opportunities with the rise of the metaverse.
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In recent years, the Metaverse is gaining traction. It is playing an increasingly important role in our lives. The year of 2021 is referred to the first year of the Metaverse. Researches all over the world on the Metaverse showed an explosive force beyond imagination. Beginning with the concept of the Metaverse and the application in educational Metaverse as the guidance, this paper discusses the ethical issues of educational Metaverse based on background of the Metaverse. Ultimately the biggest problem of the Metaverse is a human beings problem. That is to realize the purpose of people-oriented education. This paper mainly examines ethical problems of Metaverse from two aspects. Firstly, the problem of individual autonomy in the educational Metaverse is clearly specified. Secondly, we investigate the issues of privacy in the educational Metaverse. In addition, a series of minor problems such as data distortion, technical training and challenges for teachers are also discussed in detail.
Article
This study investigated how avatar customization activated leadership styles which may influence subsequent altruistic behavior. Participants (N = 222) engaged in a resource allocation task after customizing avatars that combined their physical self with the traits of democratic or authoritarian business leaders relative to a control condition. Authoritarian condition participants showed decreased altruism than those in the democratic condition. Additionally, participants attributed increased leadership empowerment to their customized avatars but not to themselves. The findings supported the assumption that business leader primes can influence individuals’ behavior and provided initial evidence for how avatar customization can exert priming effects on altruism and social perceptions. Future research avenues for this line of research are further discussed.
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This study examines virtual reality (VR) poker and how the platform affects poker players' experience. Players use a self-customized avatar and other features of a computer platform that differs from in-person poker. Data were collected through observations from in-game poker VR recordings and interviews with five professional poker players. Findings are analysed theoretically through proteus effects, social presence, ecological psychology, magic circle, and liminality. This demonstrates the interactive cues that poker players use when immersed in virtual reality and embodied in a digital avatar. The goals from this research are to learn about the influence avatars have on poker players: if players can still maintain their poker skills and read different cue signs from other players while embodied in an avatar and immersed in VR. This paper also explores the promise of poker in virtual reality and its environment, examples of existing applications, a discussion of the research to date, and also provides a vision for the future.
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Virtual reality (VR) allows individuals to experience someone else’s body, but the possible effects of this embodiment on attitudes and biases are not fully understood. Using a virtual reality (VR) task, we had previously shown that changes in the visual image of the hand influenced action: when the visual image of one’s hand was spatially displaced, participants acted as if the virtual hand was theirs. Here we tested whether these effects vary depending on the match between the skin color of the individual and the virtual hand. Black and White participants performed reaching movements with dark or light hands of naturalistic skin tones, or purple hands. As in our previous work, the correspondence between the location of the real and virtual hands was systematically varied. Both Black and White participants showed changes in the temporal and spatial parameters of the movements with the virtual hand of different colors indicating that the hand had been embodied. A larger effect of the illusion was observed in Black as compared to White individuals when performing the action with a dark-skin virtual hand. Ownership of the virtual hand that matched the participants’ skin color was associated with their explicit attitude towards their in-group in Black participants and with empathic abilities in White individuals. Importantly, performing the task with a dark-skin hand reduced the implicit racial bias of White individuals. These data show that body representation is malleable and influenced by online perceptual factors as well as attitudes and biases. Our findings raise the possibility that altering the representation of one’s body may be used to change participants’ perspectives regarding social issues.
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The authors conducted an experiment to determine the effects of gender, race, online video gaming experience, and the experimental context in which participants played the video game (online vs. offline vs. no information control) on avatar selection. The qualities of the avatar compared were based on eight objective differences between avatars and individuals: attractiveness, skin tone, height, girth chest size, waist size, hip size, and height. As predicted, those with online gaming experience selected avatars that were taller, thinner, and more attractive relative to their real selves than did participants with no prior online game experience. Non-white participants selected avatars with lighter skin-tones, whereas white participants selected avatars with darker skin-tones. Surprisingly, male participants selected shorter avatars than female counterparts did.
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One’s digital identity on the Metaverse is critical enough to warrant EU regulation. Suggesting Interactive Digital Narratives as having a role to play in the Metaverse, we focus on the identity of the Virtual Reality interactor in such virtual spaces, and the potential impact this may have on the self-identity of the interactor. Building upon the notions of identity and the interactor’s construction of their narrative identity, we revisit identification in the context of VR Interactive Narratives (VRINs) and explore authenticity and character similarity as its dimensions. We interpret the construction of a narrative identity in VR as a vehicle for identity shift between the interactor’s self-identity and identification with the character. Based on the theoretical framework, we present a conceptual model for identity shift in VRINs which we then apply to a number of case studies to exemplify its utility and provide some guidelines for VRIN authors in how to use this model.KeywordVirtual realityInteractive narrativeIdentityAuthenticity
Article
The tensions between democracy and justice have long preoccupied political theorists. Institutions that are procedurally democratic do not necessarily make substantively just decisions. Democratizing Global Justice shows that democracy and justice can be mutually reinforcing in global governance - a domain where both are conspicuously lacking - and indeed that global justice requires global democratization. This novel reconceptualization of the problematic relationship between global democracy and global justice emphasises the role of inclusive deliberative processes. These processes can empower the agents necessary to determine what justice should mean and how it should be implemented in any given context. Key agents include citizens and the global poor; and not just the states but also international organizations and advocacy groups active in global governance. The argument is informed by and applied to the decision process leading to adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals, and climate governance inasmuch as it takes on questions of climate justice.
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The Proteus effect in Virtual Reality (VR) happens when the user's behavior or attitude are affected by their avatar's appearance. The virtual body appearance is somehow affecting the emotional, behavioral and psychological state of its user. In recent years, manipulation of an avatar has become a more common situation because of social VR platforms. It is considered that the Proteus effect can be induced even for social VR users. However, there are possibilities to disrupt the Proteus effect by becoming accustomed to embodying an avatar or attachment to their avatar. In this paper, we investigated whether the Proteus effect can be induced even for social VR users. We experimented on how an artist-like avatar affects the score of creativity on brainstorming in comparison with a common avatar. Fourteen VRChat users participated in our experiment. We evaluate the number of ideas and the quality of ideas during brain-storming. As result, there are no significant differences and interactions between conditions regarding any measures. In addition, there are no equivalencies except the number of selected unique ideas. It implies that an artist-like avatar does not significantly affect the user's creativity in this experiment.. However, six of the fourteen participants reported that the artist-like avatar's appearance affected their thinking during task execution. Our results suggest that further research is needed to fully understand the elicitations, implications and limitations of the Proteus effect in VR.
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Conventionally, human-controlled and machine-controlled virtual characters are studied separately under different theoretical frameworks based on the ontological nature of the particular virtual character. However, in recent years, the technological advancement has made the boundaries between human and machine agency increasingly blurred. This manuscript proposes a theoretical framework that can explain how various virtual characters, regardless of their ontological agency, can be treated as unique social actors with a focus on perceived authenticity. Specifically, drawing on the authenticity model in computer-mediated communication proposed by Lee (2020) and a typology of virtual characters, a multi-layered perceived authenticity model is proposed to demonstrate how virtual characters do not have to be perceived as humans and yet can be perceived as authentic to their human interactants.
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Publisher Summary Individuals come to “know” their own attitudes, emotions, and other internal states partially by inferring them from observations of their own overt behavior and/ or the circumstances in which this behavior occurs. Thus, to the extent that internal cues are weak, ambiguous, or uninterpretable, the individual is functionally in the same position as an outside observer, an observer who must necessarily rely upon those same external cues to infer the individual's inner states. This chapter traces the conceptual antecedents and empirical consequences of these propositions, attempts to place the theory in a slightly enlarged frame of reference, and clarifies just what phenomena the theory can and cannot account for in the rapidly growing experimental literature of self-attribution phenomena. Several experiments and paradigms from the cognitive dissonance literature are amenable to self-perception interpretations. But precisely because such experiments are subject to alternative interpretations, they cannot be used as unequivocal evidence for self-perception theory. The reinterpretation of cognitive dissonance phenomena and other self-perception phenomena have been discussed. The chapter highlights some differences between self-perception and interpersonal perception and shift of paradigm in social psychology. It discusses some unsolved problems, such as the conceptual status of noncognitive response classes and the strategy of functional analysis.
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Following either a text-based, synchronous computer-mediated conversation (CMC) or a face-to-face dyadic interaction, 80 participants rated their partners' personality profile. Impressions were assessed in terms of both their breadth (the comprehensiveness of the impression) and intensity (the magnitude of the attributions). Results indicated that impressions formed in the CMC environment were less detailed but more intense than those formed face-to-face. These data provide support for theories that, in addition to acknowledging the unique constraints and characteristics of CMC, consider the cognitive strategies and heuristics involved in the impression formation process. The differential impact of a text-based medium on trait-specific impressions (e.g., extraversion, neuroticism) is also discussed in the context of a cross-modal approach to impression formation.
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Historically, at least 3 methodological problems have dogged experimental social psychology: the experimental control-mundane realism trade-off, lack of replication, and unrepresentative sampling. We argue that immersive virtual environment technology (IVET) can help ameliorate, if not solve, these methodological problems and, thus, holds promise as a new social psychological research tool. In this article, we first present an overview of IVET and review IVET-based research within psychology and other fields. Next, we propose a general model of social influence within immersive virtual environments and present some preliminary findings regarding its utility for social psychology. Finally, we present a new paradigm for experimental social psychology that may enable researchers to unravel the very fabric of social interaction.
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This article examines how interaction by means of computer-mediated communication (CMC) affects the operation of both status differentials and power relations. The authors attempt to provide a corrective to the dominant assessment, particularly within social psychological analyses, that CMC tends to equalize status, decentralize and democratize decision making, and thus empower and liberate the individual user. This emphasis contrasts with sociological critiques employing the Foucauldian metaphor of the panopticon, claiming that power relations can actually be reinforced in CMC. The authors argue that prevailing conceptualizations of influence and power within social psychology have tended to prefigure the more optimistic account, and outline a theoretical framework in which processes of “panoptic power” in CMC are given a more concrete social psychological foundation.
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This study examined the effects of time restriction on social interaction in computer-mediated communication through a meta-analysis of applicable research. Time was defined as whether subjects were restricted or unrestricted in their opportunity to exchange messages. Studies were included that assessed either of two outcome variables: socially oriented (as opposed to task-oriented) communication, and negative / uninhibited communication. Hypotheses were derived from Walther's social information processing perspective. Meta-analytic tests supported the hypotheses on social communication. Although no effects were found on negative / uninhibited communication, a reexamination of original studies suggests caution regarding previous findings.
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While computer-mediated communication use and research are proliferating rapidly, findings offer contrasting images regarding the interpersonal character of this technology. Research trends over the history of these media are reviewed with observations across trends suggested so as to provide integrative principles with which to apply media to different circumstances. First, the notion that the media reduce personal influences—their impersonal effects—is reviewed. Newer theories and research are noted explaining normative “interpersonal” uses of the media. From this vantage point, recognizing that impersonal communication is sometimes advantageous, strategies for the intentional depersonalization of media use are inferred, with implications for Group Decision Support Systems effects. Additionally, recognizing that media sometimes facilitate communication that surpasses normal interpersonal levels, a new perspective on “hyperpersonal” communication is introduced. Subprocesses are discussed pertaining to receivers, senders, channels, and feedback elements in computer-mediated communication that may enhance impressions and interpersonal relations.
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A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to explore the process and outcome of small group problem-solving discussions for two modes of communication (face-to-face and computerized conferencing) and two types of tasks (a qualitative human relations task and a scientific ranking test with a criterion solution). Interaction process was coded using Bales Interaction Process Analysis. There were two to three times as many communication units in the face to-face groups consisting of five members each as in the computerized conferencing mode of communication during the same elapsed time. Group decisions were equally good in the two modes, but the groups were less likely to reach agreement in the computerized conferencing mode. There were proportionately more of the types of task-oriented communication associated with decision quality in the computerized conferences.
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Two studies examined dominance and self-stereotyping in mixed-sex groups who had online discussions. Gender differences in dominance varied as a function of several contextual variables: individuation, the accessibility of gender stereotypes, and the fit between group task and stereotype. Results of the second study indicate that only when group members are depersonalized (anonymous and not individuated) does stereotype activation produce gender-stereotypic behavior. However, the nature of stereotypic behavior is moderated by the fit between group task and stereotypes, such that men dominate when the topic is masculine but not when it is feminine. These findings do not support suggestions that the anonymity offered by online communication would lead to equalization. Instead, results confirm predictions from a social identity model of deindividuation effects that social effects of anonymity and identifiability in (online) groups depend on contextual factors such as stereotype accessibility and fit.
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This article asks whether, and when, participants benefit from seeing each other's faces in computer-mediated communication. Although new technologies make it relatively easy to exchange images over the Internet, our formal understanding of their impacts is not clear. Some theories suggest that the more one can see of one's partners, the better one will like them. Others suggest that long-term virtual team members may like each other better than would those who use face-to-face interaction. The dynamic underlying this latter effect may also pertain to the presentation of realistic images compared with idealized virtual perceptions. A field experiment evaluated the timing of physical image presentations for members of short-term and long-term virtual, international groups. Results indicate that in new, unacquainted teams, seeing one's partner promotes affection and social attraction, but in long-term online groups, the same type of photograph dampens affinity.
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Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is sometimes heralded for its power to break down social boundaries and to liberate individuals from social influence, group pressure, and status and power differentials that characterize much face-to-face interaction. We review research conducted within the framework of the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) demonstrating that this is not always the case. When communicators share a common social identity, they appear to be more susceptible to group influence, social attraction, stereotyping, gender typing, and discrimination in anonymous CMC. Although CMC gives us the opportunity to traverse social boundaries, paradoxically, it can also afford these boundaries greater power, especially when they define self- and group identity.
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the notion that 'uninhibited behaviour' is associated with communicating via computer has gained a great deal of attention / one manifestation, 'flaming' (the hostile expression of strong emotions and feelings), has been widely reported explore in some depth the phenomenon of flaming with the intention of challenging the widely accepted claim that CMC [computer-mediated communication] somehow promotes such behaviour / [argue] flaming is in fact both radically context-dependent and relatively uncommon in CMC / describe how research has tended to decontextualize flaming and how, as a consequence, flaming has come to be regarded as a characteristic of the medium / aim will be to present a recontextualized account of flaming behaviour in CMC the flaming phenomenon [reduced social cues, computing subculture] / a social influence explanation of flaming (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Performed a content analysis on 800 lonely hearts advertisements that represented equally advertisers of both sexes and 40 yrs of life (ages 20–59). It was found that women were more likely than men to offer attractiveness, seek financial security, express concerns about the potential partner's motives, and seek someone who was older. In complementary fashion, men were more likely than women to seek attractiveness, offer financial security, profess an interest in marriage, and seek someone who was younger. Both offers of and demands for financial security varied systematically with age, but concerns about appearance and character did not. In support of the hypothesis that people tend to seek partners whose level of social desirability closely approximates their own, a low but significant correlation was found between the overall level of social desirability of the partner sought. In addition, good-looking advertisers of both sexes sought good-looking partners, and good-looking women sought well-to-do men. It is suggested that lonely hearts and other classified advertisements are a useful source of data for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the self-fulfilling influences of social stereotypes on dyadic social interaction. Conceptual analysis suggests that a perceiver's actions based upon stereotype-generated attributions about a specific target individual may cause the behavior of that individual to confirm the perceiver's initially erroneous attributions. A paradigmatic investigation of the behavioral confirmation of stereotypes involving physical attractiveness (e.g., "beautiful people are good people") is presented. 51 male "perceivers" interacted with 51 female "targets" (all undergraduates) whom they believed to be physically attractive or physically unattractive. Tape recordings of each participant's conversational behavior were analyzed by naive observer judges for evidence of behavioral confirmation. Results reveal that targets who were perceived (unknown to them) to be physically attractive came to behave in a friendly, likeable, and sociable manner in comparison with targets whose perceivers regarded them as unattractive. (42 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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While psychologists "were demonstrating in the laboratory the remarkably fine degree of control which man had at his disposal, all hell was breaking loose outside in the real world." Recent evidence regarding self-destruction, the destruction of others, riots, mob violence, the diminution in the value of life, and the loss of control of behavior is presented. Research evidence relating anonymity to aggression, car smashing, vandalism, and other violent acts is also presented. The "releaser cues" required to initiate destructive vandalism in various cities such as New York and Palo Alto are compared. Anonymity, deindividuation, dehumanization, and control (or the lack of it) are the key words. "In the eternal struggle between order and chaos, we openly hope for individuation to triumph, but secretly plot mutiny with the forces within, drawn by the irresistible lure of deindividuation." (26 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Key elements of an expectancy violations (EV) framework are forwarded as a possible organizing framework for understanding how touch functions in interpersonal communication. Central to applying an EV framework to touch is assessing the expectedness, interpretations, and evaluations of touch and its influence on such communication outcomes as evaluations of communicator attractiveness and credibility. To address these considerations, an experiment required participants to engage in dyadic problem-solving discussions during which they were touched or not touched by high-valence (attractive, high status, expert) or low-valence (unattractive, low status, inexpert) confederates. Brief touches by high-valence communicators were less expected than from low-valence communicators but positively evaluated from both. Touch also carried many favorable relational message interpretations, and the combination of touch and high communicator valence generally produced the highest credibility and attraction ratings. Some gender effects emerged, which appeared to moderate touch effects. Results suggest that brief touches among strangers may have positive consequences, especially when initiated by high-valence communicators, for whom they may qualify as positive violations.
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Immersive collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) are simulations in which geographically separated individuals interact in a shared, three-dimensional, digital space using immersive virtual environment technology. Unlike videoconference technology, which transmits direct video streams, immersive CVEs accurately track movements of interactants and render them nearly simultaneously (i.e., in real time) onto avatars, three-dimensional digital representations of the interactants. Nonverbal behaviors of interactants can be rendered veridically or transformed strategically (i.e., rendered nonveridically). This research examined augmented gaze, a transformation in which a given interactant's actual head movements are transformed by an algorithm that renders his or her gaze directly at multiple interactants simultaneously, such that each of the others perceives that the transformed interactant is gazing only at him or her. In the current study, a presenter read a persuasive passage to two listeners under various transformed gaze conditions, including augmented gaze. Results showed that women agreed with a persuasive message more during augmented gaze than other gaze conditions. Men recalled more verbal information from the passage than women. Implications for theories of social interaction and computer-mediated communication are discussed.
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Online survey data were collected from 30,000 users of Massively Multi-User On- line Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) over a three year period to explore users' demographics, motivations, and derived experiences. Not only do MMORPGs ap- peal to a broad age range (Mage 26.57, range 11- 68), but the appeal is strong (on average 22 hours of usage per week) across users of all ages (r -.04). An exploratory factor analysis revealed a five factor model of user motivations— Achievement, Relationship, Immersion, Escapism, and Manipulation—illustrating the multifaceted appeal of these online environments. Male players were significantly more likely to be driven by the Achievement and Manipulation factors, while female players were significantly more likely to be driven by the Relationship factor. Also, the data indicated that users derived meaningful relationships and salient emotional experiences, as well as real-life leadership skills from these virtual environments. MMORPGs are not simply a pastime for teenagers, but a valuable research venue and platform where millions of users interact and collaborate using real-time 3D avatars on a daily basis.
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This paper explores the challenges of creating and maintaining trust in a global virtual team whose members transcend time, space, and culture. The challenges are highlighted by integrating recent literature on work teams, computer-mediated communication groups, cross-cultural communication, and interpersonal and organizational trust. To explore these challenges empirically, we report on a series of descriptive case studies on global virtual teams whose members were separated by location and culture, were challenged by a common collaborative project, and for whom the only economically and practically viable communication medium was asynchronous and synchronous computer-mediated communication. The results suggest that global virtual teams may experience a form of "swift" trust, but such trust appears to be very fragile and temporal. The study raises a number of issues to be explored and debated by future research. Pragmatically, the study describes communication behaviors that might facilitate trust in global virtual teams.
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How do people in Cyberspace picture one another? More specifically, how do individuals engaged in text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC), with its paucity of visual and auditory cues, form impressions of those with whom they interact? And how do expectations formed online compare with offline experiences? Researchers have begun to answer these questions, drawing primarily on theories of stereotyping. This paper uses prototype theory and related models to extend previous research and to account for discrepancies between online image and offline reality. It draws on interviews with individuals who first met others online and subsequently moved to face-to-face interaction; it also utilizes comparisons between text-based impressions formed online and photographs displayed on web pages.
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Describes some of the issues raised by electronic communication, including time and information-processing pressures, absence of regulating feedback, dramaturgical weakness, paucity of status and position cues, social anonymity, and computing norms and immature etiquette. An empirical approach for investigating the social psychological effects of electronic communication is illustrated, and how social psychological research might contribute to a deeper understanding of computers and technological change in society and computer-mediated communication (CMC) is discussed. A series of studies that explored how people participate in CMC and how computerization affects group efforts to reach consensus is described; results indicate differences in participation, decisions, and interaction among groups meeting face to face and in simultaneous computer-linked discourse and communication by electronic mail. Findings are attributed to difficulties of coordination from lack of informational feedback, absence of social influence cues for controlling discussion, and depersonalization from lack of nonverbal involvement and absence of norms. (103 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Sherry Turkle is rapidly becoming the sociologist of the Internet, and that's beginning to seem like a good thing. While her first outing, The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit, made groundless assertions and seemed to be carried along more by her affection for certain theories than by a careful look at our current situation, Life on the Screen is a balanced and nuanced look at some of the ways that cyberculture helps us comment upon real life (what the cybercrowd sometimes calls RL). Instead of giving in to any one theory on construction of identity, Turkle looks at the way various netizens have used the Internet, and especially MUDs (Multi-User Dimensions), to learn more about the possibilities available in apprehending the world. One of the most interesting sections deals with gender, a topic prone to rash and partisan pronouncements. Taking as her motto William James's maxim "Philosophy is the art of imagining alternatives," Turkle shows how playing with gender in cyberspace can shape a person's real-life understanding of gender. Especially telling are the examples of the man who finds it easier to be assertive when playing a woman, because he believes male assertiveness is now frowned upon while female assertiveness is considered hip, and the woman who has the opposite response, believing that it is easier to be aggressive when she plays a male, because as a woman she would be considered "bitchy." Without taking sides, Turkle points out how both have expanded their emotional range. Other topics, such as artificial life, receive an equally calm and sage response, and the first-person accounts from many Internet users provide compelling reading and good source material for readers to draw their own conclusions.
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With the launch of World of Warcraft in 2004, Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) really came into their own as millions of people started playing worldwide. Providing scalability to such a large audience while maintaining a consistent gameplay experience is a diffcult task which many companies face in an industry where only few succeed. This thesis focuses on the issues of how a MMOG can be scaled to support more concurrent players and how consistency can be maintained in a Distributed Multi-Server Environment (DMSE). As a basis for investigation the notion of "Subgames" (i.e. games within games) was introduced. As smaller, more flexible game units, subgames reduce scalability problems but raise consistency concerns by requiring modular game actions in a distributed environment to function. This is addressed through a new transactional protocol and action framework which abstracts and solves consistency issues while creating an infrastructure which allows for scalability. A complete solution is illustrated using these techniques through the design of general game mechanics and subgames. The approach here further enables scalability of MMOGs in a DMSE and provides a general framework for the further investigation of MMOG consistency and scalability through subgame instances. La popularité des jeux massivement multi-joueurs en ligne ( MMOGs ) a grandement augmenté avec l'arrivée du jeu World of Warcraft, qui est joué par des millions de personnes à travers le monde. Cependant, ce type d'application nécessite des infrastructures extensibles pour accommoder des milliers de joueurs, tout en offrant une expérience de jeu consistante. Ceci représente un grand obstacle que plusieurs compagnies doivent affronter, mais qui est surmonté par peu. Cette thèse aborde les problèmes reliés à la croissance du nombre de joueurs simultanés, tout en discutant comment maintenir un environnement distribué multi- serveurs ( DMSE ) consistant. La notion de sous-jeux ( un jeu qui se déroule l'intérieur d'un autre jeu ) a été utilisée pour mieux étudier le problème. En tant qu'unités de jeu plus petits et flexibles, les sous-jeux facilitent la croissance, mais augmentent les problèmes de concurrence puisque leur bon fonctionnement nécessite des actions modulaires dans un environnement distribué. Ces défis sont adressés par un nouveau protocole transactionnel et un cadre d'applications d'actions qui font abstraction et règlent les problèmes de consistance, tout en offrant une infrastructure qui permet une certaine croissance. Une solution, où les mécanismes de jeux et de sous-jeux sont adaptés en conséquence, illustre les techniques proposées dans cette thèse. Ces techniques permettent une plus grande croissance pour les jeux MMOGs dans un DMSE, tout en fournissant des outils de sous-jeux qui permettent l'étude des défis de consistance et de croissance.
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Manipulated deindividuation and valence of costume cues in a 2 × 2 factorial design. P. G. Zimbardo's (1970) theory of deindividuation suggests that deindividuation should disinhibit antisocial behavior independent of cue valence, and should reduce any influence due to cues. The theory of K. J. Gergen et al (1973) suggests that cues may have increasing influence, given deindividuation, and that deindividuation may increase prosocial behavior, given positive cues, and increase antisocial behavior, given negative cues. Results support Gergen's position. Given options to increase or decrease shock level received by a stranger, no main effect was found for deindividuation. There was a main effect for costume cues, and an interaction of cues with deindividuation, with deindividuation facilitating a significant increase in prosocial responses in the presence of positive cues and a nonsignificant increase in antisocial responses in the presence of negative cues. Also cues interacted with trial blocks, prosocial behavior increasing with positive cues and antisocial behavior increasing with negative cues over trial blocks. (12 ref)
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Explored some of the cognitive effects of internal events. The objective was to ascertain whether the labeling of emotional stimuli would be affected by information concerning internal reactions. Ss viewed 10 slides of seminude females while hearing sounds that were allegedly their heart beats. 1 group of Ss heard their "heart rates" increase markedly to 5 of the slides and not change to the other 5; a 2nd group of Ss heard a marked decrease in the bogus heart rate to 5 of the slides and no change to the other 5. In comparisn with the slides to which Ss did not hear a change in the bogus rate, the slides to which they heard a marked change, whether increased or decreased, were (1) rated significantly more attractive during the experiment proper and during a disguised interview conducted 4-5 wk. later, and (2) chosen significantly more as remuneration for experimental participation.
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The 4 "great" U.S. Presidents, as listed in the 1982 Murray-Blessing Poll, were significantly taller (M=74.63 in.) than the 5 considered "failures" (M = 70.80 in.), consistent with previous research on height and status.
Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology has great promise as a tool for basic experimental research in psychology. IVE technology gives participants the experience of being surrounded by the computer-synthesized environment. We begin with a discussion of the various devices needed to implement immersive virtual environments, including object manipulation and social interaction. We review the benefits and drawbacks associated with virtual environment technology, in comparison with more conventional ways of doing basic experimental research. We then consider a variety of examples of research using IVE technology in the areas of perception, spatial cognition, and social interaction.
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Common maxims about beauty suggest that attractiveness is not important in life. In contrast, both fitness-related evolutionary theory and socialization theory suggest that attractiveness influences development and interaction. In 11 meta-analyses, the authors evaluate these contradictory claims, demonstrating that (a) raters agree about who is and is not attractive, both within and across cultures; (b) attractive children and adults are judged more positively than unattractive children and adults, even by those who know them; (c) attractive children and adults are treated more positively than unattractive children and adults, even by those who know them; and (d) attractive children and adults exhibit more positive behaviors and traits than unattractive children and adults. Results are used to evaluate social and fitness-related evolutionary theories and the veracity of maxims about beauty.