Maternal and Cord Blood Serum Levels of Zinc, Copper, and Iron in Healthy Pregnant Jordanian Women

Department of Chemistry, Hashemite University, Kalaat el Zerka, Zarqa, Jordan
The Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 01/2004; 17(1):1 - 8. DOI: 10.1002/jtra.10032


Altered plasma levels of zinc, copper, and iron during pregnancy are known to have profound effects on pregnant women and their neonates. The status of these elements is not known in pregnant women in Jordan. During the three trimesters of pregnancy, blood specimens were collected from 186 healthy pregnant women aged 17–45 years and from cord blood of 92 of their neonates. The mean neonatal birth weight was 3.34 ± 0.44 kg. Maternal and cord blood serum levels of zinc, copper, and iron were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and hemoglobin concentration was determined by hematology cell counter. The results indicate significantly lower serum zinc levels and higher copper and iron levels in cord blood than in maternal blood. During the three trimesters of pregnancy, the serum levels of zinc and copper significantly decreased and increased, respectively, whereas the levels of serum iron were unchanged. Significant positive correlation was observed only between zinc levels of cord blood and birth weight. During third trimester, the mean serum levels of zinc and iron were significantly lower in anemic pregnant women (group I: Hb less than 11.0 g/dL, n = 36) than that in nonanemic pregnant women (group II: Hb > or = 11.0 g/dL, n = 56). There was no noticeable difference between group I and group II regarding cord blood parameters on one hand and neonatal birth weight on the other hand. Similar significant positive correlation was observed between serum zinc levels of cord blood and birth weight in both groups. These results indicate that Jordanian women during pregnancy follow a well-balanced and adequate diet regime. J. Trace Elem. Exp. Med. 17:1–8, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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    • "However, no significant correlation between maternal and umbilical cord plasma mineral levels such as Zn, Mg, Mn, Fe, Ca, Na and K was found. The level of minerals of both maternal and neonatal plasma are in agreement with the previous reports for Zn, Cu, and Fe[16]and for Mn[17]. Our results are very close to the acceptable ranges of Cu 1.18 -3.2 mg/L and Zn 0.7 -1.5 mg/L for maternal plasma, as reported in AMAP[18]and 2.09 -2.07 mg/L as reported in Butler Walker et al.[19]. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Open Journal of Pediatrics
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    • "Concentrations for three of the iron-status indicators (i.e., ferritin, iron and transferrin saturation) appeared to substantially increase from mother to infant among participants in this study. These results are in close agreement with previous reports [32,33]. While many questions exist concerning the mechanisms by which iron is transferred to the fetus, previous findings indicate that most of the physiologic regulation of iron transfer to the fetus occurs at the level of the gut and suggests that the iron needs of the fetus take priority over maternal requirements [34]. "
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